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Instructor's Manual to ACcolnpany

FOURTH EDITION

Fundamentals
BRUCE R. MUNSON DONALD F. YOUNG
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics

THEODORE H. OKIISHI
Department of Mechanical Engineering Iowa State University Ames, Iowa, USA

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 COMPUTER PROBLEMS .................................................................................................... 2 Standard Programs-File Names and Use .................................................................... 2 SOLUTIONS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Introduction................... .......... ............. ..................... ....................... 1-1 Fluid Statics......... ..... ...... ........ ................ .......................................... 2-1 Elementary Fluid Dynamics-Bernoulli Equation .......................... 3-1 Fluid Kinematics... ...... .......... ......... ..... ................... .......................... 4-1 Finite Control Volume Analysis ....................................................... 5-1 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow ................................................. 6-1 Similitude, Dimensional Analysis, and Modeling ............ ............... 7-1 Viscous Pipe Flow............................................ ................................ 8-1 Flow Over Immersed Bodies ........................................................... 9-1 Open-Channel Flow...... ...... ......... ....... ..................................... ...... 10-1 Compressible Flow ......................................................................... 11-1 Turbomachines ............. .................. ................................................ 12-1

Appendix A

Listing of Standard Programs .......................................................... A-I

INTRODUCTION

This manual contains solutions to the problems presented at the end of the chapters in the Fourth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS. It is our intention that the material in this manual be used as an aid in the teaching of the course. We feel quite strongly that problem solving is an essential ingredient in the process of understanding the variety of interesting concepts involved in fluid mechanics. This solutions manual is structured to enhance the learning process. Approximately 1220 problems are solved in a complete, detailed fashion with (in most cases) one problem per page. The problem statements and figures are included with the problem solutions to provide an easier and clearer understanding of the solution procedure. Except where a greater accuracy is warranted, all intermediate calculations and answers are given to three significant figures. Unless otherwise indicated in the problem statement, values of fluid properties used in the solutions are those given in the tables on the inside of the front cover of the text. Other fluid properties and necessary conversion factors are found in the tables of Chapter I or in the appendices. Some of the problems [those designed with an (*)] are intended to be solved with the aid of a programmable calculator or a computer. The solutions for each of these problems are presented in essentially the same format as for the non-computer problems. Where appropriate a graph of the results is also included. Further details concerning the computer and their solutions can be found in the following section entitled Computer Problems. In most chapters there are several problems [those designated with a (t)] that are "openended" problems and require critical thinking in that to work them one must make various assumptions and provide necessary data. There is not a unique answer to these problems. Since there are various ways that one may approach many of these problems and since specific values of data need to be assumed, looked up, or approximated, we have not included solutions to these problems in the manual. Providing solutions, we feel, would be counter to the rational for having these problems-we want students to realize that in the real world problems are not necessarily uniquely formulated to a have a specific answer.

One of the new features of the Fourth Edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICS is the inclusion of new problems which refer to the fluid video segments contained in the E-book CD. These problems are clearly identified in the problem statement. Although it is not necessary to use the CD to solve these "videorelated" problems, it is hoped that the use of the CD will help students relate the analysis and solution of the problem to actual fluid mechanics phenomena.

Another new feature of the Fourth Edition is the inclusion of laboratory-related problems. In most chapters the last few problems are based on actual data from simple laboratory experiments. These problems are clearly identified by the "click here" words in the problem statement. This allows the user of the E-book CD to link to the complete problem statement and the EXCEL data for the problem. Copies of the problem statement, the original data, the EXCEL spread sheet calculations, and the resulting graphs are given in this solution manual. Considerable effort has been put forth to develop appropriate problems and to present their solutions in a manner that we feel is helpful to both instructors and students. Any comments or suggestions as to how we can improve this material are most welcome.

COMPUTER PROBLEMS
As noted, problems designated with an (*) in the text are intended to be solved with the aid of a programmable calculator or computer. These problems typically involve solutions requiring repetitive calculations, iterative procedures, curve fitting, numerical integration, etc. Knowledge of advanced numerical techniques is not required. Solutions to all computer problems are included in the solutions manual. Although programs for many of these problems are written in the BASIC programming language, there are obviously several other math-solver or spreadsheet programs that can be used. A number of the solutions require the use of the same program, such as a program 'for curve fitting, or a numerical integration program, and these "standard" programs are included. For those requiring use of one of the standard programs, there is a statement in the problem solution which simply indicates the standard program used to solve the problem. A list of these standard programs, with their file names, follow. The actual programs are given in the appendix. Most of the standard programs are, of course, readily available in other math-solver or spreadsheet programs, and the student can simply use the programs with which they are most familiar.

Standard Programs-File Names and Use Curve Fitting


EXPFIT.BAS LINREG l.BAS LINREG2.BAS POLREG.BAS POWERl.BAS Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=ae bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=a+bx Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y =do + d JX + d 2x2 + d 3x3 + ... Determines the least squares fit for a function of the form y=ax b

Numerical Integration
SIMPSON.BAS TRAPEZOLBAS Calculates the value of a definite integral over an odd number of equally spaced points using Simpson's rule Calculates the value of a definite integral using the Trapezoidal Rule

Miscellaneous
COLEBROO.BAS Determines the friction factor for laminar or turbulent pipe flow with the Reynolds number and relative roughness specified (for turbulent flow the Colebrook formula, Eq. 8.35, is used) Determines the real roots of a cubic equation Calculates Fanno or Ray leigh flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio (k> 1) for entered Mach number Calculates one-dimensional isentropic flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ration (k> 1) for entered Mach number Calculates normal-shock flow parameters for an ideal gas with constant specific heat ratio (k> 1) for entered upstream Mach number (Ma)

CUBIC.BAS FAN_RAY.BAS

ISENTROP.BAS

SHOCK.BAS

t. t

1.. 1 Detennine the dimensions. in both the FLT system and the MLT system, for (a) the product of mass times velocity, (b) the product of force times volume. and (c:) kinetic energy divided by area,

mASS

;( ve/oc;'& .:.
F .:. M L T-.2

(;VI ) (L 7-

1 )

Sinee.

Fr

( b)

./oree

J(

Y&/I/ml!

F L3
(ML T-2.)(L3) _ /'1L if T-Z.

(~

J::,;'e/:'G e ne r.!~
t:l

reL
/'1T
-2.

/- I

/'2

1.2

Verify the dim~nsions, in both the FLT and MLT~ystems .. ofthe folioWing quantities which appear in Table 1.1: (a) angular velocity, (b) energy, (c) moment of inertia (area), (d) power, and (e) pressure.

( 0.)

= a 1'19 tI //1 r c/'spkce/?'J()~';' -time

..!.

(.b)

e he 1'"1:J ~ C.a.;aci +!J 01 b~cJ!1 1-0 do w()rk


Since.
Wt?/'"K

= I()rce;(

d/sl-tll1tt:..)

~nerJ!J
tJr

FL

~if;,

F _' /11 L T- 2

e. n erj tj ~ (M I- T -2) (L) == M L 2 T - 2


cc) /7l{pmfl1t 0/ inerlltt.~V'ea.) =

sec~l?d /nl'Jme/}f

D/

t:lff?l

. (1.:2-)(L~)

=. L If

+-()rce

LZ.

=F

L- 2

J..---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

/-2.

1.3
\. ~ Verify the dimensions, in both the FLT system and the MLT system, of the following quantities which appear in Table 1.1: (a) acceleration, (b) stress, (c) moment of a force, (d) volume, and (e) work.

a cc-e/e ro.:tt'tJl1 ::::


~ t-r-<
eS5

Ve.JDC.I+~ .:=

+/me
F. == L;" -

./C)Yce
0. rea..

(C)

/?1t:J/)')t"l1i ,,{

(-kyce

.force.K dlsftln('~
2

.-: 1= L
Z

=f/1LT-VL ...:
(a)

I1L T-

volume

Oen~f-h) 3.-:.

--

L3

(e)

Work -

!=L

/- '3

/''1

I
ra..)

1.4

If P is a force and x a length, what are the dimensions (in the FLT system) of (a) dPI dx, (b) tf'Pldx\ and (c) JP dx?

dP
dJC

p. -. -L

!= L- 2

I I I

(b)

d 3.f
dx:.
3

:::r

L3
-"'

. PL

1= L-3

(C)

jPdx

-.

I
I
I
I

i
I

/.5

1.5 If p is a pressure, V a velocity, and p a fluid density, what are the dimensions (in the MLT system) of (a) pip, (b) pVp, and (c) p/pV 2?

(a. )

1> _ -f

. -

f.1L-'T-Z.

(ML -3) (LT- I )

'--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._........... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......J


I-~

/. ID

1.6

If V is a velocity, fa length, and \I a fluid property having dimensions of UT-I, which of the following combinations are dimensionless: (a)

vr", (b) VC/',


(a.)

(e)

V'" (d) VIM

V J. -zJ .:.. (L T -'j(L)f1. z r)

- L~ T-1
,

mol dlm.nsienle,s)
(oof dimfnsl'oIl!ess) dlfnen sion!e>s )

(1:, )

v.R -V
V 2 -z)

(Lr')(L)
(L'2. T I)

. LOr"

( dimension /ess)
L~r3

(C! )

(L T-) "(L r - I) ~
(LT - 1 )

(d)

V ).11

{L )(L' r

')

-l.

(not

j 7

Dimensionless combinations of quan1.7 tities (commonly called di mensionless parameters) play an important role in flu id mechanics. Make up five possible dimensionless parameters

by using combinations of some of the quantities listed in Table 1.1.

Some possible

e" Q mpl e~ :

u C( e Ie r,,-/-'M " f 1m e ve /OCI f '1


frefllenc'j ;(

(L r2)(T)
(L

rlJ

-. L"T"

hme
2.

(rl){r) ..:.
(LT - I)'"
(L)( L r'-)

TO
,
",

(ve!oci+!j)

/ t'179 f !? x. <lea/uP/1M
, force " -lime = /771Y/n en rum

L"T
F"i"TO

(F)(r)
(11 LT -~

(j=){T) :. (1'7 zr:J(Lrj

I deMif-') " velocil-j " len-P'4 --' (Mr 3)(LT - }(d = M'L"T ' Mr ' 7-1 d'f nllr>1i< visUJ~if:J

1- 5

/.~

118 The force, P, that is exerted on a spherical particle moving slowly through a liquid is given by the equation
P = 37CJlDV

where Jl is a fluid property (viscosity) having dimensions of FL -2T, D is the particle diameter, and V is the particle velocity. What are the dimensions of the constant, 37C? Would you classify this equation as a general homogeneous equation?

.p =- 37T;<D V [f] -'- [3rr][pc :Lr][L][L r~


[F]
,

==

[:?7TJ [pJ
/.5

37T
15
tt

d/men.510I1Je~s,

C(nd

-the ~2t1a!-/{)I1

1 ene Y'(J/

hl/rn()~eneOU5 efJtAa..f-/on.

yes.

/- ~

/. 'I

I
According to information found in an old hydraulics book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula
h

(0.04 to 0.09){D / d)4V2 /2g

where h is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter,
d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid

in any system of units? Explain.

~=

(O.OLf

1-0 ('). {) 9)

gn= [D.O~
:Slll71e

(.!J )If 2.J ~~

1-.

O.O~ [tJ[i] [~:J[ t]


li-t

[L J== [O.OLf -1-0 0,07] [LJ


Since eac.h hrf}z
d;'mel1$/tJh5
I

the e$tt.a..f./~h must:

n4t1e

the

-the Cf!)I1~"'lfi I-erm (~. ~'f ~ ~. ~tj) rnusf /;~ climfns/f.,hless. Thus the e$ti/{,t/~H /.5 a. !J~n(lY~ I 1 h~mo1enet!Jvs lttA..-6I4;;' .fh{(.i: IS 1I11//c/ IH CiI1.!! ~!:f5Iem
~f Un ,f..:5.

Yes.

t. /0
1.10

I
cosity (FL -~T), p the blood density (ML -3), D the artery diameter, Ao the area of the unobstructed artery. and A I the area of the stenosis. Determine the dimensions of the constants K,. and K". Would this equation be valid in any system of units?

The pressure difference, Ap, across a partial blockage in an artery (called a stenosis) is approximated by the equation

.1p = K!

pV (All D + K" A
I

)2 p V-

where V is the blood velocity, Jl the blood vis-

Since eac.h -terM mv.st h~lJe. the same dimensions; k'v Cll'ld Ku are dirnen5ionJe-:'5. Thu~.1 fhe efuafltJJI/ IS (;( ttener~1 h()f71~jel1eO"s e~ ua.l-;tJv, -tnCI'/- w{)uld be va/ic/ t'n Cfn!! C()tJ5isffnt sfjsl-em of U)1jf5. yes.

/-7

I. / /

I . II Assume that the speed of sound, c, in a fluid depends on an elastic modulus, Eu, with dimensions FL ~2, and the fluid density, p, in the form c = (Eu)"(p)h. If this is to be a dimensionally homogeneous equation, what are the values for a and h? Is your result consistent with the standard formula for the speed of sound? (See Eq. 1.19.)

0)

FPr ~ d)J11eY1~/Of1tt/I'1 h(!)mt1ef1eDIJ5 -$ad


In

the etua.t,bJ-f fntlS1- haf/(. -fJu 5f1/)/e -/ne Y"'9Jtf hand ~/de ()f. P~l OJ mus+ h~ve the dlmenslPA,s of- L 7-'. There /dYe)

ea.ch +erm 'dlmeY15JO#.s, Thtl5,


{!)'J1

a-tb==o
2.},=-1
(i:1>

sa -/-1 's.f." C6"t/, ',,,()~

"n r)

.ta -f If b = - I (.. :!iJ 1-, ~ I-y ~Y1 dJ/o'" "" L) a. =L tlnt! /:; = - ). Z. 2.
So

-tn..-f.

c = ~i0:
/s
YeS.

Thb re.5u

1+

~nsisl-f"r /AI;-!/1

the, sblltlt/J'p

~rIl1U/A

-kr 17te

:5peed ()j2- 5DUJlJd.

1- 'j

I,

/2.

I
1.12 A formula for estimating the volume rate of flow, Q. over the spillway of a dam is

= C v28 B (H + V2/2g)3/2

where C is a constant. g the acceleration of gravity. B the spillway width. H the depth of water passing over the spillway. and V the velocity of water just upstream of the dam. Would this equation be valid in any system of units? Explain.

I:errn ,i1 ~e .e.Su.Lf/~H rnus-t- ha.ve +he SQ/7Ie dimellsi{)l/s -the ~11.sb1l/i C VI must:- he cilmeI15/!)/J )e~s. Thtls; -tnt!.. .et(f~tltJH is a ~-ene r-a I
htPl1IP ,e/ledJ t(J eg Ua.,tIOJl -1'n,f WOf,{ /~ 411'1 e4)A~/sl:ent Set: of (,Iilif.s. Ye~.

5/~ce ea.c;"

be. v t).. //d

/. / if

Make use of Table 1.3 to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 10.2 in.lmin, (b) 4.81 slugs, (c) 3.02lb, (d) 73.1 ft/s2, (e) 0.0234 lbs/ft2

1.14-

(c>-)

1t),2

:;;'1 - (;0. 2
- i-.

;,;J (Z,S*;t/O-",:'.) ( ~;;n)


-3 /W1

'a2. .;c It)

tf. 32.

T
70, 2 ). ff

[ h) If. 9/ S/fA l' =

('I:?/

sill!> ) (;. 'f$f' ;< I ()


If. If'If

sju~) =
/3. If AI

( ~ ) 3. tJ:L /b:::

(3. ~ Z / b ) (

f1 ).=:

Cd) 73. J :Efi

:
~

ce) CJ, tJ23'1 Ibs


ff~

(0. ~Z3'f ITt.)


I, /2
Ns
M'J'l.

('/,7.?1;tIO

N -':
",.,1-

lb. s
-ft'l-

1-/0

/./.5'

1.15 Make use of Table 1.4 to express the following quantities in BG units: (a) 14.2 km, (b) 8.14 N/m 3 , (c) 1.61 kg/m\ (d) 0.0320 Nm/s, (e) 5.67 mm/hr.

(b)

o o.llf.

,11'I'f

!!..3

" (g. 'If ~

(~3U;(/O3
l I.
(

':3 )
,,",,3

= 5'. IF)( 10'2

Pt.

Cf Iff) )(. /0

-3

SJUjS)

~~

(d) 0.0320

-S

N-1'H1

(~, 0 j 20 N ~ I1f1
2.3b)(JD
-2

il-Ib (7, 371P;( /V-I )


oS

N/'M

.{.f/b

oS

oS

- s: 17

)1.10

-to

1-1 ...5

/-11

/. /(0

1.lG

Make use of Appendix A to express the following quantities in SI units: (a) 160 acre, (b) 742 Btu, (c) 240 miles, (d) 79.1 hp, (e) 60.3 OF.

IfpO a. ere

(6)

7tf2 137U

=
=
0:

6'1-2 sru) (.,;</0 3 BTU J.)=


I'n1L

7.g3X/~5J

C~)
Cd)

.2LjO int.'

(;'''10 tni ) (;'''Oq;(./(;.3 1"YY1,)::: 38iDX/oS"t?11


(7.'f5"7 X /02. (;{;) '"
'=

71. / hp
Tc

(7'i'./ hp )
-

(e)

l' ~1).3
f) (

32)

/5.7 "C::
::::),

k = /5",7

-r

273

gr

1<

1-/2

/./7

I
1.17 Clouds can weigh thousands of pounds due to their liquid water content. Often this content is measured in grams per cubic meter (glm3). Assume that a cumulus cloud occupies a volume of one cubic kilometer, and its liquid water content is 0.2 glm 3. (a) What is the volume of this cloud in cubic miles? (b) How much does the water in the cloud weigh in pounds?

1M1= 3.281

U (;0'/111.1) (g, Z8'1 ~ ) ( 2!b >fIb) 3

t:)

0,2 j 0 nn,,3

(h)

%J ==

0 X -Vol"rn~ l d' =: jJ d = {0.2 ;'3 ){!D;( JD -3 ;;', )

;g. )(r.8/ ;) =f. UU/iJ-;;J


X I DI,

"lJ =- (I. '( (,,2


= (I. "t,z

(10 1;m3) = /. '( ~2


1

N
S

X /D (. N )

(:1., 2tf8 x/D- -J& ) :::: ~, If! X JO f h

1- 13

1.18

1.18 For Table 1.3 verify the conversion relationships for: (a) area, (b) density, (c) velocity, and (d) specific weight. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 ft = 0.3048 m; lib = 4.4482 N; and 1 slug = 14.594 kg.

(a)

I it 1..:
Thus)

(/

.ft'")f(a 301f.>')
L

2/1?1 ,,-]

I-i ~

= 0, () q 29{)

/H1

rnu//-'/0

-ft 2 bJ

9.

'2'i{)

- 2. +0

t!trJnvfrf

fo

/ffI :2..

II;) /

Thus) mu/fipJ'j

slugs/.ft.3 b!:J 57 IS-If

E of 2. ;'0

CtJl'Jtlfrl

-to Ie? / /I'n ~


(I!) /

If-

= (/

fj ) (~. 30'/; jJ)~


bIJ
3.0'le f - / -1-0

Thus.) muillpl!) Ills


-I: 0
(d)
/t11

cOl1vert

/s.

I JIz - (I !l ') (If. 't'l12 !!..) [ I Ii 3 3 l If 3 - l' -It 3 ) l ~. /j, ( 0, "3 () Iff) /W1 3 J

-=
TfJlAS)

IV /57, / ;;;;

IA

If/pI:;
4

/ b/R ~

b!:J /. 5'7/

}; -t 2

-10

t'e>ntlfY't

fo

#/;m3

/-/if

/,/9

.J

For Table 1.4 verify the conversion relationships for: (a) acceleration, (b) density. (c) pressure. and (d) volume f1owrate. Use the basic conversion relationships: 1 m = 3.2808 ft; 1 N = 0.22481 lb; and 1 kg = 0.068521 slug.

1..1 q

--

(a)

Thus) m""/+ipllj tt/ .J.t / .5 J..


(b)

I ~ ~ = (I ~3
1111

')

(0. oft> f/5:L/


\ (

slugs) [

""

T;

(3. ZFO~)3 -f1:: 3

1m,3

. 1

040

x /0- 3

S l u ~~ f-t3

Th ~S.i m ul.f.i pJ'1 ~J/tt113 -1:0 S /u~/.ft 3.


(C)

h,!j

/. qLfo E-3

to

~J1t/fri.

I Ji ::
/'I't1 ?

(I !:!. ) (O,2.2lfgl ~)f


tn1 2.

l (3. lfOg)

(M1.

2.

l ft J
1.

"='

'2. () g r i. I D

-.2.

f.t1b~
;;'.Ogq

Ik

Thu5) m/,.{lfip/~
1::-0
(d) /

N/rrn l

E-l fo ~~n()fYt

/ h / f.t :L,
3

==

(I ~) [cg, 1.KOS/~:l=
rn f.,( I t

35". 3/

fr'
rlOl1Vfyt

T h US)

ifl':J

11 /5

b~

3. 531 E+ I -1:.0

+(/

ft 3/s.

------------~~-

--------

/-/5

/.2..0

1.20 Water flows from a large drainage pipe at a rate of 3 1200 gal/min. What is this volume rate of flow in (a) m /s. (b) liters/min. and (c) ft 3 /s?

( ()...)

f./owrat e =
-:2

757 ;<. 10

/i'Y7.3

.5

(b) Since

/ Ii fer

= / [) -3t1"/1
2

/lowrfLte=

(7.57 ;'/6-

~.3)(/o3///.er.5)({Po.s)
S
/H1 3
/'1?1/11

(C )

I I() W r

(I.

+. e. =

(7 S 7 )( J()- ~ if 3 )
-I't J

(3 S3 I

X J0

:: 2. ~ 7

I-/~

1,,;2 /

( t(.)

A tank of oil has a mass of 3 0 slugs. (a) Determine its weight in pounds and in newtons at the earth's surface. (b) What would be its mass (in slugs) and its weight (in pounds) if located on the moon's surface where the gravitational attraction is approximately one-sixth that at the earth's surface? w.e i9 h i- .: ~. as.5 )(.

1.2 ,

(3 0

/uqs ) (

32.2

;:)==

_o/~r;, 16
,/Z'foN

- (30
( b)
/h')

shillS) ('t. Sf
5 J/A 9 S

14 )("I.E! -f,,)-=
dtJts
t}IJt-

s.s

= 3 ()
(30

( /n1 ASS

dep~;1d

t!)1'1

JY'~ vihfitJl1ll / a ffrtu..J-if!)11 )

w.eijhi =

s/uqS )

(32.~:Ef.. )

/ fa/

/b

;,:2 2
1.22 A certain object weighs 300 N at the earth's surface. Detennine the mass of the object (in kilograms) and its weight (in newtons) when located on a planet with an acceleration of gravity equal to 4.0 ft/S2.

9, 8/

'I: () ft Is :J. )

- (3tJ.(P

Jj. ) ( if. 0 ~) ((), 30'fg ; ; )

= 37.3 N

1-1:1

An important dimensionless parameter in certain types of fluid flow problems is the Froude number defined as Vlv'g'ii, where V is a velocity, g the acceleration of gravity, and r a length. Determine the value of the Froude number for V = 10 ft/s, g = 32.2 ft/s 2 , and r = 2 ft. Recalculate

1.23

the Froude number using SI units for V, g, and e. Explain the significance of the results of these calculations.

In B 6

tI/lits /
;0

/.25"

In

JI uni-t-s: V:: (to ft )(~. '3IJJfr


S

~):: 3.06
ft

T
t'l?1

~;: 1',:g I ~

::: (~+t:) (0. "3 04-g ~ )::


-Fe

O. b I 0

y!~

v =
a.

1.25

Th e. Va /lle D I in cle;enciel7i

d im-et1sjt'J n less parl!met ev un i t ~1 sl-em. of -the

IS

1-/8

1.2 4- The specific weight of a certain liquid is 85.3 lb/ft 3 Determine its density and specific
gravity.

d" ;0 -= -

g5.3

Ii? .ft-3
5.2.

2.&'5

s I u 9.5
f-t3

1
fJ

'32,2 .pc

56=

I. @ If;l.O

f~c

2.~5

5/,,?.5
k-i

1.37

/. fi-

S/W9S
..ft.~

/, '25
1.25 A hydrometer is used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. (See Video V2.6.) For a certain liquid a hydrometer reading indicates a specific gravity of 1.15. What is the liquid's density and specific weight? Express your answer in SI units.

5G -=
//5

(J

~D@'" C

f
/o/)o .k;'
1m 3

f== (I. /5) (I ()r;O :'3)

1150

h)?3

1-

/q

/.2 10 1
An open, rigid-walled, cylindrical tank contains 4 ft 3 of water at 40 of. Over a 24-hour period of time the water temperature varies from 40 of to 90 of. Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine how much the volume of water will change. For a tank diameter of 2 ft. would the corresponding change in water depth be very noticeable? Explain.

l. 2~

/)1QSS

of w~l:er = -V
-tf x iJ 'fcc / 'io
:=
p

t
'1~. (f~
(>

Wheve /s the {/oh{rne and! 1he. deI15rfr:1. J/J1Ce.. -the. rnA$~ mU$1- Yefl1111M ~l1sfa)1i (/5 the -iempera.-tuye ehf/flqeJ

-tI-)( ~

(I )

Ff~'11

ra6)e B. J

/Hz o ~ r~"F = I. 13/ s~


TherekYt) (nil'! E $- (/)

/'

1p ()

= ( if /t.3 )( I, 9'1"
Vt)

.:!':!i~ )
.f-c3

I. y"j J ~:;:3
lumt:

If DIFb -Pi.]
.3

Thus; the, I~crell~ In

,:s
0. 0/ i I:,
.i<J

'I: 1/Ji L - If. "00 -==


The
chtlltfe Jil Wl..fey

.pt

cle;1Jt" 41)
O. OJ;~
:=.
71

"o/tI~j fo
== 5, '12 xlD
-3

Ai.:= a rea
7h'5 ~/lJ4I/ e-hl(Hge
tJ()l-lcet:l/;/~.

il-V-

..ft3
2-

(7f-1:)

+t =~. ()7/~ in.

Lf-

In def1h

would n~.J. he iJel"!1

AI0,
Vfi!,,(!

,4 S/;1hf/lj d.:PkY(~i.

b~ "h.fa;HfA If ~I'~c"f,i ("J(I;hf lJ!-wphr Jr Iur,r fflilJey 1ltQIf4t11s/-J-!1' 11J1~ 'J du e -10 t'h.e /rtc.t tho! 1Jtele is SIP/II e IIHcem,id]l 117- -!itt! fi,Jlr1h ~/;1;ln(~111 /'9l1Y'e of 1Jte..re. +tv" 1It//l(es,l lit'!

for' .l1)

f-I/; II

ff;.(J ~()//,('h~Jt

'S

SPfls/fl';~..fl':J 7}"j unc..ryitlin-J.t;.

/-20

/,27?

I
1.2 ~
A liquid when poured into a graduated cylinder is found to weigh '8 N when occupying a volume of 500 ml (milliliters). Determine its specific weight, density, and specific gravity.

(=-

w~i~ht
1/0/ tllYJ e

gN
.=

10. a

f=
S6

?!

c;.

/ra;<.

/~

:3

JL

/1113

1.81

hH

- J. ~3 x
1

/0

-k ~
11 3

57..

f
~o@
JfDC

/. b3 x / D

~'f.
;m .?l

/. to 3

/0

..fEg.
;m3

/- 2/

/,2Cj

I. '2. q The information on a can of pop indicates that the can contains 355 mL. The mass of a full can of pop is 0.369 kg while an empty can weighs 0.153 N. Determine the specific weight, density, and specific gravity of the pop and compare your results with the corresponding values for water at 20C. Express your results in SI units.

y=

v~/JlJf
{/p/um~

()+- I-/UIC;
t:J/ .fltlt'c/

(/ )

-h~/ we/fltf
wf,jhf

= maSS x

9- =

~. 3tf J# )(r.JI ~)::: d: 62 II

~f GIn:' C/. /53 IV r. / Vp/l(l'n~ ~ / "'-/1114::- c:i'S5 oX I~

-3L) (/0 / -3T /YYI3) =-

~:,-S- x/tJ

-(./YYI 3

Th u~

I-r~1t7

E%. (/)
3. "Z /II ~. 153 II

Cf77o!::! ;rna

tf 7 7013
r.8J~
oS;&.

~
1'm.3 -

rtf ~
j~o~

(J.

99/'

y
/J?'13

Ulaler

~t

20C

(see.
/.J

~.J/e
::

B. 2

J~
)

ApjJfHd,X

J])

oJ+z. iJ -

- '17 g'13.'3
/J11)

(Jt.z. ~

f'/t. 2 ~
1')n3

56

= 0. qqg 2.

jj etJll11l"n;;" ~f 1AlS~ Jltl/IIR.I " lOll/IV with 1ht)s~ ~y 11te P(J); sh()w.s 1Jt~.j iJ;~ ~~C;-hC 1A.)(',jhf~ c/tnS,fYI ifl1d ~eClhc' :Jr/tv,f, cf- iJre i",P are. all Sl'jhflfj Jp l<Jer 1JJlfn ine ~rre;;t~nd/~ J/tJlllfS Ibr UJt:der.

/-22.

/.30*1

1.30*

The variation in the density of water, p, with temperature, T, in the range 20C :$ T :$ 60C, is given in the following table.
Density (kg/m') Temperature (0C) 1998.21997.11995.71994.11992.21990.21988.1

20

25

30

35

1 40

1 45

1 50

Use these data to determine an empirical equation of the form p = c, + C2T + C3T1 which can be used to predict the density over the range indicated. Compare the predicted values with the data given. What is the density of water at .42.1C?

To

S()/ve

1h:S

pr()~Jem use

POLRF6.

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit. ** ** for any order polynomial of the form: ** y = dO + dl*x + d2*x 2 + d3*x~3 + ... ** ** ***************************************************
A

Enter number of terms in the polynomial: 3 Enter number of data points: 7 Enter data points (X , Yl ? 20,998.2 ? 25,997.1 ? 30,995.7 ? 35,994- . 1
? tiO,992.2 ? 15.990.2

The coefficients of the polynomial are: d2 = -4,.0953E-03 d1 = -5.3332E-02 dO = +1.0009E+03


X

f=== /00/ - O. OG"333 T - 0.00'1095 T:J. !Vote tl14t f (pJ'ecl'~fed) ~ l'n 9()OO Q9reemfl1t w;'1h f A t r = '1-2. / "C) ! = /00/- O.~S333 (Jf.Z. / DC) - (J. {)O tj.O?S (1f.2./ cc)
~

Tn US)

+2.0000E+01 +2.5000E+01 +3.0000E+01 +3.5000E+01 +1.0000E+01 +1.5000E+01 +5.0000E+01

+9.9820E+02 +9.9710E+02 +9.9570E+02 +9.9110E+02 +9.9220E+02 +9.9020E+02 +9.8810E+02

Y(predicted) +9.9825E+02 +9.9706E+02 +9.9566E+02 +9.9107E+02 +9.9226E+02 +9.9026E+02 +9.8805E+02

(gJ~~h).

/-23

/,32

I
The density of oxygen contained in a tank is 2.0 kg/m 3 when the temperature is 25C. Determine the gage pressure of the gas if the atmospheric pressure is 97 kPa.

1.32

p= f)/U

= (.2.0 #!. )(.)51.8 Ie~k.) [r.we r ,m)Kj


/5'5

i Pa.
-

(4 bS )

-p

(JCd/e): -1;, I fibS

1:. 4.rm
I

::

/g5 J.~

- rt71e ~ = 5? k ~

/.33

I
J.33 Some experiments are being conducted in a laboratory in which the air temperature is 27C. and the atmospheric pressure is 14.3 psia. Determine the density of the air. Express your answers in slugs/ft3 and in kglm 3.

P=fJRT
Tempera. fllYe,

0.00222

/ :: /0. Of) 222 SlIl9.s) ( c. R a

(s. /S X !,,g! ) ::
2

If)

.5LuS.l

1.14 1r<!33
In"
"

--:r~

l.3 If A closed tank having a volume of 2 fe is filled with 0.30 lb of a gas. A pressure gage attached to the tank reads 12 psi when the gas temperat.ure is 80 of. There is some Question as to whether the gas in the tank is oxygen or helium. Which do you think it is? Explain how you arrived at your answer.

1=
Sin ce.
~ 1= pre.sStlre
~~JUMFd

W~/ji, t = tJ. go IJ, ~)( (lo/ume (';2.2. ~) (z. ft3)


1~~x/o
-3
St.(9S

.;:-t;3

( J2 T

I't: 7 )

fS/~
'"that:
(I)

b(
llR

~
.ft, //,,(jJ j

/ if-: 7 f.J'/a )

T =-

(tf/J (>;: + If.b~)


(2/,,7

Ii

;0:::
rr4'1'J?

7
3

12 R.

ttinc1

lor- O)(jgel1 Ta ble I. 7 R :: /. 5"'S"1f X J~ ; = I, 2 if.Z X It) If Ii J.j, ~y he/lto'n.


0511/9 ' (),R.

Thus;

./r()1'}1

Ff.(J J I;:'

-!he 9tif
s/tl1..:5

Is

f.9XY'l/n

::- 155'f X/~ 3


7. /2..
If

7./Z

/t3 =

*5' i.x M

-3

!/u~ H3

he /11,lm
,tJ -

r- - /, 21f2 X/I)

Aof

~mJJIIYJ51J1}

6/
/ rl

1he.5e va/lies w/ fl,


the -ban i.

-!7te

'1 q5
i-

/nell C.1I~...s

-tJ"e

tlC/:t(o/ df!1>/~ 7h /I t 1it e

9t1S

/?1 uS

be

1- 2 5

A tire having a volume of 3 fe contains air at a gage pressure of 26 psi and a temperature of 70 oF. Determine the density of the air and the weight of the air contained in the tire.

1.3G

t==

R.T

.:

~ 1P!l20 .,. / It, 7.f! ) (Ilflf In.2.)


Jh.
I J1
2.

.ft: "L

(/7/~

h,/)' ) li(7~d;:+'ffPO)"R 5hlj'~ II ~


3

~, "If)( /D

-3

s~

wei!JH ::- !

3- ;( ",,,Iume = (t..1fIf x/0

s!,,:) ('32.2 ::) ( ~.f.t~

1-

2f.s.

/.37

I
1..'07 A rigid tank contains air at a pressure of 90 psia and a temperature of 60 oF. By how much will the pressure increase as the temperature is increased to 110F?

-P::tRT
J=oy a Y'lr/4 c.losed Jan./(
V~/vme

-the "';, rnpS5

4nd

4Y~

'DI1"iR~Z.

,;fO

1=

~n5i:4nt-.

Thus",
(I )

/!rIPt7I ct. /.

(W/~ R etPI'I5rq"t)

-P, _ FL
T,
wht'f'e

7;..
Ii

-A ~ fit) psia-) r;:: bO r -J- Jflt,D


7i::
-b

- S2.~ c ~.1

"nil

//()oF-+Jf6o = s-'lO~.
eJ

FY'~pr

ct. (j)
I .

~ = (/S7tJ r2. = 7i.. 7; 0 5z()-;e

l<) (flJf~t.A.) = '18'. 7 OSLo..

l-l7

I. 3 i

-'II:

Develop a computer program for calculating the density of an ideal gas when the gas pressure in pascals (abs). the temperature in degrees Celsius. and the gas constant in J/kg K are specified.

"J .3X

;::';;1"

lin

,dtlt/ ~115

1::/RT

1=
{s / J1

"kr
7

t.)htY~ t iJ tlb.$l)/u/-(l. 1'1"!'SS"~) R 1h~ 9"S (}PIIS J-f,(1'1 i: I ClI'1~ is tlbsl)l",,~ -lempRrtlwre. Thus" ,-I 1'ht!. t~mJ~f-I4.t:UY~

4)C

-Inti'!

T =

{ +

273. JS
PY'()jY4h1

,4 spreadshp8 t (exCEL]

~,... C/4leulai-lIlj fJ
I I

j.o/jfJLt)s.

This program calculates the density of an ideal gas when the absolute pressure in Pascals, the temperature in degrees C, and the gas constant in J/kg-K are specified. To use, replace current values with desired values of temperature, pressure, and gas constant.

I A 8 CD! --+--------+--------~~~--~----~----~ Pressure, Temperature, Gas constant,. Density, : 3 Pa C J/kg K I kg/m I 1.01 E+05 15 286.9 1.23 Row 10
~----~--------~-------;

Formula: =A1 0/81 0+273.15)*C1 0)

~xtrnp/e" taJcuLa..f-e I ~r P= 2.~o~ P()..) trhljJfrl.i:ure. ~OCJ t1'1~ R:: 2..97 J/~. I~
I

D
Density, 2.38

Pressure, Temperature, Gas constant, Pa C J/kg-K 20 287 2.00E+05 i

Row 10

1-2.~

I. 3f-- I

':'1.3 l ) Repeat Problem 1.38 for the case in which the pressure is given in psi (gage). the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit. and the gas constant in ftlb/slug,oR.

F(J)Y

ql?

/c/ea/

9qS

1=fRT
,
whtY.f!.

/.)::: 1<; .::t


prf.5SUYl'j t:i1'1I(

p
I

ThIl..5

Q"~~/lJ.fe +emptrai:tlre. f ~empYa-bo"e IH ";:: tfn" PYt'5~uve ,ft os. -the" . -a


/.s a

bs()/utt

IS

= tI;= -r

if5~. ~ 7

411r.1

f':: [

p(1") -r t.ihtt (psia.)


f

Jx 14LfJ;t~
In.

.4 spreAdsheet. (t:XCEU pr()!f4m ~y C4/fL{J~t-Jir."


This program calculates the density of an ideal gas when the gage pressure in psi, the atmospheric pressure in psia, the temperature in degrees F, and the gas constant in ft.lb/slug.deg R are specified. To use, replace current values with desired values of gage pressure, atmospheric pressure, temperature, and gas constant.

lallows.

~:~-~-~--------------~------~----+------4------~----~

E ABC D I Pressure, Temperature, Gas constant, Atm. Pressure, ' Density, 3 slugs/ft I of fi Ib/slug.oF psia psi

i
Row 12

59

1716

14.7

0.00238

~---l-------+_ _ _ _--+------il Formula: i=((A 12+D12)*144)/((C12)*(B12+459.67)) I

J? J(" rn)J Je'

ell /,uL~ -te fJ


fi.J:""

~y

P= LfOPJi.)
tind
I

ifmprrIJ ture =/~~ ()t;

= 1'1-.7 P5L'(ij

R= /7JI:, .fJ.t.lb/.sJU~'''~ ,
i

f-:::----

A I B I C i D j E . Pressure, Temperature, Gas constant, I Atm. Pressure, ! Density, psi I of ft Ib/slug of psia slugs/ft3

40

100

1716

14.7

0.00820

Row 12~

___ _

J-

Zer

/. '10

I.LfO Make use of the data in Appendix B to determine the dynamic viscosity of mercury at 75 of. Express your answer in BG units.

/-30

/.

~I

1. 4 J One type of capillary-tube viscometer is shown in Video V1.3 and in Fig. PI ~( . For this device the liquid to be tested is drawn into the tube to a level above the top etched line. The time is then obtained for the liquid to drain to the bottom etched line. The kinematic viscosity, v, in m2/s is then obtained from the equation v = KR 4 t where K is a constant, R is the radius of the capillary tube in mm, and t is the drain time in seconds. When glycerin at 20 0 is used as a calibration fluid in a particular viscometer the drain time is 1,430 s. When a liquid having a density of 970 kg/m 3 is tested in the same viscometer the drain time is 900 s. What is the dynamic viscosity of this liquid?

Glass strengthening bridge

Capillary ---lr-+-.-li"\ tube

FIGURE P1.41

~y

~/tI~er/.n @ 20D[

7J= !JCfxIP-~1s

!. / r X /1)-) hn"l-Is

::

Uc R Ij.) 0, ~30
win,

s)

k R4-= 8. ~ 2 X If) -7 /}?12-1s 2..


IJ zu/d

t::.

rODs
t) 5 )

v= (3. $ ~ i/O- 7 /n1 "2./s 2.) (90


=

-r-z/
=

(97 0 --k#~3) (7. If 'I x /0 -If fn1% )

D. 727 Im-S ~ = u,727

1-3/

I. 2

I
J 042 The viscosity of a soft drink was determined by using a capillary tube viscometer similar to that shown in Fig. P 1.41 and Vidl'O V 1.3. For this device the kinematic viscosity, v, is directly proportional to the time, I, that it takes for a given amount of liquid to flow through a small capillary tube. That is, II = KI. The following data were obtained from regular pop and diet pop. The corresponding measured specific gravities are also given. Based on these data, by what percent is the absolute viscosity, J-l, of regular pop greater than that of diet pop?

Regular pop
I(S)

Diet pop 300.3 1.003

377.8 1.044

sa

- t

1< /OD

}-32.

1.13
1. 43

I
equation for the pouring time in seconds was t = I + 9 X 102" + 8 X I 0 3,,2 with" in m2/s. (a) Is this a general homogeneous equation? Explain. (b) Compare the time it would take to pour 100 ml of SAE 30 oil from a 150 ml beaker at OC to the corresponding time at a temperature of 60C. Make use of Fig. B.2 in Appendix B for viscosity data.

The time, t, it takes to pour a liquid from a container depends on several factors, including the kinematic viscosity. ", of the liquid. (See Video V1.l.) In some laboratory tests various oils having the same density but different viscosities were poured at a fixed tipping rate from small 150 ml beakers. The time required to pour 100 ml of the oil was measured. and it was found that an approximate

(a..)

-I:.

=:

-t

'I /o"l.-u
J(

fT] == [i ]
m u 51have

[tf;<JoV [~
'

J
e.. /

9 X/OS -v
-t

2-

(I)

[3 x/oJ] [-.]
D~ X I D3J.:.
[ -3]

5/~c~ each +rn11 ;'n +he egutL.f:lbJ1 !1?"fs-t hftlle -t-he stlme d /1rJl'''''tM5 -tJte ~IJ 51-o",1-.s a..?petl r/n~ /rl 1J1e efllLa.:I:,clI

dllnen ~/pif..s .I l
[11.>< JD 1-J

[)] :;; [TJ

[.1::]

-b-

7htl..5) w; 1h a. c.hol1"~ I;' Ut1/fs /he J/,,/tI~ "I 7h~ C(J)115-fz1l1i5 wPt// tI e..l1l1l1fe q ntl -t7J/~ I S 11~t:- tt j-enent / horno jen e(J)tI.J. ..(2gaa-i';;J . ;\1.0.
(j;)
Pr~m Ta /;Ie 8.2 /n A ppel1d1 x B (~r SAE:3'tJ ();/ @) Oc) -z/ = 2. 3 )( jtJ -,3 /Yn 2./s

(-for 5A-E~!) ()//

~DC)

-V = 'I: ~ x
C/Xj//

/o-s

/m2-1s

l7f. (; )

i::-

T-

(2.3X/D-~)-t

:3.1/ s
@

(00 C

1+
I, 0'15

)-33

I. Lf4 I
1.44
The viscosity of a certain fluid is 5 x 1O-~ poise. Determine its viscosity in both SI and BG units.

/=
(/n
el

(5.>L/o-I(.,P~i~e)(IO-' ~~)=
p~/$e

Frpl7?

~ 6/e
~
2

/.

If
-l

::: (5 X- /D - .!:!.:.!.. ) ( :/., o~q )(./ 0 /1'11

/. 'is

J
1.4S" The kinematic viscosity of oxygen at 20C and a pressure of 150 kPa (abs) is 0.104 stokes. Determine the dynamic viscosity of oxygen at this temperature and pressure.

- .s

vm'2.

*1.46 Auids for which the shearing stress, T, is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain, 1', are designated as nonNewtonian fluids. Such fluids are commonplace and can exhibit unusual behavior as shown in Video V1.4. Some experimental data obtained for a particular non-Newtonian fluid at 80 of are shown below.

T(lb/ft2)-.J~ 2.11

1 7.82
100

I. 18.5 L31.7 I
150

l' (S-I)

01

50

200

Plot these data and fit a second-order polynomial to the data using a suitable graphing program. What is the apparent viscosity of this fluid when the rate of shearing strain is 70 s -I? Is this apparent viscosity larger or smaller than that for water at the same temperature?
Shearing Rate of shearing stress, strain, 1/s Ib/sq ft

o
50 100 150 200

2.11 7.82 18.5 31.7

! 30+--~!--~i--~i--~~,--~i
~ ...'
20
U;

=
.~

40

'r -

OO~8 i -q.Oill5-~.

+__+--_--+1_--:.1/fC-----1!----i

g' 10 +----l---j~--i~--t----rl------l

1../

:.
U)

0 ....- .....

~~---+1---t---1i---------i1
50 100 150 200 250
Rate of shearing strain, 1/s

I
\

~----------------------

/'lPf)f

A-PfHAti,x B) fl+z.O@$ODF = 1,7Q/XID +1;'-) q,,~ 5/l1ct.. WA.-tev is a. Newt:r;nl41f riu/d 171J~ l/a/ut. 1.5
/11~/eprl1dt"t ,,{

Table. S.I I~

-G'"

1/0 .5

TheiS", 17J~ t(l1KI1f)WfI nO!1-Newl:.t>Jltt1i-t /-/('ui/ hilS a mu(;.h /t'{Y''1fY VI:( J~ e. .

i .

J-3S

/.47

1A7 Water flows near a flat surface and some measurements of the water velocity. u. parallel to the surface. at different heights, y, above the surface are obtained. At the surface y = O. After an analysis of the data. the lab technician reports that the velocity distribution in the range 0 < Y < 0.1 ft is given by the equation

= 0.81 + 9.2y + 4.1 x lOV

with u in ftls when y is in ft. (a) Do you think that this equation would be valid in any system of units? Explain. (b) Do you think this equation is correct? Explain. You may want to look at Vicko 1.2 to help you arrive at your answer. :J .3
(a)

U=

~.a/

+ q.2 :J -r tf..1 >(/0 !J

[Lr-]= ~.8il1-0.2][L] +- ft.JX}D~[L3J


E'ach ferm ,A 1he ezua.;fJ~1I rn liS f h4 V! the ~(Jrne dl fYlfUI5I!)IIS. Thus,) the ~/J~t"J1t &. f / m1l51: hAlle dln1tl1~'IJII~ "f. /. . T-; 2. dl':"'(AS/Pj,~ c f T-~ t:I /ld 11-. / )( 1t;.3 dl",eA.5/PlIs D f L-2 T~I Slh,t!. 7?te. t~I1.si::4I1b /11 '1h~ ~!U4.tr~JI hf(~e c/lmpIIS/~;'.s '1J1elr

r.

Yll/ues

JtI/I/

Ch(Jl1f~ If)/tn a. Chll119E (rl /,411;f.5.

No.

(b) E1Ji4tJP/IJ ~lIl1npt


e(JJl1d;i:/~)I.

he t!lJrrRd ;5/nCti! a.t fj=o /A.:: ~.8J tils ) a. ntJlI-,eYb J/A/we w}",h wDulel V{'D.laJ~ .fne. '~o-sJlp'l
NIJ-t t.Prrec-t.!

1-314

1.'11

I
1.-+1-1 Calculate the Reynolds numbers for the flow of water and for air through a 4-mm-diameter tube, if the mean velocity is 3 m/s and the temperature is 30C in both cases (see Example 1.4). Assume the air is at standard atmospheric pressure.

Ftf)t" wILier

a...t

3 o lf>C (-Ir()rn Ta~/e 8,2


~#

,h A-ppel1dJi

B)~

I:::
Re
_

9 '15'. 7 ;;;; 3
~

V D _ (rqs: 7

1!~J

(3

Lf) ( t'. 00 Lf ,'YY1)


rrn
:a.

7. 975' ;( IO-1f H,S

=10
B) :

00

/;r a t ~ ~-I:

30' C ( 4~m Ta, ble

8. If /n

4pperJdi)(
;<

f ::
Re
=

t. I (,fi

:!.

jA-::: I. 11.

ID - S

:s. .
752

1-37

/,.tIc:!

1. qq For air at standard atmospheric pressure the values of the constants that appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10) are C = 1.458 x 10-" kg/(m s KI:) and 5 = 110.4 K. Use these values to predict the viscosity of air at 10 C and 90 C and compare with values given in Table 8.4
in Appendix B.

( TT.

T-tS

T'-

T
lo 'e ,
-t" .),7

-t"

/J o. If I<

T= /O e.
fl. "fF8

;(10- )

( :1.83./51<)
.,. /I O.1f

S.Jt,- = %
-5' N ., = 1.71.5" 10
"".,'"

). 1'3. 15' k

From Table

B.It)/-'

T = '10'C
_

'10'C

-t"

;'7~. W :
3/,
;Z

31. -g. IS k )

(f.If!JgXIO-') ( 3(,~./!ik.)

3 &, :1. I~- k.


Frc;m

==

-5" .2.13)(.10 NoS

1I O. If

-:;;;; ,

/ -3~

/.~o-tl'

Use the values of viscosity of air given in Table B.4 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100C to determine the constants C and S which appear in the Sutherland equation (Eq. 1.10). Compare your results with the values given in Problem l.lf'f. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form

1.5r)*

T + S C C and plot 'P'2/ Ii versus T. From the slope and intercept of this curve C and S can be obtained.) T 312
Ii

(!)

(J)

T
o
0;.0

(k)

I- (/V'S//tI1l.)
I. 7/ ;C If) - b/. 'i Z X 10 -6'
-(i

T~ [J<~(ljJ.,.s)]
:2. 6'f~ ~ /0 fj z. 7sf X If) 8 ~. 963)L /0 8

,173. IS"

J./i3./6
313.1!i
3~3.

'fi>
60
80
I()~

/;-

I.f?;('JD /, Cj 7 ;( If) -tJ-

3S3./~

J.o 7 ;( If)
2../7.xJO

-:,-

373.lb
V.s.
8

-5

3.037 X 10 g l. ;; ~" X 1() 8 3. 322;( It) 8

_3~ A- plot 0/ 1jP3. Si. JD

I~

Sh()Wn

b<-/ow.'

':i ::-:_~~==~ -==-~

~~~ Fi~ ~: ~ . ~~~;:~: j~~~=J~=::'~~-~J~~ :::::::r :.~.:~~: :-~:~:::-:.: ~-=~h:- .'.:...: =:.- :::. -=:=:: d:' ::~ =:-ir
=:-~~~:~~-=:::~~~:: =~::=:~::::- ~:==-

.::!::

:::==;~ :~::=::~=: ;::.:!~:: ~:~~:~.~::1::= ::~= 1~>~:

=:::.. 'j_' .. :_='::-: : f <

3.0 X/{~f: ~~;-~cc;. ~

~~~,--: ~==-r~
::::l .... :~.-l

:1:: ::'::=:=::~ :::: -: ~/~l~::: 1"'-::;" : .: :~:.:- ---... ~: :!::::~ 7~ :.:t:::. J : .(- -:::!::
::j- (-.-~; ....

.... ;:.: -::-:-

/. 50 jIi

(C~11 'i

5/~le. the dt-tA. P/Dt a..s flff approXJlt1l.te .rfrtli9Jtt ES' (/) C1i11 be. refrt!S'f111 kd "''I flh e8"'4..ti()~ of form !f::: b x. -t a..
wher-I!

!J

/V

To

obffllH

T3~ a 411d

) X"V T)
j,

.b ""'

lie I
po

tll1 d

a.N

.sIc.

use

LJNRFG J.

K************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares f it. ** ** for a function of the form y = a + b * x ** ***************************************************
Number of points: 6 Input X, Y
.) '273.15,2. 640E8 293.15!2.758E8 '? 313.15,2.963E8 ,:"J 333 . 15,3.087E8 ? 353.15,3.206E8 ? 373.15,3.322E8
?

a = +7.~~1E+07 b = +6.969E+05
X

Y
+2.6~00E+08

Y(predicted)
+2.6~76E+08

+2.7315E+02 +2.9315E+02 +3.1315E+02 +3.3315E+02 +3.5315E+02 +3.7315E+02

+2.7580E+08 +2.9630E+08 +3.0870E+08 +3.2060E+08 +3.3220E+08

+2.7869E+08 +2.9263E+08 +3.0657E+08 +3.2051E+08


+3.3~~~E+08

2 = a. = C
Qi/(i

7.

JiJf/ X ID

1her-(~fe

s=

ID7 /(
5
4te
In

Th,Se.

[.It/lues

.kl' C f/11t1

91)t)d

tl1f'femfllt

tv/ii?

il4/tltS

rivtl1 il1 Problem /. '11 .

/.5'/

I
1.51 The viscosity of a fluid plays a very important role in determining how a fluid flows. (See Vieko V1.1.) The value of the viscosity depends not only on the specific fluid but also on the fluid temperature. Some experiments show that when a liquid, under the action of a constant driving pressure, is forced with a low velocity, V, through a small horizontal tube, the velocity is given by the equation V = K/,.,.. In this equation K is a constant for a given tube and pressure, and JJ is the dynamic viscosity. For a particular liquid of interest, the viscosity is given by Andrade's equation (Eq. 1.11) with D = 5 X 1O- 7 lb s/ft2 and B = 4000 oR. By what percentage will the velocity increase as the liquid temperature is increased from 40 of to 100F? Assume all other factors remain constant.

I< )AIfoo
I<

ell
(2.)

': [b' _~~IOD IJ


)J-'DOo
5~lD

(3)

-'1

/.52#

1.52.*

Use the value of the viscosity of water given in Table B.2 at temperatures of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 DC to determine the constants D and B which appear in Andrade's equation (Eq. 1.11). Calculate the value of the viscosity at 50 DC and compare with the value given in Table B.2. (Hint: Rewrite the equation in the form In Jl

(B)

T + In D

and plot In Jl versus 11 T. From the slope and intercept of this curve Band D can be obtained. If a nonlinear curve fitting program is available the constants can be obtained directly from Eq. 1.11 without rewriting the equation.)

"8"4 it;;" 1.11

DIn

be t.Jr;flf'i1

Ih

the .{;,rm

Ih;" ::- (/3) /


tina

of

In..D

(I)

w/th 1he cI~ia

~J'Om

746ft!. 8.2 "

T ("()
0

T(k)
:173. IS
;'~3.1;

I/T(K)

it (J./.sk 1.)
-.3

3. b"l ;tID

I. 7K 7 .x' If) - J
/. (!)Ol

.10

3. 'III xIf) -.3


.1.1f3 x1D3

x 10

-3

It} ~ - t.. "3Z 7


- I.. t/ob
- 7. -33 Y.
~70

/.Ib
~6

'3 I 3. IG'

6:.. 5"29 ;( I~ -1(0

333./6
35'3. I"
373.
),!,-

yo I ()o

3. ooz xlO 3 t2.152, .x' 10~. 'R~ .rlf)

-3

~ ~'G'" X lo-if

-7.

3.

S"1f. 7

x/0 - If
-~

-.I

2.81;-,;(10

- 7. c,'f'f -8.J7lf

A- plot of In!-

VS.

liT

IS

s hf){'()n be/f)w:

( Col1t)
/-'1'2

/. 52 ~

(CJ" It)
the dfti~
(/117
A

51,,'ce

1, (J)

tlflr()x,mll te sl,.Ai,1J, i b~ ".!~d .fo refyr.sfrli 1hese ddt/.,


'11/

plat as
f)

To t)btlJ/H

/In'f'

lise

k-X?FI T,

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of t.he form y = a * e ' b*x ** *************************************************** Number of points: 6 Input X, Y
? 3.661E-3,1.787E-3 ? 3.411E-3,1.002E-3 ? 3.193E-3,6.529E-4 ? 3.002E-3,4.665E-4 ? 2.832E-3,3.5~7E-~ ? 2.680E-3,2.818E-4

a = +1.767E-06 b +1.870E+03 X +3.6610E-03 +:3.4110E-03 +3.1930E-03 +3.0020E-03 +2.8320E-03 +2.6800E-03 Y +1.7870E-03 +1.0020E-03 +6.5290E-04+4.6650E-04 +3.5470E-04 +2.8180E-04

Y(predictedl
+1.6629E-03 +1.04-18E-03 +6.9298E-0,* +4.84-82E-04 +3.5277E-0l,t +2.6548E-04

D =~::
~d

I. 7' 7 X /D -, NS I /1')1 23

13 -= b = I, f'J~ i< /0
i}ttrt.

/(
I! '10

So

~::

/.7~7

x/a

-6

-T

Ai

SOO{

(323,)5"1<)

;<=

I. 7'7

;(.

-, e /()

1370
iJ23, )b-

S.7~x)o

-it-

N.S//P1~

1-'13

I. 53

1.5 ~ Crude oil having a viscosity of 9.52 X 10- 4 Ibs/fe is contained between parallel plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force P is applied (see Fig. 1.3). If the distance between the two plates is 0.1 in., what value of P is required to translate the plate with a velocity of 3 ftl s? The effective area of the upper plate is 200 in. 2

I-'ll.{

/. 54
1.54 As shown in Video V1.2, the "no slip" condition means that a fluid "sticks" to a solid surface. This is true for both fixed and moving surfaces. Let two layers of t1uid be dragged along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in Fig. Pl.54. The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress on the upper plate, and the lower fluid puts a shear stress on the botton plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear stresses. Fluid 1

I-- 3 rnIs --i


iJl

= 0.4 N 51m 2

Fluid 2

f-02m/s..j

n,r .f j{,lid '1j"


~r

FIGURE P1.54

I
f_" JU r 1TA C t.

h (~t J;;Op
1.

(6.L1 ~)(
mt

20-

1m1.-

+I "'lei. 1;. ~ A (~) = (0.2 ~)( :.o:~) = bo-(h,,,, sur(.,,,


T -b,p
;"";>-

~141""+'Ct

"O~fI'\ ~14 r...(.,(.,

1.55 There are many fluids that exhibit non-Newtonian behavior (see for example Video VI.4). For a given fluid the distinction between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior is usually based on measurements of shear stress and rate of shearing strain. Assume that the viscosity of blood is to be determined by measurements of shear stress, T, and rate of shearing strain, du/dy, obtained from a small blood sample tested in a suitable viscometer. Based on the data given below determine if the blood is a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. Explain how you arrived at your answer.
T(N/m 2)

0.04

0.12

2.10 450

du/dy ~-I) 2.25 4.50 11.25 22.5

Foy

a-

Net.AJJ:()mQI1
;=;:'1' -th~

.P/u/c/ in( ra.C/o of


tiAta., 9/Vt' 11

-t ilJ

du/dfj

15

C(!hISi::.tll1t:.

?dull,;

(lV,s/h1~) O. ~/78 P.OI3~ o. ~//)71 ~.()()Io


noi.
tJ..

(/.0067

~.()Q5F

O.CIJ,5()

(),()()'f-7

~f1si""i "" ~ de're(Js~r q s the Ya.te t!;f shear/".,g stYII/n /n,yel/~l'!. Thll~ thiS F/w/d (;/tKJd) l,j ~ /7()I1- lIeu//;ol1l';' -fl t(/d. A- p/oi of 7hf! cltt(:a. .S .sh/)(,Qb bt!/ow. ;:PI" A. f/ewI:rUII~H 71 u,C/ 1J1~ C-/.tl"'II-e WIJ)I/I,( b~ .a si:y~",h t /J~e UJI17t I( IllJpt!! (If / f() /.

Th~ ra /:./0 IS

: -;< ,I ~- ~ ~;i:',; .~.... -

.,

"

1 - ,>.' i:-:;; ~~:~!:~: <:: ::: ::::..: ::


:;'t' . ~;::"

'"

.. ,1' I I .':

'I' ,

:::T::::F~::-:-::~:::;V:~:;:'~#,>:>

_ ... ;.~:: ,,:,:,:,,~:::::, :;,;.;:;,,::::: ::, ~j~,,,:, :1': .

. ,~~:j :':':~ ~ ~::~; ::::t?~ ~ : : :~:~~ ~.:: ::::\:::::::: ;::: ;::IC~ = : :


'

" ..

i.-j
' - -.... L-

I
!

l"~::i::lll
! I II

I
I

I
HI'

_-'-!,_ '.
-

.-'

r
:

ii'
I

':

,1 -If i, ._+-'

.1: I -: " '1'--1-1-f--, I,.

H; ,

/0.0

ICO.(]

1.56 A 40-lb, 0.8-ft-diameter, I-ft-tall cylindrical tank slides slowly down a ramp with a constant speed of 0.1 ftls as shown in Fig. P1.56. The uniform-thickness oil layer on the ramp has a viscosity of 0.2 lb . S/ft2. Determine the angle, 8, of the ramp.

FIGURE P1.56

(I)

LJ

heve

a VI ~

V l~ the. Ve.IDC.d"'1 of- -b(A..,k.. b" ~ Tn j(:..k: n t5S f)f i I I a. 'jt..,..


t)

t= (0.2 ~)(
F'V't?m l? ~ . CJ)

:.1 r )
#
.DOZ
D

'=..

WO Ib) ~"YJ

f7 -

(t{) ~2..)(:q:)(O.8..ft)2

SI n f)

= 6. J2.5'1

&

= ,. Z 2.

/-1.f7

/.57

I
I. '57 A piston having a diameter of 5.48 in. and a length of 9.50 in. slides downward with a velocity V through a vertical pipe. The downward motion is resisted by an oil film between the piston and the pipe wall. The film thickness is 0.002 in., and the cylinder weighs 0.5 lb. Estimate V if the oil viscosity is 0.016 Ibs/ft~. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.

2:f Verr " ... 1


nUS.)

=D
~A

't~

OW:.
A
,I)-

I'W
'

~
~

wkev!
aVId

rrDi

tA
_

T
P-

L=
.56

t-

(v e 1t'>C.:~)

( +ilm1hlc.l::lle.5s)-

fr

\\

f-

-th~t

1= (I'-

t )(1TDj)

/.5'8

I
)'

1. f) & A Newtonian fluid having a specific gravity of 0.92 and a kinematic viscosity of 4 X 10- 4 m2/s flows past a fixed surface. Due to the no-slip condition, the velocity at the fixed surface is zero (as shown in Video V1.2), and the velocity profile near the surface is shown in Fig. PI ~g. Determine the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress developed on the plate. Express your answer in terms of U and 0, with U and 0 expressed in units of meters per second and meters, respectively.

I
I

~ _ ~L _
U- 2 0

l( l)3
2 0

r~_---i
\ u

\~--i

I
o

\'----i

FIGURE P1.f>'B

?- 5(,/J'"loc~
(~:o)

dt.{
d!J

@ J=-O)

When a viscous fluid flows past a thin sharp-edged plate, a thin layer adjacent to the plate surface develops in which the velocity, u, changes rapidly from zero to the approach velocity, U, in a small distance, 8. This layer is called a boundary fayer. The thickness of this layer increases with the distance x along the plate as shown in Fig. PI.59. Assume that u = U y/8 and 8 = 3.5 V vx/ U where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. Determine an expression for the force (drag) that would be developed on one side of the plate of length f and width b. Express your answer in terms of f, b, v, and p, where p is the fluid density.

151

r---.
f-f-'---~
\'

f~
-.1I==U

Boundary layer

8 ~11 == U~ ~ t (5 ""----=.::=---L--IL---_ _ _ _ _ x

_--__e I _-

_---r--- ~- ---~.---I.. ;

Plate width == b

tJ her~

dA--(I )

Clntl

l/ J
~3. (f)

t{nd

IJ -

0,571

bf V-zJ1.U 3

I-50

1.601'
0.08 14.43 The coordinate Y is measured normal to the surface and u is the velocity parallel to the surface.

(a) Assume the velocity distribution is of the form

u = CIY

C 2Y)

and use a standard curve-fitting technique to determine the constants C I and C1 (b) Make use of the results of part (a) to determine the magnitude of the shearing stress at the wall (y = 0) and at Y = 0.05 ft.

(~) Use

n()nh;'e4r

yejrl'.ss/~1'J progf'YIf'fl) such a,s


lind

SAS- NLJN,)

10 ()btllil'J
rtl&r/el.

u;eIHc/fl1i::s (,

let/si s1"nrt's
C
(~)

C.1,.. Th;'.j pr(!)9fY1m pr{)duce.s est/males ~I /he. ,PIIY'lIl71ei:trs of II /?~111J11~4r


JiVfl1)

/=by iJle dttia..

, = 153
1114t

s-'
1:=~ d;
du

.
SIJ1ce)

/f

~/J/)U/s

r=;-

(~
(~=())

t 3 C;z. :; l

Thus) at- the wal!

Ai

/-51

1.6 I The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Fig. Pl.61. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocit)-" w. The torque :, required to develop w is measured and the vis. cosity is calculated from these two measurements. Develop an equation relating fl, w, 5", C) Ro and Ri Neglect end effects and assume the velocity distribution in the gap is linear.

~~~
FIGURE P1.61

Tor't ue;
t::J11

r,

due.

+()
T dA

~he"t;l1j sms.s
I~

/nneJ-

C!j/Jnc/fr

e!tltd..fr,

d
whi're.

'7: rr::.
~.
2-

c/It = ~. de) 1.. Thus)

d'T=
{J

J Ttit;
top View

n d /-vrff lie. reg tI /re d to rtJ fa I: e ,nne", c'1/lntler i,S 2JT

J= 1</-1
POI'

ride
()

(J. "'"

C'j Ilndrr

leMi fi.J )

.2 TT R.t.''-

J. r
In

a Iln'ell!'

ve/oc./+:; distyibtl'l'/on
R'W L

fhe gap

T=/-

~ 7i R,~}. t

tV

Ro-RI.'

/-5'.2...

/.bZ

I
1.62 The space between two 6-in. long concentric cylinders is filled with glycerin (viscosity = 8.5 X 10- 3 Ibs/ft 2 ). The inner cylinder has a radius of 3 in. and the gap width between cylinders is 0.1 in. Determine the torque and the power required to rotate the inner cylinder at 180 rev Imin. The outer cylinder is fixed. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap to be linear.

Prl)/'/em /. " (, )

T =
W=

02'ff

R,.3 ))A- W
rev

:eo - /Ct..'
(; 80 !!.!. )(eillT ~ milt

)(1 mlh) = blT

'0 s

vad

.:l.7T (ift)3(-A ft:)(s,s)(/a- 3 !Jt.)(67T


( ~ -ft)
120

0/) = 0, qIf 'f Itl)'

S/f]ce

pouJey

=
==

f()wer': (~tJif'fft'/h)(67T r;d)

178

~.Ib

/- '53

I.

(P3

1.63 One type of rotating cylinder viscometer, called a Stormer viscometer, uses a falling weight, 'lV, to cause the cylinder to rotate with an angular velocity, w, as illustrated in Fig. PI.6.3. For this device the viscosity, J.L, of the liquid is related to 'lV and w through [he equation 'lV = KJ.Lw, where K is a constant that depends only on the geometry (including the liquid depth) of the viscometer. The value of K is usually determined by using a calibration liquid (a liquid of known viscosity). (a) Some data for a particular Stormer viscometer, obtained using glycerin at 20C as a calibration liquid, are given below. Plot values of the weight as ordinates and values of the angular velocity as abscissae. Draw the best curve through the plotted points and determine K for the viscometer.
'lV (lb)
w (rev/s)

Fixed outer cylinder

2.20 5.49

FIGURE P1.63

(b) A liquid of unknown viscosity is placed in the same viscometer used in part (a), and the data given below are obtained. Determine the viscosity of this liquid.
'lV (lb)
w (rev/s)

0.04 0.72

0.11 1.89

0.22 3.73

0.33 5.44

0.44 7.42

( Cl)

5;;'re
IJ

~:

K)4u.J

-th~ ~/()fe

~I

-the czJ

tis. tu

UlriJe

s/t:Jpe =
SO
fha..i

If)' =
.5 0 jJe

We/b)

tv

C~V)

k=

s ) (16. YeV

/<-(~)

(I)

fi,y -rJ,e :J/~~en~ dai:a. (.see p/Dt: ~11 f')(?x/; page) ('/?Q.5rd ,t)11 a /ul.ri S,!ftllres ,f,:t Df the d~~) I.J
S/CJj)e (J/,/ceni1):= O,.?9R

J~~
-tnel1

5In'~ IF. U tjl'lcerln)

=:

3.13X//}_zJbs

it. ..

1<=
( h)
sJ()P~ (b"~e#

(),g9S Ib ...5
/'?v

;:P". the. un klJ~tVf1 filii (J d~-k..


tf}Jf

Gee. IJ/t)i GJI1 11t't.-t f4~~) the ~ legst, $8"II"S ~it ~I tH~ d/l,tA,.) IS

S/Db.# (tll1KdtJuJl1

r-

rill/g) =

O,CJ6o/

11:1'.$

~v

/-51.f

I, (P3

(~l1lt )
Thu~

/rpm
fluid) =

E"r.l/)
S/tJff!!

I
(lIlJillPlIJlI

tJ.

tJ (p ~/

Ib5

1\

-rev

/2.,

7 H,2. rev

,.0

/-5,

The following torque-angular velocity data were obtained with a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type described in Problem 1.61.
Torque (ft-lb) Angular velocity (rad/s) 13.1 26.0 39.5 52.7 64.9 78.6 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

1.6Y*

For this viscometer Ro = 2.50 in., Ri = 2.45 in .. and = 5.00 in. Make use of these data and a standard curve-fitting program to determine the viscosity ofthe liquid contained in the viscometer.

The .fz,r~lIe J ~ -the .e$Ua. /;/~11 )


(see so/tJl-,{)~
(1I'1d

J'J

Jl'e/a.bed .J-o -the tlnJU/dY (/(!/t:Jcil-!1.; UJ.)


:;, 7T R,:
3

~-..J.t>

)J

t.U

l!o -

(/)

ftL'

a.

'lIt/en

Problem I. hI, ). Thus) /"y Ii flx'ed ,et:Jmef,.J /l1~CC).s;-f!:J J E~ ,/1) /05 ot 1h~ ~f'rn
y=hx
( !1 rv'J
.fl/Utl /
Qni1

x'

r.."

W )

IS

If.

~,,~tr,1'J i

.fc
().)

j,

= :z Tr ~.:1). !=
)2' (.
WI

ih

LIAlfrF6

I.

This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = b * x ** *************************************************** Number of points: 6 Input X, Y ? 1.0.13.1
'? 2.0,26 . 0
~)

**************************************************~

**

3.0,39.5

'? 4.0.52.7 ? 5.0,640.9 '? 6 . 0,78.6

b = +1.308E+Ol
X

-Ft,Jb'5
Y(predicted) +1.3082E+Ol +2.6165E+01 +3.9217E+01 +5.2330E+Ol +6.5112E+01 +7.8195E+Ol

+1.0000E+OO +2.0000E+OO +3.0000E+OO +4,.OOOOE+OO +5.0000E+OO +6.0000E+OO

Y +1.3100E+Ol +2.6000E+Ol +3.9500E+Ol +5.2700E+Ol +6.4,900E+01 +7.8600E+Ol

(C()I?'t )
/-5~

(emit)

! =
find

(b) (

f?.: ') .27T ~.3,R


g/~tl1)

~. -

w/th

-/he

daf&"

='

r; g

Of ft.f/;'$ )

(.? 5"0 12-

:I.. LJ.S-

ft-)
_

1'2.

~lT (~.'1~

ft) J (~It)
12.

rJ. 1f-5 IJ,s -Fel.

/-57

I. 'S-

1.65

A 12-in.-diameter circular plate is placed over a fixed bottom plate with a O.l-in. gap between the two plates filled with glycerin as shown in Fig. PI.6S. Determine the torque required to rotate the circular plate slowly at 2 rpm. Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear and that the shear stress on the edge of the rotating plate is negligible.
ili

Rotating plate

0.1 In. gap

FIGURE P1.65

kYO'lUi)
pn

dCiJ J c1u~ h s hellYJ~1j pI4+~ l.s~ e 1Uq / -1-"

sfrfSSl'.J

do;= ,.
~ ntrt

tdA
dr,

d It.:
cJ

2.11" yo

Thel'5 J

C7J: "" T

Z.".. r d '"

"(=

ufl'!r. r
o

tlr

5;nce

T,: f<-

~ ) 1/ fl.t/

"r

fA.

lIe/"'Jf.t J'5tY; h",-I-U/H (SlefijHye)

ellA _ V

'rW d;-I~T

-:: D. 0772

/1:. /t

I-58

I. ~ 7

J
1.(,1 A rigid-walled cubical container is completely filled with water at 40 of and sealed. The water is then heated to 100 oF. Determine the pressure that develops in the container when the water reaches this higher temperature. Assume that the volume of the container remains constant and the value of the bulk modulus of the water remains constant and equal to 300,000 psi.

5/~ce 1h~ t..Jd..frr


~~

tnf4S)

YfMAll1S

ttPl1s~fJ

~.1I::1
/tJO
D

(..pl71.l-)
C.hlll1'1t2
111

/j

1If)/Ume

t1"~ 4-1' iJ

ve)/um e 1"1 tva/-!'/'"

7h II~)

/, l''fb
I. '/27

sJuf,.S
.ft.J

5'::'

-/

'/ir, I, / z.

& = V
If
/11

dp d ~

~I/IJ UJS U.l/1J.. d1l- ::; 4 -v' 411 t:I. PI -.:::= fJp 1hAf- 1hf CJtIlH'I />Y'e> 5 ",y~ r-e'gwred. ..f-r> ~nJ;,.es.s the Iva..-tey bltJt. Ie i-h
110 I~ ft1e...
,'.1

tJ

/1'/1/11.)

t1f= - r;tJ~/~~()f~L'){-O.OO~75)
2.o3iJD
3

pst...

In a test to determine the bulk modulus of a liquid it was found that as the absolute pressure was changed from 15 to 3000 psi the volume decreased from 10.240 to 10.138 in. 3 Determine the bulk modulus for this liquid.

1.(o~

d~

z A -=

I~, e1JfO - I~, 13~ :

t:J, jOJ,

Ii'l,

rJ9i'S ;;,.
(

Ib

1t)2 In,7) /", ;l'l0 in.'


C',

/,iD't

I
1.tJ1
Calculate the speed of sound in mt,s for (a) gasoline, (b) mercury, and (c) seawater.

( Eg.
(a) f:by 7(is~l/ne,'

I,/Q)

I, Lf5

~I'm
s

1.70 Air is enclosed by a rigid cylinder containing a piston. A pressure gage attached to the cylinder indicates an initial reading of 25 psi. Determine the reading on the gage when the piston has compressed the air to one-third its original volume. Assume the compression process to be isothermal and the local atmospheric pressure to be 14.7 psi.

PC>t'

i~othermlJ/ ~&)mpY'ess/t:Jl1)

-Pl.'

..f',-.

= -fE
~.f

Where

(.'~

/ni.J-,i.d state..
~illie..

UI1A

f """

f/nAI

f!t Pf =~.
0/nc.e

f;.
~

f=

m4SS
J/t)ltll11

e.
/

1;.

1'h~reloye

= (3)[(:15 f-

'I.

7) p:s L' ftJ6s)) :::


:-

t (p-;e)

=(i /9- 1'1. ~f'i

It 7 /

1.1 I Often the assumption is made that the flow of a certain fluid can be considered as incompressible flow if the density of the fluid changes by less than 2%. If air is flowing through a tube such that the air pressure at one section is 9.0 psi and at a downstream section it is 8.6 psi at the same temperature. do you think that this flow could be considered an imcompressible flow? Support your answer with the necessary calculations. Assume standard atmospheric pressure.

h,y

1"0 therMo / CHfiA'It

111

den~;I!:J

So

1},4.-t

-f, I, ---f,

-/;),

:-

P2~ ?z.. ~
)( I D 0

TAus

1.72.

J
1.72. Oxygen at 30C and 300 kPa absolute pressure expands isotherrnalIy to an absolute pressure of lZ0 kPa. Determine the final density of the gas.

For

/sofh~rma/
~. L

ex.ftlI15i()YJ )
u)),ere
,
"V

~.

...

!j

~~

::t =t!LJl'Jsft/tJt: ~
t, 4/ s fa i-e

SIJ

1h4t

t"'" ;'rll

Pi1#

I-

.fIn II / st:A..ie.

- 3.8/ ~3
/J?"I

/,73

J 1.73 Natural gas at 70 OF and standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi is compressed isentropically to a new absolute pressure of 70 psi. Determine the final density and temperature of the gas.

For

;'sen irop'c-

c~m?re~S/()11

--P
;O~

~t!/ns tQl1t

51) -thA-f

" p.-A
L

~.

::t

J}
1,*
-f-

tVhere

,,; 'V

;'n;';';'/ 6~te cou/

.f 'V .f.J'ntl/ sta.te .

~I

'I. 2S )( Jf)
C( J1

-,3

S h~f5

-ft:'a

c/

7f
~r

.....

-for

ft.R

IIJ (7 c; 7ii: a.

I
) (

If tf -:t:;"A-

I/l.

, ~

)
3

('I. 25

;I. / ()- ~ S htf..s

h3

{3. O'If;( j 0

sh",.liI~

~b IJ:

7(P5

(J)R

71:

7fD 5 oR - /f-IPt)

305 of

/.7 if

1.7ll--

Compare the isentropic bulk modulus of air at 101 kPa (abs) with that of water at the same pressure.

J:C; r a l r

( E' 'I. /,) 7 ))

y ~ I<. f
/=(; r
tva:te ".

= (/, 'i-o ) (10/ x


,q
~, 15" ;< II)
9

1t'3~ )

Tr,; bJeo /, /, )

E,,::
Thu.5 )

:1.)6;< It> "

Ev (WIJ.,-ter) _
v (cur)

Pa

I, Ifl

X. 1~5'"/}

I. 75"

'4' J

1.7.5' * Devel~p a -computer program for calculating the final gage pressure of gas when the initial gage pressure, initial and final volumes, atmospheric pressure, and the type of process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified. Use BG units. Check your program against the results obtained for Problem 1.70.

r-o Y

C/!)11?

pye5SIol1

e1 Y

ex..pQI1JIOII)

wheye h=/ -ky isotho-mal process) and lOr 1.st'l1frt'Jllc proc.ess. Thus J

?... = e04stoni.
It:::
.Jj'e,;{tc. helL-/: va.!:'"

where

/.'/1;

In/ha'/ ~k.te I .f''V IiH~/ .str;le) So 1J1Ii't

;:.-*

~.

= !i:.

/;.-P.

if : (-J,:) "- f::


t.:
1hel1
~.

(/ )

ml1ss

Vt!)/~lI1e
~

~ = Vt

w he"e

v;,.)
l'..f.g
T

~) tire
/1)

Thus) Ir~m S~

'It. -A :: { a:eM Vf

)-k

( ~! 1:.t"" )
T

(2 )

t.Jhe Y'e
CaM

fh (! SWhSCh pi be. w y-; He!? as

reI-Frs 1::6 JaJe /J Y"e sst/re

if, = (~) -I. (~'j tt"J - ~t""


-t

(c~n It

175

itt

I
cls print "*********************************************************" print "** This program calculates the final gage pressure of **" print "** an ideal gas when the initial gage pressure in psi, **" print "** the initial volume, the final volume, the **" print "** atmospheric pressure in psi, and the type of **" print "** process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified **" print "*********************************************************" print input "Enter initial gage pressure in psi, Pi = ",p input "Enter initial volume, Vi = lI,vi input "Enter final volume, Vf = ",vf input "Enter atmospheric pressure in psi, Patm = ",patm pabsi=p+patm print:print "Enter type of process" print "0 Isothermal" print "1 : Isentropic" input pt print k=l if pt=l then input "Enter specific heat ratio, k = ",k
pabsf=pabsi*(vi/vf)~k

100 110 120 130 1""0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 3l.!-O

pf=pabsf-patm print print using "The final gage pressure of the gas is Pf =
+#.####~~~~

psi";pf

********************************************************* ** This program calculates the final gage pressure of ** ** an ideal gas when the initial gage pressure in psi. ** ** the initial volume, the final volume, the ** ** atmospheric pressure in psi, and the type of ** ** process (isothermal or isentropic) are specified ** ********************************************************* Enter Enter Enter Ent.er initial gage pressure in psi, Pi =ZS initial volume, Vi = 1 final volume, Vf = 0.3333 atmospheric pressure in psi, Patm = 1"".7

Enter type of process o Isothermal 1 Isentropic


? 0

The final gage pressure of the gas

lS

Pf =

+1.0~/E+02

psi

I. 7 G:.

I
1.7<; An important dimensionless parameter concerned with very high speed flow is the Mach number, defined as Vic, where V is the speed of the object such as an airplane or projectile, and c is the speed of sound in the fluid surrounding the object. For a projectile traveling at 800 mph through air at 50 of and standard atmospheric pressure, what is the value of the Mach number?

y
Co

~.h)e.

B.-3

In

~al'r ~
Thu.s

50-F

!v1I.G'r1 numblY -.

LO{P

1,77l
I. 11 Jet airliners typically fly at altitudes between approximately 0 to 40,000 ft. Make use of the data in Appendix C to show on a graph how the speed of sound varies over this range.

c = Ie R.r
t:;r 4< ::: lifO
C=
Fr~m

(EZ' I 2o)
If=- 17/t, 1i1/,
1

Clf1d

s/,,!! .t)~

'19. tJ Y T(~)
In

1a6/t: C. /
of-

4pp end':x

C
.50

at
-thl.;/;
s

tI/1

(J /

-fi .f.u df!

til o +-t

T= S'I. ~ C)

!fl;o :

5J9~

::: I / /!. .f.i:-

5;'17/ ;/tfl '" Cd /CU/4,tltPIfS CiJn De mtule -hr (JiJ,n~ dlf/ltlt!t'~ tin' -the ,es~/f/;'! 1raJh is :J"/1()W)f b~/ow.
Altitude, ft Temp .o F Temp.," R

0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000

59 41.17 23.36 5.55 -12.26 -30.05 -47.83 -65.61 -69.7

519 501.17 483.36 465.55 447.74 429.95 412.17 394.39 390.3

c, fUs 1116 1097 1077 1057 1037 1016 995 973 968

-~...... ~1080 I~
1100

1120 r--,.-----,---;---;----;----:---:-~__,

;; g1060
(f) 1040

I .

I' L'" "-

I
1

~1020 .t--r--+--+I_--+-~-~--+I---!--l I 1 , ----+~~,__LI-_+_I____i ~1 .r----+---+--_+_


000

t---t---t---t--. .-

""-~--:-----1f---J!---L-...---l
1.'
I
I.

-1-

(f)

980 960

t----;---;---t---t---t---+---.......;.......:""~~---1
I
+-.---+----'----..:.---..:.---;--~_~---1

I'

r----

5000

10000'

15000

20000

25000

30000

35000

40000

Altitude, ft

I.

73

I
1. 7 R When a fluid flows through a sharp bend. low pressures may develop in localized regions of the bend. Estimate the minimum absolute pressure (in psi) that can develop without ' causing cavitation if the fluid is water at 160 OF.

cC/J/i.faflon mtJ'1 (pee",,.

whtn fhe I~cq/


pSI,'

pY{"$Stlfe

(/t2for ,res'Sure.

!=Or waiel" aiif. 7Lf


(IIbS)

/(p() df'

(lj.~,."

e~t",ls the
?;bJl8,j

,~Apptw:l/J(B)

ir
Thus/

1.79 Estimate the minimum absolute pressure (in pascals) that can be developed at the inlet of a pump to avoid cavitation if the fluid is carbon tetrachloride at 20 c.

Ca vi i-A.I/!)11 rnp'1 (pee tI r when fhe stlciion P;'(J$stlJle at- -tnt!.. pum,P inlet etttlA/.s the 1/a.,Pcr' fJY'es$ure.

t;r

ClJrhtm tei'('ac.J"Joy;d~

t2

2.0

IJ

...n

IV

= /3
/3 .Ie

~ R. (g,!;s)

rn ; n /m J,I J?1 !f".Rssure

Pa. (4.6S)

/-70

I, So

J
I . ~D When water at 90C flows through a converging section of pipe, the pressure is reduced in the direction of flow. Estimate the minimum absolute pressure that can develop without causing cavitation. Express your answer in both BG and S1 units.

('C/vif4tl{)" nUl'j cc.CClr /n 111e Ct'''J/er9'/~~ sec..-i-Idn ~ pile whel1 -rhe. pr~55;,e tEf;aolS -th~ va.~J' fYe.J5'tlre. ;:-r/)/7'I 74lie B. 2 I;' I+!'ff"c/J( fj'

~r

wA,ter a t

minimum pre~suv~ ::' 7()./ --k.?c.. (q/'5)

9~ C.I

1;::

70. / -h Po.... (ql,,,). Thu~


1/1

sr

tln,fs.

86 Hnifs
I11lnlmuM .P'fSJare

= f;(). J x J~ 3 ::.. )(/. lj5"1; )( / J- ~ fl,.{ )


::: /0, 2 ps I.a

/.31

I
A partially filled closed tank contains ethyl alcohol at 68 OF. If the air above the alcohol is evacuated what is the minimum absolute pressure that develops in the evacuated space?

1.8/

f.iz

1.8Z Estimate the excess pressure inside a rain drop having a diameter of 3 mm.

().oo/5

/1n

/-7f

I. 113

I. r~ A 12-mm diameter jet of water discharges vertically into the atmosphere. Due to surface tension the pressure inside the jet will be slightly higher than the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Determine this difference in pressure.

"Ft;/' erp,i J/bri/l"" fspe IIjure ).;


SO

1(z~Ii/: cr(zJI.) -rnA i -t==


12 >' it; -.3 ~ 2:

12. 2

Ii
Sur-Hlle

1'1V ex,t'SS f rfSSU re


-ftHSIDIl

~'(,e:- cr 2. ~

1-72..

/,8'-1
1. 'a Y. As shown in Vidl'O V1.5, surface tension forces can be strong enough to allow a double-edge steel razor blade to "float" on water, but a single-edge blade will sink. Assume that the surface tension forces act at an angle relative to the water surface as shown in Fig. PI ~~. (a) The mass of the double-edge blade is 0.64 x 10- 3 kg, and the total length of its sides is 206 mm. Determine the value of e required to maintain equilibrium between the blade weight and the resultant surface tension force. (b) The mass of the single-edge blade is 2.61 x 10- 3 kg, and the total length of its sides is 154 mm. Explain why this blade sinks. Support your answer with the necessary calculations.

Surface tension force

FIGURE

p1.<64

(a. )

L F Vr+t '4 I

::.0

~
X

VW=Ts/n8
Luheye

tow
.Jt. ) (IJ, ZO~

~
slqes

ttJ ::

(Y'(l

blade

Ql;1d

T:::- a- ><. Jenfn, of.

o.

( (), 10'1- ;( 10- 3-ka ) (U I I'tr./~.) =

fr. 3~ ;(
0

}O-2

/In ) 5'111

:sin e- =- o. Lf-15 9 = :J... 4-.5


(b) For
slnrle-edtje

blade
X

'2J =
uYld

/yrl MAde

d- " (~2.I.1
::

x: 10().DZ~1s, N

-ka.J ('1. ~J I'M/~')


f7

5111

e :: (vx. J enJ1n of. /,lode ) ~I;'


::- (7.3LJ.x/o- Z

Ntm) (O.15LtM1) '51Y1


e
It

O. 0 I J 3 '5/n

t>Y'aer +O~ h jq de +0 "-J./Da.i ~ -< T "SIn e. "StYlet.. rma)(Jf1'lUfn1 Value JoY" ~Ine IS \ I J'+- follows that '1.<.J > T St'n e and 'Sin9/<!-eciJe hlade w; II si"k.

rn

/-73

I. 8'5

I
1.1'\5 To measure the water depth in a large open tank with opaque walls, an open vertical glass tube is attached to the side of the tank. The height of the water column in the tube is then used as a measure of the depth of water in the tank. (a) For a true water depth in the tank of 3 ft, make use of Eg. 1.22 (with () = 0) to determine the percent error due to capillarity as the diameter of the glass tube is changed. Assume a water temperature of 80 oF. Show your results on a graph of percent error versus tube diameter, D, in the range 0.1 in. < D < 1.0 in. (b) If you want the error to be less than 1%, what is the smallest tube diameter allowed?

(a.)

The e;(ce~s he'jh t I h) CtlfA~ed bt 1h~ .sur~(t. ien>/~~ ,1

h=
f:ipy-

zo-~~

(E'Z. J.ll.)

tr:: 0 tv; f;,


D

b =.z. R.

'oR

h=
0-=

'fO-

PY'If)I?1 7i.J,/~ B./ln A-ppendl)( B


Jf.9Ix//J-3/bj.Pt Clnd

rD

0)

/Dy-

r=

~t 'Z.2z. Jb/k~
WtJ.-tev

Th~~ .fr.9m

h ~f)::

1:1. (I)
tf (Jf, tj I x: IO-J
{(e>Z.lZ.

-! )
)f..

fl. 1 q )(

-3

J0

(,n.) ~,) D I 2. I ~, /';-1::


=.

.D ( I'n.)
100

~l~ error

h ~J
.5'.ft; 1ha.~

f)

froW! eq.l 1-) D /0 e yr" y =

3.7&f x J

-3

3 D(J'n,)

x I D0
( 3 )

A- plot. t>.f ~ eY'r~r V-(i"S(,/S t"'be ShtJWI1 "n 111t /1f~t I"a'je,

C/'t:ll11et:er IS

( C!L;,/t. )
/-7Lf

/. 8S-

( Ccr/t.)

Diameter of tube, in. 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

% Error
1.26 0.84 0.63 0.42 0.32 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13

1.50
:
I ,
I

... ... ... W


0
~ 0

1.00 0.50 0.00 0

!
I
1

I
1

, ,
I
-

I
i

'{
I

i
I
i

i ~ ,
0.4

I
i

, !
,

, i

.....
0.8 1 1.2

i ,

i
I

0.2

0.6

Tube diameter, in.

Values obtained from Eq. (3)

"

--

(1)

For /ofo

eyrpy

;;'PII1 Z. (3)
t). /2b

J=
D-=

/)(,'rJ.)
~./2.1D In.

/-7S

1.H6 Under the right conditions, it is possible, due to surface tension. to have metal objects float on water. (See Video V \5.) Consider placinf, a short length of a small diameter steel (sp. wt. = 490 lb/ft) rod on a surface of water. What is the maximum diameter that the rod can have before it will sink? Assume that the surface tension forces act vertically upward. Note: A standard paper clip has a diameter of 0.036 in. Partially unfold a paper clip and see if you can get it to float on water. Do the results of this experiment support your analysis?

cri..
I

rrL

grr

5 II

X' I 0

-3 r.L
;-"'l.

o. 0

~ J '+ (n.

S/nc-e

;st.andArd ~I:ee/

paptr c)lf
IS

hAS

d/~met;('r ~f ". ~3" il1') wh/ch O.O'/'/- /n.) It sJ1()~J~ f/~4.t. iP f / I Vof v,' f ~ 111 I.S Ye s .

Jess fr..a 11
~/mpj~ e)l../Jtrirnmi

A-

J-7f6

J.37

I
1. ~7 An open. clean glass tube. having a diameter of 3 mm. is inserted vertically into a dish of mercury at 20C. How far will the column of mercury in the tube be depressed?

2 (}C&S

?rR

( ~g.

j. 22 )

3.00 X

ID

-3
1m

3. 0 0

1)')1

t'YY1

I. g$

An open 2-mm-diameter tube is inserted into a pan of ethyl alcohol and a similar 4-mmdiameter tube is inserted into a pan of watef. In which tube will the height of the rise of the fluid column due to capillary actton be the greatest? Assume the angle of contact is the same for both tubes.

1. gB

(Eg.

j,22.)

.J,.

(C/ / t~hp/ )

U (~dtph()/) '0 (WA if,)

(If
~

1m""
IWIIW1

~ (tva tel")

a- ( WA. tf'I") !"" ( ,,/tCh"/)


( 7. 3lf)( JD-~ f;,
(J,

= (;.2.81-/0-'). ~)('/.r{)Xlo3~3)(#MAI'IIA)

) (7. tlf X }f)3 ~3) (;). M1~

7 g7

/-77

The capillary rise in a tube depends on the cleanliness of both the fluid and the tube. Typically, values of h are less than those predicted by Eq. 1.22 using values of (J and for clean fluids and tubes. Some measurements of the height, h, a water column rises in a vertical open tube of diameter, d, are given below. The water was tap water at a temperature of 60 of and no particular effort was made to clean the glass tube. Fit a curve

1. ~~ *

to these data and estimate the value of the product (J cos e. If it is assumed that (J has the value given in Table 1.5 what is the value of e? If it is assumed that is equal to 0 what is the value of

(J?

0.25 I 0.20 I 0.15 1 0 . 10 I 0.05 h (in.) 0.133 0.165 0.198 0.273 0.421 0.796

d (in.) 1 0 . 3

l7o/n

t. ~.

I. ')."L.

-P. =

2 O-d-U:;S

e (-k);

'f(j'

C: e ( -f )
S

d=l12. Thus; j.(J} 1..5 ()t the.

/cYm
(Z)

i,:
b=

b d'
d':::
4

J...
least

The ~I/ S /-III1't.; b) C41J b.c ()j,~/~et/ b'1 szuare''s fL't 6f 1J1.e, 911/"11 d ...-ba...

//I1t'l.Y

(J.. Ql1d lid).

-P.
If. 0
'f~

(ft)

O.O!l~8

(). () 13 ?:;-

!Po 80
120
J.'fO

O. () /65'0

(). t)z27S'
(). b ~5"oK

(), 0"" 33

( CD!) t)

/-7'6

(C4;I1't)

To

"btfll~

11.5 e.

LJNREG 1

*************************************************** ** This program determines the least squares fit ** ** for a function of the form y = b * x: ** ***************************************************
Number of points: 6 Input X, Y ? 4-0,0.01108
'7 4-8,0.01375 ? 60,0.01650 ? 80,0.02275 ? 120,0.03508 ? 24-0,0.06633

b = +2. 799E-04X +4-.0000E+01 +4-.8000E+01 +6.0000E+01 +8.0000E+01 +1.2000E+02 +2.4-000E+02

rt,

C.L, 2.-

Y +1.1080E-02 +1. 3750E-02 +1.6500E-02 +2.2750E-02 +3.5080E-02 +6.6330E-02

Y(predicted)
+1.1195E-02 +1.34-34-E-02 +1.6792E-02 +2.2390E-02 +3.3584-E-02 +6.7169E-02

Thus,

rr e~Se =

If

a
"L.)~z. If ~J)
'i-

_ (,<..799 x )0 If It

= 1-. 37 X jo

.3 lob

.ft

II

.3

0--= So {)3 Jt /0

/J,/fi

1hen
-.) fk
-Fe

Cc>J
alld

e ::
~

if: "17X/lJ

s. tJ3X /o-J .1.l!


a =

=- o.g~r

.fi:

= J 1.70
Cos /.0
ClI1

If

B=o

-rhfl1

d
::'

rr=

'f,37X)O
/.0

.pt-

J..E

if, 37 XJO

3 --.. /.6
,ft

1.90

Fluid Characterization by Use of a Stormer Viscometer

Objective:

As discussed in Section 1.6, some fluids can be classified as Newtonian fluids; others are non-Newtonian. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the shearing stress versus rate of strain characteristics of various liquids and, thus, to classify them as Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluids. Stormer viscometer containing a stationary outer cylinder and a rotating, concentric inner cylinder (see Fig. P1.90); stop watch; drive weights for the viscometer; three different liquids (silicone oil, Latex paint, and corn syrup).

Equipment:

Experimental Procedure:

Fill the gap between the inner and outer cylinders with one of the three fluids to be tested. Select an appropriate drive weight (of mass m) and attach it to the end of the cord that wraps around the drum to which the inner cylinder is fastened. Release the brake mechanism to allow the inner cylinder to start to rotate. (The outer cylinder remains stationary.) After the cylinder has reached its steady-state angular velocity, measure the amount of time, t, that it takes the inner cylinder to rotate N revolutions. Repeat the measurements using various drive weights. Repeat the entire procedure for the other fluids to be tested. For each of the three fluids tested, convert the mass, m, of the drive weight to its weight, W = mg, where g is the acceleration of gravity. Also determine the angular velocity of the inner cylinder, w = Nit.

Calculations:

Graph: For each fluid tested, plot the drive weight, W, as ordinates and angular velocity, w, as abscissas. Draw a best fit curve through the data.
Note that for the flow geometry of this experiment, the weight, W, is proportional to the shearing stress, T, on the inner cylinder. This is true because with constant angular velocity, the torque produced by the viscous shear stress on the cylinder is equal to the torque produced by the weight (weight times the appropriate moment arm). Also, the angular velocity, w, is proportional to the rate of strain, dul dy. This is true because the velocity gradient in the fluid is proportional to the inner cylinder surface speed (which is proportional to its angular velocity) divided by the width of the gap between the cylinders. Based on your graphs, classify each of the three fluids as to whether they are Newtonian, shear thickening, or shear thinning (see Fig. 1.5).

Results:

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hl're to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Rotating inner cylinder Outer cylinder

Fluid

Ii FIGURE P1.90

(c On 't )
/- go

/.9'0

Solution for Problem 1.90: Fluid Characterization by Use of a Stormer Viscometer m, kg N, revs t, s

co, revls

W,N

Silicone Oil Data

0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

4 12 24 20 24 30 20 25 40

59.3 66.0 64.2 35.0 31.7 31.0 17.4 18.8 26.0

0.07 0.18 0.37 0.57 0.76 0.97 1.15 1.33 1.54

0.20 0.49 0.98 1.47 1.96 2.45 2.94 3.43 3.92

From the graphs: Silicone oil is Newtonian Corn Syrup is Newtonian Latex paint is shear thinning

co = Nit
W=mg

Corn Syrup Data

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.40

1 2 4 8

28.2 27.5 27.2 25.7

0.04 0.07 0.15 0.31

0.49 0.98 1.96 3.92

Latex Paint Data

0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10

2 2 5 10 10 10 10 10 20

32.7 20.2 32.2 47.3 37.2 29.8 24.6 20.1 34.0

0.06 0.10 0.16 0.21 0.27 0.34 0.41 0.50 0.59

0.20 0.29 0.39 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.78 0.88 0.98

/- 9 I

!. 'to

( c~I") t )

4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00

Problem 1.90 Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, for Silicone Oil

0)

Problem 1.90 Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, for Corn Syrup

0)

--~~~~------------~l

4.50 ..,--.---4.00 3.50 3.00

2.50

-----------1
--_ .. _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - j

~-=~I
W=2.5~
0)

~ 2.00
1.50 1.00 0.50

2.50
------------_._---+---_. ---_.. - -

-- ------- --------..-----------1I

~ 2.00
1.50 1.00
0.50
+-~'-------~------~---------.-- ~

W = 12.80)

..

0.00 4 - - - - , . . - - - - - - ; - - - - , - - - - - 1 1.50 2.00 1.00 0.50 0.00


OJ,

0.00 +-----r----r----,--------; 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.00 0.10


OJ,

rev/s

rev/s

Problem 1.90 Weight, W, vs Angular Velocity, for Latex Paint

0)

1.20 1.00

---..-----1

-'1
------

z
~

0.80 0.60

+-------~----~-~----1
---,1tfI""'------- ~-- ----------- ----- - --.-j
. . . _-\

DAD
0.20 0.00 0.00 0.20 W

= 1046600
0.60

707

DAD
00 rev/s

0.80

J- 8'2.

I. 'f /

1.91

Capillary Thbe Viscometer

Objective;

The flowrate of a viscous fluid through a small diameter (capillary) tube is a function of the viscosity of the fluid. For the flow geometry shown in Fig. P1.91, the kinematic viscosity, v, is inversely proportional to the flowrate, Q. That is, v = KIQ, where K is the calibration constant for the particular device. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the value of K and to use it to determine the kinematic viscosity of water as a function of temperature. Constant temperature water tank, capillary tube, thermometer, stop watch, graduated cylinder. Adjust the water temperature to 15.6D C and determine the flowrate through the capillary tube by measuring the time, t, it takes to collect a volume, V, of water in a small graduated cylinder. Repeat the measurements for various water temperatures, T. Be sure that the water depth, h, in the tank is the same for each trial. Since the flowrate is a function of the depth (as well as viscosity), the value of K obtained will be valid for only that value of h.

Equipment:

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations; For each temperature tested, determine the flowrate, Q = Vlt. Use the data for the 15.6D C water to determine the calibration constant, K, for this device. That is, K = vQ, where the kinematic viscosity for 15.6C water is given in Table 1.5 and Q is the measured flowrate at this temperature. Use this value of K and your other data to determine the viscosity of water as a function of temperature. Graph: Plot the experimentally determined kinematic viscosity, v, as ordinates and temperature, T, as abscissas. Results:
Table B.2. On the same graph, plot the standard viscosity-temperature data obtained from

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hu!' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

T
h

1
IIil FIGURE P1.91

/-93

I. f I

Solution for Problem 1.91: Capillary Tube Viscometer


From Table B.2 T, deg C v, m"2/s 10 20 30 40 50 60 1.31 E-06 1.00E-06 8.01 E-07 6.58E-07 5.53E-07 4.75E-07

V,ml
9.2 9.7 9.2 9.1 9.2

t, s 19.8 15.8 16.8 21.3 13.1 10.1 8.9

T, deg C 15.6 26.3 21.3 12.3 34.3

Q, mils

v, m"2/s 1.12E-06 8A9E-07 9.51 E-07 1.22E-06 7A2E-07 5.60E-07 5.10E-07

OA65
0.614 0.548

OA27
0.702 0.931 1.022

9A
9.1 v

50A
58.1 K, m"2 ml/s"2 5.21 E-07

=KlQ

v (at 15.6 deg C), m"2/s 1.12E-06

=v Q =1.12E-6 m"2/s * OA65 mils =5.21 E-7 m"2 ml/s"2

Problem 1.91 Viscosity, v, vs Temperature, T


1.5E-06
,......----------------~

I
1.0E-06
-I------'k-----~-

---------1

~ <

!
i
!

Experimental

E
5.0E-07
-I------~-----c--------'~~-------l

[ - - From Table B.2: '

O.OE+OO

-I------,..------,------r-----i

20

40
T, deg C

60

80

/- 8"1

.2. I

I
2.1 The water level in an open standpipe is 80 ft above the ground. What is the static pressure at a fire hydrant that is connected to the standpipe and located at ground level? Express your answer in psi.

1>=

~~ -T-Po
J~

Since.. -the ~.ftt"dPI'pe

o,Pen

I~ =0 I

l' = ~;;. J.;.

'T"l.

~'!J

(8() .ft)(/I ItL

""~/),."

2.2.

I
2.2
Blood pressure is usually given as a ratio of the maximum pressure (systolic pressure) to the minimum pressure (diastolic pressure). As shown in Video \'2.1, such pressures are commonly measured with a mercury manometer. A typical value for this ratio for a human would be 120170, where the pressures are in mm Hg. (a) What would these pressures be in pascals? (b) If your car tire was inflated to 120 mm Hg. would it be sufficient for normal driving?

t= !'h
(a.)

For

/.20 ~

HJ :

p=
1'=

(I-3J X

/O~ ) (0, /:J,Otm) = /~. O~ Pa.

l' = (; 33 X f03;!. XC;, 070,"",) '"

r. 31 ~ J?.

(/t..O;( I03!.)(f./fSIJXf b -'I ::~~ )

::- ~,~2.

fjL
105

5/~ce

a.

-t'jp/ca / -1-, r-e pve~s u ye


~u f+; d J el1 t

30-35 -p5(,,~ I Z()ItH",.. tlJ

is

n"t

-fOr

/Jpr!114/

dr I VI!1j .

~-I

2.:J

I
2.3 What pressure, expressed in pascals, will a skin diver be subjected to at a depth of YOm in seawater?

t : ~~
4ft1, e

-to

1Ju t'ff., e
3

A = (.)

StJ

thllt
]

~::' (1 0 Ix. /o.-it.. )(lfom-a) = 40,/-;(. 10 r~,

N
~
-"L -

'1()'1"t/i

2.4

The two open tanks shown in Fig. P2.4 have the same bottom area, A, but different shapes. When the depth, h, of a liquid in the two tanks is the same, the pressure on the bottom of the two tanks will be the same in accordance with Eq. 2.7. However, the weight of the liquid in each of the tanks is different. How do you account for this apparent paradox?

-.-

..

.. c

_ .., _

Area = A

Area = A

J?'

lv'~'"' '
I; .....,.,
14. I,I

;=1) y fl!~ 1t/IfK ~ /flt tJ7e. I ;1Cj, ned wa //05,; 1h( pressure ()n the b" ~m i.s tlwt! fD fh~ we i,/I'! ".f -fl,e /J iJl1Q Ii The t-olumn t/J;'~(.f& ~iJ~tle -Ih~ bf)/Iotl1 as rlt~""11 iJ't 1h( cI(/SH~d Ild~ 111 71tt h11("~, 7h(s iJ the 'Am! w~'i)Jf AS thAI- ;'1' The /:(lI1K.
un"1it 1'ht ~fyAi9l1f 5idts. 711 uS 1 -fh~
i71~

t;.f-

+tt.llt~ I j the 54f'ne. In -the bl1it. WJ7"h th~ Ihc..JIH~R wAils Il1clJl~1ed w{.(lIs) t!l5 11IusfrA.hef lit 1ht' f,8tO-e.

..f-wo

PY'(S$I(/,'~ 01'1 7h( b~1I-01Yl 711~ e:tdcl.f'PIt#/ iv-t11hi 1:S j(,(pporl:ect blj th~

Air

2.5 Bourdon gages (see Video V2.2 and Fig. 2.13) are commonly used to measure pressure. When such a gage is attached to the closed water tank of Fig. P2. ~ the gage reads 5 psi. What is the absolute air pressure in the tank? Assume standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psi.
12 in.
Bourdon gage

f=: r-h + R,
..{)

II-ale
/0/ . _

(Ii.

liz k)6;.

4t) - lair

-))

6 in .

../h

'(111'

FIGURE P2.5

In. .f!tl2-

1;1/; -

1'1- 3 1~t.'tZ.

.2.

l.ti

Bathyscaphes are capable of submerging to great depths in the ocean. What is the pressure at a depth of 5 km, assuming that seawater has a constant specific weight of 10.1 kN/m3? Express your answer in pascals and psi.

P=-~J. +~

A-f -the :5urhtce


S

10

=0
)(./0

~o !hAt
3

1> =Ul)J i. JD ;!; )(5"


A/seJ )

/WI)

= SO. S

= 50.S"

MP~

(so. 5

7 320

p~iJ

~. 7

j
of part (a) to determine the pressure at a depth of 6 km assuming seawater has a bulk modulus of 2.3 x 109 Pa, and a density of 1030 kg/m3 at the surface. Compare this result with that obtained by assuming a constant density of 1030 kg/m3.

2.7 For the great depths that may be encountered in the ocean the compressibility of seawater may become an important consideration. (a) Assume that the bulk modulus for seawater is constant and derive a relationship between pressure and depth which takes into account the change in fluid density with depth. (b) Make use

(aJ

~::: -~ =-('3
Thus
)

( g.

2. If)

~ :: - 1-

dr

(I)

be hre..
(Eg. 1.1'3 J

So

th.. t

a.t 1'=0

/e-:'
6

df =

.so -inti/:

1>-

~. 7

I
(b)

(C~n'i)
Frt91??

f~rt ~) )

-p = - Ev
So

Jh, (/ ,~~

t.

::1. )

-thAt

at A::

~= - (:J..3 x IO".!t r .-m2.

)in

[I - (;'03X;()3};3)(r'd'/~)(b)(llhtt)J
; . 3
;<. I tJ '1

...!:!..
""' :r.

= &'1. Lf M P'I(c)

h,.,.

~I1S

tan t

dens N-!J

p= (/~ = 13- ~ =(I. ~3 ~/D3~)(tj,f/ ~)("~I/~)


fo6. t, ;'1~

2.8 Blood pressure is commonly measured with a cuff placed around the arm, with the cuff pressure (which is a measure of the arterial blood pressure) indicated with a mercury manometer (see Video 2.1). A typical value for the maximum value of blood pressure (systolic pressure) is 120 mm Hg. Why wouldn't it be simpler, and cheaper; to use water in the manometer rather than mercury? Explain and support your answer with the necessary calculations.

-p =
J; V"

~It
/2, 0
/YK 1M

I-J, :

t -= >fh
:::: (/33 X Jb)

,!~ )(CJ. JZ 0

Mt )

- / /,. .() 4e P ...


?;
(> /,

.till;' 1J'/lj pY.t'$~/.I~ f.IJ i 'h1

A.

wa..-I:ey
-

Col""., 11

I', ()
Q
(J

X /b
3

tV ;;;":a.
IV

J, It. 3 tWl

" ,,()Xlb ;;;;;


Sid

Thus) i l tv~bY W(I/f!.


V"etlAit-ftl CO/U"'''

In

-h1< 'Ttlan()l1?f..k..t- -th ~


t()tJ

htI9h/:.s w()u/d be

hl~h anti.

1m 'Y~C,-ht41.

N'o.
,,2.-5'

2, Ii Two hemispherical shells are bolted together as shown in Fig. P2.9 . The resulting spherical container, which weighs 400 lb, is filled with mercury and supported by a cable as shown. The container is vented at the top. If eight bolts are symmetrically located around the circumference, what is the vertical force that each bolt must carry?

Cable

Sphere diameter = 3 ft

FIGURE

p2.Cf

'1 "..
p.-y
A,-.; \AI I+!

hwce In ~ne h"JI:. frf-,surt. at mld-p}t/he


CI r-fA
AI

ai rnl d- p/~ne.. we.lgh i l i In-ert.ur!1 0';:' She II

1Y1

h()#-fPfI1 hoi I
()f

~ "'" w-eijJJt af j,tlt/Dnt

hlJJf

sheJ/

/;1' ett"'jibri,,m/

L ~e"'hctl /
Thus)

g IX

f Ii

-r W#-j

1-

Ws
+

- O"u/f )(f D~

'04*) (f lJ~

('too /J,)

=(8lf'l !,X ")(f) (3ft) ~ ~lf7 ~,)(~)(f)(Htf+ J,oo Ib


ferlO

1.6

)./0

I
Develop an expression for the pressure variation in a liquid in which the specific weight increases with depth, h, as y = Kh + Yo, where K is a constant and Yo is the specific weight at the free surface.

2.10

:!1-_v dr Q

( Eg . .2.4-)
Z

Le t
So -(heel:

-R. :: 1:0 -

d~ :-cli:

tind

Qh&i

d.;1

I
(Lont)
I

2.11. * In a certain liquid at rest, measurements of the specific weight at various depths show the following variation:
h (ft)
Y (lb/ft3)

60 70 80 90 100

107 110 112 114 115

o
10 20 30 40 50

70 76 84 91 97 102

The depth, h = 0, corresponds to a free surface at atmospheric pressure. Determine, through numerical integration of Eq. 2.4, the corresponding variation in pressure, and show the results on a plot of pressure (in psf) versus depth (in feet).

/11/////1'1'

(I)

where CQI) ht. ;".teyrIl1e4 Ilvmprlcltl/y

depth -l,'.
t/.J/ns

!l.IlltlJ" (1)

171ft

~//~/I1J 1)f"oJrAIJ1.

(!Vof~: The. n"m,y/cil I /;'.ft"Y4;'1()~ elfl1 "Iso h< (1c(t!)rnp/lsju~4 1hroufh f'e;fq.J.e~ ~.se. of '/1Ie pY~9J1'''m T.R,lfPb"ro/).

~.J/ jIk

100 110 120 130 14,0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 24,0 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 33C 34,0 350 360 370 380

cls print "*************************************************" print "** This program integrates Eq. 2.4, numerically **" print "** using the trapezoidal rule to obtain the **" print B** pressure at different depths **" print If*************************************************" print dim p(11),gamma(11) n=11 dh=10 p(1)=0 for i=l to n read gamma(il next i data 70,76,84,,91,97,102,107,110,112,114,,115 for i=2 to n s=(gamma(1)+gamma(i) )/2 im1=i-l for j=2 to im1 s=s+gamma(j) ne)':t j p(i)=dh*s next i ' 'Print the results print print If h (ft) Pressure (psf)" for i=l to n print using "###.# #####.#"; (i-1l*dh,p(i) 390 next i

Th ~

1,1( j~ fed f'esu/.J-$ ~rye.!p()ncl/".7 P/()t of


fa

be/"w I 1/011,
liS.

tJlI1h

the..

dfpTh.

~***********************************************~

** using the trapezoidal rule to obtain the ** ** pressure at different depths ** * * ~c ** * * * * *' * * * ** * * * * * * *' * * * * * * ** * '* * '* * >I: * >I: * * * * * * '* '* '* '* *
*10
1.2

Lt

This program integrates Eq. 2.4, numerically **

1.-1

(ft)

0.0 10.0 20.0 :30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0

Pressure (psf) 0.0 730.0 1530.0 2405.0 334,5.0 4,34,0.0 5385.0 64,70.0 7580.0 8710.0 9855.0

1. o

~ O.B .!;
Co

Co. :J

O. B

~ 0.4

Q.

0.2

0.0 0 20 40
Oapth, h

60
(ft)

60

100

~.)2
"2. .12. The basic elements of a hydraulic press are shown in Fig. P2.12. The plunger has an area of 1 in. 2 , and a force, F I , can be applied to the plunger through a lever mechanism having a mechanical advantage of 8 to 1. If the large piston has an area of 150 in?, what load, F2 , can be raised by a force of 30 lb applied to the lever'? Neglect the hydrostatic pressure variation.
Hydraulic fluid

Plunger

/ ""-F]

If. j..(')~(E.
t:A.

o/.

,3.o)b

o.ff>Jj~cI

-Ir:,

the.

Jevn-

V'esl-{/f.s

P1

P/un7fr"

~jI'ce,) F;)
COtel

~f
rI.42.,

'SIn ce.
,Pt"'e SS{,{ r'e

F; :.. tAl
1//
4 ncJ
PJ5 foJ?)

QI1t/
('01

Fj = (?)(:6.o) = 2lfo II:; P-;...= plr 2 whe~e ?


co~

.
Is

"The..

1i1e

t{V'e4S

()f

pJu h 1f r

i'e~fec.tJt/eI!1. SInce...
1=2A

-the.. elMS ~n t

-th i"'ou 9h tJu t


1h,,-/;

7h e
{:,

chq m be -yo )
::

1+/
:50

2..

F: = ,401 6- t=; :2-

- (/~~ I~.~) (2'10 Jb)


/ /11.

3Gj

000

1.1:,

2.13 A 0.3-m-diameter pipe is connected to a 0.02-mdiameter pipe and both are rigidly held in place. Both pipes are horizontal with pistons at each end. If the space between the pistons is filled with water, what force will have to be applied to the larger piston to balance a force of 80 N applied to the smaller piston? Neglect friction.

~ ~

fA-I

!=s. = f A2
ThuS)

I
I

.....
~-IO

i
.~

2. IS-

I
2.15 What would be the barometric pressure reading, in mm Hg, at an elevation of 4 km in the U.S. standard atmosphere? (Refer to Table C.2 in Appendix C.)

It t

C(

eleva. -tJt)1'/
C.:;'
l'n

01

If J.m

P= ~. / ~ (p X /0
If

S--

:!2-

( Ir~m

Ta b / e

/1. Ppen dI xC) . S I H (. e.

1:> ==- ~~
..:P... =~. J" ~ :I. 'D

-::;-2-

AI

d'

J3~;(,/~3..!:L

AH'3

2. J(,

I
2.1 ~ An absolute pressure of 7 psia corresponds to what gage pressure for standard atmospheric pressure of 14.7 psia?

71'.)(.-

)Lf.7/:lf.:

:::

-7.7

PSt:

2-11

2./7*
*2.17 A Bourdon gage (see Fig. 2.13 and Video V2.2) is often used to measure pressure. One way to calibrate this type of gage is to use the arangement shown in Fig. P2.17 a. The container is filled with a liquid and a weight, W, placed on one side with the gage on the other side. The weight acting on the liquid through a O.4-in.-diameter opening creates a pressure that is transmitted to the gage. This arrangement, with a series of weights, can be used to determine what a change in the dial movement, (J, in Fig. P2.17b, corresponds to in terms of a change in pressure. For a particular gage, some data are given below. Based on a plot of these data, determine the relationship between (J and the pressure, p, where p is measured in psi?

Bourdon Gage

'IV

(b)

(a)

FIGURE P2.17

W (lb)
(J

(deg.)

0 0

1.04 20

2.00 40

3.23 60

4.05 80

5.24 100

6.31 120

7 rt, ~(J")
( IN hfY~

(I)

Jj I;"

p-, )

=o.()SZ2lii
So

fi,-."m R"'I'

(j)

1>

(~,;)

7.Cfb

-p (f'~t.)
Theta, deg.

.:-

o. 'II, e

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

W,lb 0.00 1.04 2.00 3.23 4.05 5.24 6.31

8.00
,Q

W =0.0522

6.00

'Q)

~ 4.00
~ 2.00

0.00 0 50 100
Theta, degrees

150

:L -1'2.

For an atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa (abs) determine the heights of the fluid columns in barometers containing one of the following liquids: (a) mercury, (b) water. and (c) ethyl alcohol. Calculate the heights including the effect of vapor pressure, and compare the results with those obtained neglecting vapor pressure. Do these results support the widespread use of mercury for barometers? Why?

2.18

( 1h C./luhn1 va.f~Y r(A.brn) : yJ.. +


w

fYt'St;I/Ye.)

( WI thou f

VttfD Y'

f Y~5.sU Y"e

fJ'I/"

(A. 6;J/'1) .. d' h

he Jl'e.

"V

/,!A

ftJY" 't'~.ss uY'e.

f
(It) F~". mtY'cur'j:

=
/OIx.JtJ
3 /'I

- -I.(PXJD-l.. "",,:z. t111

-I N

101 )(.ID

'3 tv

;;~

133)( It)

3..J:L
/I't?~

J"3 3)(. 10"! .J!..

(M.3

= 0,7511W1
t.b) (;r

/.VA.-ter:

It =

/o/x./b

3 N
-l. ;?H

1.77 xIt; .Ji.


AM
,.,.,3

}J

1.

'i. 30
/)'Y1

/. )0 3

J:!..

~ =

/01 'J. I D -;;-~

1. fo

X/0 3 J:L

/'tIA3

= I (). J
(()

=
311

/0,3 rm
Jb.J.!:!...

Por

erf" J

a /Coho/ :

ttJ/;<.ID
;:

3#
I/'H

-"""i -5.'1J<'/~ ".".., - ..


11'H3

.{

/01
~

)I..

1'171"1..

7. 7 If- .x. I 0 3 .!:L

7. 71f X I D3 31..3
Ilt1

I ;J.. "3

1??'1

/3,OI1?1

For mere u r!)


Co/urn
n

btlY'tlmeiers -fhe effect. 01 IItLlt/Y is n f'r//qi bfe / tlnd t:h~ v$u/red he/9 hi 0/- The
/S

PWSf lI1"e

n1er(.11'!/

renstPnt:lb/e.

;;. -ra

:I. I q

2. II:! Aneroid barometers can be used to measure changes in altitude. If a barometer reads 30.1 in. Hg at one elevation, what has been the change in altitude in meters when the barometer reading is 28.3 in. Hg? Assume a standard atmosphere, and that Eq. 2.12 is applicable over the range of altitudes of interest.

( f'g.

:2. J:J. )

(Il

(2 )

..5u 10 Irac. t 1. (2.)

/re;m ~. (J) -k ~bta (

n)
[] )

l~-r( = ~ UfJ1- (rt )r]


FDr
Tq,=2.89K)
(5

=
R.

f!).

00 "So

-P~
)

==

/(:;) Je Pc.

I::

tt, '!/ ~ sa..

"

&. = d
U//th

= 2?7 .::!Ct I'J Ii Ie;. If( (:'8'7 *fl< ) (~. 00#;57) ~


9.tl ~
52.

) ::

f!J. I

q0

-p,::
.?".pm

011-,#

J,., =

f:;. = !~ ~ ::
-fhen
E'fJ3)
).f~ /(

- 1: J :: ~

~ O~~5tJ !fn

[( lol I () I

.t PL

~p~ )o.Ii~

( qo.i. .v~
101

y,/qOJ

-It.. Pa.

- 54-3 -

rm

2.20

2.20 Pikes Peak near Denver, Colorado has an elevation of 14,110 ft. (a) Determine the pressure at this elevation, based on Eq. 2.12. (b) If the air is assumed to have a constant specific weight of 0.07647 Ib/ft3, what would the pressure be at this altitude? (c) If the_~ir is assumed to have a constant temperature of 59 OF what would the pressure be at this elevation? For all three cases assume standard atmospheric conditions at sea level (see Table 2.1).

(a)

Ihen

L/; )

(abs)

-p -=
-

~ - tlJ,.

J.I/~. z ~l.
IO/.fo
ft1-

(t). 67blf7 f;3)(;~

/lo.f.t)

J:!.

(o.bsJ

[(. )

2.21

2.21 Equation 2.12 provides the relationship . between pressure and elevation in the atmosphere for those regions in which the temperature varies linearly with elevation. Derive this equation and verify the value of the pressure given in

r~bf.le c~ in Appendix C r an ;~evation of 5

fOf
-l-J

T - - R
~

fJ

dl:

Le t

1;~t

.ft,,,.

-},.::.O )

Thus)

i:
~
~

,p

=- -

1:,
/?

It
c.>

{Nf
di-

j"". 7:2 ~

(;(11

T= To..

-rs 7: .

?;.,

"7 i
1::

t:PY"

L . ~
::'

~ [- ~ 1m (iA-~~i
.1 h (J _ Rr4
0/

~ [ e. (To. -(3<) -h TJ
':JleLdu

&-r)
TA
L(

and

-h. tiJ11 /()5a rithrn

h~tn

$1

atd D-t e3
~

a.:tIOH

-P == ~

(I -

~)~

(~t.2.,2.)

s. 'f 0

X I () If

mr

!!.1

_L

-~~.-.-.--.=-.=.--.~---_--.J
1.-I<&.

2.22
As shown in Fig. 2.6 for the U.S. standard atmosphere, the troposphere extends to an altitude of 11 km where the pressure is 22.6 kPa (abs). In the next layer, called the stratosphere, the temperature remains constant at - 56.5 0c. Determine the pressure and density in this layer at an altitude of 15 km. Assume g = 9.77 m/s2 in your calculations. Compare your results with those given in Table C.2 in Appendix C.

2.2'2

h 1i

= 22. ~ ..lPa,

-r;:: - 5 '.5 C -r ;L 73. 15" =


_

:; I (p. " 5' k .

~ 77 70,..)( IS-x If/1M - 11;(. , /


[ (,1 S''l

/WI

tfk )(:l /1.. /, 5" /< )

)J

~ I
I

-k Pa.
1")./.x.JtJ
3 IV

::;;'l..

Lb/e. C.2 J~

A-ppeJ!1&//x.

C)

h rJ;.

: J;1, II ~

pC(.

and

L-/7

:<.23

+-1
Elevation (ft)
5000 5500 6000 6400 7100 7400 8200 8600 9200 9900

2.23* Under normal conditions the temperature of the atmosphere decreases with increasing elevation. In some situations, however, a temperature inversion may exist so that the air temperature increases with elevation. A series of temperature probes on a mountain give the elevation-temperature data shown in the table below. If the barometric pressure at the base of the mountain is 12.1 psia, determine by means of numerical integration the pressure at the top of the mountain.

Temperature CF) 50.1 (base) 55.2 60.3 62.6 67.0 68.4 70.0 69.5 68.0 67.1 (top)

W; tb -the. .frmft ral", Yt. d~b...

'9 W(11 fhe. ;tJ.J.e1rl/


rteAPE"iol.

'H

B ~ . 2. '1 Ca i1

be eV/J/u4Iell J111h1fnc"l1~ tls/llj

***************************************************** This program performs numerical integratior~ ** ** over a set of points using the Trapezoidal Rule ** *****************************************************

**

Enter number of data points: 10 Enter data points (X , Y) /Jeff :


'? 5000,1.962E-3 7 5500,l.942E-3 '? 6000,l.923E-3 ? 6y,OO,l.915E-3 '? 7100.1.899E-3 ? 7{,J.OO.l.894E-3 ? 8200.1. 888E-3 ? 8600,l.890E-3 '? 9200,l.895E-3 7 9900,1.898E-3

The approximate value of the integral is: +9.34S2E+00

SODoft
So

fhllt

( w/th
~

j ::

32.2.

ft 111 11

(~Z. 2

tt. )(r. ~ t:)


3
~-Ig

4/52.

tlh4

R = 17/1, It., Jj,/sJu~. 42)<. )

17/ to ft:/b I sIll 1--;<

- O. 175"i.f.
( COl?

(I)

t. )

2.231-1

( COI71; )

:t.f

Ie //()IUS

-h--PIJ1

1;'1,(/)

/() J1H

'A = /2.J PoJ L' a.


- tJ,17S'1f.

7).,lIf

~ = (1'2. I ,s/a)

==

10, Z

PSI.'a.

Closed valve

2.2 Y A U-tube manometer is connected to a closed tank containing air and water as shown in Fig. P2.2~. At the closed end of the manometer the air pressure is 16 psia. Determine the reading on the pressure gage for a differential reading of 4 ft on the manometer. Express your answer in psi (gage). Assume standard atmospheric pressure, and neglect the weight of the air columns in the manometer.

I-- Air pressure = 16 psia

T
2 ft
(y

Gage fluid 90 Ibfft 3 )

Water

,1
t
Pressure gage

FIG U REP 2 2\f-

I~ (p ~ I~.1..

/i

Ib .!.!!: /'t. 7 -:1.. '0/fLf r J-l'y,. J f -n..

. 2..)
b7 r DSl. .

+ ( (p Z. -!ft:3 ) ( ~ f-t) ( I
(J)

72.. -Ft."-

16)( / It
J u..u

2.

'/-.

TT'I?,

2.

~.

Z.2.5" J
I

Hemispherical dome

A closed cylindrical tank filled with water has a hemispherical dome and is connected to an inverted piping system as shown in Fig. P2.2S. The liquid in the top part of the piping system has a specific gravity of 0.8, and the remaining parts of the system are filled with water. If the pressure gage reading at A is 60 kPa, determine: (a) the pressure in pipe B, and (b) the pressure head, in millimeters of mercury, at the top ofthe dome (point C).

2.2.5'

+
3m Water

4m

/SG=O.8

-12m

Water

RJ

(a.)

1;;

-I-

[S G,)( ~:l.()) [3 ~)

~o (L/W1) :: 1>B

1>8 = ("o.J.p.. + (O.a)(r.II(//!.)(3",,)+

(r.c~~1D3;;'.)(z1'M)

=
(b )

/03 ~Pa,

::

-pit 5f).

~2,0 (3hY1)
3

- k0 .k Pa. - (9. ~ D X ID .;~ ) (:! '"" )


I
!

~ )( JD
:::

3 N 1I?1'10

-It =

..pc: !'jJ
j

3 N Bo.t. xH -;;'l-

/'33)( J0

.!:L 11H'3
)

tI,230m!

t>. 230

ml

(la 3fW1,!:,
ht'\

2 30

1)1"1

/WI

2-2./

2.2.("
Manometer fluid

2.26 For the stationary fluid shown in Fig. P2.26, the pressure at point B is 20 kPa greater than at point A. Determine the specific weight of the manometer fluid.

Density = 1500 kglm 3

FIGURE P2.26

Le-/;

r-",.,::

spe,l!,,,

w-e/;ht t>11Y1~I'I()metel'

fl"t"
..".

dA = (SG)( ~
(fa ::
-1=>13 -

1.Jr. D f!'
hr' 3

'I- c.

) (,.) = (1.2) (IODD

'*~)('l.81!f.. )

:: I I} i()()..!!

~ 3-

= (iSt>o

#!. )(Cj

.81 ;,.) == J Lfj

7()()

tA- = - ~ (2 hYI);- ~ ( 2m1) -t rB (~IW\) t. (n<ib J !!.~ :: - (I ') 8DI ;;., )('2.JIK) -+ 'Cr... (2,..) -t (I~ ,100;'3) (1. ... )
I'm

'O~

= 7/

J DO

;;3

IV

2.

-2<.

Z. 2. 7 I
2.7..7 A U-tube mercury manometer is connected to a closed pressurized tank as illustrated in Fig. P2.27. If the air pressure is 2 psi, determine the differential reading, h. The specific weight of the air is negligible.

o
Air

1'3"= 2 psi

-'-,
I

2ft

Water

t
T
= 13.6) ~
Mercury (SG '------'
h

2ft

-t-I

2ft

t,~
~ =

'1

1 -

#,.0

( it +

If (t)

::

fa/r
- tJ. 517 Ii

'0JI.% 0 (If !-/J


~.J
-

= ( '2. f4J ) (If ./'.;)


(/5. I,)({.2.lfAJ) - tz'If/c.

~:LO

2.-2. 3

2.28
2.28 A suction cup is used to support a plate of weight W as shown in Fig. P2.28. For the conditions shown, determine

W.

.. FIGURE P2.28

FOr etu; I; hrlUM 0+


WheY'fo

f.o'rces ~I\ plo.;h-e.


1 }

~ ~ ~,A. A, 1$ ar~A of. c.up

a Vltl

P, (s
) ( (j.

&(

ne9a...4:\ve pr-tssur"e.

FY()(n

manomet-er
-

.QZ ULJ/Ov\ :
~ .f-i:) .:: 0

~z. D (1. ~ H) t (s G) ('0~t. 0

t, ~
"

oil-tO

[I. ~ ft

- (1I)(0.4.ft) ]
(E){Mft)]

btlt

~J uft -

-= - Cfcr ~ ~~
Tht.ts/ /-Yom t=~. c. J}

OW " (q u :") (Tt ) ( O. 5'.f.r) 2.

=:

1 g. ~ IJ,

2-2..,-/

2.29 A piston having a cross-sectional area of 3 ft2 and negligible weight is located in a cylinder containing oil (SG = 0.9) as shown in Fig. P2.29. The cylinder is connected to a pressurized tank containing water and oil. A force, P, holds the piston in place. (a) Determine the required value of the force, P. (b) Determine the pressure head, expressed in feet of water, acting on the tank bottom.

+ t
2 ft 2ft

L
Tank bottom

3 ft

( a...)

For
I

.eblA~IL},rlilf'"
"P1~.5
L tP J1

FIGURE P2.29
(J )

\...C)nev~

presslAV'~ ac..-tlnq f>~


1/-e.J.

-p,t+=p I \ .

p/~ror1. l-t'mat1t!1M-eber-

I_

1\

e$ l.l aJ.so

&J i

1)1 T o~i I
iYzl4..t

(Sft) - ~l' J
J
t

(2

H.):: ~I'r

P, = 11,r - ~ ~ (s+1:) ~; J (2 ft-) " (s ~.~)(I* ~:) - (0. q) (~1. ~~J) (5-H)
5~~ ~\.Th us fyf)m E'C. () )
)

(0. q)(~2.~~J (1-tt)

P= (5"5"2
-1-

\b ( 2.) - I l, to 0 \ 1 k~) 3 fi

(b ")

~bo&~ :- "RL'r

O~2.0 (3 +t)

-1-

~6; J ('t-fi)
)

" (5' ~:- )(i ~'t~:) d":2.4- ~3 (3 H) + ~.'1)~1.~~~~ft)


J 13D

J;:a-

Ib

\ I 3D "h:a. :::

Ib

2.-25'

),31

2.31

The mercury manometer of Fig. P2.3 indicates a differential reading of 0.30 m when the pressure in pipe A is 50 mm Hg vacuum. Determine the pressure in pipe B.

Water

O.

Oil

Mercury

~r 0.30 L .
m

FIGURE P2.3 \

-fa r
Wh Y'l.

'O.il

(6.1> ....

O.

3D .. ) -

tJf3 (0.3",,) -

!u.o ( 0.1."",) : ~

-R:: ,4
1'{:, =

6'JI.

( IJ, fJ3() hrI )

- r~ (~, P30 ...


(/;3

) -

~i I

((), Vfi ""')

+!U; (~, 3",,) ... (fu,/D./!;"",;

=- -

)(~,~30"") - (g9b~)(t1~~~) +(/~3~)~~MI) +

(r. 80 ~ y6.}~I&1)

2,32.
Water

2.U For the inclined-tube manometer of Fig. P2.32 the pressure in pipe A is 0.6 psi. The fluid in both pipes A and B is water, and the gage fluid in the manometer has a specific gravity of 2.6. What is the pressure in pipe B corresponding to the differential reading shown? -.3 in.

FIGURE P2.32

-t !#,20

(Ii H:)
the

~f ~ ft:) Sih3tJ
/Nfl"},

cr~t> (J~ ft) :: 18

'0;1

/oJ

~fec/f,c

~ the. ;tqJe .flu/d)


:30 ~

P,e :: Pj1. " (0.6

4'#1- ({ ft) .silt

/t,..)(N't!ji ) - (j.b)({,2/f ~,)a ft)(O.5-) :32.3


?s,:
IOpen

:: 32.3 Jbl.yt3-/I'I1I- til. la .= 0.22'-f

Compartments A and B of the tank shown in Fig. P2.3~ are closed and filled with air and a liquid with a specific gravIty e~ual to 0.6. Determine the manometer reading, h, if the ba:ometnc pressure is 14.7 psia and the pressure gage reads 0.5 pSI. The effect of the weight of the air is negligible.

2. 3~

Air

----.L
Water

0.1 ft

-t
Liquid

(SG = 0.6)

Mercury (SG = 13.6)

AI> ~

'rllJh)
~/r
f-

-+

f. u (h)
-

-(-

1;.; (~. J.ft)

:::0

~t (tJ./ .pi)

~l 0

~l /

= ( o. 5 ~.). ) (Ill-If

!ft.: )
-

-t {;

~.,)(t,1.1f- ~3) (~. J ft)

(,2. lf .!Jt3

(().'){~Z'f!lt3)

::

~. 2 i' it

2.-2.7

2.34Small differences in gas pressures are commonly measured with a micromanometer of the type illustrated in Fig. P2.31f. This device consists of two large reservoirs each having a crosssectional area, A" which are filled with a liquid having a specific weight, YI, and connected by a V-tube of cross-sectional area, A" containing a liquid of specific weight, Y2' When a differential gas pressure, PI - P2' is applied a differential reading, h, develops. It is desired to have this reading sufficiently large (so that it can be easily read) for small pressure differentials. Determine the relationship between h and PI - P2 when the area ratio A,I Ar is small, and show that the differential reading, h, can be magnified by making the difference in specific weights, Y2 - i'1, small. Assume that initially (withpI = P2) the fluid levels in the two reservoirs are equal.

2.31}

T h __________~!_
FIGURE P2.3Lt-

12

_ _II

1~

~l..

_1\_1

I;'ih~/

- -- - r. At

l-e lit! I

J~;'h4/ I,ve/ /Dr grlit' 1-/,11 'd

___
,\
i.

J '1\.

When

ei

dl'fffnn/;Ja / pYt'$5Ure)

It - Ii)
d'2

I~ a.pp)/eH

we ~$$tI',H.

tIt"t; lell~1

111

Vf5ervpj,. drt),P' b~ A c/J~kllrce.J Alll tU,(/ 111~ /7) til') " In et: fI- e $"Il t. i~)n be ~4'm e.s

ritjJri l-eve/ r-is,s b~ Ah. Thus,

~ ~ ~

(1, + -It - i Ja.) -

~,

(-R.,

~), ) =

+2
OJ

11 - f2 ::
S/ nee
-the /,

LJl Ar ::-

~ J.
/"

- d'/ ...
o

-t-

(2 A -I..

)
/ncomfY't'ssi /')e;>

f) J:dJ

1he rntln6)meter /:Ire

-A 41 :2. 1:
$/"nIl)J

r/hen

:z J h
T

_ At - A)/ tift

4 Ai- 15

:l~h~

term in EZ. (J)

be ne,/Jec:'ted, Thus)

-f:: - +2 :: (~ - " ) l
Cind /tlr1e

vt}ltI'RS

pi

d/f-.feY'fnt/a 1s

if

h 0;1,. - 6',

IJ

2.3S

2.J5 The cyclindrical tank with hemispherical ends shown in Fig. P2.35 contains a volatile liquid and its vapor. The liquid density is 800 kg/m3 , and its vapor density is negligible. The pressure in the vapor is 120 kPa Cabs), and the atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa Cabs). Determine: (a) the gage pressure reading on the pressure gage; and (b) the height, h. of the mercury manometer.

Open

1m

1m

tl
FIGURE P2.35

Mercury

(a)

Le-{;
QVI~

dL = ~p. who

f \LiUJ'~

=(goo ~3 )(~.8 J;~): 1850;; 3


J0 /

i?va-poY'
Thus)

(,119e.)::: I ZO .kPo- C~bs) -

,k Pet (ttb$): I q ~ Po.

~A5~ ::

-FVAPdY'

+ ~ (ll'M)
1"

= ~'l )(\b3;;'~
2 ~, ~

(ll35"D~~ )(\fIM~

-k

p~

{=O.ZOL/tM

2.3'

2.3'Determine the elevation difference, Ah, between the water levels in the two open tanks shown in Fig. P2.36.

"

.2.37

I
Oil density
= 1.20 slugs/ft3_ _

2:31 Water, oil, and salt water fill a tube as shown in Fig. P2.37. Determine the pressure at point I (inside the closed tube).

I-- 2-in. diameter

~t

-lOin. diameter

'--

-~f

1.1'--- Salt water, ------'--- ~ (l) SG = 1.20

3 'ft

[~:~'~_C
-p(S G)$4(+ ~U2.0 (3 Ii) I
W4+Vr

_Lei}
2ft

-t

~"I (3 Ii)

i'

~2. 0 (2..rt) =0

~ = (/.20 W. 2. 'f ~. )(3,f1:) - (;. 20 !.f/:)(az. 2 ';."{JIt)- ('~lfkJ(z.ft)

= _ I ~. I

.fe

iJ:,

2-30

Ocean surface

2.38

An air-filled, hemispherical shell is attached to the ocean floor at a depth of 10 m as, shown in Fig. P2.31. A mercury barometer located inside the shell reads 765 mm Hg, and a mercury U-tube manometer designed to give the outside water pressure indicates a differential reading of 735 mm Hg as illustrated. Based on these data what is the atmospheric pressure at the ocean surface?

735 mm

FIGURE P2.38

Let:

Pa.. "'" &lb~c/ute ~/j,.

pr"esS(Jre

Ins/de. shell =

1fuJ.

(~, 7(P5'1'W'l )

/;'fMl -v
~ w1\1

Sit( rlae. e

at:1Y/1 f)sphent. fY'{,sSU re


uN, ;'11 t
0

Sf t't:.i Ii 'c.

Selttc.J4.:/;e yo

f~~
.Jo

1h4t

~ihn =

t -

(f
Sw-

( / (), 'b ~) -t ~

( (), 7" 5" ~ )

- (N3

:f!. )ftJ. 7'b-_)

- (;I!J.I

~) (;t>. 3b"") T ~~3 ~ )(".13f...)

-;;'-31

2.3'7* Both ends of the U-tube mercury manometer of Fig. P2.3Cf are initially open to the atmosphere and under standard atmospheric pressure. When the valve at the top of the right leg is open the level of mercury below the valve is hi' After the valve is closed, air pressure is applied to the left leg. Determine the relationship between the differential reading on the manometer and the applied gage pressure, pg. Show on a plot how the differential reading varies with Pg for hi = 25, 50, 75, and 100 mm over the range o ::s Pg ::s 300 kPa. Assume that the temperature of the trapped air remains constant.

FIGURE P2.3~

114/(/(

C /~seeJ.

e'lttr4

a.

pyeSSlJre I

fj

-A _

'1

0. .tJ I..:'

#1

rtt.
(I)

.h

/j~:
an,!

-t.

4f'e

:JItJe

fyeSSUYfs.

/;1'

IS() therm4 J

tra.pped

aIr

~11.5ft1l1t

.:::E..:: ~ t1.5 .fqII i f .


4' r

mas~

tJheY'e -V- Is (f/r II~/"me, / l' ,:S 4bS~/l(k /vt'SSI//I'e l (J;ul " Y'elfr 10 in/hal Clnd ft~iAI sfttff.5/ r-f~ft'c.hllelfj. TIHtS)

lIJ1d

-r
( 2)

t
for
41J!'

a:/:1I'1

if t'

=-

(~ -r

f,.t, ) ~
~. (A r~4. D/ I-~ b< ) leJ J if.:" /. t.

IrltlPul /11 r;g~i tj,(Zj CQI1 btl 1t.I,.;ffen 4.5

t : titm [
B$ ./3)

, ~. ~. _ An
L.
::z..

- I]

( 3)

./) h =:

-t [p;

/nflJ

Es.

(J)

t- -/;./-""
l-32

E ~ Ii' tid) n

(it)

Cflll

b-e.

eX.fv~ s~ed

1]" (

f"JI'YM

(fj-R.)).- (t1.J.~+ -?; ;- ~f"", ) IJh


<1Hg.
Qt)d

2.1 t.e
a-u;

-!he r()o.f.s cf

1hJ.S
~
,.1

g"adr~II'c. e~IJ({i:";1( ave.

(-R.t..
J; eV~)1(1J k

i-

-r ~i"") + -

r,---(~-L-'-.,.-f;.-#-of--~-a.-f~-)-2.--2-18-i -,; (s )
~ ~3
IS
t1J

~a

V
SJ1H

b'Ml~

IJ~ -the. ne.14-J.1 v<

~J 5/~'e. .A h =() h.,.

,4- pr"Jl'tI!Y1 /tJr ~mlu iJh (}s ~ htn't/~;' of f-y J. i !"/Iows (WItH ;1i,.."" /O/.,QP" qn' ~= 133:.B.Nk3
100 cis 110 print "***************************************************" 120 print "** This program calculates the lower root of a **" 130 print "** quadratic equation to give Dh (in m) for a **" 140 print "** range of gage pressure, Pg (in kPa) , and [or **" 145 print "** a set of different initial heights, hi (in m) **" 150 print "***************************************************11 160 print 162 dim dh(S) 164 patm=101 166 ghg=133 Dh(hi=O.OOO) Dh(hi=0.025) Dh(hi=0.050) 170 print " Pg Dh(hi=0.100) 180 for pg=O to 300 step 30 190 for i=O to S 195 hi=(i-1)*0.025 200 a=hi+(pg+patm)/(2*ghg) 210 dh(i):::a-(a~2-2*pg*hi/ghg)A.5 220 next i 230 print using 11####.# ###.##### ###.##### # # # , # # # It # It ; pg , dh ( 1 ) ,dh ( 2 ) ,dh ( 3 ) ,dh ( 4 ) , dh ( 5 ) 240 next pg

It",

f1 =o.

114 'l'/oU..!

)'

Dh(hi=0.07S)

(C.()//t )

.1

This program calculates the lower root of a ** ** quadratic equation to give Dh (in m) for a ** ** range of gage pressure, Pg (in kPa). and for ** ** a set of different initial heights, hi (in m) ** *************************************************** Pg 0.0 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0 180.0 210.0 2'*0.0 270.0 300.0 Dhlhi=O.OOO) 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 Dhlhi=0.025) 0.00000 0.01101 0.01816 0.02313 0.02678 0.02956 0.03175 0.03353 0.03'*99 0.03621 0.03725 Dhlhi=0.050) -0.00000 0.02120 0.03538 0.0,*539 0.05280 0.058,*7 0.06295 0.06657 0.06956 0.07205 0.07'*18 Dhlhi=0.075) 0.00000 0.0306'* 0.05170 0.06681 0.07807 0.08673 0.09359 0.09913 0.10370 0.10753 0.11078 Dh(hi=0.100) 0.00000 0.03938 0.06716 0.08739 0.10258 0.11'*33 0.12365 0.13119 0.137'*1 0.1,*262 0.1,*70'*

**

~**************************************************

0.20p-----------------~-----------------------------------,

0.15~----------------~

- 0 - - hl-0.025 m - b . - - hl-0.050 m - 0 - - hl-0.075 m - + - - hl-0.l00 m

0 --

hi-O.OOO m

0.10

~
J:
III

0.05

O.OO~~~~---e----~----~--~~--~~---&----~----e----t

-0.05L-______ ________ __ ____________ ________________


~ ~ ~ ~

100
Gage Pressure, Pg

200
(kPa)

300

SG = 1.10

2.40 A O.02-m-diameter manometer tube is connected to a 6-m-diameter full tank as shown in Fig. P2.40. Detennine the density of the unknown liquid in the tank.

4m

" __!IiIII-
Specific weight

= 25.0 kN/m 3

II FIGURE P2.40

LeI::
Thus,;

0':: ~R 14.71:. cl-

UI7k.nrJwY/

.fluid tUt~

0-;. ::

rI,/O)(f. 80 x /D3) ':' If). 8)( Jo 3 N /~3,

1~

-t

d' (1",,) -

(zS.>W ;;. )

(~",,)
3

0;

(3",,) ::

t;

r=
/J -

\ 8. ~

;.. 1D3 .!!. 3


/WI
J ~.

t - d-

cr

.x 10 -;;-3

/'f30

~ /WI 3

2..-.3S-

2.4\ A 6-in.-diameter piston is located within a cylinder which is connected to a ~-in.-diameter inclined-tube manometer as shown in Fig. P2.4\. The fluid in the cylinde. and the manometer is oil (specific weight = 59 Ib/ft 3 ). When a weight "W is placed on the top of the cylinder the fluid level in the manometer tube rises from point (1) to (2). How heavy is the weight? Assume that the change in position of the piston is negligible.

FIGURE

P2.41

tv/in pi$t::I?"'1

~/t)l1e let:- py",ss,,"G m4111?me iel'" -Rg"'Lt/~'1 b~c~""e.s

()11

hce ~f f,stol1 =
(I)

~ p

- a:: , 1.., d/l


I

sil? 30 .::: 0
~

etdded

'py.,SStI r~

in c yot'IZ>8d

-to
tI

A p

wh e~e

~
an p(

'::

W A-p
hecl!>m es

t fJ~+OH )

m~1/14'me.j;el'"..e k~t"~J1

PI" 51,;( b I-t&tci

4il (-'-, +

~ It) ~JH

'3ofJ =0

(2 )

E Z . (J) -fr~m

Eg ,0) -k o.biol~
0

1:0 '_ f.f - J: 'J (.J ft.) ~/;' ~() ~ :. r '" / ..


(!:II"

-\;../ A,
thlll-

'::.

~;J

(;t It)

S/H

3D to

SO

W
'I: (~ If ,2
tine!

It) "-

- &9 ~3)(-{ ft )(()/~)


;1.,Qo

\AI =

/1,

2.4 Z The manometer fluid in the manometer of Fig. P2.4Z has a specific gravity of 3.46. Pipes A and B both contain water. If the pressure in pipe A is decreased by 1.3 psi and the pressure in pipe B increases by 0.9 psi, determine the new differential reading of the manometer.

T
M=l-t-2c("

-.l
~I" +;,~ in;fJill clPnli1l1NltJf:m :

Gage fluid

(sG = 3.46)

FIG U REP 2.42.

r <tz

(;l) r

~f

(2.) -

d;h~

(, ) ==

0)

where ~/I 1t'l1jtn,j I'(JA~ I;' R. tVhen ~ dec.re~st'.s fa ~ I Q H~ 1:, in~re/(se.5 +0 ~ I 11Je heljhfs Df t'he .flllid Caltlmns eh4n'je ts 'hown &Ji1 .fi:;w~e. h>)I- -tne ./;ht1/ ~()11./;9j,(rtll:l()H "

p; + ~() (cl.-a.)
1;g .c"2)

-J-

Jjf
~f

(J-r;;'~) -~o
(.,,,) r

(/+a.) =

pl!J'

( 2)

J~ bI:.~ct

fum EZ' (l) -10 bb.bn'J1

-1;/
t{.

1-

~~/ It}
-

~zo (q ) "

Pa - Pta'

( ?13 -18 I )

(~ -p~)
-

Since I

fA. -~ ::
(q,.=
t/

"" (

(f~ ()

(fIt)
~-fB :- - 0. q fSi.) tinA
J

I. B f5L. /

q ;;;,'l. )b)(tIlflf h~ /n.~

(/, 3

-/t,.~ )(IV-t; *~

~f = ~ lfb ~:J.O

rJ. ('2. If };1)


CI/Jc/

(I-

3. if~ )

/. rJ3 It

1hfre"r~
~h

= :2..ft + ;. 4:

~.ft +:J. (1.03

H)

-'I. Ob It

2.43

Determine the ratio of areas, All A 2 , of the two manometer legs of Fig. P2.43 if a change in pressure in pipe B of 0.5 psi gives a corresponding change of 1 in. in the level of the mercury in the right leg. The pressure in pipe A does not change.

Area = Al

.hI:
~ercury

FIGURE P2.43

For -the.. /n;t-141 C(!)nll'rwrlJf/~"

(Sf'e

H1lfre) :

~
when
/ I;; /lId
7)

rT

lJ: (t.. +.411,. ) -!:/ (iJh,') "'LD' .. ".,..


inc ~~ps~s the
t~/umn

-!,.

(), J '
A

rt): t/3
d;si~""e ) a.
J

(/)
4HI-i

18

Y'/9 I1t
Ct

("Iu",,, /rills

111e lef-t

nje.s

must:

YemA/h

cI'sl-t:/I'ue) h, Sin(e. 1ne. I/o/lime tjf. 11te ~tf)I4S/:;4I1t ) rt, .A h = Az (4.. e>r A; At ::: h
Q...

FoY'

-the. .finAl (Onh;"r4t/~H) w/"ht /,y,ssure

In

f3 eJlltll -b,
t.

P/3

J :

fl4
Su bfr", t

or

d;,

"LO

( ~, -r- lJ hI.' -,,) - ~

~'()/

( J h.-A. - b ) - d:" ( t. ' +~)

=..J.. I rl3

{z.j

t:iZ.

tJ)

&171 EZ, (2) -fo ohio;",


I

- 0t:J.o

(1:,) 7' ~;.

("

+h) -

d;/,

(If'{) :::

1:>,8 -

"3
(tAo)

b = (PR/ -~13)

I~ (I/{)

?f,,;j

!~ - ~~o

P/l/ -f.e = o. S" psi tl~tI a. = / ,'/1.),-t ~/IDWS thai b : (tJ.5 ft,..)(I'fIf!li: ) -r'l7 )t, )(,i It) + (tJ.gj('H ~,)M ,cr)
'Ktt7

It, - b'Z. If ~
/t. 7

= O. O~71/ I-t
::

2.44

The inclined differential manometer of Fig. P2.44 contains carbon tetrachloride. Initially the pressure differential between pipes A and B, which contain a brine (SG = 1.1), is zero as illustrated in the figure. It is desired that the manometer give a differential reading of 12 in. (measured along the inclined tube) for a pressure differential of 0.1 psi. Determine the required angle of inclination, 8.
FIGURE P2.44-

tdhtl1

1:;,. - P/3

's

in c.reAsed I::c ~ -

Pa me

le/i

Cr:;/qmn

IR//s

t<.

dlj'.f.an'e tt ClI1 P the r/9}rt Co/tlIY'n II'/Jes ~ dishtl"lce. b t:lj~l1f ) J 111~ Inclined ~be- 4$ .sh~UIi? /n .f,9.{l"e. J::;v -tn,'.J +-/Yl4J ~nfi:juf'tJ.t/(;)1:

1ft +
I

~,

(I,,. +fA.) -I-

~c1l~ (It t-.b ./" e) -I-

lrbJ( -bs,." e) = +~
(I)

1,/ - Psi

(<1j, .. - 0;.'/11- ) (a
tI )!)f19

h fJlh

t9) ::: 0

Th e eI,:P1e rent/oj read/nJ) 1J h)


~h=

111 e -tube is

Thus,; +rt)rn
--h

El.{))

'#

-'Pia

'

( ~ ~ - 1',,1If

)(

A h 'S /n

~ )

=0

- (~'- Pra')

- (,), fbI-

Thus )

Determine the new differential reading along the inclined leg of the mercury manometer of Fig. P2.45", if the pressure in pipe A is decreased 10 kPa and the pressure in pipe B remains unchanged. The fluid in A has a specific gravity of 0.9 and the fluid in B is water.

2.45"

FIGURE P2.4S

~". fh~ /n;/-/q/


A wh(;'"(
t:t

C(J)n

h,~~a tl(;rl
(().05
l'n
5111

+ i' (0. t) + t'Jt


A

rnlP V-PS

fill up

3 /enftns eire
A.

30") -

~20 (0. ()8) ~ ~


clec.l"'eases / e/-t CI::J/Utnl1 moves dlPWM

(I)

m,

tJ),e YI ~

c/ 1'.5-k01Ce... J~)

ch$-hnce; a.) QJ'1e1 I"l!J hi ~''''ml1 as .s h~Wh /" fIJIIJI"~, Ft:>r the f.ti'1ll/ t~4tj"NI.. 6/~ ~

"

14 I..

(tJ, J - a.

~/n 30 oj

6"IJ., ( " ",;, JO' + O. oS sin

30' -/'

) l2.)

!:
IS

~~O
In

(~.08

Ta.)
A.

= 1,

the

!'lew !Y'~5S"'Y'e

t If4!.

EZ,C2.)

from

Eg.{J)

1:.0

ob-N/~

a.

=
/0

~A

S/H

3 DO - ;Yft~ (5//1 30'TI) ;- O~O

fA - fA::
a.. -

ltPa..
10

~N
M1

--:
-

( 0, q) ( tt. SJ ~) (0, 5" )


0, 051./0
1??1

(J 3 3 ~ )(0, ~-T I) of+t.tl"e

New d/ffel"en-t14/ V'eudln1) 4h) me45tAY'eJ a/{)n1


e'l I{a. I

/Mc..J1I1eJ

1',5

to

~ 1- =

Cl

Sin '30 0
o,OSJ.jo
(!:l,S'

+ 0, 05

4-

a.
O.
D5O tn1

/I'YI -r t).05M1 i"

= O,Z12

IW1

2.4~

Determine the change in the elevation of the mercury in the left leg of the manometer of Fig. P2.4f> as a result of an increase in pressure of 5 psi in pipe A while the pressure in pipe B remains constant. 2
1. m.

diameter

FIGURE

P2.4~

-fA
m~l/e.s
(

-r

'tJ.l~O (-f!.) - 6'#3- (.1;.


d/s~n~e. b)
J

SIn

30) -

~il (~) = ~

(I )

t..Uhet'~ Id/ /el1~1h.s 4re /n f.t. IJhen ~ /nc.retlses +0 1Jt' -the Ie.ft column ~/Is blj -the. dt's.J..q;tce; (1,) and 1ne rlJhi ~/"mJ1
-rlnal
, t!4'I1.h!}HI""i;-JiJn.'
I

Up

-me

t:lS

sh~ttll'J

;11 11Ie
oS /11

Irj",I"~. /;y 71l<.

*:
n

a;:

"~o

(
(I)

7
"1-

-t 4.. ) -

(a +

~ :5 /n 30 D-r b

3 CJ 0 )

Subtract

~b'

tr()rn

FZ.ll)

.f.o ()~iJ1

~()/'I (!3. - b $JH 1:1.


T

'30 )

~ 1:. !3

( 2)

.p~ - ~

~~o (a.) - ~3 (li-rb5/~306)

~i/ (bS/1') 3c~ =0


a.

( 3)

Since -the I/()/ume

0/ IJZ'u'"d rnusf ~.e ~s.ftzl',.t A,

= A,z b)

(i

/n.) ~

a- = (; j n. ) '))

.b ::. If 4-

- ~/-j;A )

a..

=
=

:.

o#:lO - !Ut
(!),

(3) -+ 4,;/ (2. )

30 y.

.pi:

(down)

2.4-1* Water initially fills the funnel and its connecting tube as shown in Fig. P2.47. Oil (SG = 0.85) is poured into the funnel until it reaches a level h > H 12 as indicated. Determine and plot the value of the rise in the water level in the tube, e, as a function of h for HI2 ~ h ~ H, with H = D = 2 ft and d = 0.1 ft.

rD-jd
______
H -----,

h=2

I v'--.l
Water

T
H
4

('2.)

Initial

Final

FIGURE P2.4-1

{= ~(lJ:r)-AD)T-1o
Oed

OJ

Tht

V()/lime

cf w~trY' mu.st

t!Dl7ser/le~I

(1111{

1iJeyekt'e
(2)

.E d"< /J f .,(.

E
3

(DI.:)L it "'2.2.
~
ct..s

7r

3:z.

(D~)';
J) . .::
t.

A-l ~())
find

12:: Pt..' = Do
H

ff/:z.
be.

t/HU

12 2-

!i.1 t2) CAn


3d'f.

- -8
f t.
I

w"iffen D2H

(-P )~Jo
It )

3
( 3)

toY'

H= 2

-Pt

D =2

d = (). I

411"

E~. (I)

hec~d1es

;. :: 0. ~51t 1- O. IS ~ - / D

(If )

be~m's

2.

(t;, 1ft)

P=

(2

ft)2

(1. f6)

(1_ ().~3J.
100 110 120 130 14,0 150 160 165 166 167 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 24,0

1:
) 3
(S)

IuI1(,t/~n ~{

-f.

/.o/I()w~.

cl=: print 1(****************************************************" print "** This program solves iteratively a system of **11 print "** equations to calculate the elevation 1 (in ft) **" print. "** range of heights h (in ft) **" print "****************************************************" print print It h (ft) 1 (ft)" I for h=l 1=0 print using" ###. ### ###. ###"; 1. ,0. for h=1.10 to 2.01 step 0.10 1=0.0 las=l
hO=(1-0.03*las)~(1/3)

1=0.85*h+0.15*hO-1 if abs(l-las/lO.OOl then goto 190 print using" ###.### ###.###";h,l next h

To. bu/Ct ted dtl:l:a..

find

4(,

plot

of

tAe d4.ta

Clre .sh"IlJII

heJou).

**************************************************** ** This program solves iteratively a system of ** ** equations to calculate the elevation 1 (in ftl ** ** range of heights h (in ft) ** ****************************************************
h (ft)
1. 000

1 (ft)
0.000

1.0~------------------------------------------------,

1.100 1.200 1.300 1.4,00 1.500 1. 600 1.700 1. 800 1.900 2.000

0.085 0.170 0.255 0.339 0.4,24, 0.509 0.59lJ. 0.679 0.76lJ. 0.84,9

0.8

... .. ....

o.e

0.41

0.2

1.2

1.4
h
(ft)

i.e

1.8

2.0

).-3

2.1.f 8 Concrete is poured into the forms as shown in Fig. P2.4e to produce a set of steps. Determine the weight of the
sandbag needed to keep the bottomless forms from lifting off the. ground. The weight of the forms is 85 lb, and the specific weight of the concrete is 150 Ib/ft 3

i-3ft-1

--==L 10 W FIGURE P2.1f8

In.

tread

FrfJm the. Iree- bfJJ'1 - dt'a. :JYI/m

"

([3:LP1=O
~+-~+'Ui-tA::;o
tJhere .' ~ = we'flJt of 5t!Jldbtrg '1d" ~ lVu;ld of- C())lcreb (I)

J~

~1J

i~A

PJ1 : tve&Itt (/{ *l'Ins


Ph : ?r~jII~
uft;"1
flU/A.'

6"l!Dm ~lIrl4(i! due if) ~lfcyeie

A ::: I:Irelt ~I btP/folr) sur/ga

?rpm 1h~ d~

1vc -- (/~P !t3)( ~f ~HCf'~) . ' . =-;; Jl!)/ L'L) [(I/);i1.f,z'f',h.) + (/0/".)(16",.) 7- fi()",.)(~ tn.J)
(IS-O :n:. Us
l.37T;

/ f!-ff .!11

. ~

.f-C.~

Thus)

fr~m

F!. OJ
-

~ = (jOt;~,.) (7. 5" H. 2)


~ 1&,5 1.J,

ISOt)

It - '65/.J

2A9 A square 3 m X 3 m gate is }ocated in the 45 sloping side of a dam. Some measurements indicate that the resultant force of the water on the gate is 500 kN. (a) Determine the pressure at the bottom of the gate. (b) Show on a sketch where this force acts.

(a)

~':.

ir'hc.A
::- (~. ~D ~) (-/tc.)(5'1nl JC3,,")

SDO-k. N

f
~

*
(j, )

~ c.. =: S. 10 7 /YYt
= ~ (~(. + I. SI'tY\ )( 5111 Il-S)

bofh,ft'\

_ (ct. Kl> :~ ) ( ~. (..1 ~


= G,".O~
lj :
R.
tl1'\""'

+ I.Sht\ sin Lf~)

~'.D~g

1.;1(.("
~c. A

+ Yc..
1:

':1c.,

~c:.
s~'~ ~ S~

5'.fgJIM sin 4-5


f

g.02

NY\

~It =
==

..L )3 12. (3",,)(3M\

8,D2,*, :' ().l> q 3Siv.. + 8.0 Z,w.

(8.021ft" ) (31M
<3.11
IWo

'i.5/r&4 )

/
/
/

1.5" I'tI\ + 6. 0935 ~

= \. 5"'i

('In

~m

top of. ~ cs.1:!

2.6D
2

I
r-0.lm~
Air

An inverted O.l-m-diameter circular cylinder is partially filled with water and held in place as shown in Fig. P2.50. A force of20 N is needed to pull the flat plate from the cylinder. Determine the air pressure within the cylinder. The plate is not fastened to the cylinder and has negligible mass.
Plate

SO

Water

T
0.2 m

1
F= 20 N

...pA
h> y e ZU'I //bY/u m
.t.4l~lt!*l

2.

F:-erfJCa I .:: 0

-Ph

-+

ZtJ N =~

-pA-)~
(J .I

( N.u -that.
be
a

'~u"I-/~/ pre. ~fllye.J

pr'es~tlre

fYJtJJt.

(t). ltttf ) = ~ ~. -+ aIr 1J.z,~

1>
(iJ ~ j. /~ of.!!.. ) (t;. 2M')
/1')1.3

Th{Js)

-faIr =
=

ZtJ IV

~.j,,") ~

Lf 5' /0

.!!.. /1112.

If. 5" /

.J. ~

2-'1~

d.?!

2.5/ A large, open tank contains water and is connected to a 6-ft diameter conduit as shown in Fig. P2.5) . A circular plug is used to seal the conduit. Determine the magnitude, direction, and location of the force of the water on the plug.

T J "'-f. ,.l~;:;:P_IUg_-.[ :'::", 1i:9_


f;:~:,::,~~~-::::~:::,;:
f
..J..

-,t_

r
...1..

,--

'

L::;"';'!

: ,"

FIGURE P2.S\

wheYt!
:: G-ft) If + (/2 It) 11 flU)" {he
';;rce

/"L

Ii

12./ r

01

.).~ ZfJo/J:, acfs


t:lh d IS

wp,i:ey Stlrhrce
surface ~5
5h&(//)1.

/21'i.fi: b!/t:J1d the pet/end, Ci;(/p r k fh~ pJllf

;. - '17

2.52
2.52 A homogeneous. 4-ft-wide, 8-ft-Iong rectangular gate weighing 800 lb is held in place by a horizontal flexible cable as shown in Fig. P2.S2. Water acts against the gate which is hinged at point A. Friction in the hinge is negligible. Determine the tension in the cable.

Cable

Water

Th f,{!JJ

'i< =U2,lf !J)("4Jr;,;'h){tftdft)

= 3390 If,
To
/ tJ~4,te

~Ie :: IJ, A
So

Fte ) I. 1l C.

-r '1,
:3

where.

'1e. =31i:

ihd-t:

I~ (ifl-t)(I.,ft)

117. ::

-I-

f-I::

(g h) (,ftJlIffl.)

- if. 0 II:

ef" i // 6;illlYl )
210)1
tin

:::'0

T (3Ii)rs/~ 6~' = 'iJ ['1.r;t)(~()Sbb()) + ~ (2 +t:)

T=

(sbb/b)('f.ft)~S"D~)+ ea'lb Ij,) (2ft.) (g .ft ) (~t'11 boo)

/3S{) /J.,

2-'18

An area in the form of an isosceles triangle with a base width of 6 ft and an altitude of 8 ft lies in the plane forming one wall of a tank which contains a liquid having a specific weight of 79.8 lb/ft). The side slopes upward making an angle of 60 with the horizontal. The base of the: triangle is horizontal and the vertex is above the base. Determine the resultant force the fluid exerts on the area when the fluid depth is 20 ft above ' the base of the triangular area. Show, with the aid of a sketch. where the center of pressure is located.

2.54-

~c :(/f~D') ft
.:: JO. t.r3 ft
-

-&) tt
0

.-f~ -

-rC

S/~ jp~
=

~ ~ ~ J.,
-

(]If. 8 ~3

.,l M 3

t-t) ~ t. (~){ "h d


SI 0

PY'~5SI1 Jl'e.

H)

33;QooJb

a{../-s

1hr~ufh
t:J{
$liJ (Po~

c/l, fql1~e
~I-

t:)

Ii - ;'p, t. Ii :: ;.If'1 /-1:


5h~U,)n in ~Jetc.h.

i'Ae.

.fr/~if,le.

as

;;. -Lf'f

Solve Problem 2.Stt if the isosceles triangle is replaced with a right triangle having the same base width and altitude.

2.55

-- -

FI< = 3~) 9()o/b


~
1=

J, If q Ii

(see se>/ut-i,;;, ~
Prt;j,len? 2. '5"4 )

L';jc.

'Ie.- It
_ ( to It)
:J. (

(Eg.
t fi) 2. -=

2,2.0)

2, ~ '7

-Pt

The 4rce.

t,4)(!')rdi"",l-e.r

e:.tcl-s "/h;'''''ff h '1'hc cen.f-er t:J/ 1'1"eSStlrc w/tu ~~ = :l, (J 7 f t: Q#f~ .!J J = .:J, 'I- 9 f-t (5 -t!e. .ske I-c.h ) ,

z.s~

2.56 A tanker truck carries water, and the cross section of the truck's tank is shown in Fig. P2.S6. Determine the magnitude of the force of the water against the vertical front end of the tank.

Open

FIGURE P2.56

PR,::

'(f

he. A

Brea./( area. It'lto 3 P&\ . . i:-s a s shewn. Few' a~a.. ([) :

i=k I ='0 h~I At. I


::
5/'(I(t

~2.lf k3)( 1)(~.ct) ({ )(2+1: ,( lfi:)


/1, F,~ I = F~ 3 1'J"el1
333

1=" ::: ~3

3-33 11,

~r tfret< @:
~ "2.. ~

?> hi! z.. Pt.,.


f.

=(~ 2. Lt tt3') (1H) ('t-+t


t::A. ~
-

tr t-t )

L F" .,. ~
"I

'Z..

:. 2.

(333Ib)

-t

02. 4- ~~) (z.f.t ) (~H

,c.

't-H.)

2~ fDb

Ib

2.-5"/

2.57
2.'57 Two square gates close two openings in a conduit connected to an open tank of water as shown in Fig. P2.57. When the water depth, h, reaches 5 m it is desired that both gates open at the same time. Determine the weight of the homogeneous horizontal gate and the horizontal force, R, acting on the vertical gate that is required to keep the gates closed until this depth is reached. The weight of the vertical gate is negligible, and both gates are hinged at one end as shown. Friction in the hinges is negligible.

T 1
h
Water

Horizontal gate, 4m x 4m

R
Vertical gate, 4m x4m Hinge

L -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

),,, 1"17(:)11111 /

L MJ.J

=0

1ha.i OW
..-6

.pA

~Jure

~~m SI/f"face .

/j tnt' tvp.-br fr~Sr/lye ~11 fh~

(2.h!'J r =~ /.It. (J

11141:!;r

1v

=(9!OO;;3
rttie)
Luhey~

)(z~) (tf/M
7 hn

J<

Ji.M)

314

-I<N

tlfy-t/ c~d

fk =I'A~A
Se>

h :, t
trn

r'ff"!!--R.

1;.:: (?;p~ 1-3 )(7 )('l-tm X Jf~)


U

7'ha. t.

=- IIt)o.JGN To /1/ ett k FICJ~ -=. Y"A


L~c.

-+~,

~-----~ ~ ( 7 """ (If,.,., , I1H )

~ (ifltH ) (If/11( )
J
If

11'W1 = 7.1'l1M4

~ u/'II'br/um

2: MIi

:::'0

So

1Yz41:.
- 7.1 'IIIIK )

R=

(; / IJ~

I< IV ) (rAn

J..-S2..

2.$8Open to atmosphere

2.58 The rigid gate, OAB, of Fig. P2S8 is hinged at 0 and rests against a rigid support at B. What minimum horizontal force, P, is required to hold the gate closed if its width is 3 m? Neglect the weight of the gate and friction in the hinge The back of the gate is exposed to the atmosphere.

Water-

il-'

3m

0/.';,', .. /t

-Hi~-.

4m

F. A , = Yh ',I
~

tJheyf:.

he. I = 5""1
X 3 1m)

".~_:~.~::.\/-:;-~-::: <::'r- 2 m--1


FIG U REP 2.58

. - .. -. .'. p:z-.-::;-.:r;::,.~_--1..._p

';':.:'-':-. -.:- ::;.-: ..: B

=(q fpo!..

/J'Y13

) (5;w, )('ftm

o;
() 1

- s'i'8xl{)SN

III---~"'"

h = Cl.
~o "'fhAt

7M-1
,

;;.:: (1fOO
To
1~I
The

;;3 )(1/h1)(2~
;( /O~ N

~~)

'I. 12

/oc",-if:.

0)
Ixc

!:fcI A,

-t

ie,

/ 2.

/ (

~"""

) ( if;ffl )

(S""m?)

('1M

-+

.(-i;Jn)

-krce

Ii at:--Is L H0 =-0
F; (6: 2.6, 7~

4i 17re

Cenhr

0/ 1J,e

~ ~)

-r

Ii

(J".,)

=:

SD

1714.i

p=

2.-53

01.5'1
'2.'S'f The massless, 4-ft-wide gate shown in Fig. P2.59 pivots about the frictionless hinge O. It is held in place by the 2000 lb counterweight, W. Determine the water depth, h.

Gate - + - I I I

Pivot 0 Width

= 4 ft

hC :: .b. 2.

For'

ezu"~'br;"m)

::EM f;. d
So

()

=()

= %) (3A:)
(

-;-;'4 i

2~&J() Ii; ) (3 H)

(0/.1z, ~)(!J... ~) It It) 2-

-It. 3

,=

(3){Z. 0(1)<>

It ) (3 f+)

(~Z.~,Yf )('rR)

==

5'. lift/:

2.60 *

A 200-lb homogeneous gate of 10-ft. width and 5-ft length is hinged at point A and held in place by a 12-ft-Iong brace as shown in Fig. P2.60. As the bottom of the brace is moved to the right, the water level remains at the top of the gate. The line of action of the force that the brace exerts on the gate is along the brace. (a) Plot the magnitude of the force exerted on the gate by the brace as a function of the angle of the gate, 0, for 0 :5 0 :5 90. (b) Repeat the calculations for the case in which the weight of! the gate is negligible. Comment on the results as 0--+0.

FIGURE P2.60

(a.)

HY
f}4 -fe

tn,
thAt

free- j,()dy dlR~rllm 0/ tlte

(St*~ rl,lfl'tl))

Z t=;. =0
00
'}. (*) +

q,v (f et> s e) ~ (1=;

UJ.5

~) (1 , I ~ e)

.,.

(Fa jl ;HJ) (j f()J a) (/ )

Also"

J. ~/h e
..511, ~

-=- L .5/n tf;


J.
L
~

( a s.slllfl/~ ~ h/l11e. t:{ ntl end /) f brllle II + .slllIIe elfIN. 'h~11 )

~/;'

r;

f:.R.::
w hert!
WI.J

o!'c A
wT

r (J ~/~'~ )(,Q w)
wulln. Thus) I:!.
CBJ {J ""
(II Clln

the

sa ~e

b.e

.
Wf, /fflt

(,{~

'6 (
.50

{'J(sl. 9)

OW!
Cl;s

Fa 1 ( (ss ~ J/~ () l' J/' "


( (: zw-)
t;~
I' AII

('.{)s

e)

that

V' A 2. 0 ,(G.>

_) <\AI Wj S I" B + '2 ~.s

e
9

-=

~ ~
-

( Z )

~s ; 51"!? T 51 H tP

Few
F,.,= 8

'O-::'fDZ.'f 161ft))
&;

1=5ft/

(6,2. If !:))(Sft)l(10jt)

hi" (; r

=
( CDn't )

~ ~() ()
(r)s

-hi" G

f' I () 0

9 frill /}

+ ~/H

( J)

~.bO 1-1

(~,,'t

)
51;'

SInce

t/;

::

~ /....

511"}

f:: s-ft

L= /2 It

SII1r/
c( h

::

-S12..

S/~e

d.

Clift

~j/ ~ ?liI! 11 l) I t!iJh ~~ b( II.5f'd .fD tlel-ermHIe... Fe

r/e.J.en11lI'lt4. 711 tiS, 3' (3)


~Y'
t{

JJi/!J.1

&.

~"'Pu.,/;fY

proJ ftlm

foY'

C/J IUtllllulJ

4.s

It

I-uI1 C.N()11 of e-

~/j()l().s

100 cis 110 print n**********************************************************" 120 print "** Variation of the resultant Fb as a function of theta **n 130 print n**********************************************************n 1/,r0 print 150 print n Theta (deg) Fb (lbs) (w=100 lbs) Fb (lbs) (w=O lbs)" 160 pi=4.0*atn(1.0) 170 for theta=pi/2 to pi/36 step -pi/36 180 sph=5/12*sin(theta) 190 phi=atn(sph/(1-sph~2)A(O.5)) 200 fbl={2600*tan{theta)+100)/(cos(phi)*tan(theta)+sin(phi)) 210 fb2=2600*tan(theta)/(cos(phi)*tan(theta)+sin(phi)) 220 print using It ###.# ####.# ####.#";theta*180/p i,fbl,fb2 230 next theta

Tabu/flied data..

CIne!

a.

,lot of the data.

af'e

.!IJlfrJ

~I"}

rhe
(b)

h//6'/A.)lh~

pa..je.

h;r OW=O lEg. (3) reduces t~

.J

(/11(/

G!;s

frJn& -r

5/)1

'

the
((.s

(w/tn

w
t:I

f/r;t t!)f the d~i ~Ye J/;fYl ~11 the

' l!J

jC/me ,ProJY'lIm t:lS WIIS u.sed In f4rita) set: fS"4/ -t-o "'!freJ) (!.All be used ~ t!)bt4/h ftlnt;t/~h ~f e. T4J:,t(14~~ data.. qllt/ ~

1i1 .f,p//!')/P !J p~~e.

********************************************************** ** Variation of the resultant Fb as a function of theta ** **********************************************************


Theta (deg)
90.0 85.0 80.0 75.0 70.0 65.0 60.0 55.0 50.0 4:5.0 4:0.0 35.0 30.0 2:,.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0

Fb (lbs)

(w=100 lbs) 2860.1 2757.4: 2659.4: 2567.0 24:80.9 24:01. 6 2329.4: 2264:.8 2208.0 2159.6 2120.0 2090.0 2071. 3 2066.4: 2081.1 2128.8 224:9.8 264:6.3

Fb (Ibs) (w=O lbs)


2860.1 274:8.1 :264:1.5 :254:0.9 24:4:6.7 2359.2 2278.8 2205.4: 2139.0 2079.6 2027.1 1981.2 194:1.9 1909.0 1882.2 1861.6 184:7.0 1838.2

10 4.5

Legend

G
h

o
1:.

w-100 w-O

lbs lbs

4.0

3.5

\
\

.n

OJ

.....

3.0

LL

ri

\\
\

2.5

2.0

20

40
Theta. deg

60

BO

( t.(}1)'t)
.2-57

A-s

r; ~ 0

me

/la/lit eJ{ 17.3

CIIJ?"~
Clll1

det~Y1mn e,,( !rtJlI1

E!. (~))

F-,:

2 (Pot)

tps

1T!1I f) rS/",

If

"/I~II)J thAt.
U.s

f -- V1- sli/'~

"::

pi / -- hS:) ~/"6

Th US

tis

B ~0
::

I f 11-0 J.b

/ + ..' /2.

Pht{'S/{II//'1

IJ/I~ Y'lIStili mellllS '/h,t: ~r' is Indeferft,,'n~ft! I but ft,y tll1~ "//n*, WI I / QfPt()lIc.h / ? J/.O /b.

~ =. () I the
sn",f/
I,

lJtl/"e () / ~
~I

Vlllue.

eI

2.til An open tank has a vertical partition and on one side contains gasoline with a density p = 700 kg/m3 at a depth of 4 m, as shown in Fig. P2.61. A rectangular gate that is 4 m high and 2 m wide and hinged at one end is located in the partition. Water is slowly added to the empty side of the tank. At what depth, h. will the gate start to open?

FIGURE P2.61

F=R j

-::.

~,. ..t" ~

A. ~
+0
N
:J4S6i1l1

W neV't

'} refers

e.

~; = (700 ~.)(q. 8/ ~) (ZNO) (tf,.. ~


==
~l.cr

z.,..)

11 0
-:.

X 10 J

==

II 0 k N

t-

0.Lv'" )"
1..0.

LU he V'e.

1+ l4If e .(e rs toW cc....-h}l' .


w/)tt :i

F; ;: RwWher~

('t.(?O)c'ID3N)(.h)(2~~h)
2.

f~

dtpTh ~t wo...~V'.

~kr" : (~. g0 ~ Ir/ )~ 4 h:>.... e~u',ll bfl ~m )

2 M \.t
So

:'0

-/11,t

~ "" 1.",,::'
(

1=/26 if!

{ l w d" .Q... = '3 a" 01 1, = 3 N't

Tn 11.5)
~"'cA

q. 8DX I03 ) (h '1 ) [ ~ ) h:: 3. ~5 fYYl

= (I I

~ I ()

N) ( -\ N'\)

wh,c.~ I~ th<.

\,~~h~~ vAlwf -h,v

h.

2.'-2

A gate having the shape shown in Fig. P2.62 is located in the vertical side of an open tank containing water. The gate is mounted on a horizontal shaft. (a) When the water level is at the top of the gate, determine the magnitude of the fluid force on the rectangular portion of the gate above the shaft and the magnitude of the fluid force on the semicircular portion of the gate below the shaft. (b) For this same fluid depth determine the moment of the force acting on the semicircular portion of the gate with respect to an axis which coincides with the shaft.

Water

1
6m

~l

~
Side view
of gate

(aJ

r:; r

rec.-t.al1'1l1/a,. f()rfu,'II)

(f):: J- he A r
S"

~he f"

At

~ ""'

"fna.t:

(Fi<)y::(ri~b';.3)(3"""')(~~;('"",,) - /~6,t)~N
I ::
:=

he

~I'M

'fie
31i

~f'M -t If (~m,)
31T

= 1. Z1 M1

/ 6J0

J? N

(h)

7.3~1"n1

ThUfJ,

tn ~mt /I i

~; fh reSfec.1

-4

s h~.f.f:.J M)
".

11 =(~)5, )(
:: (;O/D

(7. 3' I'M

ao ~ )

x JD3N ) (i. 3'1'M)

= I. 37 X / ~ I:. Iv /WI

2.63 A 6 ft X 6 ft square gate is free to pivot about the frictionless hinge shown in Fig. P2.63. In general, a force, P, is needed to keep the gate from rotating. Detennine the depth, h, for the situation when P = O.

FIGURE P2.63

1=;,.,.
ThllJJ

eO ,;,I,'en um 21'1).J. =0
~r

p= ()

/NO"

fd

to,Pass tnrPJl9h 1ne /J 1n9.e) ,', e,) fJl?:::?' s.f.t + h


hlft/(

t:J(e

Qnl{

.
WIt;,

y", A-

3.sR+h
6.5 it:.

_ -A
-

!:f~ -=

('~tJ ((,. ft))

h T 3 f.I::

-+-

(I, t 3ft) (tft,t. b-H)

h = 3. ()t> -tt

2.-(,.'

2.64 A thin 4-ft-wide, right-angle gate with negligible mass is free to pivot about a frictionless hinge at point 0, as shown in Fig. P2.64. The horizontal portion of the gate covers a I-ftdiameter drain pipe which contains air at atmospheric pressure. Determine the minimum water depth, h, at which the gate will pivot to allow water to flow into the pipe.

Width = 4 ft Right-angle gate

Hinge

pipe

.. FIGURE P2.64

POt' egu;/, 'hrJum

:2 1'10
I=::
~J

=0

I=R,
1"

>< .

J. I ::

I=R

z.

)(12.

(I )

).,
~

t:='J(L

17< J ='r heI A-,

OJ!'

1 ,,~

=(~z.lf ~,)(f) (If-Pc ~ h)


== 12.5'

~)ll.~

h'l-

I;y -the t:,rt~ ~n -tnt! h~rJ~pl1ta J ~YI::J~YI 0 ~ ~ sa, l::e (whu. lt JJ hajq~ced b~ P~tS5"H/t. ~~ bDTh 5Jaej e"cepi
lo~

tnf. t.lre~ f)f 'lrre.

p/pe)

t=;~: tf htr;.)(lh)2::: aZ.Lf


::: Lf'l.O h Thus, Pr8m ~~. 0)
/AJ/'f;. )..,

:3 )(h)(![)(!1i)).
g
dnPl

~ U1.5h;2)(f) = r;.1.t>J,)(3+t)

1.=3t1: z

h::: /. rF fi

2.~s

2.65 The specific weight, 'Y, of the static liquid layer shown in Fig. P2.65 increases linearly with depth. At the free surface 3 'Y = 70 lb/ft3 , and at the bottom of the layer 'Y = 95 lb/ft Make use of Eq. 2.4 to determine the pressure at the bottom of the layer.

z=o
FIGURE P2.65

=951b1ft3

dp _
di:

-~

( ~~. 2..lf)

0= 'f5- 12.' 2-/nat () c=-z.

fl'

1b. 1trJ17I

irs
6

-12.H) d:t

1t,lhm =--

2. [r,~- It'~-r9. z ()

['1Sb') J.b /~5" .ft,..

t... '1.5' { 2

)'j

thot"fl,m =-

An open rectangular settling tank contains a liquid suspension that at a given time has a specific weight that.varies approximately with depth according to the following data:

2.'~*

2.0
1.4 2.8
., ? ".3.6

12.3 12.7 12.9 13.0 13.1

II (m)

o
0.4

0.8
1.2 1.6

10.0 10.1 10.2 10.6 11.3

The depth II = 0 corresponds to the free surface. Determine. by means of numerical integration, the magnitude and location of the resultant force that the liquid suspension exerts on a vertical wall of the tank that is 6 m wide. The depth of fluid in the tank is 3.6 m.

'17

The

(!/In k

"ff;III1' ", SlimIY/ I11 1 1i1~ d,I=HY'fIlf.,it/ ~"'ces a,chhlj fJlI Pte. h~I'I'o"'';'/ ~l-rlp ShtPWII

mAA",IslI/t. .,

01 71te
Thus)

-lIt/Itt .~~ce / , fi ..... ,

r-_ -

1-:,..... 1'''-' 1'-""'"-:,/-:,/,,I-:-j""'-'-:-_L-:-'L-:-h-,.!'L f (). -t

,-:0

~~

T
lot

,,,; 1I1e. frrt.ll'e.


/I

Fk=jd{-bj1>Jh
Whel'"e

J..I

OJ

L
(Z )

()

'oJ

To

iii,''' P
IN,:;'"

the press lire at (j.eft;, ~ . wc uSe. Gr 2.'1

cjj; =-K
d't
((HI

d'i= -dh

?(A.)~
E1 IJ 4.t,0I1 PrOfj'yl" m
100 110 120 130
1lJ,0
(2)

1 ~ d-P.

ti 111{

CIJ It be If} JeJ rll ff ~ 1/ " m eY'I ~ q / f;, "': /t" 111 (! kIf()uJI it" 11.51;'9 11ze. Vlly,'uholl I; (f MJITh h :;llIel1.

150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230


2lJ,0

250 260 270

cls print "*************************************************" print "** This program integrates Eq. 2.4 numerically **" print "** using the t:r:apezoidal rule to obtain the **" print "** pressure at different depths **" print "************:t:************************************" print dim p(10),gamma(10) n=10 dh=0.4 p(l)=O for i=l to n read gamma(i) next 1 data 10.0,10.1,10.2,10.6,11.3,12.3,12.7,12.9,13.0,13.1 for i=2 to n s=(gamma(1)+gamma(i))/2 iml=i-1 ( Ct>l'Jt )

280 290 300 310 320 330


3~0

350 360 370 380 390

for j=2 to im1 s=s+ganuna(j) next j p(i)=dh*s next i ' 'Print the results print. print" h (m) Pressure (kPa)" for i=1 to n print using "###.# ###.##";(i-1)*dh,p(i) next i

K************************************************ ** This program integrates Eq. 2.~ numerically ** ** using the trapezoidal rule to obtain the ** ** pressure at different depths ** *************************************************
h (m) 0.0
O.l

Pressure (kPal 0.00


l.02

0.8 1.2
1.6

B.08
12.2~

16.62

2.0 2.4 2.8


'J
...J

21.3426.3~

31. 46
36.6~

OJ .:....

3.6

41.86

~gfl4. t/(;11

(I J CilI1 ,,()/AJ

b4 Ihk!hlkJ lJ("(mer;c,,li~ US/'n~ TIGItPEfO/

***************************************************** This program performs numerical integrat.ion ** ** over a set of points using the Trapezoidal Rule ** *****************************************************

**

Enter number of data points: 10 Enter data points (X , y) ? 0.0,0.00

O.4,~.02

? 0.8,8.08 ? 1.2,12.2~ ? 1.6,16.62


?

2.0,21.34

? 2.4,26.34

7 2.8,31.46
? 3.2.36.64 ? 3.6,41.86

The approximate value of the integral is: +7.1068E+Ol


( Ci>!1 'i

) 2-(ps

(Cd)tJl )

w;-n

j,?d~ =7/.07~
() A'H

II

~ = (~hrI ) ( 7). 07

#).:
/Au;,.
d -f.

t.j

z {, --k Iv'

To

/"c4k

lie.

sum h1~l'I'1fl1.f:s (I/'(Jlli a.x.I'.s !;;rmed b!l l"trj'S~C.t:'()H of

IIfl'h{~/ Wf/I II~~ I(/;"H

~ f,e

= b

It I>
o

Sf,( Y'

rn" s,

( .3)

il?.fejY4f)I ~f CAli be. dekY""~t4 41111 Eo . (3) /~l-ef,.,,/~4 "l/mer"clI//~ us/nj T,eA-PErIJ/. TIIJ,"/"#I r~.!tI/1s ql'e ,iflflt k/"w.

The

** This program performs numerical integration ** ** over a set of points using the Trapezoidal Rule ** *****************************************************
Ent.er number of data points: 10 Enter data points (X , Y) Note: ? 0.0 to. 000 ') O.y,.1.608

~****************************************************

YtV ~ (}f

:1 O.8,6,L16lJ.
'? 1.2,1"',688 ? 1.6.26.592 ? 2.0,l:t-2.680 ? 2.4,63.216 ? 2.8,88.088 7 3.2.117.24:8 ? 2.6.150.696
The approximate value of the integralls: +1.7y,37E+02

TIlliS)

IN/tA

J
0

-I-fd-t. "
(3)

/ 7'1-. If -J, /(

if /DI/()WJ

1r~1J1 Ii,!.

1'h1. t

, =
/?

l~I"h fi
(j

{ fD 1m )(/7'1: If ,AI)

?,,,, .A)/

:::

2. 'fie 1m

The Y'e.suJitlni ~f'te.

c.ls 2. '1-1,

MI

be low fluId

sur-fa c.e ,

Water

The inclined face AD of the tank of Fig. P2 .1 is a plane surface containing a gate ABC, which is hinged along line Be. The shape of the gate is sho\\l1 in the plan view. If the tank contains water, determine the magnitude of the force that the water exerts on the gate.
y'

2.~"1

y'

4(x,)2

Plan of

gate
x'

FIGURE P2. (p 7
/'
./

{.() he re.

A=

[).;<.'

i'

d!j ,

(".

-H1""')

j;{{) I/? d;/


o
I I

ff({f}T =~'A,'
o

'deI ,4 = f~' t:f d A::

/'1
c)

.t. !:J,I(.

I, d :J

""'
I

'1, .::

lind

J'n ce.

{c. =

'fG

$,1'1

30

0 )

~ = ~2.1f ~~ )(3"ti:)(J/~30tJ)( ~" .prl.) _ Sfet

/b

~2m-j
2.68 Dams can vary from very large structures with curved faces holding back water to great depths, as shown in Video V2.3, to relatively small structures with plane faces as shown in Fig. P2.68. Assume that the concrete dam shown in Fig. P2.68 weighs 23.6 kN/m3 and rests on a solid foundation. Determine the minimum coefficient of friction between the dam and the foundation required to keep the dam from sliding at the water depth shown. You do not need to consider possible uplift along the base. Base your analysis on a unit length of the dam.

. 5m 4m

I f-~---6 m----"!
FIGURE P2.1o<B

~
where

:=

K /,(! A

.4 - (

:S/].t

If ""'" ) SI.3

(I

/=Or eZ 1I;//6r/ufYI ) F;<. =0


or
/f-/jt!);
.:50

z:
fie
2..
N

SII1

s/.3

II

= F;

)/11

FfJ :. 0

1h()./;

=C>v<../

-t-

!=Je
)(

C6S

51.3

where.

't<I:: (d"'~n~l"ei-e.
Thus)
N

V()/r.lm~

DI- UDrlCrei:e)
tm 3)

= (~:3. ~ ~~ )(2 0

'1

(I ()() Ie. N)
(/~O-RN)

C~s
Sin

S" I. 3 0

= s 3 If -k N
0

Sf. 3

5'""'3 'f ..It.. N

Water backs up behind a concrete dam as shown in Fig. P2.~~. Leakage under the foundation gives a pressure distribution under the dam as indicated. If the water depth, h, is too great, the dam will topple over about its toe (point A). For the dimensions given, determine the maximum water depth for the following widths of the dam: r = 20, 30:- 40, 50, and 60 ft. Base your analysis on a unit length of the dam. The specific weight of the concrete is 150 Ib/ft3.

2.b'f ""

80 ft

PB = 'Yh

l
FIGURE P2.lDQ

/-\ hfe- b~d~- dla~r({m ot the dct~ 15 ~howl"l in -the +t~CAV'e. a.t 1J1e I'i~lti)w;,e",.e.: ~I = (lev l.(nl'+ lel?~11t)

'6;"-

F.3 =

(CS~'" '({~T
:z.

Q
~-a "2Z

F.'2. = 'c5
~,::

(~T) (~r ') = 7 Sihe


'12,=':13

,.

+elt')

G=

5i"e

-t
3

(~,.

SI'w8

sW/
~ = (~-ti)J

~~/{Jer

the.

pfeSSwve

dlS.fV',J,,,,,~,o~

On

The. 10 ~~ :

Summ In~ mt)meY\~ a~ot.(.i AJ

~~ ~ 3

= FI (~) +
(

f!c (~~)
It. '
'2..- f.:. ?

~----------------~--------------~~~ '--------------------------------~

( CD" 't
5

)
.J. Fr (.. ) .,. ~ Fj

0 f;,4 t

1f3 =

(tft

5,,6>1-, '.fl( j.1f)~

j. (

*
(=2.

of

exl/I'fSSIDlf5

-r

7~ )
1h~t
OJ

-i-r-1t
'12. + ~ t:13 =0
0
::I

Fe> I( egui iij,.,./"W1 of fhe dqm I L: fi1A :: 0 I So

'J
and w'Jth

':1, - '\;v' (;ft)


'If::: fe,2.lfl b
2.

/ft 3 ) crt. = 150Iklft-', (/1111 ;'T':./tJ oft) then: F, = 3/.2 i ~= {gf!)ooJ. F-:. = 312. ':I 10/3 :z. Slit G :z si", 9 F..:: 3/. 2. (.f. ~ ,0) .i. '13 ~ P. (if.,. 1J():r (2.~ -t-I(Jj J).. 3
-R.1"-R..r
3(...(t-t I O)

Su h:st, /l.tJDJ(
(3/. do. 1

01
-

1h~se

ex..preSS/O/LS

I;,k

l:Z. (J)

~ I eJds )

)t~ )
r

((,,""O~) (; Y-) - (3~~:){-~~~~)


['3/.2

aT/O);] [~~t :::~Q

J =0

Thus;, .for
c,4>rld,f/{;H

tL

t:j"UH

.P. I
for

C411 be Ef,(2)

de,t.ermuucJ
~()JlluJ

/YOHf

the
).

-hl11~=?o/,f1 Qnd

CiPmtufty pl"0J)"qm

detfnn/ll l1iy

kV h. h ~v t:t 7 , l/el1

~J/()WS

C~t1t
:2-70

J. 6Cf /1&

I
c12 print "*******************************************************" print "1I:* This program solves a cubic equation to determine **" print "** the maximum water, h, depth for a series of dam **" print. "** widths, 1 **" print "*******************************************************" print. print" Dam width, 1 (ft) Maximum depth, h (ft)" for 1=20 to 60 step 10 theta=atn(80/1) h=O hp=h h=(3/31.2*(3896*1-2+10y,OO/(sin(theta)-2)-20.8*1-2*hp) )-(1/3) if abs(l-hp/h)O.OOl goto 210 print using" ##.# ##.#";l,h next. 1

100 110 120 130 110,0 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 210,0 250

~r
ClY'e

the dtlm w/dths s!..f'c.I'f,Pd The


glYfn

/AI/tf1"hs

i'}Jat .fr:,j, -the +1<10 /aY'~e~t dtll?1 -the tvaier wt)"'/,f ~vPJrf/~tV fh~ d~m h~fa't' IC lV~l"q'

fI14X Imum

WAifY

depth.s

be/"u). ,t10t(

+Otf/~ .

****************************************************** )\,.. This program solves a cubic equation t.o determine ct.1I :1<* the maximum water, h, depth for a series of dam ** ** 'i"idths. 1 ** *******************************************************
D~n

width, 1 (ft) 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Maximum depth. h (ft) 48.2 61.1 71. 8


81. 1

89.2

2-71

:;.70

2.70 A 4-m-long curved gate is located in the side of a reservoir containing water as shown in Fig. P2.70. Determine the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical components of the force of the water on the gate. Will this force pass through point A? Explain.

II FIGURE P2.70

J~ II' E'~ u; I, 'bY'/un'I

I~
--~

rJ(. ::. r:;.:: ~


L
Slmll~.,.It-:J)

~ l(!,c '- A:& = '( {'11ft +J.!1rC )(1,-" .: ~ .. )

f:u = (9. HD ~ )(7shfI. ) (12 /WI ,.)

= ~8' 2. -Ie tJ

F~

=-0

whe/l"f

'

r, = [3' (6~)](311M
Thus}

xLfht1) = (Cf.FO/lt/J )(6~)(/2tm")


/IH'3

~ = ~ 11- = (9. eo ~)(q i1 M4 3 )


f:,," (r.80

~)[7l

",,3 .,.'l7f ",,3] " 1113


tt>ppes/!c

).IJ

(/V/).;.~:
The.

!;Ne ~I W4/;fr tOn ,j4~ IN til be. 111111- ~h~wn tDn h9ul"e.

I~ dll'~cf-~i,.,
etch;'f

+0)

d';'ecbtJ"n

c/ 4//

C/;lleYf"'';'/~/ Ior~es

~'1 th~

CtlJI'vetl SUY'~c.e l.s ~r,Pl'''''41&U'4/1' ~ St.lr/ttce./ ctl'1d in! yes III 14111 /1'1 ",.sl- ?IH5 i11rlP"''1h the ';'+~Y.rt'~I-I"';, ~yce$ which I~ ~i; tt!)Jnf A-.

"t11f/l'(ft,"'f!!)

Ye s .

01

all 7/lelf!.

2..-72

271
Z.il The air pressure in the top of the two liter pop bottle shown in Vidt'o V2,4 and Fig. P2.7 I is 40 psi, and the pop depth is lOin. The bottom of the bottle has an irregular shape with a diameter of 4.3 in. (a) If the bottle cap has a diameter of I in. what is magnitude of the axial force required to hold the cap in place? (b) Determine the force needed to secure the bottom 2 inches of the bottle to its cylindrical sides. For this calculation assume the effect of the weight of the pop is negligible. (c) By how much does the weight of the pop increase the pressure 2 inches above the bottom? Assume the pop has the same specific weight as that of water.

1 in. diameter Pair

=40 psi

4.3 in. diameter

FIG U REP 2 .1

(a.J

3I. Lf /j,

L F.VfY+1 c..J.
F.'51 d
~

=0

::.

FI = (pr'e~surt @
X.

2,;".

QbolllZ

h,HoWl)

(A yeo... )

- (Lfo ~: )(.~) ('1.3

iny

~------------------

=
(c)

58\

11,

lnCYea.5e.

U1

pY'e~suY'.e
\

crue .J.o
0

w~'\9ht ::
pr'eSSu ye).

\ e$S 1\1cH1

010

tU

J-73

).- 72
1.n
Hoover Dam (see Vidl'O 1.3) is the highest archgravity type of dam in the United States. A cross section of the dam is shown in Fig. P2.72(a). The walls of the canyon in which the dam is located are sloped, and just upstream of the dam the vertical plane shown in Figure P2.72(b) approximately represents the cross section of the water acting on the dam. Use this vertical cross section to estimate the resultant horizontal force of the water on the dam, and show here this force acts.

1 . . - - - - 880

ft - - - 1

." .

~6601t-......,
(a)

:~,.;t.'i~~iAiW':h'i?t.;.

\- 290 It ..\
(b)

Ii FIGURE P2.72

!3re~t tlvea
17:; y

/'rJfD

S pa~.fs

(I,S

~ho{J)n.

liz! = /)hA = ~2.1(. 'b y~ )(715".f-I:'ji) {t.qS- Ii)[7/fift)


::: l.:r7 .x/O /.6
q

aYea.. / .'

}:?,y

arell

3 :

Fo -:: FI?
".3

= 157 X If) if

J.b

For-

Clrea. Z:

/=,e~~ (0),,- A~ = u'1.iI !t3){l;.) (7Isft) (290 1i)(7Jsfi)


- if. l3 X / D'f / b
~
-t

~z. -t Fo : /'57;( JD ~ I.J 1'.3

-I-

'I: ~3 / J~ f /;;

-t

/.!;-7x JD 9 Job

7, 77 ;( JD' /j,
Since -the.. /7J()mefl / 01 111(. rt's/J/1zurt ~yce a~lIf 'the. b4.se ~f the. dam t7l us t be ega-a J -fz, iht! rn(!)m~Y1 f..s due. tt:> F;.,) 17<l..) ~1It;{ he3 ) 11- .fi,//oI{)S 1h~t
(Ce;n '-/: )

.2, 72

(~tJl'}

'i )

a:::

Pi xci" ~

(1 )615 ft;)
f-/;

F?/-D f7;5"H) t
i);

r; )(7/5"H)
q

(/..f7 ;( Il/ h)(~

)[715"It) +(;f. LJilb qli'fJ. )(?J~f-f.) .ff'/. 57t /D liE)(71OIt)


7.77 X J'/J'

LJ Ob

(hils) 1h~ r~.>ul/rll1.f:- hfJ;'''I()t1fal -hvc~ ~11 -tJ,e dam

/J)

7 77 )( I () 9)1:,

a cJ-/nj

-'fot

t>f 1he dqm a/Pili 17te tl~is

It 0f

P Irm? fh( bl/5t! ~'f/11fl1e 11''1 t>/ the "rea.


(,I.

2.73
A plug in the bottom of a pressurized tank is conical in shape as shown in Fig. P2. 73. The air pressure is 50 kPa and the liquid in the tank has a specific weight of 27 kN I m 3 Determine the magnitude, direction, and line of action of the force exerted on the curved surface of the cone within the tank due to the 50-kPa pressure and the liquid.

50 kPa
,

2.73

-"

Air

Liquid

3m

kL..--~

FIGURE P2.73

Fo r

e$ u. ;; I '/:n" /u m
f:ver bI c.a / =- 0

L
50

in"t

F;. = -?a, irA


Wher{
F"
10$

'\.v' The. force. The


1-

CdI"( e~frl:s

ot. the .flu/ci, A ls~) ~ . A = (50!1i )(-r;)(d:1)


flO'

ilN r-t'l---,
.fon 30:=

= (50
CHI

-.le.P4. ) (~ ) (I. J~rrt1) =' S ~ ,LI-k.N

2.

~
I /.

d.

PI

= :L -I:~" 30 .:

/55' I\IM

Thus)
5'1.4- ..k..N +
and

75'. 'f,k, N
c...on e.

/Z8--kN
a.
rn

-In e.
I~

it' "'c.
d,,.~c.I-~,{

I) ..,

111 e.

h 1(5

t:t, n

.f.1A e/-e.

~.f.. /2. 8' --k IV


C-!Jne. ~)(.;~.

and

vey.flclI/l!:1

d~W}1W4Y'~1

Q/~I'ff

the

2-7'-

2.7J.f.
2.7 If A 12-in.-diameter pipe contains a gas under a pressure of 140 psi. If the pipe wall thickness is i-in., what is the average circumferential stress developed in the pipe wall?

i=;" e 6u/ }/}/"), 1"1 'um


()f

(ieI'

un;! /"'fllt

the.

pip c.) )
At/~
~

Or

rr

1?.
( I 'fa

Jh

I'I? .~

) (G. I~.
)

I '"'Ii / /11, .
33~o

pst.

2.-77

J.7E
The concrete (specific weight = 150 Ib/ft3) seawall of Fig. P2.75 has a curved surface and restrains seawater at a depth of 24 ft. The trace of the surface is a parabola as illustrated. Determine the moment of the fluid force (per unit length) with respect to an axis through the toe (point A).

2.75

\---15
The
(!)I')

ft

FIGURE P2.75

(HI

The (pllli fire If t:ll1d W -!-he fljuY't. where .


==

Com pDnen +s

01 tne

fllJ/d .ft,rce
(J

(Ie /-JiI,
h()WI1

F;= ?f~(.A
.4-15 0 )

('If.OIt3)(;J.~t)(2'tliJ{l+t)
Clnd

= J~Lf()oJ;

W -=

~-if-hne/ IIrea B CD. Thus) .fo ,,;,l1f) ~

T
:l'f-Ij

To d~.feY'rHJne -
(s e~ .It 9 lire

1
Jt./)

/J. =-

!;~ '/-!1 ) dJi. = ((,2; - ".;;;x"') dx o J o'

:: [~ Jt x t(11

0,; x'~lQ
)

=~
II: )

)to

( /'I()';'~: All l-tn(ths I~


So

WI

th

XI::

rl20

A = 175'" H:2.

1}ud:

-p.L
Thus)

= .4;<

I f-l:

-/j,
l

'7~) (

h
1 '15

<tv = (to If. (; 7t:

I.

It 3)

= I~

Zt!)O

lob
J&"

To / ~cllie Cft1ff'()/~/ 0/ A :

'-<. A =-

f::
o

dA

i1~'f-'J) x dx
_ ().

.jj.1

x - a, 2 / ) d><

;t.(.

/~ (~) t

2 (Vj"Z;,) t

4.11

tt

J7S

2.7 b

A cylindrical tank with its axis horizontal

has a diameter of 2.0 m and a length of 4.0 m. The ends of the tank are vertical planes. A vertical, O.l-m-diameter pipe is connected to the top of the tank. The tank and the pipe are filled with ethyl alcohol to a level of 1.5 m above the top of the tank. Determine the resultant force of the alcohol on one end of the tank and show where it acts.

r~r------'
2..0tfll

'------.

whe~e ie = /.
SO

!;J-1tY) 1-

I. /)/ffIt = 2. 5'"."

-tnA t
)

fR : - (7,7 if~
AIs())

(2,5"

~ )(;:)(-2. OAM) '- = ~~. j ~ JI

( ;}. S-NY!

)(r;) (Z~ )

Thus) the restl//q"t "wee

hilS

rn4'Jl1lfude

"I

6~. 8-k)/

a11 v{
be jpw

~C.f.s

of
0

a ellS fttl1ce

"f

~ ':f~
L/.)O/ ; .

= :<. /, O/M

- :l. S"D hI1

O.

/O[)/'IH

~en feY'

fRill<

e h c/

2.-7'1

~.

77
2.17 If the tank ends in Problem 2.7b are hemispherical. what is the magnitude of the resultant horizontal force of the alcohol on one of

the curved ends?

~or e 3";)/j,,.u;'m

;;;, = J:;." / /

(U.,

;;,w,,)

1 -I 1

I
SInce.

s(>/u 11,,0 (." hOn)Mfe, I !ere", SC/me 4S .f,:,,.. PNblem 2.1'0.

:< ./8
2.7 & Imagine the tank of Problem 2.7(. split
by a horizontal plane. Determine the magnitude of the resultant force of the alcohol on the bottom half of the tank.

(onsJde, t>. fne- b(K/!rdl;'f~ Df Dojl.,m 11.1/ 01- "",,,); [Sp, H~~Y'<")

where:
fr~'suY< D/ ~/u;tI CJH h";~M/.1 1./ ~ l1 ...e. .1 I1.N,MI" I pl'H"-

1> ~

OW ~ wel9i1f of. volu",. ./ l/"i4


h./f' of !<rill:.

IH

I=f ~

f''Sulk,,1

~".ce

e"",y,t.tI by *,,,1:

0"

1'1.,4

Ii". .eSu;;'bNvm

(rf'Hr

-10 "nohlt", 2.80 /;,

#"i< d"ne_SicnS J,

fi:

jA 'l'W = d' (I.~""./"")(:l"" d",,) + ?r [U;)(2~)(~ ...

)J

(-7.71t ~ )( ~O",,3T ~7T,,"))


Tht-lS, fo~(e t>{ alcohol verhcqll'j do UJn 1()4 rd.
DM

= 203J,.IV

+P.1k - 203 -k IV

dlYe~+ed

l.llf A closed tank is filled with . wat~r and has a 4-ftdiameter hemispherical dome as shown m Fig. P2.79. A U- I~ be manometer is connected 1 0 the tank . Determine the vemcal force of the water on the dome if the differential manometer reading is 7 ft and the air pressure al the upper end of the manometer is 12.6 psi.

~/"

epidi/; r,uJ'YI,
2-

Fver-nCa 1 I
Fe,

~o

;So

tit .. t

Fp: -plr - 1v
l'
.
I':'
I~

t-pA
(I )

-the de>me ex.ri-.


pl"e H"". .. af

Oil

-n..

1h. 1-0/4 h,.u of. 171( dt>mf.

Fr"lf)m

1'he m {( nPIli e te Y')

~
So

-I

~f (7.ft.) - d"J./." (If ft) = P

-thAi;

= (;2./.

~.~ )(J'l'f ~: ) + (~.)('2~.)(71t)-(iZ. ~.)Htt)


k'"
1/0IufYI 1 Sphfr. =
Ib

= Z ~ 8~

fr4>m F'f, .r;) w) n,

:r (d/~m (~/Y' ).3

Fe, = f2 Ho ~~ V;;Ylfft l
35:
)

- t [:- (iHf)J (~2. 4 ~.)

/00

Jb

The -Crt<. 1hot- 1he v.rl-I<..I ~r(. -tn.+.::~",)(",e!.rl~~_~"!!.h_7h=,,=-....!!d.~om~e,--I~ 3S; /00 Ib t


2-V 1

2..80
2.S0 If the bottom of a pop bottle similar to that shown in Fig. P2.71 and in Vid(>() V2,4 were changed so that it was hemispherical, as in Fig. P2.80, what would be the magnitude, line of action, and direction of the resultant force acting on the hemispherical bottom? The air pressure in the top of the bottle is 40 psi. and the pop has approximately the same specific gravity as that of water. Assume that the volume of pop remains at 2 liters.
4.3-in. diameter

11 FIGURE P2.80

t;Y'(<(

~ W<t,"-i.
dU(

o/- pcp

SlAfp"r.J:rd

b~

bo}h,r>1 t

k'f"Ct!

i;o

Qlj,- ft"tssur~

We I ;h t
V()/UhI('

~ pdp

= ?r

= z.

I, f.ey.s

)( v0 I~ mof c I pof Pdp 1\ .f.t" ) == (2..x. J0- ?'m'I 3) x (.3 S 3 ( x I {) ;;;) :

(II

O.

07 oj, ..f.t3

Thus1 ~11'l E"1. (I)


W.el!hi- #/)'IP/, :
til".

(6z.,. R,)(()~7~b Pt 9) = Lf. '+J /b


pr~JS/lre
:::-

FDYc~ c1/1e to

.J.... '~c..1Pt;I aveA a.{... -/;11" x pr() c) ,


YH'It1"pheYt(a/
2-

L l.J.
OOJl1!)1')'1

= (LtD

~.~ ) (r){~.31n.)
J

::: 58 J

Re~~1 t.At1t force.

Lf.'l-I J;, + 5~J

Jj, -

b-2b

II,

Tn e rt'su) tQ If t: ~Y(' t. /5 dI tee. ted () t vtica J1lf down lOtI rd) CI n d due .J.o slfmme tY'1 1 /t aC':f3 ()Il 1Jt(. hem/5pheriC41
bt!'

mm

a/~n~ -/)Ie. verft'c~d t2J(.jj

()fhle bot+fe.

2.31
2.81 Three gates of negligible weight are used to hold back water in a channel of width h as shown in Fig. P2.81 . The force of the gate against the block for gate (b) is R. Detennine (in tenns of R) the force against the blocks for the other two gates.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fi>r C4$e (.J:, )

FIG U REP 2 . 81

411'

~ = (rhe A:: d'l4 'J/(:: -f: J..


:FMJ.I=o

)(hxj,j =

~b

Thus;
:>0

"/h,d

h R = (~ l ) Ii

i R:: ( ~ It. ) ( }::J, )


_ "Yhlb R..-3
For case
(el.)

0)

On

free- bt)c? - c/utfr41?J


4114

s),owl1

ft.!1

F;. =tY~.b ( f-rrJh1 1fI~"Vt')

.......

-Fa

.....

IJI?::t:?

--t 1
6)( -Val
J' [1T~)~~)J
7TJh 2 j,
lie,
=0
':

T
F/<.,

11"

~.::

::

Ihu$;
~D

th"t

Z /vIH

'&J (~ - ~;)

1-

!k~~) - ~h

2.-3.3

2.% /

((.~nr.)

.tf I> II~IU.J

Fa :: :r),:Lb (t. 3f~)


J-h2. =-5R./ th".s
F/3 = 1.17 R.
4~
I
I--~

1k, i

FrtJl1'I ~f' OJ

j;r C!ttse
-the
/f:,Y(f!

(C).J

-kl" -the !ree- bal~ - dt".J'rl//J1 .sh~Jl4l1t)


1h~ eu",.ve~ sec,.,T::It;11 p~s.Jes 1h;"u,Jr

r:. ..e,

)./.'"

tJl'7

fh e

hI Yl1e ~n If(

1ht'I"e-hYe d()es /1ld.

f;, <. m "me" i

~ Y()III1I1

-h /I. ()n b~ fltul1 />4 rl ()/ JIlI:e

~l1fr":J/.(k

""

"

1
I7eJ
!fR.1.

lif..: ~ he It
he
!f(; 1/
3~

:::

t (~Jfh)(f x b) :: -ph2.b
t!fc

-~

-d:(h )f-zh).3

~z

(~)(-f xb)

-t

ah Lf

Fa

28

Thus ) 2}1U=0

~(it~j~~h
iJr
Fr6Jm

f8~(4r426)~:) =fir6'///,
j;:'~. rJ)

J'h"}, h ;;; 5 e I -fh u.>

Fa = -;,e

!),

irS/<.

2,12

I
2. g2. A 3 ft X 3 ft X 3 ft wooden cube (specific weight = 37 Ib/ft 3 ) floats in a tank of water. How much of the cube extends above the water surface? If the tank were pressurized so that the air pressure at the water surface was increased to 1.0 psi, how much of the cube would extend above the water surface? Explain how you arrived at your answer.

h
So

e $ U~ /, 'br /U n1 )

z: Frrr+IC'1fJ :
-thAt
~
ThUS)

(J

--_ --+-1"W~ -~ i~
3.?l:-h

-n;

- FI3
3 )

--=k

(57

i!'t

(3 .ft)3: (2,1. If 1t3 )(3It-h) (3ft i3{t)


{= j, 22 -!-/;
pressure til- the W~';"r sur/lice
WI III R

1:1 -the
/:;'1 / P~/
~f the frt'$j",r~
tin

(IIi-

IIIt.Yf4!fs

tnt r(
-force

bt

11() C hllnfe 1/1-

/h( he,!Ai
051 flee

ttlb~ ((1111/" tht. IdAter ..5'tlrhct. The Il1trellst'tI /z:,r("~ ()/1 tAt -t-~f 0/ 'i7te e"b~ ,; bp/4lfCeA b'l
0}1

"', tiP I

the btFmm

b/

Jurhc~

fft5SIIYt

'$ rfih,j/Jf;jff;d -11lr~"!h~lJ,i 1lJe .f/,,;'ri .

1ht ttt6e

Iht'

2 -8"S-

2.83 The homogeneous timber AB of Fig. P2.83 is 0.15 m by 0.35 m in cross section. Determine the specific weight of the timber and the tension in the rope.

FIG U REP 2 . 83

W= ~ Jf

is tHe. ~fe,jfj,- w(l~ht af The -h'mh.eY' al-lp( -tf' /~ ;fs lIa/"me Thus;
WheV'(

\/J:; }(

(0. J5~ = ()"Z, t

)(

~.3'

/It4

/01lM)

~or e~u'd /brJum )

IM A- =0
So

/ha.t

Vi
Cit'"

(10 3,1WI

c'o s 0(

= Fe

( 8:,

) Cos J..
)

(t?,5"Z, ~)( S"1'fYI)

= ( PIfU) d'Uz.o )C yo ~
) (

~ = (,?,Jf2t( UD ~3
(tl. 7"1.;-)

~ 1
""

( 5" h" )

:50

trt,d:

- \1/= 6,lfzorrn J )('1.80

~~) - (o.{j]"tn13)(~.27~,) = 1ZLflV

Z.iJ.f.

I
2.R4 When the Tucurui dam was constructed in northern Brazil, the lake that was created covered a large forest of valuable hardwood trees. It was found that even after 15 years underwater the trees were perfectly preserved and underwater logging was started. During the logging process a tree is selected, trimmed, and anchored with ropes to prevent it from shooting to the surface like a missile when cut. Assume that a typical large tree can be approximated as a truncated cone with a base diameter of 8 ft, a top diameter of 2 ft, and a height of 100ft. Determine the resultant vertical force that the ropes must resist when the completely submerged tree is cut. The specific gravity of the wood is approximately 0.6.

h;Y

es /!J ],
fA

rJ

U (YI
J

Z. p: verhctC
so -tn I., -I::

:::.0

T== Fa-'W
/7;y a. fruflcabd ~()J1e)

(/)

0/"me:'
Whe~ :

j.b (IJ Z T Yj Yi.


r;
~ bl(S( Y'tJ..d I
Y'l. ::

-t Jl'z.3. )

h~
Thus)

i:cp rll d I u.s heIgh i.

us

2v

'V

we,~ It

t.

Fa;\.l
1-

bt.t,,~an I: ft;rCt!

= (-rr) (IDbh)[Ctt.fl:/+ ('fit J( 1ft) +ve~ 3


_ 2200

Uul]

-Prj

0: 'L~
E'l. {J)

J(

7Y~e

4'=- (CJ.,){t,z.1f ~~)(l.Z-ooft.~\ = 81- If,,ol~ +~~ n ) I

T ==

/ g~ I)()O / b - 9 A) Lj()a Ii,

2.86 An inverted test tube partially filled with air floats in a plastic water-filled soft drink bottle as shown in Video V2.S and Fig. P2.86. The amount of air in the tube has been adjusted so that it just floats. The bottle cap is securely fastened. A slight squeezing of the plastic bottle will cause the test tube to sink to the bottom of the bottle. Explain this phenomenon.

-~~Air

Test tube

Water

Plastic bottle

FIGURE P2.g("

"

: ' .L--_--..lI..,

.......

.'

2.87 The hydrometer shown in Vidl'O \'2.6 and Fig. P2.S7 has a mass of 0.045 kg and the cross-sectional area of its stem is 290 mm 2: Determine the distance between graduations (on the stem) for specific gravities of 1.00 and 0.90.

FIGURE P2.~7

When

ine

h!Jc/~metfY
butP!1lt"i
::;0
(4 /

fiJl'lI/!he

.f"Y'~e.

i.s 1/"t1.tll1'i ;';'s we/rAt; w)


Q~e e$u(J/ ~/J1C~

2: F:v(yii
h,r
01"

IJw"t/ wi1h

5G -=
I

o. q )
( J.Jhfre

~I
(SG, )

=W
t ; t.JJ,. 0 @ IfC)
I+3.D

(~zo)-t7 =w

~Jml J4rJIj ) ft,.,. Ih~~d w/th

Sq1,. -=

/.0)

(SG~ ) (~~O )~ = W ClI'1t1 ~wbfr~c.t/r1~ '1}1, e$uah6?l1s !:J~eJd.s

Let As "" s+em


QI14

(ll"ftt.

jubmp~ed
vt>}t..Ime..

-if t:J
:l.

V..!

(SGJ('O'tI-:z.o)
.45

'W (SC71.)(Y~~O)
1

S/~C~

-t1 -it = LJ~

-(-~_/_-[ S~, As ~hCl ')


(290
Jf.

tGJ
[
-0-.

_ (tJ."lfsJ1 )(rE'JTa- J
-2
I't'Y\

I()-,"" ~ ('I. 81 ;< 10:J!; )


=

cr-

I. 72 ;(. I 0

/ 7, Z "" m1

2.SS An L-shaped rigid gate is hinged at one end and is located between partitions in an open tank containing water as shown in Fig. P2.88. A block of concrete (y = 150 Ib/fi') is to be hung from the horizontal portion of the gate. Determine the required volume of the block so that the re-action of the gate on the partition at A is zero when the water depth is 2 ft above the hinge. The gate is 2 ft wide with a negligible weight, anrl t.he hinge is smooth.

FIGURE P2.8a

r-;y

esu;/d",U/11)

.56 ~1:

I. MU
-t

=-0

~ J- 1
where,'

~ J..2- ~

T J.. 1.

(I)

'1= ~h,-f, :: ('2,~ ~,) (.3t1:)(zA4=~ z.hJ


: 7 Lf-9 1.1,

~I
1=1

J:;.. :: ?r hi! Z ,4z =~ 2. ~ ~3 ) ('t4t) (Zft "- If:tJ


L:f RI

- fCf 8 1.1, = r,<.c..


~c.. A

-t

~
c:.

J.. ( )
::

'j

(2.fi) -t.3 (.3.ft) (2.~t I. z. ft)


j. JJ

17..

7.+t

H. =

3.1/

+t.

.Q I = ~ ~ I - z.

+'.f

.=

fi - z. t-t. :: \. \ \ -tt

J.l. = / H
Thlls) fr,nn
e:a~. (J J

(7'f'f IJ,) (1./1

(t?f8 J1,) (j ft) = T (I fiJ T= 18.30 11


fC)
-t-

f;r ~ncre~ hJocJt..) L t=""V(lo't. c. 1.:.0 0 'r ~ c. ~ T l' Fe c.. s" th,td: -Y: -= I B 30 I~ l' 6'"u, Jfc..
" 'J-.{)

41:= c..

I gj 0 Jb

2.-10

2. 81 I

2.89 When a hydrometer (see Fig. P2.87 and Video V2.6) having a stem diameter of 0.30 in. is placed in water, the stem protrudes 3.15 in. above the water surface. If the water is replaced with a liquid having a specific gravity of 1.10, how much of the stem would protrude above the liquid surface? The hydrometer weighs 0.042 lb.

Whln f'/,( h~drometfY IS I-J,,4.'l:Jr,!J /1-5 weI1ht.) 'h.J) J,i hAi4J1teei. ht;1 -fhe bu /)~I(" t- k;yc. e) 13 , J=o r

r-

e~ /Ai J Ibn

um

~F L
IhJl$1

Vfy/-t~al

=0

~y fA)A,l-ev
~=~

(~t-o ) -v;whevt!. -yt J~iu'd


C~mb,nJn~

= 1;)

(I )

Is tne.

JuJ,merged volume.. w(1l1 1l1e new


U)

(s 6) ( 5Uz,o ) 1{ :,ew

cIs. (IJ

11I1I((Z)

wJin

~
2-

(rfJ.2.() ) -r:~

::: (S Q ) ('ritz,() ) 4f
56

~ = -,

1-1/

J. '/0
2.90 The thin-walled. I-m-diameter tank of Fig. P2.90 is closed at one end and has a mass of 90 kg. The open end of the tank is lowered into the water and held in the position shown by a steel block having a density of 7840 kg/m3. Assume that the air that is trapped in the tank is compressed at a constant temperature. Determine: (a) the reading on the pressure gage at the top of the tank. and (b) the volume of the steel block.
Air

Water
3.0 m

~
FIGURE P2.90

Let 1f-:: At
(Jhd

~
't"

1;:: ~ ( -. - lJ. to )
T}lIAS J

~~th

{wlter~

II

U)

~ = At- ~
Smce.

::-

-+..-+/'..
l. "

f:}.
lfilf~

fL' =-

fat_

-b'-. l..

A--t:(3 )

-{ 1

;-

(p.-I-; _0.,,) { 1:1-l1l'i ::


ItJl

=0

./..11 9. go -:;; ~

~ PI)..

~ 2. + ( n
or

/()/-iPIL..

9.8/J ~ hf

0.'
.3 0.1

/Itt

) G 1t-

3 ('0 I .4..p~ ')

1.

:l -t-

Cf.7 I ~ 1.71 -r

::

V(r.7} )1+ ~ (~{),9)


:L

::'

:2. S-3hYl

Th us.l

+ttrJ ~6'

if. (1tA.9<)

(/ )
::'
.2. -12

(b) F; Y'

e '6l1; / ,'hY" ~,.". c/ La 9 Y'II m ) J


~ hr(l1~

I i'/11 it. (s@e Ir(~- b~df:J -

T:: ~ At -<W-e
w heY'~
5h~ /
N

we /'111 t /

t'I J;/ #(

.k ,. .

6/()c,k

Thus)
-,-= s
T

y
3
I'm

0, 208

),,-93

;;, 'II

~J

2.91

An inverted hollow cone is pushed into the water as is shown in Fig. P2.91. Determine the distance, C, that the water rises in the cone as a function of the depth, d, of the lower edge of the cone. Plot the results for 0 :;; d :;; H, when H is equal to 1 m. Assume the temperature of the air within the cone remains constant.

Le
d
0

! T'2 /! \l~ cr .~
w",,
-----+---Open end

f-R--I

FIGURE P2.9\

I-emfJe~4.l:uye

Cf;tr1pt'es>/o~

tJ, e.

"Ir

tell 11, 1J1

fire.

O!Jne,.J

~.
whev-e

Vi

= ~

-v;
"

(I)

15 the.
J

(1/; V,,/"'lne.

.fln/ll :s--ta ~

respecltve/!J . .:t".f ~D flow.}


lM

ClIfU

an" I n! Ie", +r, ,;;,.fuj/ 111. f (.s('t! f'JI-(~):

and

1:..::
Th (,is,
.from E

;{i

= ~ (d -,fl) +

fa.~

11 = 7f R 'H
t. (J )
=

if =- 'J(H/)~>(H-.l) : :r:Y(H-Jl

t (7r ;<211)
41-""" .3

[6' (d-.L) + tim<] :r P: t (1+-.1)

wh/c.h

5ImfJ,he.s

-1-0

1=d-

1'1-- [(!-i/-I]

(.3 )

WheY'e 1. all" d 4Ve J ~ I"n1 e. .f.e Y' S . I-t ~(!JmflilfY ji:Jt"tJJNlm k,//OIlJS ~r Cti/c.J(IaII~
t:>

f- c/.

( C(f)11

t )

~.91

"I
:00 110 120 130 135 1'"'0 150 160 170 180 185 190 200 210 220 230

C~1i 't

print "**********************************************" print "** This program solves iteratively a fourt.h **" print "** order equation to give the water rise, **" print "** 1, as a function of t.he depth. ,j **" print "**** ** **** *********** ********** ** *** **** **t:*** II print. print" Depth, d (m) Water rlse, 1 (m)" for d=O.O to 1.01 step 0.1 1=0.0 if d=O then goto 220 lp=l
1=1-((d-lp)/10.3+1)-(-1/3)

if abs(l-lp/l)O.OOl goto 190 print using" #.### next d

#.####":d.l

** This program solves iteratively a fourth ** ** order equation to give the water rise. ** ** 1, as a function of the depth, d ** **********************************************
Depth, d (m) 0.000 0.100 0.200 0.300
O. '.,!-OO

*********************************************~

0.500 0.600 0.700 0.800 0.900 1.000


"10- 2

Water rise, 1 (m) 0.0000 0.0031 0.0062 0.0092 0.0122 0.0152 0.0182 0.0211 0.0239 0.0268 0.0296

3~----------------------------------------------~

//

::
.....

.;
In
M

L L <lJ
.jJ

'"

o ./
0.0

0.2

0 . .:1
Depth, d

0.6
(m)

0.8

1.0

~.92.

I
2.92
An open container of oil rests on the flatbed of a truck that is traveling along a horizontal road at55 mi/hr. As the truck slows uniformly to a complete stop in 5 s, what will be the slope of the oil surface during the period of constant deceleration?

:: d:t :::
cJ~

.//1'111 / we/~c"~ - I~' ~/.f J ve/~,;..J::,


-61 ,;, ~ I;' h
,./Il,

o -

9. rl ~ +

O,50Z
C>

2.93 A 5-gal. cylindrical open container with a bottom area of 120 in. 2 is filled with glycerin and rests on the floor of an elevator. (a) Determine the fluid pressure at the bottom of the container when the elevator has an upward acceleration of 3 ft/s2. (b) What resultant force does the container exert on the floor of the elevator during this acceleration? The weight of the container is negligible. (Note: ] gal = 23] in. 3 )

T xl illill
{

..po

I'

I, '11

-a. A =
-t (120;~

VDll-tl'Yle..
,1. ) :

(b ~tA I) ( ~ ~'al;I1~)
1'11.

{, = C/. ~ 3

iJ, =
(6)
Fr~m

f ( ~ -t Qi ) -{
11

- (::1.4-

sluq.s)(
ft~

32 2

, E $4

1""

3~t )( 1.'3 ft)


52.
12.

frte- bcd!! -dla9NlfYJ

or
/2~ Ih,

CtJnta I ~e r )

~:
-

1J, A

(~i. r ft'l. Jb.) ( "1)(' 't4-"~:+-I.' )


I

:: 57. 4- 11
Thus; tcrle 101ClPYJ-I:alnty

LEJ 1
Ff
J~

~'"

f JOt} r

S/.If. Ib

dOWhWQY'cJ..

2 -'17

2. q If-

An open rectangular tank 1 m wide and 2 m long contains gasoline to a depth of 1 m. If the height of the tank sides is 1.5 m, what is the, maximum horizontal acceleration (along the long axis of the tank) that can develop before the gasoline would begin to spill?

T
_ cd;, <
d~

- ---

I. 5

IMt -

J. 0 ,4.t1

t.y.4

---- ------1

JI\N\

== - O.5'C>

-L '-______

(S{!e +lj~re).

d -l: dtJ

2 .95 If the tank of Problem 2. 'ftt slides down a frictionless plane that is inclined at 30 with the horizontal, determine the angle the free surface makes with the horizontal.

Fre>m

NewtM~ J mel Jaw I


I

L
S/~'e, I:; the.

F~

=' 1m a!J
()11/:;

-tne.

~Ne
01

In

-th~ ::; ~ dl;ec.:l-toJi

e{)m!()l1ff,.i

kJel9J1f (rrr.;)sjI18)
m us~

( trr1 J) Sin

-::. IYY1

a. ~

s"

1h~i

'}aso 111"1 e..

ot

~k

ChId

a~ -= -

a!J SJn~

, .

(I:~. 2.28)

=
-~ Sln'Z6>
I

-=

(4y,d

loY'

~D 0
I
I

- = d~

d=1:

/- 2:

5111 ~O

+a n Q=

O. 7~ t.f

f=

37.4-

2. Cf~ A closed cylindrical tank that is 8 ft in diameter and 24 ft long is completely filled with gasoline. The tank, with its long axis horizontal, is pulled by a truck along a horizontal surface. Determine the pressure difference between the ends (along the long axis of the tank) when the truck undergoes an acceleration of 5 ft/ S2.

I
(2t.
2. 2S)

,2'f

.ft

C~:
0)
"'7

Oh
t1.)

,. .-1

a - S'-t-i:

!1 -

Tz..

1:. - J;I :: 2.
=-

-t

tl~ (2."1- k)

- (1,3:2

s';/; )(s ~: )~". ft)

- Jse 1-t7.. -I/J

2-100

2.91

The open U-tube of Fig. P2.0!1 is partially filled with a liquid. When this device is accelerated with a horizontal acceleration, a, a differential reading, h, develops between the manometer legs which are spaced a distance r. apart. Determine the relationship between a, r, and h.

a. = a~

h
FIGURE P2.'\'1

d.:r
d~
51!Jce)

a..'::J
~T C(i:

ar-. - .d!J

"7
a.
3-tCJ

+he"
Or

-~ y:

~ -

-J.

a.~

..2-10/

2. q'ii' An open I-m-diameter tank contains water at a depth of 0.1 m when at rest. As the tank is rotated about its vertical axis the center of the fluid surface is depressed. At what angular velocity will the bottom of the tank first be exposed? No water is spilled from the tank.

F;;r

f;~e surface

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of

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1r

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~ !" -,

=- - ( 1f{9.?I-f,. )(0,7",,)

/0.5 raJ _
5

( O. S/tn )

7-

2..-/02.

2. qcr

The V-tube of Fig. P2.Q'1 is partially filled with water and rotates around the axis aa. Determine the angular velocity that will cause the water to start to vaporize at the bottom of the tube (point A).

fY'e SSWI!

111

D..

-the.

12 DI.l .. i:.~ t:J 11. )

FIGURE P2.Gj~

the

(!.4)()Y'mnA.fe a. 1::

oS '1si-e1Yl

~h()wn)
0111/

--p=o

1"'= ,+Ii?

z:~ ~ (~~.ft) _

e.(!;n5t~l1't

= -.

2(,+
IA)

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At pO/flt A) r=o 411'"

i-={J

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If
fA = vapo'y

- f~l. t ~
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prfSSlAy-e -

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fit". (0. 25'1.

pH - l't. 7 P

$" )(I 'l-1f.iJ~~ ).: -:l. ago :.~ ftqr)

w=

141

~ s

.t..-/03

d.. }OO

2.100 The U-tube of Fig. P2.100 contains mercury and rotates about the off-center axis a-a. At rest, the depth of mercury in each leg is 150 mm as illustrated. Determine the angular velocity for which the difference in heights between the two legs is 75 mm.

150 mm

\-220 m:-:/.....~1-.....,190 mm
I
I

t~

FIGURE P2.100

The e DU.a..t/~H

of.
1.=

1h~
6.)"2.,...2-

free
-t

=> U

r/4ce.

pfl~SIYl1

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- fJ~ l:A -1 8 -

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(0, 220hrl)2. - (0. O'l{)",,)~

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yad
5

2-/bLj

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I
A closed, OA-m-diameter cylindrical tank is completely filled with oil (SG = 0.9) and rotates about its vertical longitudinal axis with an angular velocity of 40 rad/s. Determine the difference in pressure just under the vessel cover between a point on the circumference and a point on the axis.

2.10 I

t- I

--~
. /

Pre~s"y~
/11

In

" -

rtJta.tIJ1,
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2.

/02

2.102

Force Needed to Open a Submerged Gate

Objective:

A gate, hinged at the top, covers a hole in the side of a water filled tank as shown in Fig. P2.102 and is held against the tank by the water pressure. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical force needed to open the gate to the experimentally measured force.

Equipment:

Rectangular tank with a rectangular hole in its side; gate that covers the hole and is hinged at the top; force transducer to measure the force needed to open the gate; ruler to measure the water depth.

Experimental Procedure:

Measure the height, H, and width, b, of the hole in the tank and the distance, L, from the hinge to the point of application of the force, F, that opens the gate. Fill the tank with water to a depth h above the bottom of the gate. Use the force transducer to detennine the force, F, needed to slowly open the gate. Repeat the force measurements for various water depths. For arbitrary water depths, h, detennine the theoretical force, F, needed to open the gate by equating the moment about the hinge from the water force on the gate to the moment produced by the applied force, F.

Calculations:

Graph: Plot the experimentally detennined force, F, needed to open the gate as ordinates and the water depth, h, as abscissas. Results: Data:
On the same graph, plot the theoretical force as a function of water depth.

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click heft' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

If!i FiGURE P2.. 102

(Con t)

~. / ()Z

(ef!JrJ't )
Solution for Problem 2.102: Force Needed to Open a Submerged Gate

L, in. 5.5

H, in. 6.0

b, in. 4.0

y, Ib/W'3 62.4

Ixc , ft"4 0.003472

h, in. 21.1 18.5 16.2 14.5 12.8 11.1 10.1 7.4

F,lb 10.1 8.9 7.6 6.7 5.8 4.7 4.3 2.9

F 1 ,lb 15.69 13.43 11.44 9.97 8.49 7.02 6.15 3.81

Yr - Yc, ft 0.0138 0.0161 0.0189 0.0217 0.0255 0.0309 0.0352 0.0568

d,ft 0.264 0.266 0.269 0.272 0.276 0.281 0.285 0.307

F,lb 9.03 7.80 6.71 5.91 5.11 4.30 3.83 2.55

Since h > H, A F

=H*b =constant and Ixc =b*H"3/12 =constant.

=F1*d/L, where F1 =y*(h - H/2)* A, d =H/2 + (Yr - Yc), and Yr - Yc =Ixc/(h - H/2)* A
Problem 2.102 Force, F, vs Water Depth, h

12 ...,....-----------..,...---- .----, 10
8 6
-j------"--

- -.- -.- .-. --'

.---.~---

---- -I
-------1

.c
LL.

-I
i

- - Theoretical

-a- Experimental

4-----~----~.LV-

-I!

.-------..,-- -------1

O+----t-----+---+---...,.------I o 15 20 25 5 10

h, in.

ft-

07

2./03

2.103

Hydrostatic Force on a Submerged Rectangle

A quarter-circle block with a vertical rectangular end is attached to a balance beam as shown in Fig. P2.103. Water in the tank puts a hydrostatic pressure force on the block which causes a clockwise moment about the pivot point. This moment is balanced by the counterclockwise moment produced by the weight placed at the end of the balance beam. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the weight, W, needed to balance the beam as a function of the water depth, h.

Objective:

Equipment:

Balance beam with an attached quarter-circle, rectangular cross-section block; pivot point directly above the vertical end of the beam to support the beam; tank; weights; ruler.

Measure the inner radius, R 1, outer radius, R2, and width, h, of the block. Measure the length, L, of the moment arm between the pivot point and the weight. Adjust the counter weight on the beam so that the beam is level when there is no weight on the beam and no water in the tank. Hang a known mass, m, on the beam and adjust the water level, h, in the tank so that the beam again becomes level. Repeat with different masses and water depths.

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations: For a given water depth, h, determine the hydrostatic pressure force, FR = yhcA, on the vertical end of the block. Also determine the point of action of this force, a distance YR - Yc below the centroid of the area. Note that the equations for FR and YR - Yc
are different when the water level is below the end of the block (h < R2 - R1) than when it is above the end of the block (h > R2 - Rl). For a given water depth, determine the theoretical weight needed to balance the beam by summing moments about the pivot point. Note that both FR and W produce a moment. However, because the curved sides of the block are circular arcs centered about the pivot point, the pressure forces on the curved sides of the block (which act normal to the sides) do not produce any moment about the pivot point. Thus the forces on the curved sides do not enter into the moment equation.

Graph: Result: Data:

Plot the experimentally determined weight, W, as ordinates and the water depth,

h, as abscissas.

On the same graph plot the theoretical weight as a function of water depth.

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.
Pivot point

Counter weight

Quarter-circle block

III FIGURE P2.103

)..-/03

2. / P3 J

Solution for Problem 2.103: Hydrostatic Force on a Submerged Rectangle

R1, in. 5.0

R2, in. 9.0

L, in. 12.0

b, in. 3.0 Experimental W,lb 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.13 0.22 0.26 0.31 0.35 0.40 0.44 0.48 0.53 0.57 0.62 0.66 0.77 0.88 0.99 1.10 1.21

g, ftlsA2 32.2

y, Ib/ftA3 62.4 Theoretical W,lb 0.000 0.048 0.095 0.139 0.232 0.278 0.323 0.367 0.413 0.456 0.504 0.551 0.597 0.637 0.680 0.794 0.905 1.016 1.127 1.236

m, kg 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55

h, in. 0.00 1.11 1.58 1.92 2.51 2.76 2.99 3.20 3.41 3.60 3.80 3.99 4.17 4.33 4.50 4.95 5.39 5.83 6.27 6.70

FR,lb 0.00 0.07 0.14 0.20 0.34 0.41 0.48 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.78 0.86 0.94 1.01 1.08 1.28 1.47 1.66 1.85 2.04

Yr -Yc, ft

0.0512 0.0476 0.0444 0.0376 0.0328 0.0290 0.0260 0.0236

d,ft 0.750 0.719 0.706 0.697 0.680 0.673 0.667 0.661 0.655 0.650 0.644 0.639 0.634 0.631 0.628 0.621 0.616 0.612 0.609 0.607

= 32.2 ftlsA2 * (m kg * 6.825E-2 slug/kg)

Sum moments about pivot to give W*L

= FR*d

For h < R2 - R1: FR =y*(h/2)*h*b d Forh>R 2 -R 1: FR = y*(h - (R2 - R1)/2)*(R2 - R1)*b d = R2 - (R2 - R1 )/2 + (Yr - Yc) Yr -Yc =Ixc/hc *A Ixc = b*(R2 - R1 )A3/12 = 0.000771 ft A 4 hc = h - (R 2 - R1)/2 A = b*(R2 -R1)

=R2 - (h/3)

l-IOCf

2. /03

Problem 2.103 Weight, W, vs Water Depth, h

1.2 1.0
-1------1------+----------.----

.c 0.8 +-_ _ _-+---____----i--_-+_---+-_ _ _ _ \


~ 0.6
--------------.-.---~~----.-----

Theoretical Experimental

---Ii

0.4
0.2

--I

~---------i---~,---~-l
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0

0.0 -J-=:::::::::::..---.,.------+----t---------.;

h, in.

'1- II 0

2. /o/f

2.104

Vertical Uplift Force on an Open-Bottom Box with Slanted Sides

Objective:

When a box or form as shown in Fig. P2.104 is filled with a liquid, the vertical force of the liquid on the box tends to lift it off the surface upon which it sits, thus allowing the liquid to drain from the box. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the minimum weight, W, needed to keep the box from lifting off the surface.

Equipment:

An open-bottom box that has vertical side walls and slanted end walls; weights; ruler; scale.

Experimental Procedure:

Determine the weight, Wbox , of the empty box and measure its length, L, width, b, wall thickness, t, and the angle of the ends, e. Set the box on a smooth surface and place a known mass, m, on it. Slowly fill the box with water and note the depth, h, at which the net upward water force is equal to the total weight, W + Wbox , where W = mg. This condition will be obvious because the friction force between the box and the surface on which it sits will be zero and the box will "float" effortlessly along the surface. Repeat for various masses and water levels.

Calculations: For an arbitrary water depth, h, determine the theoretical weight, W, needed to maintain equilibrium with no contact force between the box and the surface below it. This can be done by equating the total weight, W + Wbox , to the net vertical hydrostatic pressure force on the box. Calculate this vertical pressure force for two different situations. (1) Assume the vertical pressure force is the vertical component of the pressure forces acting on the slanted ends of the box. (2) Assume the vertical upward force is that from part (1) plus the pressure force acting under the sides and ends of the box because of the finite thickness, t, of the box walls. This additional pressure force is assumed to be due to an average pressure of Pavg = -yh/2 acting on the "foot print" area of the box walls. Graph:
Plot the experimentally determined total weight, W + Wbox , as ordinates and the water depth, h, as abscissas.

Results:

On the same graph plot two theoretical total weight verses water depth curvesone involving only the slanted-end pressure force, and the other including the slanted end and the finite-thickness wall pressure forces. To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click hac to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem .

Data:

. , / Footprint of box

1
1
~

it

III FIGURE P2.104

~Dn t

~-III

2./()/f

( Cf)r/t)

Solution for Problem 2.104: Vertical Uplift Force on an Open-Bottom Box with Slanted Sides

8, deg 45

L, in. 10.3

b, in. 4.0 Experimental W + W box , Ib 0.942' 1.052 1.162 1.272 1.382 1.491 1.601 1.711 1.821

t, in. 0.25

Wbox,lb 0.942 Theory 1 W + W box , Ib 0.000 0.009 0.036 0.081 0.144 0.226 0.325 0.442 0.578 0.731 0.903 1.092 1.300 1.526

y, Ib/ftA3 62.4 Theory 2 W + W box , Ib 0.000 0.047 0.111 0.194 0.295 0.414 0.551 0.706 0.879 1.070 1.279 1.506 1.752 2.015

m, kg 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

h, in. 2.06 2.23 2.42 2.53 2.67 2.81 2.94 3.06 3.16

h, in. 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25

Pavg,

Ib/ftA2 0.00 0.65 1.30 1.95 2.60 3.25 3.90 4.55 5.20 5.85 6.50 7.15 7.80 8.45

=g*m =32.2 ftlsA2 * (m kg * 6.825E-2 slug/kg)

Theory 1. Including only the slanted-end pressure force: W + W box = y*Vol Vol = b*h*h Theory 2. Including the slanted-end pressure force and the finite-thickness wall pressure force: W + W box y*Vol + Pavg *A
Pavg

=0.5*y*h =(b + 2*t)*(L + 2*tlsin8) - b*L =8.33 in. A2 = 0.0579 ftA2

2- /11.

2. / {)l/-

Problem 2.104 Total Weight, W + Wbox , vs Water Depth, h

I I
f

2.5

I
I i
i
I

2.0
.c

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-- 1.5
3: 3:
>< 0 .c

, ,
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/
;

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1:.

/.
1

~'.
I

I
I
i

Experimental

- - - - - - -~----iI

Theory 1 (slanted ends only) - . - . Theory 2 (slanted ends and bottom edge)

0.5

0.0 0

",'

/
"

I
I
I
I

, ,

2
h, in.

I
I

I
I

~-

1/3

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j O~

2.105

Air Pad Lift Force

Objective: As shown in Fig. P2.105, it is possible to lift objects by use of an air pad consisting of an inverted box that is pressurized by an air supply. If the pressure within the box is large enough, the box will lift slightly off the surface, air will flow under its edges, and there will be very little frictional force between the box and the surface. The purpose of this experiment is to detennine the lifting force, W, as a function of pressure, p, within the box. Equipment:
Inverted rectangular box; air supply; weights; manometer.

Experimental Procedure: Connect the air source and the manometer to the inverted square box. Detennine the weight, Wbo,,' of the square box and measure its length and width, L, and the wall thickness, t. Set the inverted box on a smooth surface and place a known mass, m, on it. Increase the air flowrate until the box lifts off the surface slightly and "floats" with negligible frictional force. Record the manometer reading, h, under these conditions. Repeat the measurements with various masses. Calculations: Determine the theoretical weight that can be lifted by the air pad by equating the total weight, W + Wbox , to the net vertical pressure force on the box. Here W = mg. Calculate this pressure force for two different situations. (1) Assume the pressure force is equal to the area of the box, A = L2, times the pressure, p = 'Ymh, within the box, where I'm is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. (2) Assume that the net pressure force is that from part (1) plus the pressure force acting under the edges of the box because of the finite thickness, t, of the box walls. This additional pressure force is assumed to be due to an average pressure of Pavg = 'Ymh/2 acting on the "foot print" area of the box walls, 4t(L + t). Graph: Plot the experimentally determined total weight, W + Wbox , as ordinates and the pressure within the box, P, as abscissas. Results: On the same graph, plot two theoretical total weight verses pressure curvesone involving only the pressure times box area pressure force, and the other including the pressure times box area and the finite-thickness wall pressure forces. Data:
To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Weight

T
h

1
IN-----------L-----------m

~-/JLf

2. I/)5" I

Solution for Problem 2.105: Air Pad Lift Force

L, in. 7.5

t, in. 0.25

Wbox,lb 1.25 Experiment W + W box , Ib 1.25 1.47 1.69 1.91 2.13 2.35 2.57 2.79 3.01 3.23 3.45 3.67 3.89 4.11 4.33 4.55 4.77 4.99 5.21

YH20, Ib/ft"3

62.4 Theory 1 W + W box , Ib 1.10 1.30 1.50 1.67 1.91 2.11 2.28 2.50 2.68 2.88 3.09 3.31 3.49 3.72 3.98 4.18 4.31 4.53 4.71 Theory 2 W + W box , Ib 1.17 1.39 1.61 1.78 2.04 2.26 2.43 2.67 2.87 3.08 3.30 3.54 3.73 3.97 4.26 4.47 4.60 4.84 5.04

m, kg 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

h, in. 0.54 0.64 0.74 0.82 0.94 1.04 1.12 1.23 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.63 1.72 1.83 1.96 2.06 2.12 2.23 2.32

p,lb/ft"2 2.81 3.33 3.85 4.26 4.89 5.41 5.82 6.40 6.86 7.38 7.90 8.48 8.94 9.52 10.19 10.71 11.02 11.60 12.06

= g*m = 32.2 ftls"2 * (m kg * 6.825E-2 slug/kg)

Theory 1. Involving only the pressure times the box area: W + W box = p*L"2

P = YH2o*h
Theory 2. Involving the pressure times the box area plus the average pressure times the edge area: W + W box = p*L "2 + (p/2)*((L + 2t)"2 - L"2)

2. lOS-

Problem 2.105 Total Weight, W + Wbox, vs Pressure, p

----j

4 :9 x
0

I
-------~--

Experimental - Theory 1 (box area only) Theory 2 (box area plus edge area)

~
+

3:

i~

.~

1
I !

I
1

0 0 5
p,lb/ft"2

10

15

3./
Water flows steadily through the variable area horizontal pipe shown in Fig. P3.1. The velocity is given by V = 10(1 + x)i ft/s, where x is in feet. Viscous effects are neglected. (a) Determine the pressure gradient, iJpl ax, (as a function of x) needed to produce this flow. (b) If the pressure at section (1) is 50 psi, determine the ,pressure at (2) by: (i) integration of the pressure gradient obtained in (a); (ii) application of the Bernoulli equation.

3.1

(1)

f---- x
FIGURE P3.1

(a)

-C'sine

-M- :::

ev1
0r

hut

"e-::o

Qntl V::IO(/+X) fils

~ = - f Vf
ThtJs)

x-::: - f vPx- : : - f (/0 (I +X)) (10 )

(b)(l)

== -19/f(/iX)

#- ~ -1,9'f!f(}(lo!f)'J.(/+x) ) with X if) feet .: - 19'1 ( /+ x) Ira ' fo==3 so fhai Jo/t == -:19LfJ{I-fX)dx I,::
X"
sops,
XI == 0
1--

or ~ == SO pSJ' - /'1'1 (.3 +.;} )@ ( -)-'f;~i") = SO -/0. I :::3Q,9 E/ ///) fJl + 2" I 01/2. ~!7 _~ +.1- 1/2. ,jh ~ - 7 l." r VI -+0 ~I -1'2. :2.. ('Y2. +(/ ~2. " or Wlr ~/-~:J.
}1:7

/b

'1

A. .::: fJ; +-f f (V,


Thvs;

2_

~L)

wh ere V;; 10 (1 of 0) == loll 'vi ::: /0 (/+.3) ::: '/-0#


"
j

'2. _

..J.. I/. OLL .s~) II ,. LL 2.)JL ( / ft~ ) EO pSI, +:z. (7T 773 "/ t 0 -,fl s::Z 71f'/-;":/. = 3 P, P PJ/

3-/

3.2

I
3.2 Repeat Problem 3.1 if the pipe is vertical with the flow down,

, :.

.~

\~

(a)

asine - M- = f v*f
{j

if = -p VS + If
Thvs J

-*::: -L9~ ~:"(IO#)2(f+X) +


- -/9~ (IT x) .... 62.Jf
=:

*;% -f Vif +0 -: - f (10


62.

with

e:::: - qOO and v=io(J tX)!I


(J + x)) (J 0)

+0'

wNh X in feet

#p

(b) (i)

if
or

-/9'1 (t +x) + If)..'! .so


.

t60-

~
f, :;SOptl/
l. )

'"

J;;;/fX)
XJ:::O

+62.1'

Jdx

T2.

f)

= .5 0 PSII

- 19'1 .3

(..3 :z.) Ih ( I ft lb ( +~ fi'- i~ifii." + 6:L.'f (3) ff2.


;:=

/'1-'1 i/J,'J.)

I If 2-

= .50 -/0,/+/, g
(il)

4-/.2fJS/
'&/::: 0,)

f1 +J..p~:J.. +'2i =;2. of d p~ 2. +!" 22. PI' w/I/J alld 10/::: /f'J(1 +0) :;:; /0# J L{::: /O(ff3)
f{
2-

Z2. :::-311

=-~IJ.:fi J

:::1/ + i. f (14"'-~2.) - 02 = SO !s/ +i (I.?/f :jp-)(J01_ lftJ '") - t2.Y. #3 (-.3 ft)
:: ,1./ /. 'lfJS /

3-Z

..3 . .3
3.3 An incompressible fluid with density p flows steadily past the object shown in Video V3.3 and Fig. P3.3. The fluid velocity along the horizontal dividing streamline (-00 ::s; x ::s; -a) is found to be V = Vo (1 + a/x). where a is the radius of curvature of the front of the object and Vo is the upstream velocity. (a) Determine the pressure gradient along this streamline. (b) If the upstream pressure is Po. integrate the pressure gradient to obtain the pressure p(x) for -00 ::s; x ::s; -a. (c) Show from the result of part (b) that the pressure at the stagnation point (x = -a) is Po + pV~/2. as expected from the Bernoulli equation. FIGURE P3.3

.x

rQ)

t- ~ V.g.
=-

Thvs J
or

41 g::==
X

where

v;: Va (J. + f)
VA

x2. .

fL

s=: ~=-e~(J~+)(-4l)::
(b)

{dp =f #dx = faltj {f,. + ?)J~


po
-00

or

aVo 2.[- f P-fo =: e

I XI a - 2:

-00

(c) From part (h)) when X=-a

1'/ : ; 1'. - fit 11. i qf& ]


2 [-

xc-a

Frt)m the Bern()vll/ eqvatiDn

where

I V, =V

=::

Yo (J +f-la) :: 0
PrJ +i f Vo.2. 4S expected.

)(~-a

-rhll~ '"

=:

3-3

3.4 What pressure gradient along the streamline, dpf ds, is required to accelerate water in a horizontal pipe at a rate of30 mfs2?

where e:::o and

VPs- ::: a.s :::


ThvsJ

M- : : - ('as:;::
or
~ dS

- 999.!;!:s (30~) :;:: -30Poo(~)/m

= - 30.0 kPa/m .

3.5

I
3.5 At a given location the air speed is 20 m/s and the pressure gradient along the streamline is 100 N/m3 Estimate the air speed at a point 0.5 m further along the streamline.

If
or

neqlecf qrQv/fy
~v

1$ :: IS

vlY
C)S

or

I = .... '1-.07 -:s (jS = -Ioo~ m 3 /(1 23 l!!L m3 )(,-o!!!.) s

Thus)

JV~ S 6S - (-if,07-}) (O,511?) = -2.V 3 .qz) so/hat V+crV:::20~ -2.03: or V~/i.o';


3.6

3.6 What pressure gradient along the streamline, dp/ds, is required to accelerate water upward in a vertical pipe at a rate of 30 ft/ S2? What is the answer if the flow is downward?

where e == qo ~ for flP Ilow }


Ti1f1S, for /Jp flow

and vjf: ~ ::: 3.0 fi


1.9'1

e -= _qOO

for down flow)

~ - - 62,'1-(1) W Ih c}.s o.n" for Jown f/()I;f/


d.(l = -6).,'1 (-I) lP Ib 7.S

- -12.o.6(-!fp.)/ff ::: -0. 83S:e;f ~~(30 it) s.2-

/,9# ff.6

.sJup (.37 ft)


3-if

3.7 ,
3.7
Consider a compressible fluid for which the pressure and density are related by pip" = Co, where n and Co are constants. Integrate the equation of motion along the streamline, Eq. 3.6, to obtain the "Bernoulli equation" for this compressible flow as [n/(n - l)]plp + V 2 12 + gz = constant.

f +.f- +~ r
or

= constant 010n9 a stream line

so that

ThlJs; r S~

-nn

-I

n -I

3-.5

3.8

The Bernoulli equation is valid for steady, inviscid, incompressible flows with constant acceleration of gravity. Consider flow on a planet where the acceleration of gravity varies with height so that g = go - cz, where go and z are constants. Integrate "F = rna" along a streamline to obtain the equivalent of the Bernoulli equation for this flow.

(2.)

Jm
(I)

From

Z b&: : 6m as one
of-

obfains

df + f pd (V2)
(see EI.(.3.$)

0 til where 't::: f'J

Thus

rlp
(2.)

+ rJ.

(f pV2) + P(go - c 1) d1 ~O
(1) ~

or by infe9r4f in9 from (I) to(:;.):

S"f +Sd(tfV'-) ~ f> f (~() -C2)J;z=:O


til (/)

or f{ -p, + f

p(v:- ~~) .,. P'}o(~,.-l,) -

fpc (2').2. -z/-J

=0

Thvs, fJ + t pV2. +fi, z - f f C 2~ -; cons/alii a/oil' a .sfreamline.

3-6

3.9

J
3.9
Consider a compressible liquid that has a constant bulk modulus. Integrate "F = rna" along a streamline to obtain the equivalent of the Bernoulli equation for this flow. Assume steady, inviscid flow.

From Ef. .3.6

dp +fpdrv1.)

+odz~O

where

and

dp :: ~

(:: e9

Ell ::: hulK 1Y}()t/"lvs ::: cOMI4nt

1f

INhere

Th-us} (Alon,

sfream} ine;

(see E~. 1.13)

.,.1f +:i-pd(V''J +fgrie::o


'V

or
belween pomfs

~
f'

e f,.

d (f Vtl.) +~ dl :: 0
v,.
12.

which can. he infe9rate d he~ween (I) ana (2.) T() '1 ille

v {

~ T fdaV~)+ f9d,Z ~O
V,
t

1/

"Ev[ fr2 - i] t[V,.2..- '/,1.] +~[Zl-Za ~O


Hence:

or

?z - ~

r-

:=

cunsl.nf 410"'1

slreamline

3,10

3.10

Water flows around the vertical two-dimensional bend with circular streamlines and constant velocity as shown in Fig. P3.1O. If the pressure is 40 kPa at point (1), determine the pressures at points (2) and (3). -Assume that the velocity profile is uniform as indicated.

4m

I
(1)

FIGURE P3.10

-a' d~ _y, _ e'C Tn on - "1(


,hilS; w/fh '1< -::;
6 - /}

wNh ~::/

OlJrP

V == /om/.s

()r
alJrJ,

Ilz. =<2..,0
-999

kPIJJ

wlfh f; :: '1-01<14 4nd

fl,3

==

~m

/J ::: 'If) kP~ - 9.I()XIO:J~ (;;'/1/)

-t!s (10-1)2. /1 (-9-)

or

1.3 : : - 20. / k PiN

3-8

.3.12

3.12. Water in a container and air in a tornado flow in horizontal circular streamlines of radius r and speed Vas shown in Video V3.2 and Fig. P3.12..Determine the radial pressure gradient. ap/ar. needed for the following situations: (a) The fluid is water with r = 3 in. and V = 0.8 ftls. (b) The fluid is air with r = 300 ft and V = 200 mph.

'14
-

~--+-x

FIGURE P3.J2

Fo"r ourved sfreamJ/ne,s,


-

~
and
(;/.r

'"

~ + if ~

or wilh ~ =0 (horilDnf4! sfrea/lllines)J 1?::: r J


becDmes

fn =- fr/.9'1-

this

!Ie :: iJ-" r
CA)

With r:::

r!
(6)

J,'r ::

(Ii fI)(O,81})2.

ff and V= 0,8 #- und wafer


:: ~. 97 fI.s~
s//J9s

(p = /,9'f ~ )J
f/

= ~,97 Jb3

W'i-Ih r = 300fT and V=- zoo tnph( 88 oS h ) = 2 '13 ft s


t,omp
J .

Jt

and air ( f:: 0.00238

.:!~~s )

d:r

rkr

~ O,OO:2.3a~ 2'13..$. == 0.681 slv9,S2. 068/ 300 f1 ft",s ::,


I

~ (11:)2

/b

3-'1

.3 ./3
3.B As shown in Fig. P3.13 and Video \'3.2. the swirling motion of a liquid can cause a depression in the free surface. Assume that an inviscid liquid in a tank with an R = 1.0 ft radius is rotated sufficiently to produce a free surface that is h = 2.0 ft below the liquid at the edge of the tank at a position r = 0.5 ft from the center of the tank. Also assume that the liquid velocity is given by V = K/r. where K is a constant. (a) Show that h = j(2 [(1/,-2) - (1/R2)]/(2g). (b) Determine the value of K for this problem.

(a) -

t"
(fo

v:L
f"R
Of'

#,:,:
~f
0/1
J

FIGURE P3.13

Thvs

, j

clp

==

eK'- ~

(R

r Bvi fo::: 0hand f:::O at r ThvsJ ,.


F

the free

stJrface.

oh:: - ef [p -f,.J

or sInce

(I)

(b) With h:: 2 f( R:: I if and r


I

==

o.s 1/ qn. (jJ 9/ve.s

_
2

K2.

[I
(f

ff -

2 (32..2 fils>') lJo.s tW

~)L

or K::: 6.55

#2.

3-/0

3./1f
Water flows from the faucet on the first floor of the building shown in Fig. P3.11f with a maximum velocity of 20 ft/s. For steady inviscid flow, determine the maximum water velocity from the basement faucet and from the faucet on the second floor (assume each floor is 12 ft tall).
3.1#

(3)

(I)

\' = 20 ft/s

f~"

~=======r=12 ft

FIGURE

P3.11f

and
or

wIth /J ::fll =()


a/ld
(2 oS)

(froe
J

VI= 20 #

Jet)
If

2/ =-If.

oJ;l

2.

2. (32 . Z
Of'

:J

+ if It :::

\0 2

2- (32.2

!h.)

+ /b H
from .secf)/Jd

2'.3 ::: /6 It

~ ="';').02. _ 2(.32..2)(lJ..) == ,; _ 373'

ImjJoss/b/el #0 //tJlJ/
{/rJf)fI felVest.

3.15

3.15 Water flows from a pop bottle that has holes in it as shown in Video V3.5 and Fig. P3.1S. Two streams coming from holes located distances hi and hl below the free surface intersect at a distance L from the side of the bottle. If viscous effects are ne~ligible and the flow is quasi-steady, show that L = 2(hl~)1 . Compare this result with experimental data measured from the paused video for which the holes are 2 inches apart.

~-O

FIGURE P3.1.5

For sfeady /nviscid I/o~ Ihe velocities of the horiz on fa I jets of water at pOinfs 0) and (;z.) are obtained from ihe Bernovlli erv41ion 4S:
fo + -J: f

Vr/".f 0 Zo::: A + -1 f ~z.+o2, ~ 12. +if 1Iz:L+!'Z:J. where

fJo~f,==f2.::0; Vo==Oj zo==h2.j 2,

:::.hz.-h,; and 22.:: 0


Z

X=VI:

Thus ~ = r2~h,'" and ~:: y2!h:


J

(I)

~2= h_t~t2

Once olltside the fqnKJ qrtJvify is the on~ force on fhe fluid parTicles. Hence the hOf'iiontQ J compone"f of ve/ocify remlJillS cons/ant J bvi fhe parlicJes

o .........----x

accelerate downward wah fhe acceJert.lfion ct.f 9rav/1y. Thus I for a {II/itA par/ide Ihat exiled fhe lank t seconds Q90 at z;:h /-1 fol/()w.s theff

h - ~ l ~ By e/il1Jind1in9 " ihi.s 9/ves the pafl ide pafh ((,~ e. the
X :::

Vt and

2:::

h:z..:: Z

shape a/the VltAler jet Q.s Z =:. h - g X2


iV'

Thvs" the shapes()/ fhe flllo Water jets are as shown

Z=

-=~~----~--------x

in the fi9J1re.

3-/2

.3 ,J5

I (c on 'I )
X-L tJl1d ~::Z3..

The sfreams intersect when

71Jl),sJ

fromEf"s.(l.)tJnd(.3~

- _1-L2. (h 2. -hI )_LL'l. ~ ~2. 2 ~2.

L=12(~-h'~ W -1;L
From Eqn.
0) J
::

-v,2. J

~2.

2Jh , -

21h~ -

2, [-1- _.J..]
.J.
hi
h2.

fhz.. -hi) 2j n,h:;.

(S)

-rhvs by comh/nilJi
L: Jz(kh,)j

["'f/ls. (If) and (s)

we ohtain

9' 7

21 hi h2.

(h.. -h,)

2yh h.
1

3-/3

.3 ./6

3.16 A 100 ftJs jet of air flows past a ball as shown in Video V3.1 and Fig. P3.16. When the ball is not centered in the jet, the air velocity is greater on the side of the ball near the jet center [point (1)] than it is on the other side of the balI [point (2)]. Determine the pressure difference, P2 - PI' across the ball if VI = 140 ftJs and V2 = 110 ftJs. Neglect gravity and viscous effects.

v1 = 110

V= 100 IUs

(Lf)

The Bernoulli e9uafion from point (3) fo (2.) and (1/-) to (I) with 9rQvily neq/ecfed 'lives
{J.3 "':2 f ~ ::;
2

FIGURE P3.16

p:;. + ..L 2 f> V:z.

2.

tllld

1/2 f'f of J.. 2. P VII- =:: P,

-#- ,.

1.

Pv," I

Thvs} e 'len fholJ.~h poinls (I) and (~) are nul 0" the same streamline}
fl

But {1.3 -== 1'1:::0 and


+ :i f V,
I

~.::- ~

,,2
:-

~ of 2.

-L

f V2.

\/2

3-/~

3,/8

I
3. 18 A fire hose nozzle has a diameter of H in. According to some fire codes, the nozzle must be capable of delivering at least 2.50 gallmin. If the nozzle is attached to a 3-in.-diameter hose, what pressure must be maintained just upstream of the nozzle to deliver this fiowrate?

Thus;
fJl:;::

4-[V;.~- v:

2-]

where
alld

.so

iAqt w/IA
=

f ~f

/J

i (/.9~ ~;P)[ 80.7). -1I.3/f 2.] ~

::: 6/90 J1L f12. == Jf.3.0 psi

3"'/5

3.19 Water flowing from the O.75-in.-diameter outlet shown in Video V8.6 and Fig. P3.19 rises 2.8 inches above the outlet. Determine the flowrate.

FIGURE P3.19

The flowr~te is Q::: A, V; 1 where trom the Bernoulli efvalion I?J.M: +EI ::: I!!= ~ .,. E2. o + ~1 t +2.1
ThtJ~

with' fl

=: ~

~ ~I ~ ~ ~ 0

we Obtain
(2,8/12)ft ::: 3.88ffl.s
.3

V; = {21 2;;. = {2(.32.2fi/.s:l.) So that 2. Q::: AI ~ = I(O~~SH) (3,88 )

:: 0,0//9 f

3.20
3.20 Pop (with the same properties as water) flows from a 4--in. diameter pop container that contains three holes as shown in Fig. P3.20 (see Video .t5). The diameter of each fluid stream is 0.15 in., and the distance between holes is 2 in. If viscous effects are negligible and quasi-steady conditions are assumed, detennine the time at which the pop stops draining from the top hole. Assume the pop surface is 2 in. above the top hole when t = O. Compare your results with the time you measure from the video.

FIGURE P3.20 Q:: Q/ + Q,. .,. Q.a ::: -lJr -df where \,(1 /J.::: ~A and III :: fJ:r. :: A.3 :: f (o/I Ii) '}. ,~ :: Y2a (/' h A
I
J,

(i /If/J 2.".1)

= /,227 X /0-'11/2AT:: ~((fn)'-;: 0.087.3 fl2.

or
o

where i is the time /1 lake fur fhe fros .s()rI~e fo re40h fhe IIf/Df' hole
L
(h~o),

AT [ dh ::: A, Y~1 ((h +Vh+L +fh+2J.)


- (1.22.7 ~ 10" fJ'J. )K2.)(.3:J., 2.
_ O. OB 7 3 1 1 ' " (

ff/s'-)]~t (Yh +Yh fL +1(h +2.L )


o

dh

-rhll~

j :: 88.7 ( d h J (h .fYh+L- +YhfZL)


o

where L:: -k i-l == 0.1667 ff


t in seCl)l'Idr.

Nofe: Will; L If) leef) flJl'.r crvtJJf iOf) 9illes

Since fherB is

flO

closed form

3-/7

3.1- 0

I (con 'i )
The nvtrJerica/ valve of lhe i"fe9ra I is obfailu}d by vsin9 the trapezoidal rule since the closeJ form analytical so/uil'on is nof 9/ven jn illfe9f'al fa hies. The EXcel- spread sheelv.red for this is 9irJefJ be/ow.
, :;; ,88.7

Sf(h) Jh
o

where [(h)::: (VE -I- WL ./-1(hiii.)


(88.7

:=88.7[ih(f,.t{+,)(hi t/-h,)]
h, in. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 f(h) , 11ft1/2 h,ft 0.0000 1.015 0.0083 0.914 0.0167 0.870 0.0250 0.837 0.0333 0.810 0.0417 0.786 0.0500 0.764 0.0583 0.745 0.0667 0.728 0.0750 0.712 0.0833 0.697 0.0917 0.684 0.1000 0.671 0.1083 0.659 0.1167 0.647 0.1250 0.637 0.1333 0.627 0.1417 0.617 0.1500 0.608 0.1583 0.599 0.1667 0.591 Sum of column integral

frd~.,tom1=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

/0.75

(1/2)*(fi + fi+1)*(hi+1 - hi), ft112

0.00804 0.00743 0.00711 0.00686 0.00665 0.00646 0.00629 0.00614 0.00600 0.00587 0.00575 0.00564 0.00554 0.00544 0.00535 0.00526 0.00518 0.00510 0.00503 0.00496

0.12011

Thus, t

=88.7*0.12011 =10.7 s

3-/8

J.21 Water flowing from a pipe or a tank is acted upon by gravity and follows a curved trajectory as shown in Fig. P3.21 and Videos V3.5 and V4.3. A simple flow meter can be constructed as shown in Fig. P3.21. A point gage mounted a distance L from the end of the horizontal pipe is adjusted to indicate that the top of the water stream is a distance x below the outlet of the pipe. Show that the flowrate from this pipe of diameter D is given by Q = 'TT'D2Lgl/2j(2S/2 XI/2).

~I'

--L

- - - . I...

FIGURE P3.21

The only force aclin9 of allY w4fer parfiele ill -Ihe free Jet is Ihal d()e 10 9ravily - the parfic/e:S wel9hf. Thv.s J for the X - YQxes shown

i) :: a
",fl..

tf

ana ~~:::o whicA for a parhcle .sfarfi"


dP'
I

x r:: y~ 0 ttl I::: 0 9iv e X;::: t1-t2. and yo:: Vi //mt'nale l to 9ive fhe wafer Irajec7ury as
af

x~{~(~t
J

or

x==r~t:

Thvs wifh y::::1.. :

V c V-/x'" Land
Q::: AV:= fj)"v :: 7T D~L Vj/(2 51:J,

Vi)

3-/9

.3 ."1.

I
3.22
A person holds her hand out of an open car window while the car drives through still air at 65 mph. Under standard atmospheric conditions, what is the maximum pressure on her hand? What would be the maximum pressure if the "car" were an Indy 500 racer traveling 220 mph?
2.

.I!.!-+XL ~ V2. r 2j +Z I = h. ~ 2.1

..J. Z

2.

=Z2

,/;::6StrJph (88fj ) =5.3!117=0)


3

\4 =-0 6om,"

or Ii =- ~ (2.38X/O- ~~ig)(95.3#/= /0.8 ~

If V;::

2.20mph ( B8

60 m ph

~)

::: 3

~3 !f

fhen
J

12. : : f

(2.38 X/O-.3

~:fi) (3:L3 fj) 2. =

/2.'1

3.23

T3.23

A differential pressure gage attached to a Pitot-static tube (see Video \'3.4) is calibrated to give speed rather than the difference between the stagnation and static pressures. The calibration is done so that the speed indicated on the gage is the actual fluid speed if the fluid flowing past the Pitot-static tube is air at standard sea level conditions. Assume the same device is used in water and the gage indicates a speed of 200 knots. Detennine the water speed.

Af :: tpV2. In air Afail':::


J

(0. 00'-38

~~~.s ){2ookn ofs)f/.

In w4fer.i AIl ::: ..1 (/ 9/f S/()fJJ.) ( V)2 rW41er 2 - ' ff3

so thai w/lh

Ali- :: A fwater t(O,OOJ-31 )(ZtJO/' ::: i (I.9~) V.2


A
J

or
V=
7.0/

knofs

,3,2Jf

3.,..

A 40-mph wind blowing past your house speeds up as it flows up and over the roof. If elevation effects are negligible, determine (a) the pressure at the point on the roof where the speed is 60 mph if the pressure in the free stream blowing toward your house is 14.7 psia. Would this effect tend to push the roof down against the house, or would it tend to lift the roof? (b) Determine the pressure on a window facing the wind if the window is assumed to be a stagnation point.

~V2.

-o
a) Thvs, from (JJ

(2.)

(3)

v,
~

to (:1-) : I, +i p~:z. = /2. + 1: P~2.

(I)

b) From (I) +(13):

Since ~'='O"

(J~ == PI

+1 pU or (J.J - P, :: -t pv,:L =- f (0,00').38 :~"/f) (S8.7il/s;2 ::: ~/O ~

3-2.1

.3.2.S
.~.25 Water flows steadily downward through the pipe shown in Fig. P3.2S. Viscous effects are negligible, and the pressure gage indicates the pressure is zero at point (I). Detennine the flowrate and the pressure at point (2).

FIGURE P3.2S

A/so)

f=.
Jr

+Z
2.

-I-

]'z.2.
~I

=- .fL
l:

~z

where f,:;: 0 4nrJ sInce II, ~,42


TlJv~
2:J. - 2,
(Jr

'~,.

. . ~
Ii
{QI/olIIs

fha-r

Vz. V,
#

if

0r

l; ~ -2 ff

12 :: -2. ft (62,tf Jjp) :: - /25 ~

3-22

3,26
3.2~ Small-diameter, high-pressure liquid jets can be used to cut various materials as shown in Fig. P3.26. If viscous effects are negligible, estimate the pressure needed to produce a O.lO-mm-diameter water jet with a speed of 700 m/s. Determine the flowrate.

:/:L

+ ~I + Z,

\.{ 2.

=V

(J~

Thll.s

~ == t

f~

+
2.

~ $

2-

.,.;$J.

where

~ -zO J 2, ~ Z2.J

and fJ2- =0
= 2.9-5')(/0
5

t ev,.2. = t ('9'1-i)(70()~)2

.lsJ.

Also) Q = ~ A.z = 700 ~ [ (/O-i'1h)2] = S.$() x /o-~ .!fi

3-23

3.2-7
3.27 Air is drawn into a wind tunnel used for testing automobiles as shown in Fig. P3.27. (a) Determine the manometer reading. h, when the velocity in the test section is 60 mph. Note that there is a I-in. column of oil on the water in the manometer. (b) Determine the difference between the stagnation pressure on the front of the automobile and the pressure in the test section.
(I)

Wind tunnel 60 mph


~

~
~

('-)

-'"

-....

"'"

FIGURE P3.27

(a)

(b)

7 where
Thvs
.J

f2.

1- Z.

~ Jt ::: 4' k z,.,.


~::' ()

.f Z.?l .f-!2.

-,

Z:L ::: Z.J 41114


2-

A - (J2. ~ f f 142.::: -f (0.00]..38 -.~~.s )( eN fj)2 == 9.:z.z 1-.

ty ~1; = If

or

.3.1-8

3.28

A loon is a diving bird equally at home "flying" in the air or water. What swimming velocity under water will produce a dynamic pressure equal to that when it flies in the air at 40 mph?

or

3-25

3.29 A large open tank contains a layer of oil floating on water as shown in Fig. P3.29. The flow is steady and inviscid. (a) Determine the height. h. to which the water will rise. (b) Determine the water velocity in the pipe. (c) Determine the pressure in the horizontal pipe.

4m

(c)

3-26

.3.30

3.3.0

Water flows through the pipe contrac-

tion shown in Fig. P3.30. For the given O.2-m


difference in manometer level , determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe, D.

0 .2 m

FIGURE P3.30

./!L +
~

~?

\1,2. + Z,

=.if + zi V.' + Z,1


so

or w/lh z / =ih ani 11 =0

~ =1;>'1
but f!, '"

(fi/') ,

~k and /':z. ~ rh2

that 17-12. '" ((fir-h.) = 0.').0-

Thlls,

~ =rrZ-?-o.-;""/ ="';2.1(0.').)'

3-27

3.31

3.31 Water flows through the pipe contraction shown in Fig. P3.31. For the given O.2-m difference in the manometer level, determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe, D.

0.2 m

FIGURE P3.31

1/

VI

= (0.1) D V. I

or

~ ==

0.2. (2-$)

[ (!ff)'" -I]

or

Q_

-Y (0.1)'1 - l/'{

0.0156/)

2-

3-28

3.3.2
3.32 Water flows through the pipe contraction shown in Fig. P3.3-2. For the given O.2-m difference in the manometer level, determine the flowra1;e as a function-of the diameter of the small pipe, D.

+ 0.2 m

FIGURE P3.32

12- +X1 t it :LI


ThtJSJ

Z :: {J:J,.
I

..,

-1-]1: +.
~

2-

where Z,:: Z2. t4nrJ ~ -:::0.

k = b r +ff z.,f r
Bi/t IJ!-:::x and
X

t'f::: D,2m +x
+X or
=

Sf)

-Ihat

+ ::
Il'"
J

O.2m

V, == f-------2-1 (0.')..",)
Thus

(2 ('1.81 /i) (0. :1-/11))k '2.:::

1.98-fL

Q ::; II, Vt ::: f (o.linl- (I.?!.p.) ~

0.01,56!f-3

for olJy D

3-1-9

3.33

J
(3)

3.33 The.speed of an airplane through the air is obtained by use of a Pitot-static tube that measures the difference between the stagnation and static pressures. (See Video V3.4.) Rather than indicating this pressure difference (psi or N/m2) directly, the indicator is calibrated in speed (mph or knots). This calibration is done using the density of standard sea level air. Thus, the air speed displayed (termed the indicated air speed) is the actual air speed only at standard sea level conditions. If the aircraft is flying at an altitude of 20,000 ft and the indicated air speed is 220 knots, what is the actual air speed?

...... (4)
r--

v.==V I

PI
V
p

:=

V 2 ::: 0
(1)

(2)

~~ooo
or

3-30

3.3Lf
3.3'1
Streams of water from two tanks impinge upon each other as shown in Fig. P3.3'1. If viscous effects are negligible and point A is a stagnation point, determine the height h.
Free jets

20 ft

1 1
h

1
FIGURE P3.3Jf

t8ft
~

.()- ~~ z. - ~/I .xl ~ -II( + ').1 + 2. ,,- T + ~I' +.c/J


Thus
or

where Ii. =-0.) ~:::- 0 J

2',.:::- h+~()rl

~ =0.1 a/Jd ~ = 2.() If

h +2. 0 II ::: .If; f- 2 () If


(I)

h == i!f
.:: i'

II/so;
fJ, 'h2. 4" + '-I + Z,

~+

').j

VtJ..2. Z

+ 1'1

TAv.sJ

.If::: 'f +z,


h
=-

-219

If +z, -

Z.19

3-31

3.35

I
:US A O.15-m-diameter pipe discharges into a a.IO-m-diameter pipe. Detennine the velocity head in each pipe if they are carrying 0.12 ro 3/s of kerosene.

m' O./Z-S m \I, "..Q. - 1( = 6.79$ I /II


'I'

O,/sm)

and
0.12.

f (o.lom)'
Thvs,
\/"

;s-

",3

" 15.271}

"1 alld

v,

(';.7?f!1/ _ -:"::;':':"'-"f" 2. 35m.


2. (9.9I-f;,)

2, "

v. '

2(9;8/~) =

(ls.'Z.7!}l

II." 111

3-n

3.36

J
Water flows upward through a variable area pipe with a constant flowrate, Q, as shown in Fig. P3.36. If viscous effects are negligible, determine the diameter, D(z), in terms of D\ if the pressure is to remain constant throughout the pipe. That is, p(z) = Pl.

3.36

ICf'
I

Z~_D(Z)!
FIGURE P3.36 .....

.1

l-Dl_L
I
J

(1)

or will; I' = fJ; and

z, =0

tQ

V, -V =2<;i!

2.

2-

and V=-f
Thus)

'f~)2. (JfQ)2.. (TiD/~ 2pE


TtI)2-

or
..l...
I

DII-

-11

3-33

..3.37

I
rOpen
V = 20 ftls

3.37 Water flows steadily with negligible viscous effects through the pipe shown in Fig. P3.37. Determine the diameter, D, of the pipe at the outlet (a free jet) if the velocity there is 20 ft/s.

15 ft :::; h

-111.5 I,. do""'"


fen
FIGURE P3.37

or

V, == 8.83 !1BtJf AI Vj = A:l ~


.1t D'- (8 i3 H) 'f-I S

fhtff =F /). 2.(2.0 if) r:.z.


So
oS

or

4. =( 8~~3) ,.(ff fI) == 0.0831 ff::

O. '197 in.

3,38

J
3.38 The circular stream of water from a faucet is observed to taper from a diameter of 20 rnm to 10 IJ1m in a distance of 50 cm. Determine the flowrate.

I!!- +
~

')..~

~ 2. +Z
I

= -1'2._ + v,,2. + E
T '-1
2
J

0.5f)

:!

":;) (/J

D = o.O:Lom

where A ;::f2, ': 0 J Z,-- =0 and II Q v.: - ()


VI -

Z, ==

o. son

L.
Q

('-) D ;:: O. 0/0", 2.

7f;

2. -

liz

~~

(%t + 21i!, = ("*J' or Q [(.;~*~)r = ,


=

tI

II:J. fii2,
-(/J:J./A)'J.

or Since

112 - (- A. )2. we obfRin A,-o,

Q-

_ 11.( J -(D.zID,)7J - 'I- 0,010n, 1I2jz/


_

)2.[

2(9.eI'f;.)(O,SOfIJ1
,_( 0.0/0

~If

f), fJ2.0 )

m3 =2,5Lf x/a S

3-35

3.3 'I

3.3Q Water is siphoned from the tank shown in Fig. P3.39. The water barometer indicates a reading of 30.2 ft. Determine the maximum value of h allowed without cavitation occurring. Note that the pressure of the vapor in the closed end of the barometer equals the vapor pressure.

Closed end

30.2 ft

(0)
3 in. diameter

5 in. diameter

FIGURE P3..3Q
2.-

ft t Vi r 2.1
Thv,s,
bllf

+Z

where jJ/ -=0 J

V;

::;-0 J fJz

=Ivaplr

Z, =,22 ::0
fVlltPfJl'

ft

o-

0'

+ '(,,2. + 6 f f

21

10 +.30, '). II r ::11 or .since ft:::: {Ji/(/.por J


+ ~.t of 6 II :1-1

f/lapor
~

-30,')..

It

lIe/)c8.;

o = -30.:2. if
Tf;vs J

l{::

3 q. .!'

!I11.3 = Vz A;z ,

Since or

'vi = 1'I-,21J
o

HiJwever)
~ fAll

zi +z, :::

VJZ

LJ.a ./L::!.

+-

V: +28
or

or ~ = Y2-?h

ThtJ.s J
I if. 2 f1 s =

';2. (32.Zli ) h ;/
s~

h::::3. 13 ff

3-36

.3. 'f0
3.40 An inviscid fluid flows steadily along the stagnation streamline shown in Fig. P3.40 and Vidt'H \l3_l, starting with

speed Vo far upstream of the object. Upon leaving the stagnation point, point ( I), the fluid speed along the surface of the object is assumed to be given by V"" 2 Vo sin 8, where (I is the angle indicated. At what angular position, 61, should a hole be drilled to glve a pressure difference of PI - P2 = pV~/2? Gravity is negligible.

Vo ----;;(0)

FIGURE P3.40
L

~ 11.'" ~ IlL I.+:z.f "'/t+2.PV/

where V,
Thvs,

v. ::f.. +~ :z.f~

=0

f, - P ..

'i p (v,.'" - W'J ~ d(' ~L


d r v/ then v.. " V.
'"

sO fh"f if

f, - f1,. ='
Th"lis:
~ '" 2
ntlJc8;
II

V. sih ~
() __

Vo

or

Stn~==2.

. "

..L

30' =

.3.'fI
.l.41 A eelain vacuum cleaner can create a vacuum of2 kPa just inside the hose. What is the velocity of me air inside the

hose?

OJ

fl +f p~ 2. "f:z. + t p where II ::0, ~ '" 0 .so fhal


~ !I.'" f",=-:z.f2.

V,:

/ / / / / 1/ / ///111/7

3.JL .J. k ~ -2.XIO 1112. ~ -2.(1.~3!J3) ~

flence J

3-37

3.4f2

3.42 Water from a faucet fills a 16-oz glass (volume = 28.9 in. 3 ) in 10 s. If the diameter of the jet leaving the faucet is 0.60 in., what is the diameter of the jet when it strikes the water surface in the glass which is positioned 14 in. below the faucet?

= 0.852 it ...s
HenceJ __------------------~--, 1:1. 2 tf )(111- fl + (0. BS2.s) ) ( Vz. = 2 3.2..:2.-;2. n:. T 2 (3.2..2 {tao)

8.7/

Ii .s

But, 11, ~ 112 Vz.


%

SI)

fhal
k (0.8.1111 BS2 7 )2-(0
F+
.$
.0

or
3,113

- (Ji) D 2.- V,2.

f) '/ --

LO ,n)

:: 0.188 il'l.

I
0.2 m : (I) ;;~ :.;;~::;:: C"" 0.2*3 ~ '/h ~/" /////////////~ 1-1

3.43 A smooth plastic, lO-m-long garden hose with an inside diameter of 20 mm is used to drain a wading pool as is shown in Fig. P3.43. If viscous effects are neglected, what is the flowrate from the pool?

FIGURE P3.3

zg Thus}
~

./!!- + '0:L + i!

where

11:r /3.. == 0 J
(- O.'].3hJ)~

~I

:: O.

')../1'1

2 2. :: - O.23m .I

and

~I =0

~=f2~(Z,-Z2)i - 2 .7.s ~Q.!1l -

(2. (9.8/ ~)(O,2 m -

k
2.

Q = fJ2. ~ =-f(o.02-0ml(2.90!P-)

or

= '1.1/ X/O'f./ff-3

3. iflf

3.11-'1Carbon dioxide flows at a rate of 1.5 ft 3 / s from a 3in. pipe in which the pressure and temperature are 20 psi (gage) and 120 of into a 1.5-in. pipe. If viscous effects are neglected and incompressible conditions are assumed, determine the pressure in the smaller pipe.

o(I)
D - ':I,,,' .
I-~

::_---.....:.-=c:.:..~):....;,o
D ;: I,S/I'). 2.

Tillis,
f:;. :::; fJ, + i

f ( ~ 2. -

~'")

.:: 2.

Ib ero 7["

- .53. I f[z. ==

I"

If, 2.J 82-71f2.

(Jr
~

::; 19. 63 psi 9 Q g e

3-39

3. 45

I
r--

3.1f5

Oil of specific gravity 0.83 flows in the . pipe shown in Fig. P3.IfS If viscous effects are neglected, what is the flowrate?

4 in:=

Water~ ~ (tAl ~ -. f1in

FIGURE P3. Jf.5

tl orz, ~ Z:;.

TVt

i ll--;a=o.83

~ (.liT

()1
(I)

)1

7"
LJ,

+ ..!.L + :z
~i

112.

~I

= T -r~
L ....

1)

V/,

-1--::2

~2

where

and V, ~ 0

Thus,

21 but,
and

V;- _ 1'1 -I':l.


)"

fl., :: ~ +rJ :::; If + oj


fJ:z.:: 't (J, + h) -

i}n h -f fll(2)

Thv!'J

ft - fz

:: ( ~ -l') h
(I) aIJrk (2.)

Comhine ,05.

.1 ' ./ (.62,.'ffl3 )'.!i:r/l 1 v.. = V2~V\-") = v2.!(1- ) h =1 2(321.t/-.)~O.83(6';fff.r J 6 .."1


1

10 obtain

,h

or

Vz = 2.lo!f
=1l2. ~ =-f(!r.n)2.(z.lo!j)

ThtJ-s,
Q

=0.183 ~

"'?-ifo

3.'f6

.3.16

Water flows steadily from a large open tank and discharges into the atmosphere through a 3-in.-diameter pipe as shown in Fig. P3.46. Determine the diameter, d, in the narrowed section of the pipe at A if the pressure gages at A and B indicate the same pressure.

p~ + ~ e~2 + ~Zlf == f:J. + if '6.2. +i'z~

where

Z2.::

and 1:l.~O
0)

Thus.! since
HOllleve~

13 + t e~2 + i'r.1Iso that

14 =1'"
== f: pVs2.

fl + ie~2..,.
or Vz. ""

r2, := fL +ipli2. +~E2..1 where It -::'11- ~ ~~Z2.


#0

t. pv,.2. ;: ~i!,

Y2fz,' =y;.,;; =(2.(32.. 2 ~~}(16 fI)]~ 32.di/.s


~ -/Sto l/,lfl:J.
(2)

Bvl f.3 + 1: P~2. t rZ.3 ~ f~ + i p\{2. f r 22. "hers ~ ~ ~ since 112. ~1l.3
ThllsJ

1.3::; -rZ3:: -(16+Q)fI(6,..Jl-l bltl3 )


From Efs. OJ ana (,.):
-1,s&0

.
:=

jtJ. f i

(I.9'1-

~') '42.

1::(1,9'1- ::~9f) (:l21/i})2-

or
~ ;:: ~t./

11/0$

Since A~ ~ =,42. V,. if follows 1h~f

a~~
or

=1/):1.2. v,.

d '" L>.. V~'

'" (3io.)

3,..1111.r
~.I T /0$

-~1t--I.~ ,/

= 2.5 0 in.

3-if/

3,'1-7

I
Determine the flowrate through the pipe in Fig. P3.47.

3.47

FIGURE P3,,1f7

where z, =- Z2. and l.'2.::: 0

2.20s

Tho.s J Q== II, ~ = -: (0,08 m)2. ('1. .20 !f) :::

0.0/11

if

.3. '1-8
3.48 Water flows steadily with negligible viscous effects through the pipe shown in Fig. P3.48. It is known that the 4In. diameter section of thin-walled tubing will collapse if the pressure within it becomes less than 10 psi below atmospheric pressure. Determine the maximum value that h can have without causing collapse of the tubing.

FIGURE P3.4B

or

h=

/,3/

fl

3 . Ifq

I
3. ljq For the pipe enlargement shown in Fig. P3.lf'1. the pressures at sections (1) and (2) are 56.3 and 58.2 psi, respectively. Detennine the weight flow rate (Ibis) of the gasoline in
the pipe.

<21

FIGURE P3./fQ

or

~( 1-(4;f)
or

=
0.'190

Vt~2.I.'f!}

tUld

~=!l,~=:e/';f'f(21.'f~/) '"
==.$=

if

Thvs, O'Q =

If2.S"#-, (0.'1-90.[/) = ZO.8!E.

3.50

I
3.50
Water is pumped from a lake through an 8-in. pipe at a rate of 10 (1 3/ 5. If viscous effects are negligible, what is the pressure in the suction pipe (the pipe between the lake and the pump) at an elevalion 6 ft above the lake?

ill e

0J

ilL " 6.0

II

'I

(/o ij!)

1T(lfIY

28.6!f

3 -'15

.3.5/
b

Air flows through a Venturi channel of rectangular cross section as shown in Video V3.6 and Fig. P3.51 The .(1) constant width of the channel is 0.06 m and the height at the exit is 0.04 m. Compressibility and viscous effects are negligible. (a) Determine the flowrate when water is drawn up 004 13'::: 0.10 m 0.10 m in a small tube attached to the static pressure tap at . m 1 the throat where the channel height is 0.02 m. (b) Determine the channel height, hz, at section (2) where, for the same flowrate as in part (a), the water is drawn up 0.05 m. (c) Determine the pressure needed at section (I) to produce this Water flow. FIG U REP 3 . 51
3.SJ

=width =0.06 m
Air

Free jet

(If)

0.04 m

(n

(2.)

(b)

Ih t; +;.; 1- +i.f
2

~2.

:=

Whel'

='

OJ

I:;. =-~.oJ

2. :=

U()X'J.3Ji !.3 (o.asml

m From parr (a) V.f::: 23.,:s


II
I

= - lI90 m:z.

ThllsJ 1n. (~) becomes


- Jf90

--.,...-- +
1'1..0/3

.f-,.

'1,.2

2(q.81!;,)

:::

(~3.1 ~)2.
2 (Q,8'fi)

I or I V2:::

3/
D

r
.,j

m s

8 uf

Vi AA ::: V'I,44'

.so

ihai
r::

(36 ..s.!JL) (o.o6m)h,.


(3)

(u.,!-) (O.06m) (0. o If. m) or

h;. ::O.02.53m

(c) AIsoJ

-r
LJ I
e

-I-

Jj :: ?

\h :z.

fJ!t.

-ii

~ :z.

where fJ/f -:::() and AI ~ :: t9~ ~

Bvf since
{JI ::: f/f
0

/)1:::: (0.0'1-111)( 0.0&,,) :::

lip then V; ~

~ alia EfP. (3) r/ve..s

.3.52
3.52 An inviscid, incompressible liquid flows steadily from the large pressurized tank shown in Fig. P.3.S2. The velocity at the exit is 40 ftls. Determine the specific gravity of the liquid in the tank.

FIGURE P3.52

3.53
3.53 Air (assumed frictionless and incompressible) flows steadily through the device shown in Fig. P3.53. The exit velocity is 100 ft/s. and the differential pressure across the nozzle is 6Ib/ft2 (a) Determine the reading. H, for the water-filled manometer attached to the Pitot tube. (b) Determine the diameter, d. of the nozzle.

FIGURE P3.S3

(a)

fJl + rz, +fpV;2-:: A +Z:). ft:pv,.:z.


where
~ ::: :z2.
J " :: () J

ona l{::: ()

Thus;

/;1. : : dH.1c1 1/ so ij, aT (62,1/- ~) H i ((). 00:1-38 ~if) (100 #iJ. or fI ==


p,. -: : 1: p~ t.
J /;

vi

=:

O. /9/ ff

Hence 61f-,. +t(O,OO').38sX'f)(I/-If."'Ij.)~;: 1(0.00:;"30:'$)~.2


J

or
so

~::= 83.7 s

i
J

th4f with III/ V -:: Q4' :' ~

-fd~ (83.7#) ::: 0.79s


or

d:::; o. /09 ff

3-1

,3.5 if
3.54
The center pivot irrigation system shown in Fig. P3.54 is to provide uniform watering of the entire circular field. Water flows through the common supply pipe and out through 10 evenly spaced nozzles. Water from each nozzle is to cover a strip 30 feet wide as indicated. If viscous effects are negligible, determine the diameter of each nozzle, d i , i = 1 to 10, in terms of the diameter, d!(), of the nozzle at the outer end of the arm.
Supply pipe

Nozzle

It
o

r,

r2.

T3

r;...,

r,'

tV~ fa
I

r,
I

r,o

(Z)

= (rl.2.-t; ...:)
(3fJ02. -'-70"")
I.
_

(3)

r: H 4
30
0.229

ai
in

f rJ,o -

r,2. rI-I t
/7/00
J

,"]4

I
2
.3

60

0.3'17
0.51.3

90

These reslJ/fs are r;il/en

the f.hle.

11-

,,-0
/50

().607

5
6 7

0.688
0.7&/

/80
210
').11-0
270

0.82.7

a
3-'f9

o. seq
O,Q'l-6

10

300

/,00

x=L

x-----"x = 0
0

3.5.5 Air flows steadily through a converging-diverging re. tctangular channel of constant width as shown in Fig. P3.55 and Video V3.6. The height of the channel at the exit and the exit velocity are Ho and V o, respectively. The channel is to be shaped so that the distance, d, that water is drawn up into tubes attached to static pressure taps along the channel wall is linear with distance along the channel. That is, d = (dmax/L) x, where L is the channel length and dmax is the maximum water depth (at the minimum channel height; x = L). Determine the height, H(x), as a function of x and the other important parameters.

......

;: ; ,:

;;Q~~l~~~~~;;;::lZ~r~=:;;:,;;..;n~

III FIGURE P3.55

1-+ z'( -1-1. Pvz. ~ If) 1- Zo 0 4- t (lVo z.


where
-Z cEo
J

wners p::: air dells/I,

{Jo::: 0 J fJ::: - ~LO rJ.


X+
...L
:2.
\I

= - ~D

7hvs
},If

- 0H,.o

J
"''ltIX

I PV2. ::: 2: f Yo .z.

Bvf

AV :::: A0 Vo
I}

()

- Ao V,0 -- 7T flo r V-,CJ

Yo

II

f .s 0 J.1.. In"

- ~.~ or

~rflX +tp(!J; v.t i ev,"

H/Ho vs xlL

. - -.

::J: ::J:

0.8

0.6
xlL

0.4

0.2

3-50

*.3,56

*3.56 Air flows through a horizontal pipe of variable diameter, D = D(x), at a rate of 1.5 ft3/ S. The static pressure distribution obtained from a set of 12 static pressure taps along the pipe wall is as shown below. Plot the pipe shape, D(x), if the diameter at x = 0 is 1, 2, or 3 in. Neglect viscous and compressibility effects.

x (in.)
0 I 2 3 4 5 6

p (in. H 2O)

x (in.)
7 8 9 10 11 12

p (in. H 2O)

1.00 0.72 0.16 -0.96 -0.31 0.27 0.39

0.44 0.51 0.65 0.78 0.90 1.00

L .-

fI~ f D. (f-P. D-V


_J
J..-x ........

ail'

p 1)
J

-.....

_:Ih
water
rN.z.O

If+ (+zo =- f +lj +Z

where

Zo"::Z

n~ V= 1'i 2 + 2('9-/)' 'llilh v.::: Q = 1.5 ~ V0 P D ~ :It D2. If 0 and _ 62. If -Ita . fo-f= ~.ao (ho-h) - 12. 1 (1 m. -h)
LJ nence
J

- 1.91
-

D2 0

.l whereD.",fI
S
J

WI'/'L II

p::: 2.38 X/O

-3.
pf3

1}.

c:

s.20(J-h)

~Jw,:jh h"'in.
(J)

11 we 11' oOTain

V= [(.J,iJ.)2.+

D:

2.38 x /,,3

10.'+ (/-h) k 2 =

j [3.&5 Do'"
so
-

-l- '1-370 (j-h)

~u :2.

Also AV:::Q or IllV:::(f


J

fhtrl
J

if~]~ ,... - [ 7l'V DD-=

- [(J'#fq~ 7T.$

1.38; VV

or when comhined wilh


.
J

Et{,{/J

[3Dl 65 t'l370(J-h)J ~l ~

t382

H where Do'V ff h,., /1).


J

(3.)

Plot D= /)(X) with Do:= if J and f fl) vsiIJ9 fhe va/lies of /,::/'(X) fro/TJ the lahle. Nofe : h i.s the SQIIJ(; a I/(J On. liz. 0)'1 in Ihe tab/e. AII EXCEL pro9r4m W~J' used If) ob/fA/1i fhe fol/oUl/II, re.rvl/u.

+J

(con'-fJ
3-5/

~3,.s6

r (con 'f)
x, in. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

0, ft (Do = 1/4 ft) 0.24996 0.20277 0.16776 0.13999 0.15299 0.17245 0.17841 0.18123 0.18558 0.19616 0.20944 0.22710 0.24996

0, ft (Do = 1/6 ft) 0.16664 0.15733 0.14435 0.12870 0.13667 0.14649 0.14902 0.15015 0.15179 0.15537 0.15911 0.16300 0.16664

0, ft (Do = 1/12 ft) p, in. H2O 0.08332 1.00 0.08299 0.72 0.08234 0.16 0.08112 -0.96 0.08182 -0.31 0.08247 0.27 0.39 0.08260 0.44 0.08266 0.08274 0.51 0.08291 0.65 0.08306 0.78 0.08320 0.90 0.08332 1.00

Dvsx
0.30 0.25 0.20
~--9

j
I I

",

: I

-~

= c
~

0.15

. ,....'
..........

. ..

-------,~-.;;.~~ .",-

"

.....

.. _ .. -1- .. .. .,.
:

i
.

... '" ... t ,._._J


_-!'H __

------1 ,
~I
'
-

i
, I

- -

'-":
I
I

-1
-------.1

I I
,

!
~!
--1 I

- - - 0 - -0 -0

= 1/4 ft '1 =1/6 ft I =1/12 ft

0.10 - --.-~.--~+-----, 0.05


,
I

I
i i i I

,
I I

0.00 0 2

6
x, in.

10

12

I
I

I I

3-052-

3.57

I
357 The vent on the lank shown in Fig. P3.57 is closed
and the tank pressurized to incr~se the f1owrate. What pressure, PI' is needed to produce twice the flowrate of that when the vent is open'?

Wi/;' ihe veil! open:

FIGURE P3.57

r 2.!

+~

+2

'

= J,;. r Z?

A.

1-:' -I-&Z +2..

~~'------'

TIIVS, 11,' z , =L Zj

or

To hove dovUe fhe f/gwrafe /'liM Ihe veil! clfMed (j'l 10):

./.Ju, ==..Y:. , ~

where fot'th;.s uue

1Iz.: 2. (:z.s./ffi) ~ 6

.>0.8

II

(< ~',J,) t/ofl ==


t2.'1''fP

ThVJ} Il

(SO.8!t/
2.(.32.2 Si)
fl

or

It ==

Ih . /87671'- = 1:l.OpS,

3-53

- 3.581
Water flows steadily through the large tanks shown in Fig. P3 ..sS. Determine the water depth, h A

3.58

For sfeady (low)

QI/- ~!9~

w/fA

Also;

-1.1-+ ~:L +z r ')..1 I


V.2.

.so fhaf

=,f2fh//
or

Thus}

1i2.~ ==cr~

f(O.03hJi";2(9.81f;.)~j

= O.O/J-31}3

3-5'1-

/ 0.6-in.

0.5 in. Hg vacuum

3.5'1

Air at 80 of and 14.7 psia flows into the tank shown in Fig. P3.59. Determine the flow rate in ft 3/s.lb/s. and slugs/so Assume incompressible flow.

dja~eter

(I) Q

.(2.)

t
FIGURE P3.Sq

~ump

3-55

3.60

'J

(0)

.-.-.-:::-'.' .'.'.'-:-' :j:-

3. 60 Water flows from a large tank as shown in Fig. P3. 6o.. Atmospheric pressure is 14.5 psia and the vapor pressure is 1.60 psia. If viscous effects are neglected. at what height, h. will ~avi tation begin? To avoid cavitation should the' value of DI be
mcrea~ed or dec reased'! To avoid cavitation should the val ue of D~ be increased or decreased? Explain.

FIGURE P3. 60

where f10 ; 1'1. 5psio. ,/'t ~ 1.60 pSia, E.; h, Z, ~o, and V. ~O
(I)

How.ver, A, V, "11~ V,

Or

11

=(

where

z: r~
wah

= - D,

( D.)'"h.

(2)

Ih( 1'f1fWin?) ( IIf.5 -./.60 ) In?

6:z..'f N'

'h [

e::J -'J
..

,1

(3)

From y. (J) il is seen fhaf h increases in increasing D, and. c1ecreo.in9 D:z.. Thvs, fo avoid cavilaf;.n (,; ~. to have h slnall enot/9h) D, should be increq.sec1 and 4. decreased.

3-56

3.61

Water flows into the sink shown in Fig. P3.61 at a rate of 2 gal! min. If the drain is closed, the water will eventually flow through the overflow drain holes rather than over the edge of the sink. How many OA-in.-diameter drain holes are needed to ensure that the water does not overflow the sink? Neglect viscous effects.

=fy +if +%2.


V 1 .. V2,~,
Also) Q ::: n A2. 14 :: n ~

, where

It "0, V, =0, Inti. .21"ti fJ.. =0


2 .5i'

=[2(32..2. Jj) ( 1+/~2. ff)] ~ =


J

ff.

f d; V:z.
19GJ

where n:: IJlllflher of PfJles reqlJired,l Q2. := o. 'I in; and. C;::: c,nfraction coel.
= 0.61 (see ri'1.3.19)

ThlJs~ with J Q 2 w,( I ""'" ) (~31 in. )

111111

60.s

(_

17'-8 m.3

I fl~ ):::

~, ~tx/O".J fi.!
.&

3-57

3.62

3.(i2

What pressure, PI' is needed to produce a flowrate of 0.09 ft 3/s from the tank shown in Fig. P3.62?

FIGURE P3.62

If + :i +
ThusJ

Z2. "

1- +{f +j!~

where -/'2.:: f1 + ~ h J
and
~::tO

fJ3 -: 0

"Z2 :: 3.6 fl J Z3 =0

11 + Ooh

or

where
31.8-

o( 2~
or fJl ==
7'1-6

\lg2.
- Z2. ) -

t"h

== (1./

(6J..1f

7i;

Ib

[( 3

I 8 :!. ~ ) 2-

2.(32.. 2.

~~)

- '12.5 ~ (2,0{-0

- 5./8 ps/

3-S8

3.63 ,
3.63
Laboratories containing dangerous materials are often kept at a pressure slightly less than ambient pressure so that contaminants can be filtered through an exhaust system rather than leaked through cracks around doors, etc. If the pressure in such a room is 0.1 in. of water below that of the surrounding rooms, with what velocity will air enter the room through an opening? Assume viscous effects are negligible.

~ ~
I

v,~o

V2. (1)rL ........-. ..----.-..--.

(I) -/71111111/77 -

I { vise oV.s e (feefs


or

tJ,,~
1/2.

neqligihle
J '"

I '

I v.2. I,. + ..L I, +'2 P,:: ,.. f v,.

here V, ~ 0

4fJd

It -/2 :: i'azo h

p, - f:J.::: (~fI)('2.1f {t3) ;;0.520 ~


~ ==[ 2 (prp,.J ] ~ == [
2.
J

Thus

e]

2 (0.520 Ib/I/1.) O.OO:J.39SIIJ1s/113

]~ -:=

20.9

Ji
.s

3-SQ

3. 61f

3.6/f Water is siphoned from the tank shown in Fig. P3.6'f. Determine the ftowrate from the tank and the pressures at points (1), (2), and (3) if viscous effects are negligible.
(1)

FIGURE P3.6.1f

fJo
~

of

~~.L.-o

'v" 2. + =z

::

-(1,- +

~.2.. + 2. f '

"

Of' 6 ::

~'I;; ~

(I)

For t';:: 5 and 1'0::: 0 J Va i!.0 = + Es or

:;2.

Vs"";

=-0)

fJs =::0 flus become.s 2 ~ ( Eo - Z.s)' = 1,--2-(3-.2.-2_~:~:--)-(3-ff--"')


I

-,-L
I

Q:: /}s 'Is ::: .;-( -Ii: fl)'L(I.3,q fj) = 0.303 ~


Fro/IJ r.(I)

n/Js)

= /3.'1

l
~

with

l-::/ a/Jd

t{:::o J

Fro/1J E'[ II) wifh /=2 J LO = + E:z. where 1J2. ~ ::: flo!' ~ ~ ~'SJ/Jce f}2::' 115 if f()llows that L{:::~ or ;; = =20-Z,5
.j.

:Ij

i,

~ =(62,Lf ffa)( 8 (I) :7l9?fA

= o(Zo-Z,)

2;

Thus}

1- =

Z!o -22. -

:2.1 =Eo-%:z. -

~2.

~!1.

,.;

=Zo -22. -(Zo-Es )


=i!
:5

or

-22-

11 :: t(zs -~2.) =(62,1- -/fo)(s if) = 3/2-ffo.


From
Er{ (J)

wifli t''''3J

20::

where fla ~ :: lis ~ Since 1).3:::115 if fo/lows

Jf + ;:f+Z.3
2-

thai

~ t:: Vs or ~;

~2.
=-

2..1 =&0 -Zs

~ 2.

Thvs J

:fi; = Z!~ -2'3 -

2.

Zo-E3 - ; ; :: %. -2.3 -(Zo-Es)


:; Zs :0

o~ =t(zs -%3) =(62.'1' ~~)(-.3fI) -/B7~


3- 60

z,3

3.65

3.65 Redo Problem 3. 61f if a l-in.-diameter nozzle is placed at the end of the tube.

~)

(1)

fJo

i' +

2.7

\4, 2.

+Zo 2.

..t2.

~ +?-9 +%1

\/,.7.

Ter t J

._/
,/)

(I)

For l ~ 5
:Eo =-

y~

and -/b =0 J
or
11'

~ =- 12.9{~.-:Z5)1= {2.(3Zo2fj-.J (3ff/


:::
/.3.'/

!0::: 0

fJ.s

=0

fhls becomes

Thus J Q =A.s

~ == T

(1)2. ii) _ ::L3 -;z:ff (/3.9 oS - O.07S8 oS

4-

From E'f(!) w/fh i=/ and

it;::o

A:::

a(zo-Z,)

=(6Z./f-#r3)(8f-l) == '1991-2-

Fro/h i/o (J) wilh i


where Since
\J _

~2

i!o::

~ + -!i + ~2.

V.z -

112 V:z. :: A5 ~ A:z. == (~y2.A5 = (t)~.s =LJ.As iT follows that .L ,/ J!:l _ J- (-1- 1/)2. _ J ~2 _ -L ( z )

V.s

or 2~
2-

29

If

7D~ - /6 Zo -

oS

Thus)
fJ:;. ~

= Zo -Z2 - ~
tI

-:=

2'0 - Z2. - -!r(:ZO-Z5)= afl-!t(3ft) == 7. 81 ff

or

Ih ) -Ii =(62 JI- ff.i) (7. 81 PIJ

::. 'f$ 8
20 ==

Ib 7Poj.

From fro (I) w/lh i = 3


where f}.3 ~ e.As or s/nce 113.=!J2.

:t; ~; +Z.3

Vs

then ~::: ~. and

2;

~2
=

2.~ = 16 (zo-2~J

~2.

Thu,s )
~ ~2. - ; ~ L O - Z 3 - 2$ :::Zo-~3-

.-l.. J /6 (Zo-Z5) = -76 (3 {-i) = - /~ PI

or fj

== (62.Jf fP.) (-Tl"H)= - II.

Jl;..

77fi.

Ih

_~-61

I
3.66
Determine the manometer reading, h, for the flow shown in Fig. P3.66.
a08m ... -~ dlameter(J}

0.37 m

1 . . . -_

1--I--H--~
... ----,, M'-~ --0.05 m diameter
Free jet

'c:::=:=l

====
where

..

FIGURE P3.66

Z, =:Ez , ~ -:: 01 and

Thus)

Vz = 0
f1:::: O'h and 122.::: 0' (0.37m)

f, : : f:;.
!lowe Ver, so Ihot

h = 0.37 m

3 -6z.

3.67

.-.,t::::;'"
(f)
(2.)

0.09-m
diameter

t
~

3.67 The specific gravity of the manometer fluitl shown in Fig. P3.67 is 1.07. Determine the volume flowrate, Q, if the flow is inviscid and incompressible and the flowing fluid is (a) water, (b) gasoline, or (c) air at standard conditions.

1
10 mm

o.~

-~~

20 mm=h

4,..--' ....

J
...,.j

FIGURE P3. 67

fluid
fa)

kN O'J m3
9.80

Q)s

m3
-.3

Wc.i-ler (b) ~a.so//ne


(e)

/.06 X /0

air

6,61
/2 X/o- 3

.3 . 02. X /0-.3

O.UB

3-63

3.68
IP-4 fuel (SC = 0.77) flows through the Venturi meter shown in Fig. P3.68 with a velocity of 15 ftls in the 6-in. pipe. If viscous effects are negligible determine the elevation, h, of the fuel in the open tube connected to the throat of the Venturi meter.

3.68

v=

15 fUs

FIGURE 1'3.68

where
and

Z/::O

Z2. ::::

If:::

.f} f-l,

(I)

15 {-I/.s

1!f=-7. S3 ff Buf if=-h so


3.69
3.69

or

that h == Z 53 ff

Repeat Problem 3.68 if the flowing fluid is water rather than IP-4 fuel.

Note from the solution fo Prob lem 3.68

fhai fhe
for

value of 0 is /Jot needed, Thus; h = 7. S3 ff eft her waf er 0 r J P- if r IJ eI.

3-6Lf

3.70
3.70 Air at standard conditions flows through the cylindrical drying stack shown in Fig. P3.70. If viscous effects are negligible and the inclined water-filled manometer reading is 20 mm as indicated, detennine the flowrate.

FIGURE P3.10,

However)
or PI

fJz +~J2. +

Ymh == {1- '0(1- h-~)

where

h =(-zomm)sil)l.
(2)

;12. ""( ~ -I)h +i


~ ( /5 ~ - J) h _
-

By

comhinilJg rt's~(!) and (2)

1;/2. = (!p- -/)h


or
II, VI

--------~--/~5~~--~-------

2 (9. 8/ ~)
~

9. 8tJ X/0 3

/2 .o=!b

,*3

2.35

Thus} Q::: AI 'It ==.:If D/-I/;

==f (2",)2.(2,35.r;)

====

3-65

.3.71
3.71 Water, considered an inviscid. incompressible fluid, flows steadily as shown in Fig. P3.71. Determine h.

FIGURE P3.71

f,

+l-pv,2. ::: f:z. f rzz.+l:pV/1. IIi where ~ '" 0 %;L::.3 (I, Va '" 0, and ~ '" -1;:= ; ;f/J'"
-I-

l~

= S. 09

f1

IhvsJ

oS'

1'1 + t (1,9'1 !'ff;) (.()9 fj l' := 12.


or " - f"
=: /

+ 62.

oil-if, (3 f.I)
(I)

t:J.

-Jf,.
.J.

B,,1 from fhe h14f1omelerJ


(JJ -rJ-l3flJ or
f,-d2,1f

a(h+/.) ::: Iz

-fp (3ft) ~62.Jf ~ h = /,362.'fh

lienee,

f, : :
Qr

f% + le7 -

wlll~1J

whslJ C()/JIbilJDd wilh t. II) ,ive.r

It.. + 117 -J2.'fh - f1~ -:: / bJ.


h=
OJI-ooff

3-66

3. 72.

I
-- --:-::=:=::----:..:-:-:-::=:

~ ::----:::::--_-:..:-:---::=:= :..::=::-

\1

(/)

3.72 Determine the flowrate through the submerged orifice shown in Fig. P3.72 if the contraction coefficient is Cc = 0.63.

4ft

3-in.

=f='f
f

1('2.)

6ft

(.3)

2ft
/

diameter ...

FIGURE P3. 7~

where

fJl:::O J ~:::O J zl::.'1f~ Z2.=O J qnd =2 ff

'l

3-67

3.73

3.7;3 Determine the flowrate through the Venturi meter shown in Fig. P3.73 if ideal conditions exist.
'Y = 9.1 kN/m 3

FIGURE P3.73

.J..+ ~l +Z =.:b:. + v;.2 + Z '0 2.i I K' 2-9 2.


ThlJs) tl+

(~rtv;
'2-~
"

2(9.8/~) (9.1~) m

(73S

-s50)kPa

== ZI,5!}-

I /9 him )If I - t3/mm

3-68

3.7'13.74

I
\
For what flowrate through the Venturi meter of Prob.
Q

3.73 will cavitation begin if PI ., 275 kPa gage, atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa (abs), and the vapor pressure is 3.6 kPa (ab')?

t '---.)~,k'----1\ I

- - :)31rm .cn

.(') 19mm /
')' _ 9.1 kN/m3 /

(I)

.!.. + WI. +.i? =.:IJ,.

~'J

'

r 2.7

It..\ z
2

where Z," 1!:2.


and

11 =(pH/OI)kfQ(Qbsl
= 376 kPa labs)

~ =-3.6 KI'~

Thvs, wl/h A, l'J' ;: 112 Vt.

or V z " 30.6 -!}

Thvs, .".Ll" Q=/12 v.. =v

2.

v,"" ' )" m) -3 m 3 :z. = -:y:- (0.01'1 m (30.65 =8.68 X/O "S

3-69

3.75
3.75 What diameter orifice hole, d, is needed if under ideal conditions the ftowrate through the orifice meter of Fig. P3.7S is to be 30 gal/min of seawater with PI - P2 = 2.37 Ib/in.2? The contraction coefficient is assumed to be 0.63.

FIGURE P3.75

2. ( Ib) (.3.06 .fi) + 2. (32 .2 .i) 2.37 X11I-'11p .s oS 2. 6'1: 0 J.li . ft3

or

v,. == IB~8 fj

Thvs J since

Q = 112. Vz = ~

d. =[

'IQ
7l'Cc

V,.

f d2. ~ if {QI/ows fh47 ~Ji=[ 17' x 0.0668 .~e J~ o.08'f7ff J (O,63)(l8,Bf)

:=

1.016 //1,

3-70

.3.76
3.76 An ancient device for measuring time i~ shown in Fig. P3.76. The axisymmetric vessel shaped so that the water level falls at a constant rate. Determine the shape of the vessel, R :::J R(z), if the water level is to decrease at a rate of 0.10 m/hr and the drain hole is 5.0 mm in diameter. The device is to operate for 12 hr without needing refilling. Make a scale drawing of the shape of the vessel.

is
I

-!l~~J.o-mm diameter
~, l~

the flow l.s assumed fo he tj /I tJ. oS i - .s Ie Q rly,


jf

FIGURE P3.76

z, = z./
Thus) \42. =
Z?

and Z2- ~o

2?

'vj2. t

which} if ~ ~ (i, e. R s, OhJhJ~ become.s


and l{ = I~I = 0./ T,.(-3,/6~~.s)
== 2.. 7B X /0- ~
5 5

'4 =y2IJZ' Since AI Vt "Az ~


we ob1ain
1T R2 (2,78 X10

.p-) = -f-(o.oosm)2.
~m

J2 ('1.8 J1;.) Z

where Rand z are

Thu.s,
or
z. m
0 0.02 0.05 0.12 0.22 0.32 0.42 0.52 0.62 0.72 0.82 0.92 1.02 1.12 1.22

B = o. qqB zu;'
R.m
0 0.375 0.472 0.587 0.683 0.751 0.803 0.847 0.886 0.919 0.950 0.977 1.003 1.027 1.049
Vessel Radius, R, vs Water Level, Z

1.0 0.8
E N

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4


R,m

0.6

0.8

1.0

3-71

3.7B* A spherical tank of diameter D has a drain hole of diameter d at its bottom . A vent at the top of the tank maintains atmospheric pressure within the tank. The flow is quasisteady and inviscid and the tank is full of water initially . Determine the water depth as a function of time , /! = h(t) , and plot graphs of h(t) for tank diameters of 1, 5, 10, and 20 ft if d = 1 in.

~t~\ZI =

1+ ~i+i!z
At ~ =' Az ~
?IPes
(I)

where fJ; ='0 J fJz" 0 J z/ "'h, Zz ='0 and Thvs) . V z jh' which when cumbined IIIdh

=12.

-II/I/t =11:.y7.1l or - rr r:1.4f = dzY:l.jh' where R:1.:= rZ +(h -R)' ~


wdh
Thvs)

r=v R'--(h-R;'-'

R,=4- =radivs of lank


so

h-R

w:;
beco~i9.s

flJflt

s.{/)

-[R'--(h-RJ'J 4; 1/2.1h or (h 3/z, _ 2Bh li) dh = d2.fi Jt


h

;t '"
=

whid elln 6e infe9rafed from the il'll/tfil limo aAd deplh (t=o, h '" 2.R) fg dII or6drdry f;m~ aMdepll! (UI) as

Yh%.-2Rh'1.)dh

dZ.pfdt

2R 0 or . d2.1/2i 1;(H~i_(2.Rt2)_::R(h3/z._(2Rf2) = t Use d= ,i ff (wi j=32.2 ~ and pM !J=h(I) fu/' valves of R = o..s J 2.S J..s:; Q/ld III II !Vole: .It is easier to solve r. (2.) as t s t (h) rafhe r

:7

(2)

fhl/n h =hit)

3-72.

J.71A. I (con'/.)

Results of an EXCEL Program to calculate h(t) from Eqn. (2): D=1ft t, s h,ft 0.00 1.000 0.09 0.950 0.35 0.900 0.77 0.850 1.34 0.800 2.05 0.750 2.89 0.700 3.84 0.650 4.91 0.600 6.06 0.550 7.30 0.500 8.60 0.450 9.94 0.400 11.31 0.350 12.69 0.300 14.06 0.250 15.37 0.200 16.61 0.150 0.100 17.72 18.62 0.050 19.14 0.000 D=5ft t, S h,ft 0 5.000 5 4.750 19 4.500 43 4.250 75 4.000 114 3.750 161 3.500 215 3.250 274 3.000 339 2.750 408 2.500 481 2.250 556 2.000 632 1.750 710 1.500 786 1.250 859 1.000 929 0.750 990 0.500 1041 0.250 1070 0.000 D = 10 ft t, s h,ft 0 10.00 28 9.50 110 9.00 242 8.50 422 8.00 647 7.50 913 7.00 1216 6.50 1552 6.00 1917 5.50 2308 5.00 2718 4.50 3143 4.00 3577 3.50 4014 3.00 4445 2.50 4862 2.00 5253 1.50 5603 1.00 5889 0.50 6053 0.00 D = 20 ft t, S h,ft 0 20 158 19 620 18 1370 17 2390 16 3661 15 5163 14 6876 13 8778 12 10846 11 13055 10 15376 9 17782 8 20237 7 22706 6 25144 5 27502 4 29714 3 31695 2 33311 1 34239 0

3-7.3

Water Depth vs Time D=1ft

Water Depth vs Time D=5ft


5,----:--~-----,--..,..........-...,.----.

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 _ 0.5 -= .c 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
--~-

----t-I

:-i=:.--"<=~ -=~--=:~---'----i--~---l
3
+---t---T---+----r---r-----+----1

.c

-= 3+---~--~--~---+-------~
2
+-_~--4-~~-~_--+--~

2 +----+----'-

O+---+--+--+---+---;-..L--!

10

15

20

200

400

600

800 1000 1200

t,s

t,s

Water Depth vs Time D 10 ft

Water Depth vs Time D 20 ft

10
9

,----~-----,-----r--,

20,------..,..........----~---------~

18
-1---\_ _-

-t\---~-.

----:-----1I
!

8
7 6
5

~:~--~--~~----~:--~~
12
+--~--'<+--

-+----1
--II

-= 10 .c

+------~--~-~--+-_4

:~--~--~--~--~
2

--I

o +-------~----~r_-----4--~ 6000 4000 2000 o


t,s

O+----~----_r--~~~~

10000

20000 t,s

30000

40000

3-79

3.7q* An inexpensive timer is to be made from a funnel as indicated in Fig. P3.7C(. The funnel is filled to the top with water and the plug is removed at time t = 0 to allow the water to run . out. Marks are to be placed on the wall of the funnel indicating the time in 15-s intervals, from o to 3 min (at which time the funnel becomes empty). If the funnel outlet has a diameter of d = 0.1 in., draw to scale the funnel with the timing marks for funnels with angles of 8 = 30,45, and 60. Repeat the problem if the diameter is changed to 0.05 in.

Plug

FIGURE P3.7q

.L + VI 2. + Z ~ 2'1 I

= -J2.,. +
J

V: +2 r ~9
~
=:

(I)
;J.

r - R--..t

where "'::: 0

22 ::: OJ

:if =- oJ and ~:::!*- ~


0
J

ThIlS, if R \{ ~ ';2tjh' which when combined wl1h

-t

11
2

-l ~~ A~ :::A~ li 9ille.s

--.J
(I)

-IJ,-# :::A2./zgh'
or
9
III)

or

-7TR

1!f =fd:;i~9h'

where R =h ftlne Th!1 s J '1' (I) become.s


h

- h2. tan1-e ~ == /-V2.gh'


t
of t~o as
Ct.1II

h / 2 dh = ~"f{8 di which
L

De infeprqied From h =ho

(h3/3.'d' = _ d1. Yii Sdl: J . n l/- tlJn"8


ho
0
.

or 1f

2-

[5~

h - h.

54] _-

'f

d 2{ij

flJll~() t
(2)

ThvsJ
5A

h= [h
.

5/2
0 -

d2. V2i"'t] 8 Ttln2.e


},

.2/5

!J) (180 s ) . ho ~. = .8 + 28 which when combined an ~ w/fh '1' (2.) gives :::[ S d 212 (32'~#:l./iIBOS)J (I _ --L)Z/S h
sd2.1(2(32. 2

Since h ==0 wnen if (ol/ows thaTJ

t = 3m//)
== /80.s

8 tan2.8

180

or

h = /5.2 (

rJ.
fan

e)

/.s

(1-/eO)
(con'i)
3-75

2-,1;

where

h- ft

d~nJ and t~s

(3)

The results of an EXCEL Program using Eqn. (3) to calculate h as a function of t are shown below. The time interval markings for the sixfunnels are shown in the figures on the following page. d=0.1 in.,8=30deg t, s h,ft 0 0.512 15 0.495 30 0.476 45 0.456 60 0.435 75 0.413 90 0.388 105 0.361 120 0.330 135 0.294 150 0.250 165 0.190 180 0.000 d = 0.1 in., e == 45 deg t, s h,ft 0 0.330 15 0.319 30 0.307 45 0.294 60 0.281 75 0.266 90 0.250 105 0.232 120 0.213 135 0.190 150 0.161 165 0.122 180 0.000 d = 0.1 in., t, s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

e == 45 deg
h,ft 0.213 0.205 0.198 0.190 0.181 0.171 0.161 0.150 0.137 0.122 0.104 0.079 0.000

d = 0.05 in., t, s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

e == 30 deg
h,ft 0.294 0.284 0.273 0.262 0.250 0.237 0.223 0.207 0.190 0.169 0.144 0.109 0.000

d = 0.05 in., e == 45 deg t, s h,ft 0 0.190 15 0.183 30 0.176 45 0.169 60 0.161 75 0.153 90 0.144 105 0.134 120 0.122 135 0.109 150 0.093 165 0.070 180 0.000

d = 0.05 in., t, s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 180

e == 45 deg
h,ft 0.122 0.118 0.114 0.109 0.104 0.098 0.093 0.086 0.079 0.070 0.060 0.045 0.000

(colli)
3-76

six funnels (d ~ O.oS in. or

'.' I l.i 1 .----rrl

: i [/ I ' , ! Z i i _ I : Y ; , ;. -h.. " i!: ' -c-+ 1 -i:; 1-+-+-i--1C-+-i--+-#:-++-r+7!V~!+-t-+-'r-+-t .'" ':?-+-t-J-----r-t-';, ~. --l-+- H---+-.L-+ I: ,I I i / ' , .v, I /, -H-+-~t-:.'. ,: ~+-

I'
if

, v,v,, 'I/~.
;

I~

.Y

/,

IV

1/111

I ii'

~..i-H ~;-

y-:
,I

~ /'
I! :

::

+
I

II

~-t-i. , .. , I 'I

I,
. '

"

.'

+++ .

vr I!./'

I '

~ ~.' ...l.. f-C--,.'1-~- ...:......:iT,.

:+r-~'+'~

j-L

3-77

3.80
3.80 The surface area, A, of the pond shown in Fig. P3. SO varies with the water depth, h, as shown in the table. At time t = 0 a valve is opened and the pond is allowed to drain through a pipe of diameter D. If viscous effects are negligible and quasi steady conditions are assumed, plot the water depth as a function of time from when the valve is opened (t = 0) until the pond is drained for pipe diameters of D = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 ft. Assume h = 18 ft at t = O.
h (ft)

FIGURE P3.80

A [acres (1 acre = 43,560 ft2)]

o
2

o
0.3 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.8

4 6
8 10 12 14 16 18

12.::: 0 J z; = h J 22 =-311 and ~ ;: - j <.< ~ which when combined with A~ =112. ~


where -Ii =0 J

OJ

Note:

-2-

( con/f)
3-78

( cO/J'I)

An EXCEL Program using a trapezoidal integration approzimation was used to calculate the results shown below. D h,ft A, acres A, ft2

=0.5 ft
t,s

=1.0 ft
t, s

=1.5 ft
t,s

=2.0 ft
t,s

=2.5 ft
t,s

=3.0 ft
t, s

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

2.8 2.4 1.8 1.5 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.3 0

121968 104544 78408 65340 47916 39204 34848 21780 13068 0

0 32181 59530 82354 101536 117506 132412 145035 153988 157704

0 8045 14882 20589 25384 29377 33103 36259 38497 39426

0 3576 6614 9150 11282 13056 14712 16115 17110 17523

0 2011 3721 5147 6346 7344 8276 9065 9624 9857

0 1287 2381 3294 4061 4700 5296 5801 6160 6308

0 894 1654 2288 2820 3264 3678 4029 4277 4381

The graph for D

=1 ft is shown below.

The shape of the curve is the same for any D.

Water Depth vs Time for D 1 ft

20
18 16

.c

14 12 ~ 10
8 6

~ ....

I~

~ .....

4
2

~ ~

'\..

o o
10000 20000 30000

1...

40000

t, s

3,8 I
J.8'

I
A3

Water flows through the branching pipe shown in Fig. P3.81. If viscous effects are negligible, determine the pressure at section (2) and the pressure at section (3).

= 0.035 m2
10 m

~_------, ;:3 =
(3)

V2 A2
(2)

= 14 m/s = 0.03 m2

10

(7-):

where

Z,:: ~2. -= 0

Qllri

or

(1,. ::: 2,52 XIO

.f-,. : : 2S2 kP.


~'Il ~&

Alon9 fhe sfreamline from (0 10 (3):

t +if +
~1

Z,

= 7' t 4 + 2,3 where


Sf)

Since

rt, =Q,. +Q3 then

(I)

Q3 : : A.J v., =~ .. Q;l =CV, - At. V2.


A.3 -

thai
~

~::: Q,:A1.V2. _ 1111% -O.03","(/1II1,s) =16,t,.!R0,035 / ) ' J 2 . .

TIllIS) '1' flJ becomes


3 .300 X 10

(wtlh

ZJ ~O J Z,J <# 10 11J)


, _ {J3

#/.,2 + flo 1II/.s)'J.

9.801.,03 /'11m3

2 (tl. 81 rnl.s2.} -

9.f}ox/ul Nlm 3

+ (JI. tWJIs)'J.. +-Iom 2-('1,f)1 mIs')

I.J::: 1,lifX/OS f;.

or

: : JIJfkPa

3-80

3.6:2.. Water flows through the horizontal branching pipe shown in Fig. P3.82.at a rate of 10 ft 3 /s. If viscous effects are negligible, detennine the water speed at section (2), the pressure at section (3), and the ftowrate at section (4).

A3

=0.2 ft2
= 20 ft/s

"------..-

V3

From (I) 10

(2.):

From (!) +0 (3) ;


(Jo~l
2(32..2 f{)

or
~ ::: 1/50 ff'- ::: 7.98PSI

Ih

Also}
Q~ :::: Q, - Q,. - Q 3 or
:::

Q, - II:;. \{ - A3 ~
3

() U{1f

:::

IP lOs-

tf ) o.o7fI'J. (2.9.0-:s

f fi) - 3, 9 7 Lst - 0.2 f'.L2. l. l20 oS

3.83
3.83
Water flows from a large tank through a large pipe that splits into two smaller pipes as shown in Fig. P3.83. If viscous effects are negligible, determine the flowrate from the tank and the pressure at point (1).

7m

T
0.02 m

FIGURE P3.,B3

n~

t:; + If
J

f Zo '"

:If 4- lJ':.,. 4.

where A" 0 I 1'2. ,,0


~d~=~

Vo '" 0

zb" 7/1)

Ik ::';21 (Zo -Z20)' = f 2. (9.8Ilfo.) (7- ~)ml


!Similarly

::::: 7, 67.1f

~ '~ Ir+-7-7-( :2--Z-~---,) I = ,;2 ('1.8/ fA) (7 m)' = / /. 7.1f 0

Thvs J

or Q:: f[(O.03h1)"(7.67~) .J.(o.02.m)~(1I.7.p.)J ::: 9./ fJx /o-.3.!J!


Vg=z'f'

Q:: Qz.'" Q 3

::

flt\;2.

-I-

fD;~:J.

Also) -h. t r
or

~I

70
.z;

.fl. Vt'- +'Z r + ~'i I


3

"':"

uJhere
I

2/::::

and
3

\/,:: Q == 9.I()xlo-

.l!J!

_0~[z0 - 2Q V, 2] n J:L. f1 = 7.fo)l./O m3 . T


or

-;z;;
2

7m -

-5 (Jf.63!f- )2.] (0 0(.')


h8Js~

s (0. 0.5 11J)2

=- ~63.1!L

.s

AI =s: 7?X/O.4 m

f1 ::: 5 7. 9 kPo.

3-81-

3,8Lf
20 ft

3. 8/f Water flows through the horizontal Y-fitting shown in Fig. P3.'6/f. If the flowrate and pressure in pipe (1) are QI = 2.3 ft3/ S and PI = 50 Ib/in. 2 determine the pressures, P2 and P3' in pipes (2) and (3) under the assumption that the flowrate divides evenly between pipes (2) and (3).

Ql-"

FIGURE P3.9/f

~(2)
Q2

3-83

3.85 r
3.85 Water flows from the pipe shown in Fig. P3.85 as a free jet and strikes a circular flat plate. The flow geometry shown is axisymmetrical. Determine the flowrate and the manometer reading, H.
1-0.1 m I Diameter

tH

--~~r~=~
\\ I
0.4 mm

1 -II (2)

-1-

.I

0.2 m

i. 'J III r(/)


i,
111
PIPe/blJ

O.Ol-m

diameter

tQ
FIGURE P3.85

where
11. If

(I)
\I V2

7l4.h
D2.
I

Hence Eq.
l

0)

qive.s

(J.6ov"f :: ~2. ~ 2,(fl.81-!k) (0. 2./IJ) or v" = I.Sq.lf .so fhtrf r; .: ~1 v,. = 71 (0,/ PJ)(t;.X!O-IIIh ) (I.sql}) :: 2.00X/O-'"
J

.p-3

3- 8Jf

3.86
3. 86 Air, assumed incompressible and inviscid, flows into the outdoor cooking grill through nine holes of O.40-in. diameter as shown in Fig. P3.96 . If a flowrate of 40 in. 3/s into the grill is required to maintain the correct cooking conditions, determine the pressure within the grill near the holes.

FIGURE P3.86
9 holes, each DAD-in. diameter

Q = qA.z v.z
Thvs~
,..

where
-Q
971D,2.
:2

~ =

9~

A/so J

!. + Z'Vi + )f' lJ2.+ ~ I =..ti:. K'


-=z

V2.'2. -1-:12. where r LJ "-9 I


,

=0

z:: Z and ~::o I ") I

Thlls,

f:;. = - f PV: = - i (2.38 x/o 3

.s};r-) (2..Qlf!j.) 2. = - /.03 x/o-2. #1.

3-85

3.87
3.87 A conical plug is used to regulate the air flow from the pipe shown in Fig. P3.87 . The air leaves the edge of the cone with a uniform thickness of 0.02 m. If viscous effects are negligible and the flowrate is 0.50 m3 /s, determine the pressure within the pipe.

Q '" 0.50 m3 /s
--I~~ -~+-

FIGURE P3.87

3.8a

r3. 98

An air cushion vehicle is supported by forcing air into the chamber created by a skirt around the periphery of the vehicle as shown in Fig. P3. Be. The air escapes through the 3-in. clearance between the lower end of the skirt and the ground (or water). Assume the vehicle weighs 10,000 lb and is essentially rectangular in shape, 30 bySO ft. The volume of the chamber is large enough so that the kinetic energy of the air within the chamber is negligible. Determine the f1owrate, Q, needed to support the vehicle. If the

ground clearance were reduced to 2 in., what f10wrate would be needed? If the vehicle weight were reduced to 5000 Ib and the ground clearance maintained at 3 in., what f10wrate would be needed?

Skirt

\.rr

'If

~~~
. -

,J

Fan

Vehicle

'///////////////////////////////////////////////t//////7,1/,0
3 in.

.'M

L~

11 ..",

To svpporf fhe load

where W= vehlf;!e weigh!

FIGURE P3.89

Also}

and
~1

Ao= (30f/) (50!+) ::: 1500 fll.


F~

.I!E... + \to:L +.z. :::: -A- + t 2g 0 r


so fha+
V2. -

\,42. + %

where

4.::: 0

~():: and Z()-;:22.


OJ

\/_';26'

Wah Q = fJ
or

,qfJf h::: fjrovnrl clearance if follows fha-l


or
V2. -

\/_ ~ 2.W

~ == 2h (L+ b) ~

where L =50 tI and b:: 30il


.

Thus) I Q= 2h(soff +30f.l)i(JsOOfI1)(:'~8X/O-3

~) fI.i

'

h Yw' where h.-v fJ and W-/6 Thus) If h = /~ ff and W=/g 001) /6 the/} q:::: 3000 !f if h ;: ~ ff and W=/~ooo I~ fhe/) Q::: 2.000 .if ====== and if h = -Ii ff and 'II = 5 OOO /i:J the/) Q = 2/20 .fj-~
Q::::
IIq.8
J

3.8Q
3. e'l A small card is placed on top of a spool as shown in Fig. P3.eQ . It is not possible to blow the card off the spool by blowing air through the hole in the center of the spool. The harder one blows, the harder the card "sticks" to the spool. In fact, by blowing hard enough it is possible to keep the card against the spool with the spool turned upside down. (Note: It may be necessary to use a thumb tack to prevent the card from sliding from the spool.) Explain this phenomenon.

FIG U REP 3 eq

As fhe air flows r4dially ovfward in fhe 90P he/ween the cord and fhe spool if .slow.s down since fhe Flow area ilJcreases will? r; the
radial dis/once from fhe center.
(J =
2-71' r

That IS

hV

or

V=

').!h r

J
,_1

( see the fi'jvre).

If visco[).s effecf.r are nfJ/ imporfanfJ


then
:2.. #.: +X : : cOl/slanl ;::: {JexH -I- 'lexif r '-I(f 29'

r1/ / /! /
/f Q
~Xlt
Z _
2._

II

rexif I r..

(I)

I exit VI

or since lex/I:::O (a free jel)

if
from Er- (/)

follows fhal

{J '"

if ('iex/I - V ) ) where
f
~ 0,

2.

2.

V -t2rrh)

2.[

~t

J..

ri]

Bvf rex/I> r so fhat

wlthi/) fhe 9a/. The card is svcked 1J9oi/ls! fhe spool, Tl;e harrier one blows fhrIJ{)flA fhe sfJ()o/( /atyBr())) fhe /rJrger fhe V(JCIIIIII'I IJnd fhe harder fh~ CQrd is
!here /s a
J

Vaclltlm

held rJ9aiIJsi the spool.

3-88

3.1:(0

I
sz

3.90 Water flows over a weir plate (see Video V 10.7) which t'~(/f ~-Q~-: --'-"'" f has a parabolic opening as shown in Fig. P3.90. That is, the 'Z 2)::- H opening in th~ weir plate ~as a width CHIP, where C is a cont,' ,,~ stant. Detennme the funcbonal dependence of the flowrate on f. the head, Q = Q(H). ZeD

ech

!t=CHlI2=f
I \-,-'

~'-:J

D\

] _ f/
'"

"tAR

Q == Ll dll where Thai is, frl1m

IJ.

Ijf + #2, '"


U1-

1/

is

t.t

{()nc1;OA () h.

IF #.%j

+'E:z.

wilh

If::o

/If =H-Z'J t{

=ll

(,'free jei,

alld, ZJ. ::: II-h

or 2. (H-~/)+lj+z,::O
Tnvs)
II =

+0/ +(II-h)
IJ

Vl,h +Jlt2. ~ f'J-,:h il ~ is "s/lla//


J

__

Also

dA):# C fftJ,r (i. e. dll:: 0 dl fflr Z${). till ;&cffii fIr ;~II )
bH

So

fhai

Q= f'~I'1/h cW rJl where


p~o

h::: H-z.
where
pH

ThlJs) f =:

c1};j f1-Z/l--2--""1; dl
0

S 1{iiHI71i:: f[(z--!) YHZ -Zo." + (~t.sin-I[(Z--f)/(H/J.)fl


o

whjGh reduces If)!

zaO

~:::

Vii H2.

Thai is Q- H:L

AIfernative/y J Q::: V t9 where the QveraJe ve/Qc/IJ is fJrPjXll'liPIlII! fo 1if (t.e. V'" Vi-,,#) IJlJti fhe 1,14'/ flow area., is pl'rJfJOn/olJa/ fo H~ (t. e. A - H N (C HI'..) ::: c H.3h. ). TlJv~
Q 2-~H- (CH*) :: C V,.i' H2'V

That Is) ~'V HZ 4S ohfained above.

3.91 A weir (see Video VI 0.7) of trapezoidal cross section is used to measure the flowrate in a channel as shown in Fig. P3.91. If the flowrate is Qo when H = e/2, what flowrate is expected when H = e?

FIGURE P3.Q(

Q ==

II V where if t'.s eXp'ecferl Mai V is (J. function of the head. fl. Thai is I V-,J2,Hi Also, from fhegeomelry A=fH(t+J,.) where~::=.t+2.Hff/173o" Thus A::: /I (i + H11/1'}.300) so fha1 T Q == C; 1'"1'" (J.f H tan30 H~/:1. where q ;s a con.stanf
J J
G )

Lei Q o = f/oWfa1e when. jJ::: and Ql::: {Iowrale when H=1


Thus,

l3,t

q; - c, Vii (P.

Qo _ C;p:j (1-+4-

f ftln

(J + ifan300) I, fan 31l) ()3/2. - (I + tQn 30) (2~/2.) :; O,2.Sq


30

0)(i);" _

Water flows down the sloping ramp shown in Fig. P3. q2. with negligible viscous effects. The flow is uniform at sections (1) and (2). For the conditions given show that three solutions for the downstream depth, h2 , are obtained by use of the Bernoulli and continuity equations. However, show that only two of these solutions are realistic. Determine these values.

3.92

FIGURE P3.Q2.

(I)

:L + Vl +:r
~

21 I 1 29 fJ/so) A, V; :: A:t ~ or H V -..hLv, - (/N)(IO.s):; /0 2 - h,. I h2. h2. Thus) Ect. (I) becomes Jj. 2. ( /0 )2. ( 10 ;s) + 3 ff _ hi.
2 (32.2

= -Ii + V2.2. + Z2

where f' =0 ,
and
Z2

=n2

~ -::0 J Z, :: 3 ill

:z.)

- 2(32.2 ~J
100 -::: 0

or
6 'f. if

h: - h: ~
2 93

By v.sin, a root findin~ pro9ram the fhree roofs erllalion ~re fovnd fo b8;

to this

o()bic

Or

h:;. = 0.630 f1 h2 = if. IJf8 fl


h2 = a ne9tt1il/e roof
C /early if is not po.ssihle (physicql/y) If) hlJve h2. <0 -rhus, h,.:::: 0.630 H or h2. = Jf.'f8 ft

3.Q3 J 3. q 3

The flow rate in a water channel is sometimes determined by use of a device called a Venturi flume. As shown in Fig. P3.Q,3 , this device consists simply of a hump on the bottom of the channel. If the water surface dips a distance of 0.07 rn for the conditions shown, what is the flowrate per width of the channel? Assume the velocity is uniform and viscous effects are negligible.

0.2 m

FIGURE P3. q3
(I)

w/fh"11 =0 J fJ2. =0 J E, == 1.2mJ

ond 22 ::: /.. 2m = I, 29 ~

0.07117

= /. /.9 m

or [(1.2.9)2. -I] w'" = 2. (q.8/~) (1,2. - /.13) m

Hence, Cf =h, ~ =(1. 'I38.f) (1,2m);:: I. 73

or

\1 =I,'I38~

Water flows in a rectangular channel that is 2.0 m wide as shown in Fig. P3. qlf . The upstream depth is 70 mm. The water surface rises 40 mm as it passes over a portion where the channel bottom rises 10 mm. If viscous effects are negligible, what is the ftowrate?

3.9'f

FIGURE P3. q'f

where
Also) A,W:::A:l~
or \I

f'l:::0, 12.:::0 , Z,:::: O.07R'1, and Z2.;:; (o,()/ +o,/o)rn ~ O,lIm

(J)

h:t I = 0,/0 m VJ Thus, &t. (I) become.s


V2:::

hi \I,

O.07m \/

== 07-'(1

II

[J-O.72.]\/,'-=2(Q.81*)(O,II-o.o7)m

or

y,== /.2'1~

Hence}
Q=A/~;:: (O,07m)(2.0m) (J.2lf!f):: O.17q.

3-93

3.QS

3.95

Water flows under the inclined sluice gate shown in Fig. P3.95. Determine the flowrate if the gate is 8 ft wide.

1
~'~~'.. -:~''''
-

(1)

... --'--~

6ft

wher~

11

#
#

(J I

fo :: I)

Z, ~ IfT,

Thlls J

alit/. Zz. I ff
(/)

~+6H = Jt.t'f-f "-I ,..,. B(IT A, V, :: II,. V2-) Qr


_ 611" II - 7iT v, :: 6 v, Hence., ". tI) become.s
Y2. -

\/_ A,

1f1 VI

'-,

Jt" + 6ff ;;: f1Y~Y/t I If


"1

~1_/]~2 ::: 2 (32.Z.!f,.)(6-I)ff


Hence

~ ;;:;.3.03#
.1

Q:::./1, V, :: ~H (et~)(.3.0.3!j.)

=I~S.!f

3.96

Water flows in a vertical pipe of 0.15-m diameter at a rate of 0.2 m'/s and a pressure of 200 kPa at an elevation of 25 m. Determine the velocity head and pressure head at elevations of 20 and 55 m.

== 0. 2 -::s m 1/ LI:a 2. = //, 3 -..5 = Y'o :::- ~ V= il. n If (O,15m) ....

",g

D=0.15", -

= ~5tn

(I)
(0)

IJI p()int (0): ~ == (1J,31fl


an d
'"I
2(Q,8I/fo)

(1= 200kPa
70 =20m

== 6,5/ m

~_ \,h2 A)/ ~2. .u:.!L+-L+z ::~+....l..+z 't 29 0 ~ ~D I

orA _ 200 ~ r - 9.80!y:


m3

+ 25 - 20) m == 25.'1 In

,\

3.t17

Draw the energy line and hydraulic grade line for the flow shown in Problem 3.6/f.

~)
FIGURE P3.6'1-

(1)

furbines} Me e/Jer9Y line (EL) is hori:zo/Jla/ af tJlJ elevation 01 the free s(Jr~7ce. T/;e /;ytirduhc grade line (H6L) is ()ne ve/oc/I; head lowe!',) ~welJ w/IJ file fJipe ou tie f . Since Ihe Iluid ve/ocily is cOlis/tint Ihr1)v9h,vr lIJe pipe wilh = :3 r~ the fd//ow/IJJ is Qbfained:
For /lJviscid {low w/IIJ no pfllnjJs or
I

-fi

3-96

3.98

'V (0) ..:----:::;:-----:----~::-- --

3.98 Draw the energy line and the hydraulic grade line for the flow of Problem 3.60

FIGURE P3.60

For il)lI/scid flow wilh no ptJmps or turbines, the energy line


is horj2()nfo~ a disflJnce /; above

fhe ovf/et . From Problem

3.60

we obf"in h :: /. 7'1 fl..

The hydrolJlic qrade line is ~~ below fhe energy line, sl"rftng af Ihe free surface where Vo::: 0 and ending at fhe pipe exil where fJ2. =0 and =h. IN poinl (I) the pressure he(ui i.s fJ'/l = (2..98 - 1'1-.5) jff.:z. ( /~:;A?-) /62Jf = - 2.6.S I~ and / =0. 2-

;f
=

Ia

29 D3 ~9 D3 If The corresponding EL and HGL are drawl) 10 scale below,


V (0)

In the ~;n. pipe :z. If ~2. V -..-J =( D:l.,) ~

Vj = /12. ~/Il.1
'IIf

=(t) ~

so

fIJaf

(.A) h =(..-) (/.7'1 fO = O. //2 (I


~

_____

-----Jr~~' --;:=-_=-=_-==-~Ener91 LliJe 4(3) , .l/). 'Cf) Z! 0 , t 1 ,,,2) pipe eenler line: : 2:!. = h = 1.7'1 It
1::
' I

li:: 0./11 II

(EL)

I ,

I I

ZQ ,

, ,
I '
I ,

I I

,
,

HydralJlic Grorie --: I I Line (HGL) : , ,


I

:1- = -26.afj

, , ,

,
,
I ,

r
, I

'

r
I

,
,

!..J--1

3-'17

3. qq

J
2-in.-diameter

l
hOS~

3. q q

Draw the energy line and hydraulic grade line for the flow shown in Problem 3.65.

7. ~
--L

2 ft (0) '\/
(3)t-

t=-=::-J::j::e:-=
B ft

J,lln.
~~

(S), (If)

(1)

For il'Jlliscid flow wilh


is. horizo/J/tll, af
(J/)

9rade line (/l6L) ;0$ one veloc'fJ heod lower. SInce 2Ys ;: 3 It if follows fhal fhe !leL pa.rses Il)/'f)u,h tlJe f.i;; u( fhlIlOZ2/8.
I//so, since

lumps or furbine.s) fhe e/)~r}' li/)e (1-) elevafio/J ()llhe free sur/dee. TlJe~ hy/rdv/Ie
IJIJ

~ '" ~:s =(*r~ if Mlol/IS Ihal


II-

~.7D)'" ~2 -;.r = (l); zg = (t) (3fl) ::

3 III

ff . T/;r()u,houf

the pipe

Ihe velocil, head is c()ns/olll

Sf)

fh4f the fQ/lolllilJg /.S obTtJ/IJeri:

3.10'0 * Water flows up the ramp shown in Fig. P3.100 with negligible viscous losses. The upstream depth and velocity are maintained at hi = 0.3 m and VI = 6 m/s. Plot a graph of the downstream depth, h2' as a function of the ramp height, H, for 0 s:,.H s:, 2 m. Note that for each value of H there are three solutions, not all of which are realistic.

FIGURE P3.100
(I)

III

+ ~ 2. + Z I =.:t!2: +
2.q
fJ,
~

2q

V'%'2.

+ i!.:;..

where
(J

fJI ~O J

1'2. ~O

2/ ::: o.3m,

I//.so J
\J -

At 11 :::,42. U.
~ Yj II -

.so fhat

lui

z,2.:::

fI +I; 2.

V2. J

(O,31TJ)(6~) - ~

n2.

h2.

",rl", .

1~II..JeJ"'e h2,"''''

Thvs r- (I)
: ; + 0.3 m

become~
=

(1.8 )'J. ~ + (f'~h3.)

or

wdli L{ =' b~ J

( 61}i' +2. (9. 81 ':2.) ( 0.3 - f/- h,Jm which CdlJ be writ/en as ~

=(- ~~ )'J-q;
(2)

h: -

(2_13.5

-R)h: +0.//'5/

=0

For 0 ~ f1~ 2m solve Ert. (2) {or h2.

Ra-lher than SO/Vifl1 a Cf/b/c e9{)ahon for h,. (?llIe II) con directly solve for 1/ f9/llen 171-)' From r. (1-) :
1/=2./3.5 _l

one
(3)

"2.

_ 0,/651

h"J.2..
(2)

fJ 9raph of '1,

or (3) /s 9/l/en on the {pi/ow/f)! pa98.

( con'-I)

3-qq

The results of an EXCEL Program to calculate H for given values of h2 are shown below.

h2' m 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1

H,m 0.001 0.703 0.975 1.076 1.098 1.077 1.031 0.970 0.899 0.820 0.737 0.651 0.562 0.471 0.378 0.284 0.189 0.094 -0.002

Water Depth vs Elevation Change

2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4


E 1.2 N .c 1.0
+--~~---~----------

.~--------1

I
I

-~

----I
I
I

0.8 0.6

0.4 t====~:::::::::~=---...-=::::::--~--~---t0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6


H,m
I -------- ------ ------r -----1
1

J
I

i I

0.8

1.0,'

J.oqg

1.2

For H ~ I,OQ8 m fhere are no real J posilil/e roofs of Ef(. (2.). Thai is J for fhe (jive/J upstream condilions (V; == 6 f- and hI::: O.3/n) We must have 11<: /,098 m. II w()IJld nol be possible fo hove the flow 90 vp a ramp of 9rB41er hei9)rI fhalJ fhis w/-/huv/ /ncreas/f)1} e/lher I1lJnd/or hi . The two P(J,s.s;;/g waler de,fJ;.r for a 9ive/J HtJfQ plo/leri be/ow.

3-100

3, /01 I
3.101 Pressure Distribution between 1\vo Circular Plates

Objective:

According to the Bernoulli equation, a change in velocity can cause a change in pressure. Also, for an incompressible flow, a change in flow area causes a change in velocity. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the pressure distribution caused by air flowing radially outward in the gap between two closely spaced flat plates as shown in Fig. P3.101.

Equipment:

Air supply with a flow meter; two circular flat plates with static pressure taps at various radial locations from the center of the plates; spacers to maintain a gap of height b between the plates; manometer; barometer; thermometer.

Measure the radius, R, of the plates and the gap width, b, between them. Adjust the air supply to provide the desired, constant flowrate, Q, through the inlet pipe and the gap between the flat plates. Attach the manometer to the static pressure tap located a radial distance r from the center of the plates and record the manometer reading, h. Repeat the pressure measurements (for the same Q) at different radial locations. Record the barometer reading, H atm , in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law.

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations: Use the manometer readings to obtain the experimentally determined pressure distribution, p = p(r), within the gap. That is, p = -"Imh, where "1m is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. Also use the Bernoulli equation (Ph + V 2/2g = constant) and the continuity equation (AV = constant, where A = 27Trb) to determine the theoretical pressure distribution within the gap between the plates. Note that the flow at the edge of the plates (r = R) is a free jet (p = 0). Also note that an increase in r causes an increase in A, a decrease in V, and an increase in p. Graph:
Plot the experimentally measured pressure head, and radial location, r, as abscissas.

ph,

in feet of air as ordinates

Results: Data:

On the same graph, plot the tJleoretical pressure head distribution as a function of radial location. To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

r- _

1
h

-1

1 ________ - - -___II-Water /

circular plates

rI
I

r -----

II1II

~ir.-,.

__ vBlli_-'"

~-----R-----4~1 1

tQ

FIGURE P3.101

(con'/: )
3-/01

3,/0 I

(conJl)
Solution for Problem 3.101: Pressure Distribuition between Two Circular Plates

Q, ft"3/s 0.879

R, in. 5.0

b, in. 0.125

H alm , in. Hg 29.09 Experiment ply, ft -663.75 -441.52 -148.15 -70.41 -35.20 -17.60 -9.53 -2.20 -0.73 0.00

T, deg F 83

YH2D, Ib/ft"3 62.4 Theory V,ftls ply, ft 220.8 -740.7 161.2 -387.2 107.4 -163.1 80.6 -84.7 64.5 -48.4 53.7 -28.7 46.0 -16.8 40.3 -9.1 35.8 -3.8 32.2 0.0

r, in. 0.7 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
P

h, in. -9.05 -6.02 -2.02 -0.96 -0.48 -0.24 -0.13 -0.03 -0.01 0.00

=Palm/RT where
Palm YHg*H alm 847Iblft"3*(29.09/12ft) R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T 83 + 460 543 deg R

=20531b/ft"2

Thus, P

=0.00220 slug/ft"3 and Y = p*g =0.00220*32.2 =0.0709 Ib/ft"3

ply

=YH2D*h/y

v = Q/(27trb) = 0.879 ft"s/(2*3.1415*(O.125/12)ft*r)


r
I

Problem 3.101 Pressure Head, ply, vs Radial Position, r

-200
4::

Q.
I

-;.. -400

/!
:

Experimental Theoretical

, ,

-600
41 f

I I
2.0 4.0 6.0

-800 0.0

r, in. L-______________________________________________________I I

3-/02

3. 102,

3.102

Calibration of a Nozzle Flow Meter

Objective: As shown in Section 3.6.3 of the text, the volumetric f]owrate, Q, of a given fluid through a nozzle flow meter is proportional to the square root of the pressure drop across the meter. Thus, Q = Khl/2, where K is the meter calibration constant and h is the manometer reading that measures the pressure drop across the meter (see Fig. P3.102). The purpose of this experiment is to determine the value of K for a given nozzle flow meter. Equipment:
Pipe with a nozzle flow meter; variable speed fan; exit nozzle to produce a uniform jet of air; Pi tot static tube; manometers; barometer; thermometer.

Adjust the fan speed control to give the desired flowrate, Q. Record the flow meter manometer reading, h, and the Pitot tube manometer reading, H. Repeat the measurements for various fan settings (i.e., flowrates). Record the nozzle exit diameter, d. Record the barometer reading, Hatm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated from the perfect gal law.

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations: For each fan setting determine the f]owrate, Q = VA, where V and A are the air velocity at the exit and the nozzle exit area, respectively. The velocity, V, can be determined by using the Bernoulli equation and the Pitot tube manometer data, H (see Equation 3.16). Graph:
Plot flowrate, Q, as ordinates and flow meter manometer reading, h, as abscissas on a log-log graph. Draw the best-fit straight line with a slope of Yz through the data.

Results: Use your data to determine the calibration constant, K, in the flow meter equation Q = Kh 1(2. Data:
To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here

to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Flow meter maometer Water

Pitot tube

Air

Pitot static tube

meter

Exit noule

FIGURE P3.102

3-/03

Solution for Problem 3.102: Calibration of a Nozzle Flow Meter

d, in. 1.169

Hatm , in. Hg T, deg F 75 29.01

h, in. 11.6 11.1 10.7 10.1 9.6 8.8 7.9 7.2 6.1 5.4 4.5 3.8 2.9 2.1 1.0

H, in. 5.6 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.3 3.9 3.6 3.1 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.5 1.1 0.6

~P,

Ib/ftA2

29.1 28.1 27.0 25.5 24.4 22.4 20.3 18.7 16.1 14.0 12.0 10.4 7.8 5.7 3.1

V, fUs 162 159 156 151 148 142 135 130 120 112 104 97 84 72 53

Q, ftA3/s

1.20 1.18 1.16 1.13 1.10 1.06 1.00 0.97 0.90 0.84 0.77 0.72 0.62 0.53 0.39

P = Patm /RT where


Patm

R T

=75 + 460 =535 deg R

= 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R

= YHg *H atm = 847 Ib/ftA3*(29.01/12 ft) = 2048 Ib/ft"2

Thus, P = 0.00223 slug/ft"3

V = (2*~p/p)1/2
Q

=AV where
A = nd 2 /4 = n*(1.169/12 ft)"2/4 = 7.45E-3 ftA2

From the graph, Q = K h 1/2 = 0.358 h 1/2 where Q is in ft /s and h is in in. Thus, K

=0.358 ft3 /(s*in. 1/2 )

3-/01/-

Problem 3.102 Flow Rate, Q, vs Manometer Reading, h

"i

i
I

Experimental I

', I'
, i

iii

I
i

!,' , I
:

:!!

.v

0.1

+-------~~~~~----~~--~~~~

I '

II iii

I,

Iii I ! I'
10 h, in.

'1

;1

I'

111

ill:

100

3-/05

3,103

3.103

Pressure Distribution in a Two-Dimensional Channel

Objective: According to the Bernoulli equation, a change in velocity can cause a change in pressure. Also, for an incompressible flow, a change in flow area causes a change in velocity. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the pressure distribution caused by air flowing within a two-dimensional, variable area channel as shown in Fig. P3.103. Equipment:
Air supply with a flow meter; two-dimensional channel with one curved side and one flat side; static pressure taps at various locations along both walls of the channel; ruler; manometer; barometer; thermometer.

Experimental Procedure:

Measure the constant width, b, of the channel and the channel height, y, as a function of distance, x, along the channel. Adjust the air supply to provide the desired, constant flowrate, Q, through the channel. Attach the manometer to the static pressure tap located a distance, x, from the origin and record the manometer reading, h. Repeat the pressure measurements (for the same Q) at various locations on both the flat and the curved sides of the channel. Record the barometer reading, Halm , in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law.

Calculations: Use the manometer readings, h, to calculate the pressure within the channel, P = "Imh, where "1m is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. Convert this pressure into the pressure head, ph, where "I = gp is the specific weight of air. Also use the Bernoulli equation (Ph + V2/2g = constant) and the continuity equation (A V = Q, where A = yb) to determine the theoretical pressure distribution within the channel. Note that the air leaves the end of the channel (x = L) as a free jet (p = 0). Graph: Plot the experimentally determined pressure head, ph, as ordinates and the distance along the channel, x, as abscissas. There will be two curves-one for the curved side of the channel and another for the flat side. Results: Data:
On the same graph, plot the theoretical pressure distribution within the channel.

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click here to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Static pressure taps

~--~+-----L----------~'I

FIGURE P3.103

3-106

(c.on'/)
o ution for Problem 3.103: Pressure Distribution in a Two-Dimensional Channel

b, in. 2.0

Q, ft"3/s 1.32

Halm , in. Hg 28.96

T, deg F 71

L, in. 21.75 Experimental Theory ply, ft 0.0 0.0 -50.5 -92.2 -92.2 -49.2 -24.1 -9.7 0.0 0.0

x, in.
0.75 2.50 4.00 4.63 5.38 8.14 10.75 13.25 15.78 21.75

y, in.
2.00 2.00 1.28 1.05 1.05 1.29 1.54 1.77 2.00 2.00

h, in. flat side 0.28 0.21 -0.42 -0.77 -1.01 -0.63 -0.32 -0.15 -0.05 0.00

h, in. curved side 0.31 0.37 0.03 -1.63 -1.05 -0.62 -0.31 -0.15 0.00 0.00

ply, ft

ply, ft

flat side curved side 20.2 22.3 15.1 26.6 -30.2 2.3 -55.5 -117.4 -72.7 -75.6 -45.4 -44.7 -23.0 -22.3 -10.8 -10.8 -3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0

P = Palm /RT where


Palm

= YHg*H alm = 847 Ib/ft"3*(28.96/12 ft) = 2044 Ib/ft"2

R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T = 71 + 460 531 deg R

Thus, P

=0.00224 slug/ft"3 and y = p*g =0.00224 slug/ft"3*(32.2 ftlsll2) = 0.0722 Ib/ft"3

ply =YH20 *h/y


Theoretical:

ply =V ex /12g - V 2/2g where V = Q/A = Q/(b*y) and Vex~ = Q/Aex~ = (1.32 ftIl3/s/)*(2 *2/144 ft1l2)

=47.5 ftls

Problem 3.103 Pressure Head, ply, vs Distance, x

40 20 0 -20
-~--J

.~~--:-~~~~~~

= .:i:Q.

-40 -60 -80

~~--------j-----------------r=-=J
.--~~~--t-------T-------r-~~-~ ......- Experimental,

-100 -120 -140 0


5

flat side

- 1 - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - + - - - - - - .. - Experimental, curved side --Theoretical

10
x, in.

15

20

25

3-/07

.3, /oLf

3.104

Sluice Gate Flowrate

Objective: The flowrate of water under a sluice gate as shown in Fig. P3.104 is a function of the water depths upstream and downstream of the gate. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical flowrate with the experimentally determined flowrate. Equipment:
Flow channel with pump and control valve to provide the desired flowrate in the channel; sluice gate; point gage to measure water depth; float; stop watch.

Adjust the vertical position of the sluice gate so that the bottom of the gate is the desired distance, a, above the channel bottom. Measure the width, b, of the channel (which is equal to the width of the gate). Turn on the pump and adjust the control valve to produce the desired water depth upstream of the sluice gate. Insert a float into the water upstream of the gate and measure the water velocity, VI> by recording the time, t, it takes the float to travel a distance L. That is, VI = Lit. Use a point gage to measure the water depth, z\> upstream of the gate. Adjust the control valve to produce various water depths upstream of the gate and repeat the measurements. For each water depth used, determine the flowrate, Q, under the sluice gate by using the continuity equation Q = AI VI = b ZI VI' Use the Bernoulli and continuity equations to determine the theoretical flowrate under the sluice gate (see Equation 3.21). For these calculations assume that the water depth downstream of the gate, Z2, remains at 61 % of the distance between the channel bottom and the bottom of the gate. That is, Z2 = O.61a.

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations:

Graph:
ZI>

Plot the experimentally determined flowrate, Q, as ordinates and the water depth, upstream of the gate as abscissas.

Results: Data:

On the same graph, plot the theoretical flowrate as a function of water depth upstream of the gate. To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click III're to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem .

FIGURE P3.104

3-1 0 8

3./0/f

I (conJ/)
Solution for problem 3.104: Sluice Gate Flowrate
a, in. 1.2 b, in. 6.0 L, ft 4.0 Experimental V 1 , ftls Q, ft"3/s 0.087 0.952 0.800 0.107 0.769 0.132 0.645 0.146 0.625 0.178 0.571 0.207 0.465 0.204 Theoretical Q, ft"3/s 0.091 0.114 0.132 0.155 0.175 0.200 0.222

ft 0.183 0.267 0.343 0.453 0.569 0.725 0.877


Zl,

t, S 4.2 5.0 5.2 6.2 6.4 7.0 8.6

Experimental: V 1 = Ut
Q

= V 1 bz 1

Theoretical: Q = b*Z23/2*(2*g)1I2*[((Zl/z2) -1)/(1 - (z2/z1)2)]1/2 where Z2 = 0.61*a

Problem 3.104 Flow Rate, Q, vs Depth, Z1

1.00

-r=======:r====r==:r==r==+=+==l=+=I
i
i
1
', I

I
!

I T
I
1

--------+--1 -----'-----1

,i

--t,~, ;

I
!

I
1

tn
CO')

I 0.10

<

= d

.-.
I

~~l
;

i~l!

,i.-~
i
i

,
,

Experimental Theoretical

!
I
;

I
!

-r
I ,

1
,
!

r
r

I
I

-I I !
I
1

I
i

I
I
1

I
i
1

I
I

I I
!

0.01 0.1

i
I

1
Z1'

ft

I
3 -/0'1

/1./
1}te velocity. field. of a flow is given by V = (x - 8)j + 5zk ft/s, where x, y, and z are in feet. Determine the fluid speed at the origin (x = y:::;: Z = 0) and on the y axis (x = z = 0). 4.1
(3y

+ 2)i +

IJ..::=

3Yf2.

v=x-8, W=Sz

Thl/s) af X= y:::r ~O V + V2. + W,,' and Of) the line x;: Z =OJ V =/(3 y +2)2. +(_8)").1 :::: J~9-y-2.-t-/2-y-+-68-"
if. '14.2 A flow can be visualized by plotting the velocity field as velocity vectors at representative locations in the flow as shown in Video V4.1 and Fig. E4.1. Consider the velocity field given in polar coordinates by vr = -lOlr and Vo = 101r. This flow approximates a fluid swirling into a sink as shown in Fig. P4.2. Plot the velocity field at locations given by r = I, 2, and 3 with e = 0, 30, 60, and 90 deg.

=12.

J2~ +(-Sl ' = e.2s1j


where y--ft

#-

Vr

W;1 h tV";;:: -/ olr and N8 ::: lo/r then V-=Jrv;.'-+IV92. ::; I(-Io/r)% + (Jo/r)1 = I'I-;!.'IThe QI191e ex hetllleen the radial J/re{;/ion and the velocify vee/or is r;iven hy
tan eX

FIGURE P4.2

filii
-AIr

;:: _(-Iolr)
0

lolr

=I
o
/fS" re/4live

ThvsJ ()( = ~s for anv rJ B / ~.e. the velocify vector is alway oriente')
3 8=60

1orodia/ lines)

Nofe: VIS

independ'snt

of 9.

V=II/.III 1ft r::: I

If-I

#.3
4.3

r
What is the angle between the velocity vector and the x axis at points (x, y) = (5,0), (5, 5), and (0, 5)?

The velocity field of a flow is given by V = 20yl(.\"2 + y2)l'2i - '20xl(x 2 + )'2)1121 fils, where x and yare in feet. Determine the fluid speed at points along the x axis; along the y axis.

Also,
fan
or

-2.0X
(xl.

y
(0,5)

e =-tr-=
-

+y2.)J..2.

2 off .;s

20Y

(x'J. t y2.) Ji.

fane ==

f
~~----~--=-....;"".--

Thus J for (xJy) =(sJ 0)


fan e ::: - 00 or

(5,0)
,s

e = - qoo

2.0 ff

For

(~y) =(5,5)

tQn8=-/ or B=-'fsl!)

~v
u

for (XJY) =(0,.5) fan () = 0 or B==

ot)

4.4 The x and y components of a velocity field are given by u = x - y and v = x 2y - 8. Detennine the location of any stagnation points in the flow field. That is, at what point(s) is the velocity zero?

provided fhQf bolh u =0 and v::: o. ThIJs f).:: X - Y::: 0 or X := y anti V = x~ - B ::: 0 or x2y == 8 By combinin9 ob/ain X J :- 8 or X::: 2. Since X:::. y N follow..! fh41 y=2. also. Thl/.s (x) y) == (2.,2.)
1

v== 0

Jf-2

~,5

45 The x and y components of velocity for a two-dimensional flow are u = 3 ft/s and v = 9x 2 ftls. where x is in feet. Determine the equation for the streamlines and graph representative streamlines in the upper half plane.

Ii = 3

and If:::: 9x2. so fhai Sfre4f)1//nes are 9/ven hy

4 ~ -f ~ 2/ :: 3x2 Or
J

Jdy =: J.3x2.dx
70 differenT va/VB.! of

Thvs y:: X.3 +C J where c is ac()llsfanT.


Repre.renfalirJe .sfream/ines correspondil'l9 care shoVln he/ow.

Streamlines y

=x 3 + C
c=/OO

C=.5o

c= 0
100

-J i Ic= -so
-+-I-'--I------+--

50

o ~~~--r_~r--,--~--~~~--~~~~ o 1 2 3 4 5 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1
x

~-.3

~. 6

4. 6 Show that the streamlines for a flow whose velocity components are u = c( x 2 - y2) and v = - 2cxy, where c is a constant, are given by the equation x2y - y3/3 = constant. At which point (points) is the flow parallel to the y axis? At which point .(points) is the fluid stationary?

U=C(X2..-y2.)

V=-2cxy

Sireamlines given ny y"{(x) Qre -such fhal Consider +he {une/ion x'l.y - -f = t:.ofJsf, !VoTe; If i.s nof easy fo wr/le fhis eXf/iviily as y ~ f (x) However J we can differentials Ef. (JJ ff) 9ille 2xyr/x +x'-dy - y'1.rly :;;: 0 I or
(x2.._y2.) dy +2xy dx =0 Thvs.l fhe //ne.s /n fhe x- y plane given

*"f
a slope

(I)

by 1, (I)
CJ

hdl/O

dL (IX
~,e.

==

- ;XY) or for allY cons Ian I (X _y'1.


3

y) lIx:: C-(2. ~ x X _y2.

=L. U

fhe fun6fion x2y - ~


of +he 9iv81J flow.

=consf. represenfs

the .sfreafllines
J

The flow is par4/Je/ fo ihe

x- axis
.

wASil
y:::O

*::0

or v=:O.
Of

rlus

OCC{)rs

whelJ eifher X=0

or

The flow i.s para/Ie J fo The y-axi.s when This occurs who tJ X = Y The livid has z.ero ve/oc/I)' at x:: y

t:e-.;

fhe X-ax/s

the
or

y-qX~
IJ.. ::::0.

=: 00 J

=0

~. 7

4. 7 The velocity field of a flow is given by U =- - V~y/(x~ + y2)112 and v = V ox/(x 2 + y2)II2, where Vo is a constant. Where in the flow field is the speed equal to Vo? Determine equation of the streamlines and discuss the various characteristics of this flow.

11 = -

v.o (Xl. + y y"J.'fo2.

= V,
0

X (X2-+yl.)V2.

oS 0

fh41

V ;: _IU
V

-+-

V 2. :=

,. [\/2(y2. + X '-) 1~ = .
Yo

(Xl.

+ y2.)

\t
0

Thus, V = ~ fhrou?houl the entire {low fielt1


Sfream lines IJro 9iveIJ by

i1... dx = L IJ. = 2-y


fo give

or

- ydy = xdx which can be infe9rafed

X2. t y2. =cons!.

Thus J fhe flvid {low wifh circular .sfream liIJes and the speed is constanT fhrollghout.

,+-5

.If.B
4.8 Water flows from a rotating lawn sprinkler as shown in Video V4.6 and Figure P4.8. The end of the sprinkler arm moves with a speed of wR, where w = 10 radls is the angular velocity of the sprinkler arm and R = 0.5 ft is its radius. The water exits the nozzle with a speed of V = 10 ftls

FIGURE P4.S

(a) Wafer

leave.s the nozzle wilh Q Ve10 ClfY 0 f V= If) fIls af all QI191e of ,gOO rela live 10 the radial direvlion - for an obserJler ri,)/nfj on the sprinKler 4rb1. Th/s is fhe rel41ille velocity. II.! shown ill the .skefch, fhe sprillk/PI 4rll1 has a c;"c/lmf~enci41 veloc/Iy 0 f RfP -::: O. b fI (10 rad/s) =: s His. TlJe IJbsolv/e ve10cily J Va; 4.!' observed hy a person sfanJilJr. on -Ihe lawn is the vee/or SlJm of re/t'J1/ve velocily and the nO"j"Jle ve/oeily. From fhe 9(;omell'Y of tne fi9vre :

i a. n 0( =

10 Sin 30

-.5 ::::. 0

10 Ct'J~300

Tho! i.s ex, == 0 (,',e,) the ahsolvfe wafer velov/ly is in the r4rJial

)
w;:;/o

R=o,s

rJ.irecfion. Since there is no force ac+i"1 fhe wafer after iT leavesJ "he W41er p4f'h'c/e-s

on

coni/nile f~ move in The raJial direc,lion. Th~ the palh1ine..r are .s1rai9hf raJiallines.
(b)

TAe sh4pe of the water stream 1 a 1irJen installf (t:e"a ~fJ4P .shot" of fhe W4fer) can he ob-lained 4S follolVs, COf).rider the wafer .sfream emaIJaliA9 from +he end af-lhe nO"/.i/e al r::R (md (}::oat -lime /;=:()

(con'i)
'/-6

-. 8

(con II)

that lefl from -Ihe no~~/e t seconds 490 d'd so when the nozzle wasaf f) ~ wi. SinGe /'0 /.t::0 the parth/e.s in sfrai1h1J ratii4/ pAths w/lh Va~.""
A particle in -Ihi.s
sfream

speed ~ (.see pa,.{ (al)) fhis parliole is af a dis/once of r = R +Va { from .Jhe /
orl9tn.

~"t ser;o~Js 070


~

;-~e=wl
...
~

i=o

Thlls the s1reanJ sho.pe js


J

) fJ)
fA)
J

r = R +Va t and

e t
t::

or by eli,.,,;ncdiJ19 i

r::Rf(-i5-)e
For the qiven data wi1h Va -;: V&0.s30' =0 0 1j-) (.os30 CI/Jd I.U == If) rad/s this hecomes r = o.s +0. 866 f:) where r,v ff alld ()~ rad. 'his .sfream shape i.s plofled beJoU/.
J
0 :::

8. Db ~ (seeparl(4J)

---2

------------------~--~--~---xJ~
OJ

#-7

~.9
'''4.9 Consider a ball thrown with initial speed Vo at an angle of 0 as shown in Fig. P4.9a. As discussed in beginning physics. if friction is negligible the path that the ball takes is given by
y = (tan O)x - [g/(2
V0 COS
2 2
)'

x, in.

y, in.
0 0.13 0.16 0.13 0.00 -0.20 -0.53 -0.90 -1.43

o
0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00

........... ,

O)Jx

That is. y = CIX + c&x 2, where Cl and C2 are constants. The path is a parabola. The pathline for a stream of water leaving a small nozzle is shown in Fig. P4.9b and Video \'4.3. The coordinates for this water stream are given in the following table. (a) Use the given data to determine appropriate values for C 1 and C2 in the above equation and, thus, show that these water particles also follow a parabolic pathline. (b) Use your values of c, and C2 to determine the speed of the water, Vo. leaving the nozzle.

,, ,
\

\ (a)
)'

"'-,

., ,

",\

'

\\

'

(b)

FIGURE P4.9

An EX eEL Pttt79f!tJl!J W4S v.red to p/of the x-y d4itl d/Jd to fif a .seco"J order curve to fhe data. Tile results are .showfJ he/oUl.
y vs x for Water Stream

0.04 - , - - - - - . , - - - - - . , - - - - - - - - - l 0.02 -~~~~~ ~J -0.02 :::~ -0.04 >-0. 06


-0.08

.. -~-.~-. ~-~--~--PIIIo~-.---~-~-...
--~--~-.~---~--~~~~

I
i

+----~--!------,-------!---~~ 2

~-----"C -8.4987x + 0.7n 15x

-0.1 -0.12 +----.,..-----,---------,.--+-----1 o 0.05 0.1

x, ft

C,:::: O. 7//5 ::::

14nB

or e::: 3S,~ I

and

c,. ::: - 8. 'f?11 =:


0""
2.

'10

.32.. ~ = 2. (8.'f187) cos'"(.3S,rJ

Thll~ '10 -:: 1.69 fj

JI.-e

'I-~ 10

I
4. t 0 The x and y components of a velocity field are given by u = :l-y and v = -xy2. Determine the equation for the streamlines of this flow and compare with those in Example 4.2. Is the flow in this problem the same as that in Example 4.2? Explain.

Stream Jines are 9t"ven by ~J:: == J!. ::; _ X y2. __ .XJ X U x2.y - X d :: - ~ or .-t which cal} he iIJ1e9raied as:

Thfls) X y ::: C

s* =-J~
J

Thus, In y = -Iny + c) where C /s ~ CIJI7.ff4nl.

No fe: These streofllline.s are the So.lhS shape (same Ilf/ow paifenn as in xample ~ 2 - but fhe veJoc/fy fields are dt'lferel'r/. However lhe ralios - are the same: .;f.:; _ X y2. :: _ t
w

x"Y

and
:=

(Volt) (-y) (voll) (x)

:= _

Xx

y
".-

In addition to the customary horizontal velocity components of the air in the atmosphere (the "wind"), there often are vertical air currents (thermals) caused by buoyant effects due to uneven heating of the air as indicated in Fig. P4.12. Assume that the velocity field in a certain region is approximated by u = Un' v = Va (1 - y/h) for o < y < h, and u = un' v = 0 for y > h. Plot the shape of the streamline that passes through the origin for values of lio/vo = 0.5, 1, and 2.

4.11

~
I
o
I

J.

/'"

FIGURE P4.12

.so

= ~fdx
o

fhai streamlines x

Nofe: The lower limds () f infe1raJiol) (x=o) y:::o) insure fhal fhis eqvaf lon is for fhe streamline fhrov'Ih fhe ori9in.

Thi.s

sfream I//JB

X ==-h

(~) In (J -

i)

i~ ploffed befow.

y/h vs xlh 1
~

.... .. _p'.
,

-~
:

.- _M -:..
-.-'-""-

'I

O.8

+-------+--#~-,

.c
>.

0.6
0.4 0.2

----j--r: ,/

,#

..

...r ---

/'

,/

.......r..,

. . . . . t'"'"' I ..,.,

,
,

I
-uO/vO=2
-uOlvO = 1 - - - uO/vO = 0.5

"~~--+--------'---~--I
-1
I
1

-~~~

0~--~----1---~-----r----r---~

0.5

1.5
xlh

2.5

Jf-/O

y
.."....

4.13* Repeat Problem 4.12 using the same information except that u = UoY / II for 0 ::; y ::; II rather than u = U(). Use values of uo/vo = 0,0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0.

/7f'

Uo
~

A I
/

//

ll= UhY

, V= Va (I-i) for y '" h are given by

tor o<y<h .so fhaf


(h-y)

.sfreafh//ne.s

1>:(J

=..::L
IJ.

= vo(J-{) = Vo
U

(h~ y)

fiy =

IX ~ dx

1.
h

Ua

or

wtth

X::::O

when y=o

This ifJ1e'lf'ales 117 'live

-~ -h In( h-y):h In (h) = -to; X


J

or

f=r&.,)[ln~)- iJ

Thi.s sTreamline is plolled he/ow for 0 ~ ~ I J wilh ~ = 0 J 0.1 0.2. O. 'I- O. /) I o. B Qnri I. 0 The VIJ Itie s were calc tJ/oted ana plotted ()S ifJ? 41) XCL PrtJ'1J'i1J11.
J J
J

"*

y/h vs xlh
1 _

D,/

O.C

0.9

~~-"~=---

----, , - -- ------------- -- ---I I


--~--1

to. 5 -l--'--l---1.f-,~
0.4 0.3
0.2
-P.I-'-J(-q--~--~- -~~~~~---~-WJIj'---~~--~__i____--~~~~_l______-

0.8 0.7 0.6

--- ---------- I

~-I--

-j

-~--~-----------------:

,
i

--~~----~-.----

0.1

------~--------

----;i
i

O+-----------T-----------~----------r_--------~

0.5

1.5

xlh

'1-//

'f.II/-

I
A velocity field is given by u = cx 2 and v = cy2, where c is a constant. Determine the x and y components of the acceleration. At what point (points) in the flow field is the acceleration zero?

4.14

Ox

dlJ. =rr

+l1.Tx +VTy - (CX'")(')..CX) ::;2c X


(cy2.)(2-c.y)

dU

dlJ,

2.

.3

and ay

=1f +u.X+v:; ::

= 2C2. y 3

Thus) a=axl+ayJ =0 af (X1Y) -::(0)0)

"".15

I
.1.1.5
V

A three-dimensional velocity field is given by u = x 2 , -2xy, and w = x + y. Determine the acceleration vector.

QX

=X2.(2X)
Cly :::

JU Lt1 JU = If + U DX +~ 19
~ 2X 3
d)(

+jJI

O!J, n
JP:. 1i

J/IT dAl. + IV ry aN:. rr + It

of)lf

- X%.(-2y) +(-2.XY){-).X) -= 2X'y


Q1.

= 1f +IJf +1'1' 1'1 -fiJI W = x2.(J) +(-2-xy)0) xz. -:J.xy


'=J

Ihvs
~

11. - 2 X t + 2. X Y I +(x ... 2XY) k

3/1

.1

I'

If. ./7

-4.11

The velocity of air in the diverging pipe shown in Fig. P4.17 is given by VI = 4t ftf sand Vo = 21 ftf s, where t is in seconds. (a) Determine the local acceleration at points (I) and (2). (b) Is the average convective acceleration between these two points negative, zero, or positive? Explain.

b) convecfive acceleration a/on9 the pipe : : U where IJ. >0. IN aIJr lime' ~ < Vt . r/;ps he/ween OJ a"d(:J.) J J .... JI ~ V2.- ~ /0
J

#-

JX"'"

/lel1cc", 11. c::: 0 or is neq4live.

the tlver41e conl/eet/ve acceleration

If. {8

4. I Water flows through a constant d!arneter pipe with a unifonn velocity given by V = (8/t + 5)j mis, where t is in seconds. Detennine the acceleration at time t = 1, 2, and lOs.

..... a: : Tf + .V.vV
~V

Wi Ih
_ dV

U == 0
A __

V -(T
1\

+.5) ':

w-=o

thi.s
......110 (

a = -rr + v Jy J - n J ThlJs, a=-81./fi af t=/.s a = -2.0 J.f.. af t =2 oS and

cV

becomes

~V)"

t2. J S'-

a =-O.OBJ~ at t::::/O..s

4. Iq When a valve is opened, the velocity of water in a certain pipe is given by u = 10(1 - e-'), v = 0, and w = 0, where u is in ft/ sand t is in seconds. Detennine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of the water.

~,zo
~-

---_._-

'-_ ...

Water flows through a pipe with V = u(t)i where the approximate measured values of u(t) are shown in the table. Plot the acceleration as a function of time for 0 ~ t ~ 20 s. Plot the acceleration as a function of time if all of the values of u(t) are increased by a factor of 2; by a factor of 5.

4.20*

t (s)

u (ft/s)

t (s)

u (ft/s)

0 1.8 3.1 4.0 5.5 6.9 8.1 10.0

0 1.7 3.2 3.8 4.6 5.8 6.3 7.1

11.2 12.3 13.9 15.0 16.4 17.5 18.4 20.0

8.1 8.4 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.0 6.6 5.7

a= elt ~v +V'VV
~

u=u(t)
~ tL =rr
1./1

v=:O

w=-o
(I)

thi.s becomes ~ (~U. ~IJ.)I\ a:: Tf+urx l

or

/J "'x -

1Jl ~t

The IJ. ~U(f) ,rttph Qnd fhe hesf [// clIbic erlJatiofJ was ploNeJ ilsifl9 In XCEJ.. Pr091'4RJ.

.shown helolJl

Thvs w/lh
J

IJ.::: -0.0012.-/ 3
0.0031

O,OI/2tJ. +0,97.5"

if fo//ows 11141
J

fix

:=

1~

:: -

flo - O,01.Z.lft + 0.97.51

jt

where tl'VS

This acce/fJI'4/ion is a/so p/ofleri he/QUI,

Note Ih4-f if U increMes by fA


Ihe ()'cae lera lion J tI)(.
.:=

If

fAvlol' does also.

01 K ti, e, K::: 2. ,,, K:::S)J

Water Speed vs Time


u = -0.00121
3 -

Acceleration vs Time
5 4 3 2
N

0.0112r + 0.97561

9 B
7

~ 5
:; 4 3 2
1

1 0 ;c 1"11 -1 -2 -3
-4

0 0

-5

10
t, s

15

20

10

15

20

t, S

Jf.2.1

I
VA

The fluid velocity along the x axis shown in Fig. P4.21 changes from 6 mls at point A to IS mls at point B. It is also known that the velocity is a linear function of distance along the streamline. Determine the acceleration at points A, B, and C. Assume steady flow.

4.2

=6

m/s

VB

= 19 m/s

too5m~ //// ,///////""


,. 0.1

"'I

m----l
w=O

FIGURE P4.2.1

.a

= 1T + V-VV

oV

-.

U==U(X)

v=O

and

fhi.s becomes

a =(!t +u ~J)t = u ~~ t
Since U is a /ineqr ftlnclion ()f X J cons/an/.s C, J C1. are given as: and
(j,=

(I)

c,X +c2,

where fhe

I.JA " 6 :: Cz.


ltD

19 =0,/ C, .r C2.,
J

Thus J From Efj. (I)

m ) (). =( /20 X + 6 s

with
)

x~m

0r

C, ;:;: J20

C2.::

6.

a=

~~ L -= (/20X + 6
J

P. (/20 :5) t
r 1i

or for XII =:0 and.

~= 7~O

for X8-::: 0,0.5m)


l' rf!Jr Xc. == 0, / m

a = B
~ a =c

IJftiOtp.

Am 21 6 0 l':S'J-

Lf-/6

R ~~~==:-,.....----x

0
x = fl4

4.2'1

When a fluid flows into a round pipe as shown in Fig.


0.75 R

P4.22, viscous effects may cause the velocity profile to change from a-uniform profile (V = Voi) at the entrance of the pipe to a parabolic profile {V = 2Vo [1 - (r/R)2]i} atx = Velocity

e.

profiles for various values of x are as indicated in the figure. Use this graph to show that a fluid particle moving along the centerline (r = 0) experiences an acceleration, but a particle close to the edge of the pipe (r ""'" R) experiences a deceleration. Does a particle traveling along the line r = 0.5 R experience an acceleration or deceleration, or both? Explain.

0.5 R

i
I I
I
CL
(b)

I~

,,~x =fl2

0.25 R

I
I
I

I~~'\\
I I I

x = 3Cl4
,

x = t

O~--~----~~--~--~~--~u

FIGURE P4.2 Z

..,). a =F +V'VV

DV

..,).

~
J

v=o

and

w=O

we obtain
~

a:=

Ox t

where ax == Jf + uTi

aU

dU

:=

UR

dU

a)

Along the centerline (r =0) we finri li >0 and ~ >0 Thus J Qx >0 on r::: O. /Veo.r the pipe wall (r ~ R) we find Ii >0 btA <0 (i.e.; fhe ve/oc/ly changes from (j.::: Va fo u.c: Vo (J.s X increase!;.) Th v.s J ax < 0 for r ~ R ,
R we r/nd u >0 and >0 'leaf fhe pipe en/ranee) buf 0 elsewhere. This is indi cofed /n fhe t;9IJre beJow. For r::

b)

-if

c)

#..c.

fx

I
-I -

Th{)~ JJ

for r = 1~ ~
elsewhere

ax >0 neQr the en/ranee and


Ox <0

o~~x x->o ~ <0


x = 0
(a)

r== iR

x = I'

tf -/7

y f-o------el2-----l1

As a valve is opened, water flows through the diffuser shown in Fig. P4.23 at an increasing flowrate so that the velocity along the centerline is given by V = ui = V o(1 - reI) (1 - xII' )i, where uo, c, and are constants. Determine the acceleration as a function of x and t. If Vo = 10 ftls and = 5 ft, what value of c (other than c = 0) is needed to make the acceleration zero for any x at t = 1 s? Explain how the acceleration can be zero if the flow rate is increasing with time.

4.23

----i~~

L _ _~~~~~_~2_~~~
x
~

-VoG - e-et)

VOG - e- c0

FIGURE P4.23
~

Q =iY.. +V-VV ~t this becomes ~ (~U JM)/\ a::: rt t u 1)( t == Cl~ t

v::O

and

w::O

1\

af t:: 1 s we mils! htlve with Vo::: /0 Q/Jd 1.::: 5 [c i(;t _ .:;. (/_ e- ct )2J :: 0
I fax
s:

0 for any

ce

-c

-5/-e

10 (

_C)2

=0

For fhe above condl'fionJ fhe /()co,/I/ccelerafio/J (ft- >0) is precisely Do/alJced hy fhe Colll/eelitlc decelero/i on (it :~ <.0),
The {Iowrote if)crea.re.s wilh lime J /;vi fhe I/Vid flows 10 an
area of lower ve/oc/Iy.

4-/8

4.24 A,fluid flows along the x axis with a velocity given by V = (x/t)i, where x is in feet and t in seconds. (a) Plot the speed for 0 :s x:s 10 ft and t = 3 s. (b) Plot the speed for x = 7 ft and 2 :s t :s 4 s. (c) Detennine the local and convective acceleration. (d) Show that the acceleration of any fluid particle in the flow is zero. (e) Explain physically how the velocity of a particle in this unsteady flow remains constant throughout itf. motion.

tJ,J fp.s
(0)

tf

U. -;;; :

1j
If J

so at t:: 3.s

Ii:;:

f !f

=3.s

2.
0
3

(b)

For
JU

X == 7

U:;.2 --.sfl

10

(e)

x It = --p.

d an

X(')_ X Urx =T T - /;'"


JU

U, fp5

2-

X= 7 f+

Fi9,2

(d) For Qny fluid particle +V,VV whi c.n with v:;: 0 J W -::: 0 becomes
...... (dlJ. (j(J,)J'\ a :- "IT +uTx l
_ (

a=1

0
hl9 het ve/oc/ly (see r;.~./),

X + X ) -1 -7272- {

:=

(e) The {Jarfie/c.s flow Inlo area-s of

hoi af 0"1 9iven loca/Ion fhe veJooifj i.s de6rea.sifJ9 i/J Ilme (see Fig- 2J. For The 9iven ve lo&/fy field the local qnd COhflBr;fil/C acceleratio"s ore e'lv41 and Oll()s,ie) 1iflifJ9
'2 e/,O

acee / era/ion fhl'otJ9n ~vl.

4.25 A hydraulic jump is a rather sudden change in depth of a liquid layer as it flows in an open channel as shown in Fig. P4.25 and Vitleo V 10.6. In a relatively short distance (thickness = e) the liquid depth changes from ZI to Z2' with a corresponding change in velocity from VI to V2 If VI = 1.20 ftls, V2 = 0.30 ft/s, and e = 0.02 ft, estimate the average deceleration of the liquid as it flows across the hydraulic jump. How many g's deceleration does this represent?

Hydraulic jump

1'1 FIGURE P4.25

Ii -:: T{ of VvV
.> -

JV

.-S

SO

A .'" w/fA V:: IJ.(XJi J a =Ill. X

::t(,TXt

JIJ,

1\

Will1 ouf knDWin9 fhe acftJa/ ve/oc/Iy Ji.flr;/'u/i()11 the (Jcceleraliol) can he approximated tis
tlx

t( == IJ(X~

~ fA

.w ~ i (V,+~) (~i"') :; ;
=

1(1.2.0

+0,3 0)

if

-33.,{!z.

( O. 30 -1.;).0 O.Oloft

)!

ThllsJ

- /.05

'I-:k6 I
-t.U.
A fluid panicle flowing along a stagnation stream

line. as shown in Vick,) Y4.:: and Fig. P4.26. slows down as it Stagnation pornt. t::: 0 approaches the stagnation point. Measurements of the dye flow ~ ~~J(f~~ FI Id It I in the video indicate that the location of a panicle starting on i,; ~:tt~" ";.i;oro. ~ v / U PC! Ie e the stagnation streamline a distance s "" 0.6 ft upstream of the 'tfi~ s stagnation point at ( "" 0 is given approximately by s =O.6e- o.s" , where t is in seconds and s is in ft. (a) Determine the speed of FI G U REP 4 . 2 6 a fluid particle as a function o(time, Vpanicl.Jt), as it flows along the sleamline. (b) Determine the speed of the fluid as a func tion of position along the streamline. V"" V(s). (e) Determine the flu id acceleration along the streamli ne as a function of position. a, :::: a,(s).

(,,) Vlilh s" 0.6 e-o.s if follows Ihat II ds ( ) _O.Sf


~ ~"J

P',.TfC e "-rr ,,~

0.6 -o.s e

"-0.3 e

_o.st

His

(b)

From pari (a),

V"
Thvs
I

(-0.5) [0_ 6

_0.51]

where .s" 0.6 e

_o.sl

v~ (-0 ..[5], or

V= -0.s5
dV

[lis whero s-ff

(e) For sfeadl {lOlli, I?r" V 4i

Thvs, wilh V= - 0.5s pnd ~


Q s

O,S,
$-

" (-o.s 5) (-0.5) "

0.255

fils' where

No Ie : For S >0, Os iJ pari/lve - the parficlt:r acee/eralion is /0 /he ri'llrl. S i"ce fhe paMic/e is mavifltj fa the left. a plJS//ive as fof' fj,is ca.re implies -fhal Ihe p",.fide is dece/era/in,! (qS ,I m~f be for Ihis

sfa? nalion point lJow 1.

'f-:J./

.271

A nozzle is designed to accelerate the fluid from VI to V2 in a linear fashion . That is, V = ax + b. where a and b are constants. If the flow is constant with VI = 10 m/ s at XI = 0 and V 2 - 25 m/ s al X2 = I m. delennine the local acceleralion.

4~1. 7

the conveclive acceleration, and the acceleration of the fluid at


poinls (I) and (2).

Wiih u =ax +b ) V=O J and w=o fhe accelerafion can be wriHen as IV, (I) h a = Ox t were Ox = /J.1X Since /J. = ~ = IO.p af x =0 and Ii- =v.. =25.p. al x =1 we oMain 10 = 0 + b 25 = a +b So thai a = 15 and b = 10 Thai i.s, /J. = (!5X+10).If ; where x- m , so th.i from EZ'O)

ax

= (/5X+ IO )f (15'f) = (t1.5XTISO)

f,.

'/-22

4.21.) Repeat Problem 4.27 with the assumption that the flow is not steady, but at the time when VI = 10 m/s and V2 = 25 mis, it is known that aVl/ar = 20 m/s 2 and aV2/ar = 60 m/s 2

Wifh U=fJ.(x)l:) J v::: o J and w =:0 the acce Iera f ,'on a =Tf +VvV can be wriffen a.s a :: Ox f where Ox:::: +Ii J w/lh /.J.:::; a(f)x +btfJ. (I) III fhe given lime (fc:io) u:: ~ = IO.qz. ~.d X ==0 (JnJ IJ == ~ ==25 11 aT X:=/m Thus) 10 = 0 + bOo) 25 :: aCto) t ha,,) so fhai aCt,,)::: /s tJlld !JII,) == 10 II/sf) af {:::to J == ~~~L :: 20 ~ at X=:(}

.-

JV

#- X

#-

and

~/J. = JV2. _ 0f 0 !l!... M I : "'If,. Tt .s:J- a f X-I - mo e I 'lese Qre

-rr -

The convective accelerofion al X::O (Ef - 0) i.s ux= (oxtb) (a) =(15(O)+IO)~/5 vJ'h//e a f '1= / if i.s
u~ :: (/5 (I) +JO)!J-(ls f) == 375ii

(Jcce /er"f ions

I (J f time t= to
/

OC"

~):::ISO?

The fllJid accelerofion ,d t:::to Is

a = (#- +I.l ~)t


and

== (2.0+ ISO)'( ~

= 170t

~ af

x::()

a =( 60+ 37s )t ';2. ::: 'f.9st-jt af X'::lm

9.3 0
-1.30 An incompressible fluid flows past a turbine blade as shown in Fig. P4.30a and Vidt'o \'4.5. Far upstream and downstream of the blade the velocity is Vo. Measurements show that the velocity of the fluid along streamline A-F near the blade is as indicated in Fig. P4.30b. Sketch the streamwise component of acceleration, as, as a function of distance, s, along the streamline. Discuss the important characteristics of your result.

v
1.5 Vo

Vo

0.5 Vo
0
1\
.~

C
(b)

D
.I'

s
(a)

---1

Vo

II FIGURE

P4.30

tA.s ::

Vis

where froRJ the fit/fire

of V =VIs) The (vl/cfion

1! has the foJ/olNin1 Sh4I'S.


F

.s

The ffwd decelerates from 1/ 10 C) 4cce/er4les {rum c If} IJ) and fhe decelerates a94JI; from [) 10 F. the nel acceler4li(}17 (rpm Atf) F is zero (i. 8/ ~::: V, =- V F ),

4.31 Air flows steadily through a variable area pipe with a velocity of V = u(x)i ft/s, where the approximate measured values of u(x) are given in the table. Plot the acceleration as a function of x for 0 :S X :S 12 in. Plot the acceleration if the flowrate is increased by a factor of N (i.e., the values of u are increased by a factor of N), for N = 2, 4, 10.

x (in.)

u (fils)

x (in.)

u (ft/s)
20.1 17.4 13.5 11.9 10.3 10.0

o
1 2

10.0
10.2

7
8 9

3 4
5 6

13.0 20.1
28.3

10
11 12 13

28.4 25.8

10.0

v==o) and w=o /1 follows fha! (j= :: +vvV simplil/e.s fo 11 = ax t where (Ix -::: U The valves U are given in fhe faMe ; the correspondin9 values of ~~ C4n be tJbt"ined by an approximale numerical diFreren-fialion o.s qiven in Pro9rom P'f#31 shoJfJ he/ow,
J

Since /). ~U(x)

(I)

No Ie fhat since (/x ~ f). if fo//ows thol and increose from u. 10 N U Increases Ihe occelerafiol) from Ox If)
2-00 110 120 125 130 135
1~0

#-

in ve/ocIl,
;V2d x

150 160 170 180 200 210 220 230


2~0

300 310 320 330


3~0

350 360

cls open "prnl! for output as #1 dim u(l~), n(~) u(l)=lO.O : u(2)=10.2 : u(3)=13.0 : u(~)=20.1 : u(5)=28.3 u(6)=28.~ : u(7)=25.S : u(S)=20.1 : u(9)=17.~ : u(10)=13.5 u(11)=11.9 : u(12)=10.3 : u(13)=10.0 : u(1~)=10.0 n(l)=l : n(2)=2 : n(3)=~ : n(~)=10 print#l, "************************************************" print#l, "** This program calculates the acceleration **" print#l, "** as a function of position. **" print.# 1, "********************************************* ***" print#l, " I! for i = 1 to ~ print#l, II " print.#l, using "For N = ##";n(i) print#l, 11 x, in. u, ft/s a, ft/s2" for j = 1 to 13 a = n(i)-2*((u(j+l) + u(j))/2)*{(u(j+l) - u(j))/(1/12)) uavg = (u(j+ll + u(j))/2 x = j - 0.5 print#l, using "###.# ###.# +#.###----";x,uavg,a next j next i

Nole fhQf aHhou9h Ihe velocIty da/a J U :: fJ. (X)/ o/fJerJrs fo he qulfe "smoolh '; the occelerat;on resvll J ox:::: I.i ~ is somewhaT irrerju/ar (especia/~ for x> 7 in.).
I

**

~***********************************************

************************************************
For N = x, in. 0.5 1.5 2. :> 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11. 5 12.5 1

**

This program calculates the acceleration as a function of position.

**

**

u, ft/s, 10.1
11. 6

16.5 24,.2 28.3 27.1 23.0 18.8 15.4, 12.7


11.1

10.1 10.0

a, ft/s2 +2.424E+01 +3.898E+02 +1.410E+03 +2.381E+03 +3.402E+01 -8.455E+02 -1.570E+03 -6.075E+02 -7.231E+02 -2.438E+02 -2.131E+02 -3.654,E+01 +O.OOOE+OO

For N = 10 x. In. u, ft/s, 0.5 10.1 1.5 11.6 16.5 2.5 24,.2 3.5 4.5 28.3 5.5 27.1 6.5 23.0 7.5 18.8 15.4, 8.5 9.5 12.7 10.5 11.1 11. 5 10.1 12.5 10.0

a, ft/s2 +2.4,2l"E+03 +3.898E+04, +1.l,,10E+05 +2.381E+05 +3.l,,02E+03 -8.l"55E+0l,, -1.570E+05 -6.075E+04, -7.231E+0l" -2.438E+0l" -2.131E+0'" -3.654E+03 +O.OOOE+OO

30

u"

ff/.s
2.0

10

5
3000
2.000
-

10

Xl in.

15

aXJ
l1.s2-

--

-/-.

.------ ---,---------------- -:-------~-----,------~--

N=F

1000

----

---:-----

---

--------.- ---------

--- - - - .
---

-------~' --.------~.----.-

0
-1000
-2~

~~---+-'------~,....------'J5--Xi-in;

/.

___ ~\~~/O-.---- ________, ______

'1.32. J

4.32. Assume the temperature of the exhaust in an exhaust pipe can be approximated by T = To(1 + ae-bx)[l + c cos(wt)], where To = 100 e, a = 3, b = 0.03 m- 1 , c = 0.05, and w = 100 rad/s. If the exhaust speed is a constant~ mis, determine the time rate of change of temperature of the fluid particles at x = 0 and x = 4 m when t = o.

Since u-== 2
DT Dt
'OT
~

'V

T
T

v;O
oT

and w=O if fol/ow.s +h~+


~T

=rr+ V' V

=rt+lJ.rxf-V 1y tWn-=-rr+UdX

IJT

dT

oT

'dT

Thus I = To (I +a ibx)(_c fA) sin(4Ji)+u.T,; (t+c c.o.s(wt)(-ab e-b:x)

gr

%f = - ab 7; (I + c) e- bx or w/llJ fhe given data., %f == -(3) (0.03 ;h)( 2.~ )(100 (/+0.05) i o.o3X =-/B.q e:C where x,vm
IJ
J

When t;:: 0

DC)

O 03X

Thus,
and

Iff-;-

/B.q:j- at

X;::O

t=:o

DT c Df = -/6.8 s af x;: Lf J J t =0

/f-27

4.33* As is indicated in Fig. P4.33, the speed of exhaust in a car's exhaust pipe varies in time and distance because of the periodic nature of the. engine's operation and the damping effect with; distance from the engine. Assume that the speed. is given by V = V o[1 + ae- bx sin(wt)], where Vo = 8 fps. a = 0.05. b = 0.2 ft-I, and w = 50 rad/s. Calculate and plot the fluid acceleration at x = 0, 1, 2. 3, 4, and 5 ft for 0 :5 t:5 n/25 s.

v = vorl
FIGURE P4.33

+ ae- bx sin(wtl)

Since .-

fj,=U(X,i)

~ aV a = Tf + V V

_.-v =

J
J\

v=o J and w=o if fo/low.5 thaf


,

Qx I.

were Ox:: Tf + U IX
bX

DUo

au

(I)

ThIJS, w/lh U:: Vo [I + a e- Sin (wt)] Ef. (/) 9ives Ox = Va aw e- bx co.s(wt) + Vo[I+ a bx.sin (fAJi)] Va a. (-b) e-bxsin(wt)

e-

Vo a e bX [ tQ COoS ((pt) - Vo b Sin (4JtJ (J ta e- bXsin (wi )] W/lh Va:: 8!j J a;:; 0.05 , b =:: 0.2. ft and I =50 !.1 d
=
J

fh is becomes
ax == O. If e- o.2.X [so cos (sot) - 1.6 sin (Eot) (J +0.0,5

eo. 2xsin (sot))J f}a. PJ


tlnrl51!,

where t~.s and x- ff PI07 tlx from '1- (:J.) (or o:s t ~ if

w/lh

X =0) J) 2.,3, if,

AIJ xce/ Prorflam Wa.r vs-eci 10 (;4/clI/4Ie ax frolll ore shown en Ih9 /Jext p4,e,

r (~).

The re.rvlfs

(con 'I)

'I: 33-

{con 'I)
t, s 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.055 0.060 0.065 0.070 0.075 0.080 0.085 0.090 0.095 0.100 0.105 0.110 0.115 0.120 0.125 x=Oft 20.00 19.22 17.24 14.18 10.24 5.67 0.74 -4.23 -8.93 -13.08 -16.42 -18.73 -19.89 -19.81 -18.51 -16.06 -12.61 -8.37 -3.62 1.36 6.26 10.77 14.61 17.54 19.38 20.01 Acceleration at various x locations, fUs"2 x=1ft x=2ft x= 3 ft x=4ft 16.37 13.41 10.98 8.99 15.73 12.88 10.55 8.64 14.11 11.56 9.46 7.75 11.61 9.51 7.79 6.38 8.39 6.87 5.63 4.61 4.65 3.81 3.12 2.55 0.61 0.51 0.42 0.34 -3.46 -2.83 -2.31 -1.89 -7.31 -5.98 -4.90 -4.01 -10.71 -8.76 -7.17 -5.87 -13.44 -11.00 -9.01 -7.37 -15.34 -12.56 -10.28 -8.42 -16.29 -13.33 -10.92 -8.94 -16.22 -13.28 -10.87 -8.90 -15.15 -12.41 -10.16 -8.32 -13.14 -10.76 -8.81 -7.21 -10.32 -8.45 -6.91 -5.66 -6.85 -5.61 -4.59 -3.76 -2.96 -2.42 -1.98 -1.62 1.12 0.92 0.75 0.62 5.13 4.20 3.44 2.82 8.82 7.22 5.92 4.84 11.96 9.80 8.02 6.57 14.36 11.76 9.63 7.88 15.87 12.99 10.64 8.71 16.38 13.41 10.98 8.99 x=5ft 7.36 7.07 6.34 5.22 3.77 2.09 0.28 -1.55 -3.28 -4.81 -6.04 -6.89 -7.32 -7.29 -6.81 -5.90 -4.63 -3.07 -1.32 0.51 2.31 3.97 5.38 6.45 7.13 7.36

Acceleration, ax, vs Time, t

20 15 10 5
N

:!

tn

co

0 -5 -10 -15
-20+-----~----~----~--~--r_----~----~
-.~----'---

~-----.--------------

0.00

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.10

0.12

t,

1/--29

4.34

A gas flows along the x-axis with a speed of V = 5x m/s and a pressure of p = IOx 2 N/m 2 , where x is in meters. (a) Determine the time rate of change of pressure at the fixed location x = I. (b) Determine the time rate of change of pres-

sure for a fluid particle flowing past x = I. (c) Explain without using any equations why the answers to parts (a) and (b) are different.

a) Since fJ:::: /0 X /i follows IhQf

= 0 for a 1/

x.
fha.f

b) 'Wifh fj,:::5x J /tr:::O )P=:OJ and rll==jox2.d follows

~1

::

-rhvs ~fl ==
Xc:/m

+u~ +/Ir ~
/00

+jJr

~ :::

11.* :: (SXlf)(2oX1.) == IOOX2. ~/.s

;;(6

c)

For this s lea rJy flow fhe press/Jre at a poinT is cO/Jsiallf (p4rl (",)~ blli 1he pressure fOr a 9i1l811 parfie Ie chafJ?eJ; with lime (,~flf (bJ) heca/)se
fhe pafl1 (~/e flow.: into a hir;hel' pross fire r e9io/J.

4.35
4.35 The temperature distribution in a fluid is given by T = lOx + 5y, where x and y are the horizontal and vertical coordinates in meters and T is in degrees centigrade. Determine the time ra.te of chan~e of temperature of a fluid particle traveling (a) honzontally WIth u = 20 mis, v = 0 or (b) vertically with u = 0, v = 20 m/ s.

DT

Dt ==

~T JT JT rr + IJ IX + V dY

were 1T :::: 0
=:200!f

Jf

ThIlS,

if
If

IJ,::;2o'f

and v~OJ then ~ :::u{f:::(2.o.t;-)(IO !.#r)

and

'" T 7 iJC PC u =0 anJ v=: 20 7) fhel1 ft-;; vfr : : (:LO!)(5'-;;;) -::: jOIJ ~

. U6 At the top of its trajectory, the stream of water shown in Fig. P4.36 and Yid,'o V4.3 flows with a horizontal velocity of 1.80 ft/s. The radius of curvature of its streamline at that point is approximately 0.10 ft. Determine the normal component of acceleration at that location.

ffi = 0.10 It

m FIGURE P4.36

a:n ==

VI 1?

2.ij2.

= (1.8 ) o,/off

= 3 2.~

s2.

1./-30

~37

4.37 As shown in Video V4.2 and Fig. P431, a flying airplane produces swirling flow near the end of its wings. In certain circumstances this flow can be approximated by the velocity field u = -Ky/(;r? + y2) and v = Kx/(;r? + l), where K is a constant depending on various parameters associated with the airplane (Le., its weight, speed, etc.) and x and yare measured from the center of the swirl. (a) Show that for this flow the velocity is inversely proportional to the distance from the origin. That is, V = KI(;r? + yl)ln. (b) Show that the streamlines are circles.

FIG U REP 4 .37

or

V-= Ji r

(b) Sfreamline.s are (piJen by

Kx (x'".f y2.)

-Ky
(x 1 +y'")

x -y

t
or

y1. :::

which when inferraled qives - f X 1. +C'.J where t; is I-i cOlJrfalJ/.

X2. -l-

y"J, :: Con.sfanf

1f-3/

'1-.38
4.3){ Assume that the streamlines for the wingtip vortices from an airplane (see Fig. P4.37 and Vidt'(j V4.1) can be approximated by circles of radius r and that the speed is V = K/r. where K is a constant. Determine the streamline acceleration. as. and the normal acceleration. an. for this flow .

FIGURE P4.13

a - V!lias
~

where

SlfJce

V-J: - r

if ~(J

Thvs

f4.s -::

IJ/so
Q _

'i 2- _ (Klr):1 ::: K -3 r "-Y[- -r


J

4.3 q A fluid flows past a sphere with an upstream velocity of Va = 40 mls as shown in Fig. P4.3Q. From a more advanced theory it is found that the speed of the fluid along the front part of the sphere is V = ~Va sin Determine the streamwise and normal components of acceleration at point A if the radius of the sphere is a = 0.20 m.

e.

FIGURE P4.3Q

v= ~
and

Va

2. an == X == 1(

sin e == -j: (~O ';) sine == (6 . 0)2. m1


0 Sin 1./-0 O.2m

60

sine
~
s

f
~v ~e

(I)

SJ::::: 7/f'fO

CIs ::: V15 == (60 smf) dS

~v

. ) ~v

where

J.5 ::: Ie TI dB J

JV

/lIsa J where e- raJ, J so f h Q+ r.s - ~ Thus, for B= 'fOD as:: (60 sinIfOO,T)(6Dco.sIfOO~)(o.~m) ::: 886o~

From ~,(J) J

j ~ :: io s::: a8 = 0.1- e I1J

cos fJ

4.40* For flow past a sphere as discussed iI} Problem 4.39, plot a graph of the streamwise acceleration, as> the normal acceleration, a,,, and the magnitude of the acceleration as a function of 0 for 0 ::; 0 ::; 90 with Vo = 50 fils and a = 0.1, 1.0, and 10 ft. Repeat for Vo = 5 fils. At what point is the acceleration a maximum; a minimum?

_r _(tVaasinet-_ Jfa 9 '10 a


n -1'(-

Sin

2.8

(I)

and G.s = V Ts
J

dV

~V de =V18 E

Thlls as = (f Va sine )(t Yo co.s8) f =

where T8:: '".2 Vo cosfJ and or gjl =..L

oV

.s::: a ()

ff

~5

a sinO cos e

(2)

lienee The ma9ndIJde of the acee/era/ion i.s I i 9Vc 2. I . 'I 9 ~ 2. J I I = y an2. +a.: = Jl.ao Ysin e +sin2.8 (,os2.8 = If aD sine Vsir/e +co.s~e

or
(3)

urI = .i

2-

sinB

Thvs,

Ia/min = 0

tlf 8=0 J la/mIX = ~

af fj =90

lin bxcel Pr09fafn"W4s wed to caJGt6'i4iB tl.s a/J 4/ld C{ frllm flns. (fJ/)'~ afJa (1'J. The l'eJ()/ls are shown ie/(JJ4I~ 7lJe resilils tor ofher V()'/V8s Od'e simIlar ,llhe f4,,/pr Vo '"/a is 4CG()vnieri /I/",
The folroWif9 derfa
e,
deg an, ftls2 as, ftls2 a, ftls2

is f~f Vo:::5 fils 1

Q::: /

ff

o
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0.0 0.4 1.7 3.8 6.6 10.0 14.1 18.5 23.2 28.1 33.0 37.7 42.2 46.2 49.7 52,5 54.6 55.8 56.3

0.0 4.9 9.6 14.1 18.1 21.5 24.4 26.4 27,7 28.1 27.7 26.4 24.4 21.5 18.1 14.1 9.6 4.9 0.0

0.0 4.9 9.8 14.6 19.2 23.8 28.1 32.3 36.2 39.8 43.1 46.1 48.7 51.0 52.9 54.3 55.4 56.0 56.3

Acceleration vs Angular position

Va ~ 5
50
N

fils

a :: IN
T---~~-4--~~~---~
I/)

:! 40

1 -normal accel, ftsQ2 i

1-

-streamwise accel, ' fUs A2 - accel, ftlsA2

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

e,deg

If. Iff

r
A fluid flows past a circular cylinder of radius a with an upstream speed of V o as shown in Fig. P4.41. A more advanced theory indicates that if viscous effects are negligible, the velocity of the fluid along the surface of the cylinder is given by V = 2 Vo sin e. Determine the streamline and normal components of acceleration on the surface of the cylinder as a function of Va' a, and 4.4 J

e.

FIGURE P4.41

and

an0.s=

f( -

V2

(2.

Vo.sin8/- _ 'tVQ.2. ",n2. n Q a ~ r:7


~B Ts
~e
J

V().f=
J

6V

V dV

Thus

======== where ~~:::: 2 Yo cos e and lJB or rs


I

.s =: a8

=-L-

as::: (2'Vo sine)(ZVo cos(i)+ = ~ sinO cose

"

~.tj2"

4.4,2*

Use the results of Problem 4.41 to plot graphs of as and an for 0 :5 :5 90 with V o = 10 m/s and a = 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 m.

e
J

Fro/?? Problem if. 'II

C1n:= If. cJIo:l S ifl e C/nd t1.s ::

"al4,/I. sine cos().


and /0. Om

Th ese
e,
deg

results with Vc,-.::/o! and a

== 0.0/ J 0./ 0 ) /.0.1

are plotted below.


a =0.01 m a =0.10 m a =1.0 m a =10 m 2 2 2 as, fUs as, fUs as, fUs as, fUs 2 a =0.10 m a =0.10 m a =1.0 m a =10 m an, fUs 2 an. fUs 2 an, fUs 2 an, fUs 2

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

0 3473 6840 10000 12856 15321 17321 18794 19696 20000 19696 18794 17321 15321 12856 10000 6840 3473 0

0 347 684 1000 1286 1532 1732 1879 1970 2000 1970 1879 1732 1532 1286 1000 684 347 0

0 35 68 100 129 153 173 188 197 200 197 188 173 153 129 100 68 35 0

0.00 3.47 6.84 10.00 12.86 15.32 17.32 18.79 19.70 20.00 19.70 18.79 17.32 15.32 12.86 10.00 6.84 3.47 0.00

0 304 1206 2679 4679 7144 10000 13160 16527 20000 23473 26840 30000 32856 35321 37321 38794 39696 40000

(con't,
11--35

0 30 121 268 468 714 1000 1316 1653 2000 2347 2684 3000 3286 3532 3732 3879 3970 4000

0 3 12 27 47 71 100 132 165 200 235 268 300 329 353 373 388 397 400

0.00 0.30 1.21 2.68 4.68 7.14 10.00 13.16 16.53 20.00 23.47 26.84 30.00 32.86 35.32 37.32 38.79 39.70 40.00

(CO!) 'I)

100000

ES==:::E==t~

100000

B=:====:E===l

10000

1000 T--- -:-. --:---~


N

1000

t~_=~~~'=-=-=~~~=-,.-]
I '

.Ie

T-------~-

,\

- - - a =0.01 m
N

- - - a = 0.01 m

.\ .

- a = 0.10 m

.Ie

--~;---'------~-

~ ... ..---r-+:...,I------t---t---i

"
100

- - - - - a = 1.0 m - - - -a =10. m

:, i

i-

---a=0.1m
- - - - - a = 1.0 m

----a=10m

100

10

10

f-.r'--C/~~~~-~~~~-~.-~

:1

f--+<---_-;-~_+______i_----+----i--

II

r
o
50

100

50

100

e,deg

e, deg

Determine the x and y components of acceleration for the flow given in Problem 4.6. If c > 0, is the particle at point x = xo > 0 and y = 0 accelerating or decelerating? Explain. Repeat if Xo < O.

4.4.3

Since 11.== c(x"J._ y 2.) and v= -2 c xy if fo//ow.s fhaf


~ A A a = 0xt +(JyJ
J

h were

or

Clx ==1t +u-x +

v-W == c(x2--y')(~cx) +(-.2cxy)(-2CY)


=c(x2.-y2.) (-2CY) +(-2cxy )(-2cx)

Ox

=2c 2 X (x2.+y2)

and

Qy == 2 c 2. y ( x" +y 2. )

Oy == ~ + u1f + vy0"

For
an d

X=X o
J

and

y::::O We obfain:

lJ.:::cx2. o

vr::O
J

Ox= 2C2. x:

Oy =0

Thlls J wilh c>o and Xo>O ;i foJJows

thai

u >0 J Ox >OJ i.e.~

the

With

C >0

flviJ l.s acceleratinq. and xo~o if foJlo~.s fhat u > 0 J ax<o j t',8'J fhe f /uirA is rJece/era1 if1g.

4-37

-fM

Water flows through the curved hose shown in Fig. P4.44 with an increasing speed of V = lOt ft/s, where t is in seconds. For t = 2 s determine (a) the component of acceleration along the streamline, (b) the component of acceleration normal to the streamline, and (c) the net acceleration (magnitude and direction).

o:.JI.

= 20 It

a)

hlJ f ~ dS =0
fdr a/I t.

b) On:::

2-

or

an} ::- .5"(")'- == 2.0if,.


t =2.;

c)

I}{ t ::= 2 s

Ii = Cis f

all

n =-

/0; .,. 2()

n~

or
J

~J a

==

[2. ff Q.s + all"]~ ::: [1. 10 + 20 2.]~ == 2 2. -i' ?


and

e :: arcfo,n(M-) ; 63. fJ

tj-38

4.45 Water flows steadily through the funnel shown in Fig. P4.45. Throughout most of the funnel the flow is approximately radial (along rays from 0) with a velocity of V = clr2, where r is the radial coordinate and c is a constant. If the velocity is 0.4 mls when r = 0.1 m, determine the acceleration at points A and B.

o
FIGURE P4.4S

'1(-:::00 (i.e) fhe sfreaml ine.s arB sfraigh t )

Thvs J

_ (C )( 2..C) 2C Qs-- ]"'2. -? :::: rs


3

2.

At point _A2.!(Lfx/o-.3 sm )2. :::: 3 2. 0 l!!a.s (O.lm).b


's:L
0,11n

o,I"m

O,lm

rOB = (0,1) +(0.06)


:: O. /167m

2.

2-

4.46 Water flows through the slit at the bottom of a twodimensional water trough as shown in Fig. P4.46. Throughout most of the trough the flow is approximately radial (along rays from 0) with a velocity of V = clr, where r is the radial coordinate and c is a constant. If the velocity is 0.04 mls when r = 0.1 m, determine the acceleration at points A and B. FIGURE )'4.46

~ a :: an n +lls .s
A.

J\
J

lJ ~v ~v h n/so) a.s::: VT.S = - V1F Were


I

h V2. were CAn = 1? =: 0 since


V::: -;: C

1?:= OD (,,~e~ the sfream Jine.s


are sfraiqhf)

Since V== o.oq.!J- when r:::. O.lm if follow.s 1hat -.3 !!l. c::: Vr == ( o.oIfIp)(O.lm)::: 'fx/o-3:z. or V:::: 'f-x/o r oS J whert~ r

-r,

c;;

rJ

Tn

Thvs,

as = -( ~ )0;1) =
(J ~

f2-

IN poin! 1/:
~

-.3

(lfxlO

(O.Bm't
-.3

~)

m2.

= 3.13 x/o-5 4 oS
= 2. oox /0
-3

At point B :
~::;

(ifx/o :$")
(0. '}..rn) 3

m2. ~

:sa.

thlf7

I
DX
5

Air flows from a pipe into the region between two parallel circular disks as shown in Fig. P4.1f7. The fluid velocity in the gap between the disks is closely approximated by V = VoRlr, where R is the radius of the disk, r is the radial coordinate, and Vo is the fluid velocity at the edge of the disk. Determine the acceleration for r = 1, 2, or 3 ft if Vo = 5 ft/s and R = 3 ft.
J\
A

4.,47

'I
~
V
~vo

~,r

~ t ~PiPe
FIGURE P4. 47

2 h Cln :::: 'It V :: 0 since a = an n + Qs S were Also, as = V S : : V where V:::: V~R


I

S/nce
I

Va::

5*

1(:: 00 (t', eJ +he sireamJine.s

are .straighT. )

and R:=3f.J J V== Irs ~ J where rrvff


(

Thvs _(YoR)(_ VoR) __ VrfR 2 _ _ a.s - r /,,2 r3 - , fJl r:: / ff J (l.s == - 225 !is.

5':$

f+)"( )231 .. :=_


;3 fl3

'),.2,s 3

Af r=3 ff J

Q.s

= -8,33~

4-JfI

4. '1-8 Air flows from a pipe into the region between a circular disk and a cone as shown in Fig. P4.49. The fluid velocity in the gap between the disk and the cone is closely approximated by V = VaR21r2, where R is the radius of the disk, r is the radial coordinate, and Va is the fluid velocity at the edge of the disk. Determine the acceleration for,. = 0.5 and 2 ft if Va = 5 ftl sand R = 2 ft.

!
r----R-----+<.!
FIGURE P4.4S

a :::: an n + CI.s.s
A A

h , were
-

AJ so)

O.s -

- Vr.s aV

'f<::co (e:e'.l fhe .s+ream/ine.s smce are .sfra iq hi) av ,were h V\b R2. V1"F ---;:r

Cln == "1( -:: 0

Thvs ~(~) (_ 2. Vo3 R2.) = _ as r2. r

2. '" ~ RI/-

r-

:::

2-(5 s) (20ft) .s .cl"s

.fl

2.

If

__
-

800

TT

r5

.fi
s
rNf-j

lit r ::o.sH J O.s = -2.5)600 ~

where

4-42.

4.4Q Water flows through a duct of square cross section as shown in Fig. P4.4Qwith a constant, uniform velocity of V = 20 m/s. Consider fluid particles that lie along line A-B at time t = O. Determine the position of these particles, denoted by line A' -B', when t = 0.20 s. Use the volume of fluid in the region between lines A-B and A'-B' to determine the flowrate in the duct. Repeat the problem for fluid particles originally along line C -D; along line -F. Compare your three answers.

B'

A'

FIGURE P4.4Q

Since V is cons/ani Ii) time and sptlce J all parfic/e.s on line IJB move a disfal/ce f -:: V At :d(:2o-!;) (o.2.s) =Lf/J'J from t ==0 10 f~ O.2.s 3 Thv-s, the volume of ABA'O' l.s ~8A~' = (o.Stn)~(LfIn) :::/.00 m so thQt 3 Q= ~8t~1 = 1.00 m ::: S.O ~3
0.2s
$

Simdar/y from t==o fot==o.2..s fhe {Ivirl a/ol/9 JilJes CD and EF move fo C'/)' and E'r;respecfiveV. II/so, ~DC~/:::: ~F$~I ::: ~BJ981 so fhat weobfat'n Q::: ft : : 5.fJ!f re9ardlcss which line we consiclel'.
'1-.50
20 m/s

Repeat Problem 4.4 qif the velocity profile is linear fromlO to 20 mls across the duct as shown in Fig. P4.50.
10 m/s

4.50

A'

FI GURE P4.S 0

the parficle imtially ai B fravels a distance 1B : : Ve At ::: (20.!p- ) (o.2.s) ='f-m as Sholll/} wht'/e one af II/ravels a Jisiance If/ ~ ~ At r:::~o-) (o.'1.s) == ~m. Since the '1e/ocdy prutlle is linear i/ne 198 remaiIJSsfraI9h.. blll ..h11.s..;..10Iinell.ll~ TAvs !he VOIllfll8 of flvid cros.silJ9 the in//;4/ IIIIe III ;'s
J

From

t ==0 fo

I:~ 0.2$

t:SB1A' :::

so that
IJ:: If -

(iA of J8 )

II ::; i: (2 m +'1-111) (0. Sin /. ;: 0.7 ",3


J :::

t'

__ F"-----ft
3.75

~BB~I = .6t

O.7S m O.1-s

d
oS

F.Or any cvrved line F (which /noves fo 'FI)


for allY l/nB cunsidered.
lJ-'f3

'

~FF~' :: ~BB'R' sO thai the same I/oillme f/oUlrtJie) Q, is obfained

?': 5 I
"'.51
t~r

r~---------~Control

surface

1-

-~.!"r_~~: /Sluice gate

In the region just downstream ~f a slui~e ?at~, the w~- '~~i: Vb = 3 ftlS~1 may develop, a r~ver~e flow reg~on as IS. mdlcated m,' .... ..' ~-------:-:::i=--7-~ ,.J ~~'"i=~.---': ~ FIg. P4.51 and Vldl'O \141.:-. The velocIty profile IS assumed to I ., '\' ".~. ~.. A~ .. ' 1.8 ft consist of two uniform regions, one with velocity V" = 10 fps , ' ~ ~': ' . ' ! and the other with V/J = 3 fps. Determine the net flowrate of \................ ' . '. --..... ct,..;:::~ ...... 1.2 ft water across. the porti?n of the control surface at section (2) if .... r7~/. --",. ~ ;,-:t-?,; the channel IS 20 ft wIde. (1) (2)

VV ..

Va = 10 ftls

FIGURE P4.5'

Q-

= (10
-

if) (J.2.ft)(:J.olf)
oS

-(3!f )(J,Bff)(;'()ffJ

_ /32

fI.3

L{.. s 2.

/4.52

At time t = 0 the valve on an initially empty (perfect vacuum, p = 0) tank is opened and air rushes in. If the tank has a volume of -Vo and the density of air within the tank increases bt FOr J ] so

as p = p.,(1 - e- bl ), where b is a constant, determine the time rate of change of mass within the tank.

t ~o

p::. Po [I - e
-bt

fhai M::: mtJss of air /n tanK


=

Thvs} df == po ~ b e

cJM

eVa :::f'oVo [I-e- bt ]

4.5'1- :
4.5+
Air enters an elbow with a uniform speed of 10 mls as shown in Fig. P4.S4. At the exit of the elbow the velocity profile is not uniform. In fact, there is a region of separation or reverse flow. The fixed control volume ABeD coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the system at time t = 0.01 sand (b) the fluid that has entered and exited the control volume in that time period.

Control volume

c
15 m/s

From i =0 to t:::: O.O/s parlic/es IIJ BJ ~ D and. E /!J()ve the followin9 distances: ~::: ~ dt -:: (10.!Jl- ) (o.o/s) :: 0./ m :: OD
J

J -:: Va Ji:: (5!j) (o,o/.s) = 0.05 m B


6c~
E

'!cit:: (J5~) (o.OJS)


J

=0./517)

and

a =0
Thv.s fluid. a/on9 lines /JIJ fill;' ana B'E'c' shown be/()w,
O./m
1J1Jd.

BEe ori9in(J/~ moves 10 lines

D ,\:_ I.. '\I J)I ...... -..;;

-1

- - - - .sysfem at 1::::0

- - - - system

at

i :::0.0/

//// {Iu/J -IhaT exHed con1rol


volume

\ \ \ \ flvid tho" entered. cunlrol volvme

4-Jf5

'1-.55

.f.55 A layer of oil flows down a vertical plate as shown in Fig. P4.55 with a velocity of V = (Vo/h 2) (2Ju - .xl) j where Vo and h are constants. (a) Show that the fluid sticks to the plate and that the shear stress at the edge of the layer (x = h) is zero. (b) Determine the flowrate across surfaceAB. Assume the width of the plate is b. (Note: The velocity profile for laminar flow in a pipe has a similar shape. See Vidt.'o V6.(t.)

Plate ~

A----~---~~~-~-----B

a)

fir

==~(2h)(-X2.)
Oil

Thus)
/1T
X==O

I = i- (0 - 0)

== 0

and

1+----,.- h - -

' / =,# x=:h x=h

1i/=JJ{r[2h -2xj '"' ()


x=h

f/ence) fhe flvid sficKs 10 the p/tJfe and there is no shear slress al .Jhe free S{)rf4c.e.
b) IilIiB
or
'"

JIlT dlJ:= J/If" bJx =f.}a (2hx _X2) b a'x


x=o
0

x=n

Vo b [h X2. -:3 Jx - V Q 118 -

h
- 1::. \I h b 3 Vo
()

3/

If. 56
V1
=

2 m/s

4.56 Water flows in the branching pipe shown in Fig. P4.S6 with uniform velocity at each inlet and outlet. The fixed control volume indicated coincides with the system at time t = 20 s. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the boundary of the system at time t = 20.2 s, (b) the fluid that left the control volume during that 0.2-s interval, and (c) the fluid that entered the control volume during that time interval.

V3

2.5 m/s

- - - Control volume

FIGURE P4.56

V/.s consf4nf J the flvrd trovels a disitmce i == VJt fime At, Thus -'t:::: Vt of :: (2.J}!-) ('20. -2.0)05 = O./ftn 12.. = V:l. Jt = (1 -P) (zo, - ')..o)s :::: O,2m and 1,3;;: ~ U = ( 2.5 !f) (').0. - ')..o)..s = 0.50 m The sy.sfem of f == 2-O.2.~ and fhe {Iuid fhal has eIJlercd or exiled. the conlrol volume are indicafed in fhe {''lure below.
Since
J

117

confroJ volume

------- -- sysfem at i=20,2s

*S7
Two liquids with different densities and viscosities fill the gap between parallel plates as shown in Fig. P4.57. The bottom plate is fixed; the top plate moves with a speed of 2 ft/s. The velocity profile consists of two linear segements as indicated. The fixed control volume ABeD coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the system at time t = 0.1 s and (b) the fluid that has entered and exited the . control volume in that time period.
..LSi

II FIGURE P4.57

The flv/J af y ~ - 0.'1-11 (Ihe hoflom pia Ie ) relJlaifls slafiP/JdflY. AI y::: 0 fhe flvid speed is I,.s fflr .$'f) -fhaf af fjlbe t ~ 0,10$ ;/ A4s fYJDved 10 -Ihe rifJhl 4 d;slance X:: Vt:: /.s # (o,/s) ::: o.lsll. In
Ihe sahJe I;",e periOd Ihe fop p/IJ'/e anrllhe fluid sff)ci If) il has /hoI/sri a di.rt4fJCe X ~ 2. !f (OJls) -;:: 0.2 If. Since fhe velOCity prof/Ie is piec,ewire //neat) Ihe enJ.r () f the sysfeM 1I1t// /hove.,jt7 IhtJr Jines- At; 4"rJ, Be ~emain straiqh-l, This is ilJdicated in the.skeloh below.
y

-:1
rlIJidfh4+
entered con1(IfJ I
VO/fllYJe

.---r_~/:
V/:
r //

rAl ID ID I AI!" r--~~-= --- ~-~--~ f/viJfhq,t


'
,X

41#

~2H

ex/fed vo/Vti/e

co"'~1

~; 0, IS \' 0, IS ft B ~; --= -:....=- -=-=-- =-= --=-- -=-=- --=-- d Co ~ C I

l-r.

(f

.-J\I
-

I-

cOlliro/ vO/llf11e ----- - - - - - sysfem af I ~o,J.s

~,se

4.5 Q Water is squirted from a syringe with a speed of V = 5 m/s by pushing in the plunger with a speed of Vp = 0.03 m/s as shown in Fig. P4.S8. The surface of the deforming control volume consists of the sides and end of the cylinder and the end of the plunger. The system consists of the water in the syringe at t = 0 when the plunger is at section (1) as shown. Make a sketch to indicate the control surface and the system when t = 0.5 s.

.. ".' ~ . ' V

= 5 m/s

(1)

r--

O.08

I m--J

FIGURE P4.E9

DIJriIJ9 the i == 0.5s lime irderval fhe p/lJnger moves ~:::: Vp Jt :::O.OJ5/r). and fhe waferiIJ/lio/1y af Ihe exd moves 12.::: V6i ::::2..!5m. The corresponrJifJ9 confrol surfaces and systems af t=:O t1nd t= O.ES S hOWl) in fhe fl9vre be/rJU/.

.' : :.,-:. : . 'r ::: .....::.,:/J. .,' '......


" .. 110.. ..

"

.....

,:

....

~~.:.~.;t!! .. =:.-~L.~;"T"':'"",'T.- ":'":-:- ..........-.- - .- " -- .-.,'-',-"j .,..-:-: """.-' . . . ,.,..... ~ -.~ ~~-:-.~ ..... "
~

....... :, ..................... : .... ,


2 . .5

l- "~~:....:. fI) I..


O.06.5m

O.OBm

control Vo/()me af t= 0.5.$

system 41

f=0.55

/1-, s9
4.59 Water enters a 5-ft-wide. loft-deep channel as shown in Fig. P4.59. Across the inlet the water velocity is 6 ft/s in the center portion of the channel and I ft/s in the remainder of it. Farther downstream the water flows at a uniform 2 ft/s velocity across the entire channel. The fixed control volume ABeD coincides with the system at time t = O. Make a sketch to indicate (a) the system at time t = 0.5 s and (b) the fluid that has entered and exited the control volume in that time period.

6fUsl----

", .".......................... Control surface

II FIGURE P4.59

DtJrin9 the l :::0,5 s I/m8 1,,/el'lItJ/ the Ilv/rJ ff;a! was a/()119 //n8 Be Af lime t=o h4J' m()vea I() /he rl?111 III dirfaJlce J. ;: Vi::: 2 f1 ((j,ss) ::: / If, Si/IJilri"IyJ porfions oflhe fluid a/on9 Iills AD have fHPved J.::: 1# (o,s-.sJ ::= (),sll ()nd 1.::: b!/- (0, s) ~ ~ fl. TIJ/s 4.5'.[(//118$ fhe and,

/!!

6 ij flvid streallJs d() !'Jof nl/x Dr IAlcrmillf/R t:/vril'J91lJe (), s time lidel'va/. See ftf;tll'e be/ow.

I:::: - --=-=- =-=-- -=-= - ~ --:-:. - =-=-- - -r..:. -; ~:


I .. ,

~J

8'

flfJid tha14f;: en fe red. ~ :;fr::..:... ~ coniroJ 1:-:",. ':- ,~ ,.-..I.

"1
_

~r' I \'. '.' ~


~

',t

"',:--..

Iff

Vo/u,"e

.-..: ....... o.,sH


.. , J

f>.:- ---------------J -

""'1

r':
l'
I

;.'

.'-"~'I

exiler./,

f/vid fH41
VOIV/H8

cOfJ/~/

:"'1 1 ::.= _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1> \-D

"

.',1 ~ I

-c

_":'_1

fixed con/I'o/ volt/me

___________ sysfem af 1::0.5s

4--50

'1-.60 1
4,60
Water flows through the 2-m-wide rectangular channel shown in Fig. P4.60 with a uniform velocity of 3 m/s. (a) Directly integrate Eq. 4.16 with b = I to determine the mass flowrate (kg/s) across section CD of the control volume. (b) Repeat part (a) with b = 1/ p, where p is the density. Explain the physical interpretation of the answer to part (b).
A

V= 3 m/s

r+
v _ ..

Control surface

a)

Bow == S rb v~ rAil
cSouf

/) D

(I)

Wilh b =/ and Vn
O/)

-"

==

VC()s{) Ihis becomes / ; ~n


c
CD

i I

Bf = S oV cos f) dA =-~V cose S J,/}


c/)'

=pV c~B

ACJ)

where

IIcD ::: 1, (2"') _(0,5 Ih)(').fYJ ) - CfJ,r8

b) With b:::
Bout

J/p

f'O)

becomes

~ v~ dfl
CD

=J Vcosf) dlJ:::
Gl>

Vcose lie/)
m3

=(3~)cosf) (~();8)n/

:: 3.00-:S

Wilh b'" Vp = ~) = !:~ if {,fj,w.s fhal '8 ~ V,//lJfle' vol (i.e:; b = -!a.r,s) .so fha! f V'n till ::: B,uI refJI'8seIJIs fhe f/O/{)1fI9
f/ollr""fe C",3/s) frolll fhe cOld!'(;! 1f)/PIfIO.

ii-51

'f . (, I

I
15 ft/s

4.61 The wind blows across a field with an appro;(i matc velocity profile as shown in Fig. P4.6 1. Use Eq. 4. 16 wi th the parameter b equal to the velocity to determine the momentum fl owrale across the vertica l surface A- B. which is of un it depth

inlo the paper.

FIGURE P4.61

y"20fi

- f ~Vt)[ MH'] (lWely


y.O
o

Buf, V= ;~y for o~y~loff(i.. , V;o,,+y,Oj V='S'~alrlo) and V; Is1f For y",o(l

-#

Thus,

- - fr[ J(1fyfdy SostJy]


,0 2D '

fF[2.1.s

o s

fl + 2~ YI ]
0
0

10

,.

10

=0.00238 S;7s [750 :( + 2250

~'],

If-52

5/
S.l Water flows into a sink as shown in Vidt'H V5.1 and Fig. P5.1 at a rate of 2 gallons per minute. Determine the average velocity through each of the three 0.4 in. diameter overflow holes if the drain is closed and the water level in the sink remains constant.
Three O.4-in. diameter overflow Q = 2 gal/min

FIGURE PS.1

for

the

confrD/ vo/vme

indt'caTeJ,
0 .. 00'1-'1-

lj-.1
/,70 1i s

5-1

5.2 Various types of attachments can be used with the shop vac shown in Video V5.:. Two such attachments are shown in Fig. PS .2-a nozzle and a brush. The flowrate is I ftl/s. (a) Determine the average velocity through the nozzle entrance, V. (b) Assume the air enters the brush attachment in a radial di rection all around the brush with a velocity profile that varies linearly from 0 to Vb along the length of the bristles as shown in the figure . .D~temtine the value of Vb'

FIGURE PS.2

(a)

rlJ ='41z
Of'

Thvs, II, V, =' Qz


so

v"

= "f S. 8

.fj

~=

lind Q3': ~ 113 where Q" =' / .fl' s ayerage velocify at (3) = Vb

113 =' 7T lJ, h3


Thvs,

-} v;, [17 (ft Fil (# fi l]


Yo
='

=/

2M

#-

i/,

Of'

5 - '2-..

5.3 Water flows into a rain gutter on a house as shown in Fig. PS.3 and in Vidl'O \'1.0.3 at a rate of 0.0040 ft 3/s per foot of length of the gutter. At the beginning of the gutter (x = 0) the water depth is zero. (a) If the water flows with a velocity of 1.0 ftls throughout the entire gutter, determine an equation for the water depth, h, as a function of location, x. (b) At what location will the gutter overflow?

(a) Ft7V the,

(Cl1M
Qo~f
if)

VO/lAme.

.shown

IV)

-the sketch abdVe

Q in

==

(O.ooLJ-O ~/1) (x
~o

h::

0.012 X

h :: 2. ff
J~

So

I)"

.L f+

~, 012

... x -

10.g

f+

5'_ 3

5. if

I
~b
/
VI

504 . Air ~ows steadily between two cross sections in a long. straight section of O.l-m inside-diameter pipe. The static temperature and pressure at each section are indicated in Fig. P5.4. If the average air velocity at section (1) is 205 mis, determine the average air velocity at section (2).

;
P2 = 45 kPa (abs) T2 = 240 K

Section (1)
PI = 77 kPa (abs)

TI = 268 K

=205 rnIs

II FIGURE PS.4

This
For

C/;1aly.fis

Is sl-"'i/(J~ ~ flte. dJ1e ()f' Cxtll11pJe 5:2.

steady

/kw i>elweeY7 $ecl-/tJns

(I) and (2)

WI,.. - I'h I
or
.oA V ::
/ .). ,2;'"

~ 1/

A. V
I

Thu5 V=

--

(I)
ul1der +J,e UJi1dihilns of f~i.s
Cin

2..

AS$um/"!J t-haf
behllj/e~

,Pl7Jblel11/

ClIT

a~

ie/eal gt/5'

we

U$e

Ihe
(2.)

('deal 9a5

etjutrHoYl of

date (E~. /.8) 10 getf

,.,

~~~ !i~.
~
~

P T
.,.

C owrb/n/nJ we. gef

Etjs.

anti 2.

411&1

observ/~

Mal

p, V z. =

V,

:. (11k fa.(abJ )] ('2'1-0 J< )


[ ,/5 --APt;. (u105 )](268 k)

'3/ 1- t.f 7j !!!.


5

(-Z(}5

~)

5.5

!').:')

The wind blows through a 7 ft x 10 ft garage door opening with a speed of 5 ft/ s as shown in Fig. P5.5. Determine the average speed, V, of the air through the two 3 ft X 4 ft openings in the windows.

16 ft

1~~1:30'
II-- - - - - 2 2 f t - - - - - - !

OS Tits. .~ I !",:
.
10 ft

ft/'

FIGURE PS.S

royor
$0

sfeady

Q.9a~e ad"Y' A V -'Jt1tr1fe 1'Jf?Y'Mt%/ -It, a r ,1U'a.9e. 4"OY'


c)(J

t1
df
+r,
tI

w~"drJw

V + A,

iJlmeifMI

hie ()..~je ~~eJ) Aa/t.aAe. VMt"",,~


V:'~

v:

fhe ~/r
boY'

III1'"4.'It

5.6
5.6 A hydroelectric turbine passes If million gal/min through its blades. If the average velocity of the flow in the circular cross-section conduit leadin2: to the turbine is not to exceed 30 ft/s. determine the minim~m allowable diameter of the conduit.

I=or

IncompreSSible

flow

through fhe conduif a#d fur6ine.

CtJndJlif

C (HId 1.1if

ana

d CtJMu/f
d
Cf)ndui f

~oYldui-f
::
I~rs ff
5-5

( Lj. ) (/,

4 )( /0 6~ min

5.7

5.7 The cross-sectional area of the test section of a large water tunnel is 100 ft2. For a test velocity of 50 ftls, what volume flow rate capacity in gal/min is needed?

~~AV

Q:= OO(){fJ.)(50

! )(7.~P: ~
S

ff-]

)1/ / ) (t"O ~
m/n

5-7

' ,

5.8 A hydraulic jump (see Video \,10.5) is in place downstream from a spill-way as indicated in Fig. P5.8. Upstream of the jump, the depth of the stream is 0.6 ft and ~he average stream velocity is 18 ft/ s. Just downstream of the Jump, the average stream velocity is 3.4 ft/s. Calculate the depth of the stream, h, just downstream of the jump.

(2.)

,
I

'h

~ 3.4ft/s

FIGURE

Ft,y

5feady

,;" coYJlfpfesj;6le

flow belween

sech'()n~ (/ )QJ/1d(Z)

Q, = 0.2.
Or

-A ,= V,
~ hi

Thus
and

h=
2.

- h. _
l{

( / 8 !j.) (0. 6 1+) = (3,tf ~-f)

3, /8

-ff

5-$

conf"ol V"/U1't1.e,

A water jet pump (see Fig. P5. q) involves a jet cross section area of 0.01 m 2, and a jet velocity of 30 m/s. The jet is surrounded by entrained water. The total cross section area associated with the jet and entrained streams is 0.075 m2 These two fluid streams leave the pump thoroughly mixed with an average velocity of 6 .m/s through a cross section area of 0.075 m2 Determine the pumping rate (i.e., the entrained fluid flowrate) involved in liters/ s.

5. q

V3 .:: 6
V, :: r----'--;f---;P--~. 30 m/s
jet I su+io,,~) I

m/s

FIGURE P5.

For sfeady in compre$sib/e flow -I-hl'ough +he.. COfJ~/ volume

0-,
or

Q.2. = QJ

V, AI +
Thus

Q:7.

Q2

'V;A 3
s

V,A,

/50 trIer)

5./0
Water enters a cylindrical tank through two pipes at rates of 250 and 100 gal/min (see Fig. PS.lO). If the level of the water in the tank remains constant, calculate the average velocity of the flow leaving the tank through an 8-in.inside diameter pipe.

5.10

Section (2)

-------Section (3)

Q2 =
250

gal/min~

For :'feady and /11 compress/hIe flow

FIGURE P5.10

0. 3
or--

= QJ + Q2,.

1;d2
L.f
/

-"3

250 ~I'J'I1 ')(231

gal

!:!:..3 V.i.

A60 ~AIz ;n.


J?'11;,

Vi.)
If

f+
5./1
At cruise conditions, air flows into a jet engine at a steady rate of 65 lbm/s. Fuel enters the engine at a steady rate of(!J.60 Ibm/s. The average velocity of the exhaust gases is 1500 ft/s relative to the engine. If the engine exhaust effective cross section area is 3.5 ftl, estimate the density of the exhaust gases in Ibm/ft3.

~ fuel in

5.11

I~ I exhoIJ.S-I
~~==~~-~-~-~-~!OS6

For
or

conh-o I
VtJlume

(J"f

sfeody flow

Ij A3 ~ :::
Thus
~
,

m-tfYI
I

2.

111,

+- m..2,

65 ~

+-

O.

CO

!?
fJ )

(3. 5 ~+2) (/500

5'- 10

5.IL
5.12
Air at standard atmospheric conditions is drawn into a compressor at the steady rate of 30 m3 /min.The compressor pressure ratio, PexiJ Pinle!' is 10 to 1. Through the compressor pi pn remains constant with n = 1.4. If the average velocity in the compressor discharge pipe is not to exceed 30 mis, calculate the minimum discharge pipe diameter required.

seclion(t) (inlef)

, --'r--------

----.I,

I
I

I c'mf~1 (eX)f),: , VtJ!u/tJe. ~i-----1I~--7

secl/on(Z)

compressor

FoY' sfeady , . m,.... =f}?I


or f!A V2:2 ~

flow

di.tc/1drj. pipe

;:

(L
I

50

Q,
:=

d2.

1r ~ ~

(;' yo;
-

,
30 PlII'/ ~
:3

/0

--'- (

30!j-

60~

min

fil1ally

d 2 ::: 0.004 m

5, / I

5/3
Two rivers merge to form a larger river as shown in Fig. PS.13. At a location downstream from the junction (before the two streams completely merge), the nonuniform velocity profile is as shown. Determine the value of V.

U$e IYJ
~

fhe..

fne

CI/YJ1Y?J1 VO/vln1C 5h~wn s ke I-c-t-t ab(}Ve.. {tie nole


((/Y)s~(Vtvf/on

wit1J1~

fha!

brol<ey, //ne.s m::: f A V {;Ir'Jc1

of masS' fY/YJl1pJe
-

vve..

gelmI
+VYl 2

_ m

3 -

Y11

().fv

t-

tv1

oA v
I

fA z. ~ .. 2

fA0.1 II 0.2 V

+f A \I

=(50ftJ(3ff)(3f! t(iM! {Slf)ftft)


('Yo.ft){6ff)(o, '6)t (7()ff}{i H)

363

=-

ti

5-/2

5./tt
5.14 Oil having a specific gravity of 0.9 is pumped as illustrated in Fig. P5.14 with a water jet pump (see Vi(ko V3.6). The water volume flowrate is 2 m3/s. The water and oil mixture has an average specific gravity of 0.95. Calculate the rate, in m3/s, at which the pump moves oil.
Section (1)

Section (2)

Water and oil mix (SG = 0.95)

{or sfeadJ flow


m+m , A.

Oil (SG = 0.9)

FIGURE P5.1tf

Or
~~ +

t Qz. =
Qz

Ij Q 3
cOh.$t'de red
Q3

(I)
Ii, clJrnlre/61e.

A/50 I

Since

fhe wakv and oil /11ay be.

Q"

-f

(2)

Comb/nt'nJ

9.$. /

a/l7d

we
0( 2

(jef
)

I? Q,
or
Qnd
Q'2.

+ /} Qz

If ({), f
= 5G J
(

QI +
-

SGzQ,

(Of

Qz)

Q,

1- 5G3 )

SG 3 - 5G 2-

Thus

::

(1- ;3)( / _ 0.95)


O.9S 0,90

:::

2.00

:!!. J
s

5- /3

5/~

Air at standard conditions enters the compressor shown in Fig. P5.15 at a rate of 10 ft 3 / s. It leaves the tank through a 1.2-in.-diameter pipe with a density of 0.0035 3 slugs/ft and a uniform speed of 700 ft/s. (a) Determine the rate (slugs/s) at which the mass of air in the tank is increasing or decreasing. (b) Determine the average time rate of change of air density within the tank .

.,.-----

- --

Tank volume = 20 ft3

-~\
1.2
In.

- - - - -r b.0035

! _

700 ftls
slugs!ft3

use the.. CtJrl-lrvl


(oj ~ +ne
_

W; ff"n the hyo/< ~YJ //nc5. c (/y}se. '(VCi -h'dY) of m~>s prj ~/-e we !}ef
vtJ/umf:.
-1"7 [ I

D MJ'(!
Dt-

_~
01At-

~/}CJ..-L)
c,~
In

r OLAi

A V
Out

(Jur

f)iJ1WJ = 0.00'15 [)t

SIll!!

'" "'Yea.! J'!}

(h)

oMs-ys
Pt-

O{f

~r~ ) = V $,s
r!J.J
J"

De
Dt

:::

o. ooLf56
s!t{.J
.s

~/Lf!J

Ot
0.00 LfS{
:::

.s
-tf 2ZPXI0 51'1J

So

~
Of

6.00'fS
20 ff'?

~>fI

I'f~

>

5-/'1-

5.16

An appropriate turbulent pipe flow velocity profile is

V =

lie

(R ;

'rn

where lie = centerline velocity, , = local radius, R = pipe radius, and i = unit vector along pipe centerline. Determine the ratio of average velocity, u, to centerline velocity lie for (a) 11 = 4; (b) n = 6; (c) n =8; (d) n = 10

cross seclion
ayec<

For'"

any
=

CYOSS

sec lion

Ii?
A/50
~

,..oA u
~A

J,P v. ndA
A
11

area

.J..

V. n ; V. l = uc
for
a
f<

.A

(R,/)

lIni~rm/y dislribufed

Io
u. -

u (RC

R /

t:)

dA == 2rrr dr densify / ~ over Cltet/ A

Z1rrdr

and

Uc

f f -; )(~)d(;)
o _
fA.
lie

..1-

2 n7. 2n2.+
3n

n
if-

0.71 f

0.79/

10

0.866

5-/5

5,/7

5.17 The velocity and temperature profiles for one circular cross section in laminar pipe flow of air with heat transfer are

Te [ 1 +

i (;r - ~ (;)]

where the unit vector and

i is

along the pIpe aXIs,

The subscript c refers to centerline value. r = local radius, R = pipe radius and T = local temperature. Show how you would evaluate the mass flowrate through this cross section area.

The

1'h~~J

f/OWYfJ/e
-l.

15

m
/?;r

=/t
A
(Ur
IIlr

vn dA
tin

/'

acft;y as

ideq/ !ftlJ'

P f RJ
f~y
a..,
Ciy~/qj"

cr()S5, feelloY!

oJ'ea.

dA
ThU5
fY1

-- fir
/?
() II,;,

217'rdr

U
C

[I - f; )2] Zfr r
~

dr

and
h1

ror

a ul1ikm!J til;h--i6u Ie rI

=21ft~
~i,-r:::

J
fJ [

sIalic

pYe5SLlye

I<

'1

[I - (;) ] Iff (I /--

ieft)

;(;)7
O.7(!)/

If we

Ii
fhen

5-/6

5 .I~ * To measure the mass flowrate of air through a 6-in.-inside diameter pipe, local velocity data are collected at different radii from the pipe axis (see Table). Determine the mass flowrate corresponding to the data listed below.

r (in.)

o
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.95 2.98 3.00

Axial Velocity (ft/s) 30 29.71 29.39 29.06 28.70 28.31 27.89 27.42 26.90 26.32 25.64 24.84 23.84 22.50 20.38 18.45 16.71 14.66 0

The

W1 a>

> flowvlJ.k
R

Is
:

calCM.LaIe.d. w/tt.

In :::

I
o

;OfA

21ir-dr

R ::
p=
0.00238 slu9 f+3
S'

U:: 1~CtJ.{

ax.la! ve.{dci+y ifl ff

r :: I oCd. I yadiu.s ,;' j".


and

f~
()

11 rd r

/5 (. va./u.a. leo! IJUfltU;c.a.tI~ w; fI1 fk ~rJIJ"d.().1 'rule


J;"~v().ls.
On

wi/t1. une1tA.M
l'flJblern
IS

Thf!-

COY/ltp/A,~

PW)(I Y a/V\.

u.s~d

ro

Jollie

/his

II~ led

the

Y1ex. t-

pa.je. .

(con't)
5-/7

Ii. J~

(coi'1'f)

100 CL:-:; 110 PRINT " t::.t -* ;t:.:t *:t: * t: -* :j:: *-:t)< :*--:t:>I::t: .i'- :t:i t* :t,;r:t :t.* .~.- i-*;I; i: :tt *_:.t i, t" 1.2' 0 F)F~ I 17r "of.-;f: Thit:. program c:omputes the ma:=;;s flow rac:e ;t,,~" 130 F'F~II~T ,,** for problem 5,16 using the trapezoidal rule it" r. FPIKT ")::+: applied to unequal intervah:.. *t" 150 PF'INT ":t.***.********** i:***:t;*:*****:t** ***:t *i~ t.:;j::t::t.*******:Lt.:t" 160 PF:IIH

**

*** **

-1

1.~U

1\

170 DIN U(19),

R(19)

180 190 200 210

' 'Initialize the variables N = 19 RHO = .00238

230 FOR I = 1 TO N 240 READ R < I ), U ( I ) 250 R(I) = R(I) / 12!


260 NEXT I 270 DATA 0,0, 30.00, 280 DATA 0.8, 28.70, 290 DA~A 1,6, 26.90, 300 DATA 2.4, 23.84, 310 DA~A 2,95,16.71,
:~:3C

220 P I = 4!

* ATN ( l! )

0.2,
1.0,

29.71, 28.31,

O. 4,
1. Co, '"' 2. 0, Co. " 8J
.:::)

I.e, 26.32,
2.6, 22.50, 2.ge,14.66,

29. 3:;, ~ 27. 89, ?h 64, 20. 38,


"- ...J

O. 6,
1

.... 4,
. '-',
':I

29. 06

27. 42
24. e-416. 71

'-'

2. 9,

. 0,

00. 00

'~::'.!=,rnpute integral using trapezoidal rule 340 FOR I = 2 TO N 350 SUM = SUM~(U(I-l)*R(I-l)+U(I)*R(I*{R(I)-R(I-l)/2!

:,6;) NEXT
:::',,(,0 Jl1DOT 3130 '

F~HO

* 2! * PI * SUM
MDOT

3g0 'Print the results 400 PRINT 410 PRINT USING "The mass flow rate is ##.#### slugs/s";

** **

************************************************* ** This program computes the mass flow rate **


for pr oblem 5. 18 usi ug the trapezo idal rule applied to unequal intervals.

*************************************************
0.0114 slugs/s

** **

The mass flow rate is

5-/8

5/9
As shown in Fig. P5.19, at the entrance to a 3-ft-wide channel the velocity distribution is uniform with a velocity V. Further downstream the velocity profile is given by u = 4\' 2l. where u is in ft/s and y is in ft. Determine the value ~f V.

Use the U/YJ~/ V~/ume if, e s k-elvh a hwe .


~

iJ101/cttkd
/'I?ClSS

by /he hY1J/<.eYl //YJe.J


pYj'y}c/pJe

J/J

~ CIfYJ.J'-ervt( -h'or-- of

CL

=
=

Q1..

'1 AI

f
A2.

LA

dfJ

flly - 2y':J b dy
y

ff

V (iJ.7Sff) b

fi!2_
/.78'

(J

/ If

2y311>=
3 /)

3 fb 11 s :3

3{~.7)

Ft
oS

5.20

5.20

Flow of a viscous fluid over a flat plate surface results in the development of a region of reduced velocity adjacent to the wetted surface as depicted in Fig. P5.20. This region of reduced flow is called a boundary layer. At the leading edge of the plate, the velocity profile may be considered uniformly distributed with a value U. All along the outer edge of the boundary layer, the fluid velocity component parallel to the plate surface is also U. If the x direction velocity profile at section (2) is

Section (2) Section (1)

~u

Outer edge

of
boundary layer

1
FIGURE PS.20

develop an expression for the volume flowrate through the edge of the boundary layer from the leading edge to a location downstream at x where the boundary layer thickness is b.

From +he
have.
-::;..

Conservt) lioY!

of-

"""ttSS

prlnc.iple.
sitown

C<.ppl/ed fr;

fk.

II()w fh J"()u.1h rhe


~

con/nJ /

vo I t.l ",., C

,;., fhc

/igul'e

/1'7

tn

6/

- 1~
A2

\/. n

-.l

'I.

dA

::::

WIdth

()f ~c

p/afe

Ovtd

fhus

t:

61

1 7JJ. b
8

5-Z0

5.22.
5.22 How long would it take to fill a cylindrical shaped swimming pool having a diameter ofIf) m to a depth of 1.5 m with water from a garden hose if the fiowrate is 1.0 liter/s?

defu.rm;IIJ
c.onfrt; I
V() il,,( fYt.e

From appl/cah'on

of fhe

c,onservo,h'oVi
COl'7hlY-J

CJf

J?!1.tlS$"
Cf S

principle
$hown ,;"

Iv fhe.

COrllro1

volume

'ny

wak-r only

we

r J('
cs

have
-l

V. n dA

/\

==

FOr Incontpres.si6le flow

Thus
-t
==

::=----if Q.

trJ) fa

2-

11 (IDYl") 1. (;.5"",) (lOCO

~)

or

tf

(1. 0

I ;e~) (?600tf )

1
5"- 2. J

5.2.3

5.23 The Hoover Dam backs up the Colorado River and creates Lake Mead, which is approximately 115 miles long and has a surface area of approximately 225 square miles. (See \jdl'o \'2.3.) If during flood conditions the Colorado River flows into the lake at a rate of 45,000 cfs and the outflow from the dam is 8,000 cfs, how many feet per 24-hour day will the lake level rise?

Fa r the

cont ('0 I volt/lYle .shoWfJ:

min - moul ==
,

k f ~ d-1I
cVwafer

or since m:::: pQ. )

Qin - Qouf -

k (II/ok. h) '" "Joke 1b.


Q.ut - Qin " ('1s,ooo: 8, o do) .fjJ z
fI/lJ,t.e.
22S mi (52.9 0

Thvs,

err

d.h"

{t.)

= 5. 90X/O i .if
N

= .s. 'lOX /O-61f- (3,; pO()ir ) ( :ttf.lf;,) :::: 0.5/0 idy

5-22.

Stonn sewer backup causes your basement to flood at the steady rate of 1 in. of depth per hour. The basement floor area is 1500 ft 2. What capacity (gal/min) pump would you rent -- - - J to (a) keep the water accumulated in your basement at a constant / /1 level until the stonn sewer is blocked off, (b) reduce the water / ' accumulation in your basement at a rate of 3 in./hr even while / / ) _ _ _ _ the backup problem exists? J - - -/- -

5.2 Lf

l/Jrrfl71/ ll olume fhaf


ClJnfriin 5 water
/1

de foYdII n!J.

- - - - - ' _
-

1
h

/ I _ _ .t. / _ -:.
-, /

I
I

I /

/ /

"t~t ~

Cji
flow

"~ f/~oY ayea


~l/

-=

_____

For a aefwmil1j
OIlf!Y

fhe

COn/nJI baS"ewtenf floor- (.see

How nut Vd/('(me fhaf

In

u;n!l1/J"S fire WtI/ey Skef.ch ClbJve}) The


fr;

Con serva-hfJYI

01- maS5
t-

priJ1c;,Ie. (Etg. 5.17) /eaC/s

1,;O~'
cs
flt(id
-r

n ciA

-- 0
aYlc( ar'ea, (A)

or
A

Con5ft:ln1

c:leJ1Sily
~O

dh
d-t

Q.

II?

QDwf

(I)

F;y

pari ct
(J 6u.f
:;:;

.I

Etj. /

leads fr;

Qin
~

ro
and

eva/utile ()Ii,)

use

fl{ /

wIth

Q~wf =:0.
::;

1Ju,s"
125

Q,;"
Qokf

dh - A d-t
::;

= (/500 f/') ( /

/h) (--L )
hr 12 Ih.

f+1 hr-

(125 fl)(7. '18 :J~ )(',-!-- .) "' hy


{f~ ~tJ ~
hI"

Ff

/5:6

JE
min

FoY

parf boJ

E~./

yields

,
!;
j

5.2.5

I
I

. 5.25

A hypodermic syringe (see Fig. P5.2?) is used to apply a vaccine. If the plunger is moved forward at the steady rate of 20 mml s and if vaccine leaks pass the plunger at 0.1 of the volume fiowrate out the needle opening, calculate the average velocity of the needle exit flow. The inside diameters of the syringe and the needle are 20 mm and 0.7 mm.

FIGURE

ps.25

USing
/J1(1 Sf
w~

a delDr"'/~
!JI'/;'c.iple.

C()n/YrJ/
3
,,{
of'

LIP/lime

QJ1d fhe

COnservClI/tJn () f
x.ohlple, S. 5';
(;)

( Etj. 5'.17)

as ot/II/ned

In

tJ61r:lln (see

1'

Ex Qmple s: g)
1:

-;0 A, ~

+ ;0 Q2.
~

I' Q leaJ:.

Since ;;:: C/)nJ/rJnf)


~ obm/~

Qleak.. :. o. / Q .. ..
1

1.
A, ~

1.1

~~
::

or
V :z..
and

(;, ) -~ A.1
1./

-(1) I? - d! -;;

( Z 0 yrJl'k)

(z 0 n,,,,, Is ) ( d. 7 ~,., ) .. (I. I ) (tot}o :~)

I
,

V;

::

IJf.

m & 5

5.271
5.17 It takes you 1 min to fill your car's fuel tank with 13.5 gallons of gasoline. What is the approximate average velcoity of the gasoline leaving the nozzle at this pump?

v
hOJ31e
Clhtl

A
f10JJ/e
::

2.

,..
2.

AnOJ31e.

7!.!h()'J1/~
If

So

V I1P}3 ie

== {I'~. 5' )(JI)(12 )

(7T~!r/L(7.'l-8)(bd)
17. if 1"1S

v == n()1Jle

..
5-25

5,2.6 A gas flows steadily through a duct of varying cross section area. If the gas density is assumed to be uniformly distributed at any cross section, show that the conservation of mass principle leads to
dp
p

+ dV + dA = V A

where p = gas density, V = average speed of gas, and A = cross section area.

Foy a
pYiJ1tift1!

sfeady,l
/elJd.$

oJl1e - dIMensioA(J/

/i~~ fhe

CIJnSer-va/ion

01

PI(J'>]

-I7J

~. 5./2

or

;aAV
7hus

Con sfa",d

cl(fAV)
Or

:::0

;aA d 'V T d{J AV + by ",A V we P/v/d'1f ~. /

I'dA V
obfl1/~

-0

(I)

~ + dV + dA
;<1

5"'-

26

5.2.9 A IO-mm diameter jet of water is deflected by a homogeneous rectangular -block (15 mm by 200 mm by 100 mm) that weighs 6 N as shown in Video V5.4 and Fig. P5; 2.9 Determine the minimum volume nowrate needed to tip the block.

bloc~

From fhe free body diaqram

of fhe block when if is ready

10 lip Z i110 =: oJ Rx JRx ::: W III' where Rx


()r

is

the fore iha+ the wafer pllts on fhe block.

Thlls

Rx -== tRx

W/W - 6N ~", ~O,90N


~
o.OSom

(0..0/5

For fhe conff'o/ vollJme shown Ihe X"-componerr! of the m()/l/8I1fllttl e qv" lion

Sup V'n dlJ


cs

Z rx,

becomes

5.JO
Water enters the horizontal, circular cross-sectional, sudden contraction nozzle sketched in Fig. P5.30 at section (I) with a uniformly distributed velocity of 25 ftls and a pressure of 75 psi. The water exits from the nozzle into the atmosphere at section (2) where the uniformly distributed velocity is 100 ft/s. Determine the axial component of the anchoring force required to hold the contraction in place.

r::f:9 ,.fhe
hOJ}/e

-fh;s plDh/em
as

we

incll1de. I;' the C();,~/


4M

V()/Uftllf!.

as ~//

Me wpf~1" al
th~ sl::ekh
coll1fey,fJ
f~rA+

ins!-zrvtl 6~~en sechiJns


The hOY'i}lhfal

(/)al"ld(Z)cu Ihdicaf~

/n

above.

.foyce s
In

ac,f/Yl9
aye

()YJ

+he
sh()wYl.

of the UJn-/-nJ1 vaJu.~ a,.t shown

fhe

sk.e fCh _ Note


no!cOMpaneYlf

ihe.. CJfWl()S pheriL foy-,eJ


of -fhe.
/ /jlfeat
}?IUYkeYlfu~

CAY/eel
tJ'r

(JIA.

()V1d

AppliCA.htJr.

hOYI]tJYlftJ.1

x-

d/"ecfid~

of +I1e

eqtJ.a.fion (Gr- >.22)

fo fhe.. flow

fhY()U111

fhis ~J11nJ1 v()luYHe yieLds


P.A -1= - r2 vA l 'I A
(I)

Frorvt iN... tfrt'lSf/rv~I/,,1') af m -- fllA. AJ =to 41 A,.


1bu.~
Or

I'YIQ-s.r

er~n~

( 1:::).5. /2) we

tJbltt/~

f1- (I)
F
=.
1/

n1t:!y

b~

6e~S~rI".s

m(t.4" - ~ 1):=
and

p'A, - ~

-Ii 1I"l;t

/',11, -f{A1 +- tYJ 6,,,-U,) = f, 1"-1-/)' 'I

F.
A

rr;;!l ):!(~.j_ 'i


{II'

r;, 1f}1. -flu, TI'p, (u 2 -fA,) ..., If

2.

016- f'llf!,uznIz5 t ) Jr(3,:..j IO() C -ft ' / l~ .s.-l tj"" (N'f ,;.,.?f,.~

ft- 25ft

r Ib.~1
SI"1.

~:=~ Ih

5-28

5.3 I A nozzle is attached to a vertical pipe and discharges water into the atmosphere as shown in Fig. PS.31. When the discharge is 0.1 m 3 j s, the gage pressure at the flange is 40 kPa. Determine the vertical component of the anchoring force required to hold the nozzle in place. The nozzle has a weight of 200 N, and the volume of water in the nozzle is 0.012 m 3 Is the anchoring force directed upward or downward?

to.lom
FIGURE PS.3i

3/S

(I)

(2)

Cr:J')1

serl/(J..h/JI"\

tJI "" a.rJ

~e D~I"Jn

Q)..

~ Q,
(1,

A').

~. ':' ~DON ~ 'ZOON -ill.6 N

0 N -:

'f82 N

downwttrCf

5.325.3 Z
Determine the magnitude and direction of the x and y components of the anchoring force 0 required to hold in place the horizontal 180 elbow and nozzle combination shown in Fig. P5.31.. Also determine the magnitude and direction of the x and y components of the reaction force exerted by the 1800 elbow and nozzle on the flowing water.

Section (2)

12 in.

FJGUI~E 1>5.32
,

PI

= 15 psi

VI = 5 ftls

Fo~ defet'm;~/''' fhe


fone
/:JelweeYl

and

y dl;ec.fi~Y}

c(JVtpf)nenff
1'10}j/e

a.

Coi11J..D I

1/f)/uJne

fhr;t f con llI;nf ';'he elbow.l

pnd MIt/fer

S'ecfioYls (/ JAnti
QI't.

(z.)

is

used.

Th
s/t:.~fci1.

C oJ'dnJ/ v"/l(l11e a;1(1 f'/'e

fOY'ces in vIJ/ved

5htJWh

In

the

above. /tj?p/,"cern'Dr, 01

the

y cI/recl-;on

c.()mptJn~n+ of -file

lJ~eclY YYJ()YJ!Iel"t.ftA~ quafltJJI)

(E1' ~. 22) leads -/-t;

r:

= 0
01 -fh~ Xf:kt'ecf/()n

1-Y
CIJ~p~neyd 01- +k linea)! mOWlei'lful'n

Ap,IIc.(J.+iDVI
e~ fA a A'oYl
- LAI

YIelds

U{ A I

U2

M1.:2

-:::

AI P I

F A + f.. A'2.. ~ X. 2

II)

From fA e C(n,.,serllaf,'on

of

WUlSS

e1 ud-f,'on
(Z)

rn = !Ju/ A,
1hUj

:;

fJlA2.

A '2,

&t.

May be eXl'fej~ed (N~

- P'fA (lA, of
~V\d

U.) ::

p, A, - ~," + f,A2

F :; f~, A/w,-tIJ.,) f P, A, t P. A2 =t u , : o,'(IA,tfA.) +p. A/x


Als6 ~

9. 2

ThUS

AX ,

(con't)
5-31

5.32.

(con'-/; )

(is lJ.
{n.'l.

) 11'
if

,
(J2 ,. J

Ftly
tit

defwMJY1;11j fhe x aYlq y cOMf~nenlJ of


COn fro/

fhe

yetlcii())'J

-hY(;e

v() IUMe fhaf ClJytfa,i-u (1;1Iy the. Wit k,y- between sec/lam (I) fNt;td (A.,) ;f us~d. A p"lklAh'6-h of fhe y dlrecht)Y} CiJM-pIJt1(Jnf
of

fhe.

hhe4Y

VUOJ1-f~;, fuWl

e&JUtX.fion

yieLdJ

I?., := 0

AfP /;caf;'Oh
hi} () /)If

of fhe

d/yecf/ol'J

cOl"l-'lptJnenl

of -the. II;'; ea v

e k fuJ'V/

fYJ ua f/(J i1

leadf

fr;

Or

=-

/i9~

/b
Section (2)

Section (1)

5-32-

533

Water flows as two free jets from the tee attached to the pipe shown in Fig. P5.33. The exit speed is IS m/s. If viscous effects and gravity are negligible, determine the x and y components of the force that the pipe exerts on the tee.

Use fne
Foy fhe
OYJ

Lo)'lfyl)1 vollAYhe.. s-h()wn.


X - c.offlf() Y1 enf

of fhe -force. eX~l'kcl by +he

pIpe.

+he fee we. lAS'~ fhe x- c.oYhplJneni i'hO m-e. nItA YVI .1/A a.ll(Jy).

r:;f the l/neCir

- ~(' l{ AJ -I- ~f~1J3 :: f,A J -

If A.J - ~f,A,""fl3)+ f
-t-

"().~r.;t..)Al- (-;;. ~)43- ~-,43) -J- ~


=p A
I

)(

/1) l'

To 1e.f. '1 we LASe cOYlservah'rm 61, = Q 2 +- ~3


6y

9t1t:je

01-

mass

A, ~ -= liz V2.

1-

50
To

v.::;
I

A.l. V:z.. +

AI

11"1 V,3 A~ IIJ = (0, 3M2.) (IS" m1 ) +- (0. S "'')(It;" m/.s) :::
/~~

/2

1'Yl1

eJ f-/.-necle.

f/;fjQff!

we.

l-1.{e

8~Y'I1(hll/i J' ~~6~ ~ f/(IW

belwr." (1)4t101(2..)

- 72 ()()() N:.
I

FJ(
,ve

F":: 72/~OON ~ .x Fw /1u.. .Y ~!~ ff I1u ~ exekfecJ /:;f hr-t-, PiPe Oh flu. lee, Y (IYYtMc"f Itl- h..L !;~e6N" hlnntA11w.-" er ah ,., ..fe, 9~f
So

L).5~ #V

(JSJXq'f9!:!)(l5;)(D.1"'~) ~ {,~'fOoN
5'-33

\.1',2.

~ II). ,4 2

::

t "Fj

(r)
.j. 10 psi

(,mltya,1
~ - .......

5.3'1-

Water flows through a horizontal bend and discharges into the atmosphere as shown in Fig. P5.3'1. When the pressure gage reads 10 psi, the resultant x-direction anchoring force, FAx' in the horizontal plane required to hold the bend in place is shown on the figure. Determine the flowrate through the bend and the y direction anchoring force, FA\" required to hold the bend in pJace. The flow is not frictionless.

... --

VOt..cme.

=? ~

P, A

Area

=0.2 ft 2
Area

\i=.======::::'1
= O. 1 ft 2
I.

Water

"
~

~l-

FA, = 1440 Ib

/~
FIGURE P5.3tj-

(2.)'if:;(

"

" FA,=?

A uh1 .fl..D/ voluMe!. -f1.taf 'O,,~iJ1S -H,e. 1oe.V1d OlH& -tkt wakr wi+k;Y\ the loeHd be:fwee.n "S'tlOl'1oS (I) a~d (2.) as s/"OI.\JI1 J~ -H1~ 51<.e.1-'/'"
aho~ ''S
t> f

uS'-ea.

Applic~no~
,.t'\ 0 i)\ en

01-

file.
J

x - direc+ion
u ie Ids
0
~Qge
0

<J:)MpOy\f.~t-

-HI Co Ii rJt.<1 r

tu,..,
I
f)

eti.. tAa:n 011

- u, p Q
w',H"
~,

v. cos CfSo a. -=.


I/o

-0

DA - F' + r I I Ax.

J1 A1. cos '1-5 ,1i)

al-1d

A,
1-

Va. :
0

Q Az.

e.~.

loe'b~(.s

~-a.r
AI
or

Qrc:OsLfS

AL

..

~I AI -

Ax

+Cy po.r+ Co.)

Q-::

5-31.f

ft,v

~r+ (h)

We ltS't.

1{e.

y'" dtre.c+;oll\
-ft, qe +

C!.O'M.poYlf!"1f

of fhe

, i rl eo. y

IA-\ 0 MtLl1 fu WI
C>

~ IA.I:f. -He",

J=
()f

AY

~ ~/n q.,

R. Sin f~ - A,.

'-+5 fQ.

t=AY
a.~a

Q
:.

'1..
0

os I'VI if S

A2.
1.

f
oS I '"

F Ay

(?." I +t') . 'i-S" (I. 9'1 ~


(O,Ol

S~)~ Ib.~'"
$I ""'1.

f+")

-Ft )" 'l'i - Ib

Thrust, vector control is a new technique that can be


u~ed to greatly :mprove t,he maneuverability of military fighter

aJrc:aft. It consIsts of USIng a set of vanes in the exit of a jet engIne ~o deflect, the, exhaust gases as shown in Fig, PS,3S, (a) DetermIne the pI,tchIng moment (the moment tending to rotate the nose of t?~ aJrc,raf: up) about the aircraft's mass center (cg) for the condItIOns IndIcated in the figure, (b) By how much is the thrus~ (force along the centerline of the aircraft) reduced for :he case IndIcated compared to normal flight when the exhaust IS parallel to the centerline?

Vane

- -- i" - -Pj';= !lim !li


=
out

0-

-_ .....

= 16 slugs/s

ro.r petrI (0,)


e7~1/'tIYJ

WL

CA-ff'J

the.. (p/'Yfp()nenf of file J')?()hlt!nf-of-tJ1(JMen~'"

;'r pe."pend,'udar -/tJ the plane of i1Je ske}~h of fhe alrcraff -k the. c()nfe.",ff 01 fhe. cvn-!n,/ Vo/",~e .show,? -k 9f!i
fl,af

i olAf V
(2 0
/

()c..

>/;' ()

mf - j
O/A
J

In '''I

. V. h,.
II?

pi fc~ ),14 J'))otne"f


./

oFf) (/~OO

fj )

~/;' 8' (i6

fr.j _ 1,.. p(){) fJJf'fr)


I sluy.lt
/J.
s~

"rrd.""j ", ..e~ f

SILl,.

ff-

/1,. $2..

bh IStJ() _ 1000

~ p~r(b) ~ apply !he /U)Y/3()YI/R1 Cdn7{'(jY)enf t)/ /he I/YJeoY'


yYJ 0 'I'YIeYl

1.

I"

fl. /b

-:: pilej'J'y

~P1~hl

Iu ~

Il 1A.t:c. f/vYl

-ft;

(/m ~Ir

t)f

htL

U/n ~/

V()/U hi ~

Iv 9d

T1wus+
.fa

(/~(}O

if)(UH/-W '1(6 1l/

J )

~//,(i'

If

16 . .5'

5-36

5,,36 The thrust developed to propel the jet ski shown in Video V9.7 and Fig. PS:3G is a result of water pumped through the vehicle and exiting as a high-speed water jet. For the conditions shown in the figure, what flowrate is needed to produce a 300 lb thrust? Assume the inlet and outlet jets of water are free jets.

FIG U REP 5 . '36

For the cordrol volume ii1d/cafed.


the x- componenf of ine fJ10menlllm
erlJ~h()n

V2.
(1.)

Sup g'n dlJ


cs
(~ C o.s 3 011 ) f

: : ~ Fx becomes

(- lit )III of Vz P(+V2. L42 ::: Rx

where

We

have asslJtned ihai

I:: 0 on the ell/ire control s/Jrl4ce


(I)

and fhai -fhe ext'l/fJ9 wafer jet is hori~(Jnlal. W/fh m::: eli, ~ == fA,. V2 1. (I) beaJlll6S Rx -; m (V2 - ~ cos e) =- f Vt AI (v" - \1 cos.30")
A/so) A, ~{ ; A2. ~ so fhal
\I. AI ~ V s= - 112.

7- S in."
(3,5 in.) 2-

,I

v, =

2.60 v,

\I

(2)

By comb,'nin9 frs. (/) 4nd tJ.) ;. Rx ~ pV/'A, (2,60-cos30)


or

: : r .Jo o,!}; l ~ l(l. 9 ":~)(iJrl') (2.60-co.s30')J


=:

Jfz.

= 22 7 11
'.s

Thvs)
Q ::: AI V,

~/:~ft~) (:;'2.7 );: 3, 9'f-


5-37

5.:37
5.37
0

Water is sprayed radially outward over 180 as indicated in Fig. PS .3 The jet sheet is in the horizontal plane. If the jet velocity at the

nozzle exit iszo ft ls, determine the direction and magnitude of the resultant horizontal anchoring

H' _"

force required to hold the nozzle in place.

FIGURE P5.37

The Lo~1 volu,.,e includes ik ""'3/e anti waler i:Jdwren secfionJ (I) a..rI (Z) <lJ /hd;""kd I;' ike sk.ehJ., abcve. Ap,I;c..lio" d' fl.e y dlie elion eo""'pMtnf lite j;neay 1'>10""'''1..,., ~a6'"" i el"s

o.c

or

F
F

A,y
()

~,y

:: 0

ApI'IiCAnM ()f fhe eg uo.lio'1 le.df n,


F
A, x

or

and

'1-3 16

5.3~

A circular plate having a diameter of 300 mm is held perpendicular to an axisymmetric horizontal jet of air having a velocity of 40 mls and a diameter of 80 mm as shown in Fig. psS8. A hole at the center of the plate results in a discharge jet of air having a velocity of 40 mls and a diameter of 20 mm. Determine the horizontal component of force required to hold the plate stationary.

5.3B

( I

-t--~

Plate

';;+""':"":;::L.:!..JJ ~

40 m/s

FIGURE

PS.3E

The U)/J!Yo1

lIoluYHe Cl)nfa/n 5

Ih -the f/<.efdt d,;ecJi o/l1 cOMpoYlenf


- u, f uIA + I

fhe p/ak l./JIui {low,;' cor a.> Inri/caler! ab"ve - Appliudion of I-h-e. hOfljtJJI1 f a/ t.JY X
of -fi1~ //Y/ear
mOMen-lum ~ua.f;~ yIelds

IAl 2 . I.L2 -

or

5. ?=I A sheet of water of unjfonn thickness (h = m) fl ows from the device shown in Fig. p5.39. The waler enters venicall)' through the inlet pipe and exits horizontally with a speed that varies linearly from 0 to iO m/s along the 0.2 m length of the slit. Detennine the y component of ancho ri ng force

om

l
F AY
,~

necessary to hold this device stationary.

~ ;I~ - - ... I ,

--

-- - -

FIGURE P53~

...

",,""

A ",~t",1 volun\e. tMt ",n+"'i"s he. bOl( poyf,,,... ot l1,c. dev;,e G<V\d ttoe. wtl1e'l' ,'" -\1,e bo>< o;s ,hown In -Ine ~ke.itJ" above. 'I ' u,~ , ArpliC<l.fi." of ttoe y_dl~+io" tOWlpone"f of "'... Ii_y "'OII\e.nJu"" e'b .....""" ~ielJ.~ - ' 0 'l.

F =
Av

1)

fI

~V , r. dll ~

D \

,,'

hd ...
li"'e<t. "y

5t;+

'

T~<. var' a.+:o" of v- .. ;#, x

..

o.t.

f \ (<;O)()\ ilx
o

or
FAY

:(q~~~

y-so

s-~o

5.40

The results o f a wind tu nnel test to de-

termine the drag on a body (see Fig. P5.40) are summarized bel ow . The upstream [section (l)J velocity is uniform at 100 ft /s. The static press ures are given by PI = PI = 14.7 psia . The downstream velocity distribution which is symmetrical about the centerlin e is given by

change in the direction normal to the paper . Calculate the drag force (reaction force in x direction) exerted on the air by the body per un it length normal to the plane of the sketch .
Vz

- 100 IUs

u u

~
~

100 - 30 ( 1

-if)
volume.

l y l s3 ft l yl> 3ft
Section 11 -- ~

100

3 It I

where u is the velocity in ft l s and y is the distance on either side of the centerline in fee t (see Fig. PS. 42). A ssume that the body shape does not

- - - --

LutrlrDJ..til..",.
FIGURE PS.40 Section (2

1:'=::\ C::3
i~

The

conm/;' i"j Plr Mfy PS Shown In fAe ry"ye if lIfed , AppliCAfion d f/,. X dlftcl-;O" componenf of Ihe linea, ""me"fuM
(017 &.1

e.<j"",fion

iead!

3 ff

-V;r1!,A,+
=
To de k.,.m l ne.

ZfufUdy o 3 II

-Rx

Zf

[100 - 30(1-

f)]

2.

dy
.-.'lt1H

(I)

~ fhe c.#hscrvlAh'o,. !Applie d ,,,!weel) sed/onf (I) a"d(z)-as loll"",


fh e di;1tJ",u h

01

l!flA.tA.h;"'" is

ph -u;
Thuf

=z
,

J u.
3ft

fJ

d'j

()

h
or

; ~ [fOO - 30(1- })7 "1


0

3fi

( z ) {2 55 :;-

". , fI')
5.1 fl

(100 !!)(I il)


Then

R"r.m731J1"JJ )(too fJ) {5_1f+ill/,


x

fr.,., lj'

-II' /

(-'1"3- if

)(i

ff )

s'
sl.

(o,002JfJ/"!,) ( 7Z1, if00


ffj )

[!') Ii I.

{ ~;I.f.1' (!

17, 1 Ib

P"'r

ff of Je~ nor"'41 fo fhc pl.ne of Ihe skeIGh

.'

s- 'II

So 4/
5.41 The hydraulic dredge shown in Fig. P5.41 is used to dredge sand from a river bottom. Esti.mate the thrust needed from the propeller to hold the boat statlOnary. Assume the specific gravity of the sand/water mixture is SG = 1.2.

FIGURE PS.41

lJ.rilJj ~ (,1Ih~1 vptut11e fh4'vl>? by ~ hi?;~ I,'v,e In /t..L- s/::.elct, a6;ve W~ lASe fht., hoy1foJ?W oY X CllwtftIYJenf of ~ IlfJea-r /YlrM1enft..vm e~lA.P.hin" ~ gel~ =~/J V V ::: f. (sq)
.2.

2 .2. :2. X

Hz 0

2.

7I5!2 l.f

"2

V V
.2.

CO.J

2-

.fa fJ

whe!re ~eefi~ / is' where IlfIW en/t,yf Ik C-tM-h-s/ vp/ume verhca.llj tA.i?d secf/(/)1 2 iJ v.;),eye flctw J~ve.s- k ~I v"kn,e. aT h'1 t:l/}Jle of .?() 0 ~ ~ hor-'Jtr;lhl oIiYec-h~. N~1e That Me'l'~ is" no fuy-t]tI>?kl d.io/'eC/h~ //Y1e~ #thne;,1u~ Flow a1 5'c-fiQn I .

F ::: 1/.9'1- s/uffl(J,l1)


><
){

7T (.2.

\"

fi$ /

f-.s

Iffro f! )(so :~) tlJs70o/


(

f/-:

3..)
$lw!J

F.. = {6SIJ /6

s2-

5.42.

Water flows vertically upward in a circular cross section pipe as shown in Fig. P5.4Z. At section (1), the velocity profile over the cross section area is uniform. At section (2), the velocity profile is V =
We

(R ; ryn k

Section (2)

where V = local velocity vector, We = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe radius, and r = radius from pipe axis. Develop an expression for the fluid pressure drop that occurs between sections (1) and (2).
Section (1)

FIGURE PS.4 Z.

The anCl!ysh' for fhls pmb/em IS fin;i/ar 7z, Ihe one of Exa~e. 5:/? The (onfml volUMe confaln5 fhe fiuid only belw~eYJ -sechorJs(/)tJnd{z.) as Ind/cllIter/ in the .skeh;h. Apf//cafion ~ fhe verI/col Or ~
cOl'Ylf"nenf of fhe

jt'neor mohfen~m

qua/itJYI

leads ~
1-

j{JJ.,.. f
o

21"1 rdr

::: p A - If " r
R

r..2.2.. A - Ww
dr -t

P,- P.
The

~~

_pw,-" +

f.~1f [{we ('~~I)

]r f"
may

.l.. Z.

(I)

we;~/d of fhe I/IKJ/w I"" -f-he confYDI volu,n,e

6e exp,/(;ffed as

w~ = 9fAh The value of w may


e~tJ4.fJoY1

be obfa,y,yJ
l
7

frOi'VI fhL col'lseyvalion of ma.S'.f

(,(s -/O/IOVJ5

f~ AI :::
or

Jf tU~ (,<?~)
I?

2rrrdr

(2)

10 evalu.afe
t>(

= R-r R.

fhey,
dt>(

= -dr R..

(If )

s,lf2.

I (con'f)
and

('7/;"7 ydr
= "19 .E- tvJ

-!.

1..

-= - /

C{

7(1_1><) R

riC<'

C.omb/n,'.",
u.J c

~s. 2. a",1 5" we () 1::,.1-... /"

Th u. 5

frlJWJ
2.

&J. /
R
2

~-P..

;::;:~-fWI+ lTRl.

(6)

fo ev()/t,ux/-e 1-he.

Thus

[(;;r/rd~
o

'19 = 1'1'-/ -

2.-

and ~. 6 beCIJmes

or-

/Vofe
a

fhaf

In

[tJntrAsf
fh~

Iv

-fhe

restllf- Of Exttl?'lp/e
pyessuYf!

s: 13,

only

a very

$"mtl//

porf/on of' -the mtJmen-hon

drtJj7 if

clue fo

c,ht11?ge

t"n

//ow

befWeeh seci/onf /

#3
5.43

I
average velocity, u, with the axial direction momentum flowrate calculated with the nonuniform velocity distribution taken into account.

In a laminar pipe flow that is fully developed, the axial velocity profile is parabolic, that is,

I ,
as is illustrated in Fig. P5.43. Compare the axial direction momentum flowrate calculated with the

, ,

( 'u ...... I
I \ \

!, ...........

\j

FIGURE PS.43

OJI/

~uc
~~
.~

"I
\JI

The axial d,;ecfitJl1 fr/orwen-furn IIowrafe. btlsed pyolde wifh u =: U /s

a un/101m velocity

M~

x Uf/ifOYIJ1
J

::::

ufu A =

/Jrl"1'rR1.
{

1he axial direcfion


un; fOYM

ff/()l1teJ1TUh1

rlow~afe

ba!Jed
I

On

the
2-

fjOfJ-

fltlra btJl/e-.t<. ve locify pr~fi/e


nOI1-

if

M~
J J

= r
0

IJl7ifr;rm

ju

UZ'1l

hi,-

"

(1

u~ 271' R'

0r;)J(I)ff) ~
L

MF x nol'} -

(Jl)i faYn?

To ob-fa l"n a

ye/~lionfhip

befween

U
tl5

MAti u ~ vve use -fhe


fo/I~ws

con serva/-l'on of mass e~lt.ahdYt


fU 1TR'

f hR' Uc;

[rt-({Jj(;) d(:)
if 3

lAc, - - Z

Mi=;( nOnJ

U"ifm",

5-'1-5

~ 5.44

For the pipe (6-in.-inside diameter) air flow data of Problem 5./8, calculate the rate of flow of axial direction momentum. How large would the error be if the average axial velocity were used to calculate axial direction momentum flow?

F.) :.

tJ. 002'31'

> (1.(9

I
Vi:::

H:1

/OCA./ ve/()ci/y

~f (~ Table 61' /'r1Jb!eu,.,

s: /6

r ::. local
~.Jtn</""-"1'''' .... 1""_,,"'/
ft,c.

radius; in. ( .fr~ Table. of I'mb~ s./B)


J

I? ': pipe YtJdiu.,J


~

"3 in.
1$

r~J~ 1-r CIt, -,,/


VI

e va / u.tA.f'Ct;If 1_.-1
WI!t-t

by

/ nbtl11eY,CI(

. J. L llfCfY~n~

f-/5!ny
Lt/nI.(J1A.

frate.fdic/Ift/
PYlJfYd-Wl

you/e

4neg l1 a.)
)7v. y,o/f..

,;'/e-yVIJ.!;.7}tG

k
is

lA5ed.

fw

ftJ/s

//lex f

pt1Jje.

The ve.$ L( If of

'1 I,.v",e,y;'c.czJ

/S 1/J1e'/ 6n /'he, t'J1leqvahon aJ1d s~11A h~J7

of

Etj. /

MF -:: 0.29'1 x

MFx

wl-te>/e

v =

x ( MF

MF) /f7p
)(

/VI~

conti: )

100 CLS 110 PE I NT ":t:::f. *;t:,.t* *****:~t:**;,j *.:j *::t~.* **-*:** ** ** i:t J>I':,tt.*:.;;f *t::t :tJt* ::1'::t. *,. 120 PE I KT .. i.* This program computes the axial-direct ion ;j;;'." 1::".0 PR I NT "** momentum f lovr rate for problem 5. 44; usi ng :i';:>i:" 140 FRnn tI.t:* the trapezoidal rule appl ied to unequal **" 150 PRINT "** intervals. til! 160 FR I NT "t:i:*::t::t*******::t;j.*****:t:*********i.*;j~;;j.**********:l:>\::**" 170 PRINT
180 DIM U ( 9 ) ,

190 200 'Initialize the variables


210 1{ == 220 RHO
2:~,0

R (19)

19

.00238 PI = 4! )\: ATN (1! 240 FOR I = 1 TO N


2~'.')O

250 READ R<U, UU) P'I:i = R<I) / 121 270 NEXT 1 IJft.. T A 0.0, 30.00, 0.2, C . \./ 2e..70, 1.0, .. '1 Q T,}" 'T /\ 26,90, ...L.,U, ..,.../M.. 1. .. t;. -<-,0, ::".4, 2:3.2-4, 2. e.
t-'. "./
~

2fJ. 71,
2e.31, 26.32,

0.4,
-l..

29.39,
27.69, 25.64,

0.6,

':)
'-'"

1. 4,

27.42
24.. =,4 16.71

-)

'

'2. (),
,--,.

22. ::.0,

s~

p, '-

,
00.00

.3.0,

250 FOR I
~::

2 TO N
::;.

'! (; ~~E)~'T 1 :. ,:~. (:~'.:::: X. = RHO ,;


,-

'11~~tJt~t*~****1***tt**~~*******~*:t:****~
~*

~*

program computes the axial-direction momentum flow rate for problem 5.44 using tt the trapezoidal rule applied to unequal

Thi~

** ** **

*~*****************************************t***
The axial-direction momentum flow rate is 0.284 slug-ft/s2

5' -If?

Consider unsteady flow in the constant diameter, horiZontal pipe shown in Fig. P5.45. The velocity is uniform thro\!:ghout the entire pipe, but it is a function of time: V = u(t) i. Use the x component of the unsteady momentum equation to determine the pressure difference PI - P2' Discuss how this result is related to F, = mat"

II (I)

,"
I I

---------------t
I

.: I
DI
I

--x

(1)

--

p = density

-------

(2)

U5/11}

the C-tJn-/rD1

VIJ/umf(.

shpwYl.

I~ fhe 5kel-ch and etffJ/y,'IJ fhe

f of /he unstead) //YletfY' h/()n1eY)..J-.q/'Yl 8fl,fetl)~ -fo; !1Je Contentr of ft;/ s c.v fN~ ge l-

x-

U)t?1(J()t'J eYl

~ JflA.dil
")-t
or
CV

f rIA ~. ;:. d
(J

1/

rx

d (f~ 7r pl., df: 'f


I

)
CI~ ~t.un;'':} ~ = tt,

"fA 2.A : :. I' u7.2./1" r I

(). t -e I/f/Yy

{Y/c/,tmlesJ

f;fJW

5-48

s .1./-6
SAt)
The propeller on a swamp boat produces a jet of

It;r having a diameter of 3 ft as illustrated in Fig. P5.46. The


ambient air temperature is 80 of, and the axial velocity of the flow is 85 ftls relative to the boat. What propulsive forces are produced by the propeller when the boat is stationary and when the boat moves forward with a constant velocity of 20 ftls?

3 It diameter

.. FIGURE PS.46

F;.., ~ sla..J.Iona Y!1 btJa-t +he hoyi]ontlA J Uwtl'~ tJ/ fhe h~e(),Y y11trme;,fu ...... e~/,4aJ"/m ().PI'/led -It; /tu l6?~ ,,{ IItJ cmM VD/Un1e S htJWn Ii-; ~ ~":. ei'(,h A,J,cve yields

FJ
F

+"'YUS-t-

::
=
(

w, <. ~ - VI)::.bA VV V2 r 2 ~ :z.

51nce

V
I

/LA .I'):i~ (I'I.7rn2..1/lf.f~...J 'TT'{JfI)('I5.f-1


R-r

\.Iff,
'I-

V 2
'2

2.

/1,

V.

in ~ )

fj,YUf-i-

15-3.3 -fl. I: )(5'1/)'7<)


\ ..

/~. 'R

If /j~.). ibpt.{f )
(-

,J,.S:l./

F
+),.,.uff

= //7 Ii;
2tJ

ft?Y

fhe lo()tAf Wf()vi, fd.,tNf,VYr/. J/V}'rt.. ~ ffuJ 0/


(.~ftb-{ \Id/u~e fhfIWn )n

If,{; -the

.5~e.

h~ IttL ~/a,li~
~ e~ ~

V(,ltrt,:,'1
,

the S-kelc.J/
W

aINJV~ is u.red)

is h~ /;"fJI~'

~ hIJV/]dvrk/ ~ ()/ fj,~ /J~eA Yh(fWJe;,~

gel1'1/W (
I

F. :: -IhYIH..}F
=

2.

w) := I ~II~ W (w - w) :: R ..E-7?-~:lV\{(~-W) r
~ ~ gS-

Fw tIu- yn()v;~ h~
8,/.2
';hY'Laf

ft

.'1

<.j

tw\,,(

V\,j

=20ft

anti .>0

/6

5". if 71
A free jet of fluid strikes a wedge as shown in Fig. P5.47. Of the total flow, a portion is deflected 30; the remainder is not deflected. The horizontal and vertical components of force needed to hold the wedge stationary are FH and Fv, respectively. Gravity is negligible, and the fluid speed remains constant. Determine the force ratio. FHI Fv'

The h()rjt1nfa / QYJd. ve-y-h'Ul/ (tJn..,fJOneYJh of /he lInea ~ m 0 me n fu ffJ ~ M 17(; n cut OfP //ed f1J -I'hi. [ffn /evrh of ft,e
CPYJ~I vO/l.Il'Yle ~hdwn fu fief - V, f' V, A +- ~ f ~ A:J. t- ~ CbS ?O ~ ~ AJ
j

: -

(/ )

~ f/~:?O~~ AJ )-mweve"' v/ -= v - II: 2.. I


-

~ ~
....

(2)
SeJ

eo>. (l)a n d{2) beUfrYJe P

V.2.".o (Ill
V It'

-t A3
flY)

&Of.

~(). --

II,) -- - Fit
('3)

A3
_

30 tJ ~

FI/

A2. +Iq t()$" $0 "-11, AJ


h~
$ /;"

Fv
~
C(}YIS( Y'VCt

3 () 0
yY1

of

cus we.. ge f

G( I

::;.

~.2.

t- blJ

or
anPl

A J:::' Az. r /lJ

~b i:"/~

f .

(?) aAt-d (tf) twt-- qe f


JIJ 0
-

.4, -I- /;7 CQ.J

Ill.. - //1

fJ 3 {COS?OO

-I _
0

-~-------

0.27

113

>,1;' JO

i)

A7 ,-, 3IJ

The ne'jCihve
ul
CiS

5/tjY1
I;'

Indht:l/el'

~f ~ if ~wn r-~~ /Mn

5" how}?

the

.Jl:..eM~

5-50

Water flows from a two-dimensional open channel and is diverted by an inclined plate as illustrated in Fig. P5. When the velocity at section (1) is 10 ft/s, wh~t horizontal force (per unit width) is required to hold the plate in position? At section (1) the pressure distribution is hydrostatic, and the fluid acts as a free jet at section (2). Neglect friction.

S.lJ8

.......""'" l.Oft
FIG U REP 5 .'f~

2.13

1 b

5- 51

5.5'0
5.50
A vertical. circular cross section jet of air strikes a conical deflector as indicated in Fig. P5.50. A vertical anchoring force of 0.1 N is required to hold the deflector in the place. Determine the mass (kg) of the deflector. The magnitude of velocity of the air remains constant.

conhol
'Jolu;Y\e

SectiM
v
=

(I )

30 m/s

FlGURE PS.50

To

deteYmlne. fh~ Y>'fas.5 of fhe UJn/c,(,1/ de.fiecJ'()'r we use fJ,e.


)1dl"} -

SIP.lionaY"y /
fA bdlle .

d~fuy1/~
of

c.unfnJ/

VtJ/Unl~

~hdWJ1. In l1te sl:.e kJ"


C/)}IJI?pr;nenf

/tp,P//CIIl h~n
VtJ/Ul"He

fite

v~h'clA /

a'/yec ndn

of

the
Ih/$

/1';-,e.tJ. yo

In tJl'H en ~"'"

t!j tlal/o! ( c 1 5'. 2. 2) fp -/he ChlIeH Ir (J f

LfI)1/n;/

y/e/JJ

Ii! (Or

v:

of

t-;.

UJS 30

0) ::: - 'A

-W

Cone

Wc~nt'
Hd/N",vevl!;'
tint:{
::

~l1ne J - M (~- ~ UJf f()~

- ; :;:

f~~(/{-J{CPJJO~-~

(;)

~
711), If
).

A;
Thll)

::

E~. /

Ct2J1t

be
fj'

O<Iyc5s~d

as
~
.9

m
CJy
frJ

t.tJne..

-= f

frO,").

I{ (~- ~ CbS 10 D) -

':=

ClJne.

f2? A-J)
/'I'fJ

ancJ
IYI
::-

1).108

CMe

*1

5-52

5:51

Water flows from a large tank into a dish as shown in Fig. PS.SI. (a) If at the instant shown the tank and the water in it weigh WI Ib, what is the tension, T I , in the cable supporting the tank? (b) If at the instant shown the dish and the water in it weigh W2 Ib, what is the force, F2 , needed to support the dish?

Pifr ~ ~) we ~j?I'I

!he Y~rh'c.a" J

the linef/ Y m(JI'l'1eh htlM ~/Aa~~ Iv /he lWJ1en1J of tdnfrtrf vr;/tlme A) C~;J -Iv Je-I

c~mptJneYlt of

(j)
Td qef /,flue 01 ~ill
/Ne

Of!",!
StA-YhttL

!,exnfJu/Jj f erJ.tCk~~ -h; ~ fttMI ff(/WJ .'f'N. (yee IN&< -kv J;' /hL -1?tY11<, -k ~ -Ia~J, ewi Ie f fr; gef
Vu",!
0-

~!

ltv.

Vz9 "A

Then ~

VCz) (J 'Ii )O()


Z.2If

fl.)
2

ZS f

f!

- (Z'

't

f:)(''1,{ i/f J{z., If)


/

i,.(1) we. gef


~/u).

7T /

it)

= T, - W,

/-1

16 . .5'"

ve YHca /

CVMj'I{/';JC/h./ ()(

pi
~n-fr::>
;; ere- f
1tV~
II') M

CV B

qef

/;"-/0

~ ~- IN'z

C~ V1';.fv

cV 8 we 1A5-e ~l"no""IJ; 's -1l-tWt$"/:rn be-Iwee-n free furtee of

c~k.

~;-,~ =

~
50

C\I$

Vz.

+v '~e su/-e,u
fj (hlJ

0-1-

I#a.k- I;' di.fh Iv

,e
-:

-t-ho ) t<M

Z(?2. z.

(i,,){IO 1-1 rl2,-H)


j

J 7-6

,,;,/.,., we L{S' fn,.,...


c~

~.J..,., a! ""'<if5 ,

';",;'",
c~

';'6..

,.f f ~I-!..f

.fr-v.-..

G CO (2)

~ 7(;f

..fa..,/c..

37. (,

tf)/J.lj'l ~ YzS". if ~ ) 1Tt 1 ff/(I /~ 5 C' -frJ Jl" .s ) 'I '>/v9 . .ff
W '"l..

1.J - r;. - W2-

One)

F2.. ;:"

14 7 Ib _
5"-53

S.52

5.52 Air flows into the atmosphere from a nozzle and strikes a vertical plate as shown in Fig. PS.S2. A horizontal force of I Z N is required to hold the plate in place. Determine the reading on the pressure gage. Assume the flow to be incompressible and frictionless.

V=.==:f= \===::::7
Area = 0.01 m 2

.(/)

:~= -=-.- ..... ~


(oz,).1
I

4-

9N

I~; ~

Area

= 0.003 m 2, I {3}7'"

FIG U REP 5.52.

To de~"'MIt'\e. +ke. sk+ic:.


Cone:; i dey
(1) -tz,

'f'Ie.

pr~SSLlrE.. at

sfz:\..t;OY\ (I)

"",f! .f(rs+

(2) .

fi..\c. frtC'Ho\f\less (}.V\o. i~C.cmpv~ssi bte. flow of air ~ The BernolA I"I e~(.A.a. +1 0..-. fv.r ~'l S Ho",", "s

:
~
W'<.. V\O~
Q

+- V~ ~

-= r!.~- +
VI aV'(;.l Vt
~r

.:::f 0 5Q

,c

1..

,+tw.+
of
Q'2.,

"Z
'\ V I
::

_Vl
(lV-I{

\iYlked b~ ~e ~oV1+iyu"i+y

((.t!V\Se.No..1-tDy\
I ':

~oss) e~~.a:tioV\

A2. V2vI"'3.

C.o~Io:V\;V\~

E,\s. l Gtt'\O

'l.

okl..,ir"

-t

(~~ V'-)L
<-

V'2.

\iY\oW\eyt~~ eolA.A,,"c,,", ~'f" +h~ -fltJ\N ~ \.2) ~(3). FISY -tL-vt C,.6Y\-tn1 "o\M.me. s~ft.-V\~J o..b:>ve +he l;~e.ay )"Y\ot"'\ewtullV' py'\Y'lc.I~Ie. ':j\e\ds

To d.-e~"V)\IV\e V1...

W<.

use +i1c

\;Y1eav

or

12. N

57

F" -

'5

((!on' + )

5:52.

1 (um'+)
NdW, w;#-1

9 3

P. " \

l~

'l.

S--55

5.SLf

5.54Two water jets of equal size and speed strike each other as shown in Fig. P5.5~. Determine the speed, V, and direction, 0, of the resulting combined jet. Gravity is negligible.

V2

=10ftlS--':b Io.lft

ex ~~~~1' ,-------"
/.

'/

,/"

T
0

------~ 90 ,11
,I-

/.'" 1 r

I I I 0.1 ft ,

Vj=lOft/s

t'
,

FIG U REP 5 . stj

the. c.orrty~l vch.u)\e skow~ lrt -\i1 t. s.ef-"h aloove +he. l&.rea. ( mOM eyd~M e-~ ~:tjo'" for +he x o.Vld y dl~c+tot\.s are I for 1l-t e. X d l fe.C:f,'oV\

For

-V 7. ~ V 2. A'l. + (V CfJS e ) ~ V A
1t1ct

=0
C
~\le

y dLr~c:hoV\ - VI ~ VI A ,-+-(V "SlV'l. e) -e Vf\ :'

~y ~.:

Also .for coV\<;erva+1l>v\ of vY\O.ss we. PIV( AI -t pV1. "'1. - ~V~ = c


F-roFV\
:l-

E~s. I ar\d 2 We.. ~e+


='

V'l. ~I..

CJ)

~o e

\J~ AI

se

= O)t- ~
= cot_I~( 10 !;) 1r
'10

-= c.O(1 V:A-z,

\.1.
'41
U) M

(~t~
'"

1.

-=

II.

n I

0 f~) 1t' (~l.ft)

N bWI

~ \ r\ i n ~

E~ s.

I). C1.t\O

'3 IN t

q.+

'i

- V~ A, 1'" V os in

(V I A I + "2

AIJ -= 0

V ::

V .::

v=
5'-56

S. 55
5. S Assuming frictionless, incompressible, one-dimensional flow of water through the horizontal tee connection sketched in Fig. P5. s5 , estimate values of the x and y components of the force exerted by the tee Jon the water. Each pipe has an inside diameter of 1 m.
z
Section (2)

V1

=
=

6 m/s

Pl

200 kPa

FIGURE

P5.55

We
-fhe.
-fhe..

COJl'l

U$e

fhe x and y CCIYVL(ltJnel1'/-r of Ik I/neay YY1()YY1eYl-ft"YVI


5.
22)

eCjtAa-fitTYI

(&J.

To

defen-'Yfine

fhe

x and Y ct:JYVl{J()YJenls ()f

'feacf7'oYl
cor.+rol

foyce
vo tUYJ1e

exeyfed. by -!-he

wa.fer Oh -the.. fee.

coYtfA/~jn.J wafey I~ the, fee, E$'

Fw f.22 leAds

(2)

1/

:::

V3

1T!J.~

ll.1

Li'
(con 'I: )

$'-57

5'". 55

COn

If )

S,5h
5. Water is added to the tank shown in Fig. P5. 56 through a vertical pipe to maintain a constant (water) level. The tank is placed on a horizontal plane which has a frictionless surface. Determine the horizontal force, F, required to hold the tank stationary. Neglect all losses.

l'
Jet area

~ _C0!lst~nt. - '-+)C , water level


1 -:-:~--~-:~i-~--~~:;::;:~-';:-

(2.) ..

= 1250 mm 2
Frictionless surface i

!
!
I

'-.+1. m '. ',lm

F~

..i
5.6

= 625 mm 2
/'

Jet area

A ?p\y'It"~ -the. x- dlV~,tioil' c.oMPOV\e.I\+ of -the l jr\eAr W\OWlCY\-tuM -e~(AClfi ov) to the. U>~~w\s 0+ +""- (.O~~l vo luM(. Sk.tt.~J dloove vJ~ ~e..f
8err\OIA\l','~ ~uo.fjon ~ d.~~c.r~1oe.. -the .ffidio~l-ess -flow frbM -tltC'- c.o\'\~-h\wt WG\kY" SU1~'E:. level +0 +nCo .flow l~o..Vl~~ s.m,1io~cz, (l) and (z) VJe... alo~in
USlh'3
,

FIG U REP 5 .

V,~VI~'- V2..~Y'l-A"l. -:: F

(I)

o.t

V?. ";
<l.vtcl

[z ~ h"we qet

(2.)

I/I=~
~1o;v\ll'l'3 ~5. l) 1. dVld. '3

F
or

= ~C3 ~, fA. -

L~h2.~ A2.

F= D~

5.57

I
I 1.L-_ _.,....llL. .........

Water flows steadily into and out of a tank that sits on frictionless wheels as shown in Fig. PS.S7. Determine the diameter D so that the tank remains motionless if F = O.

(/f'0

'"I

,
1
I

AffJ/Y1nJ fhe hfFfljQVlIa/ l{fVl1p(}ntVlf pI f1tl I/Ylea4 Wlornen..f.um -e,u&&-I/f/h

'~ '~;. :.o. ~"; ;" '~3-)


(ltD

---if

fn -hu.
Vd tUY'YJe

[tin ~f.s

0f

!Itt.

(gy,.fn; /

s h(JWYI I;' the

we qef:

fcs VtV.;dll :

Vd~= V pI-- -I-VdL.


I

2.

A'}t:un / flc.e.

Vz.

= ~ -= VlJh we gef
(2)
w<.
(I)

V;cl7.. = ~p7,..f ~ ti1.

~o/c.IVJj ~f ~$.
If

~ (z)1-or k
CfAYlJI'Io-f

~kvk.

V3 L.. V;

e~.~)

eS' (/)
e~. (J.)
~.

CtU-t

be 5df,j.fl~ I..t

I:x 5iJ.HrteJ

If

e8 . (I )

'-t4t.-

CaJIIYl,f

be $t$--H.r~e,j
,$a.

sall.rh'ecl

et. (j ) ~vo. k
(7-)

C. (:( 1'1

~!he,{ w:/t. j) -;; 0 ~ ~-hj/je"l J/l/'tt. p:: 0

lIs-;-~
~
L?. _

V'S ~ "'"

~[)=O h wt..u..!' f
::: l-j

k.L.Je f

Jf)

fhal

Vj -;

vzg h

5'-60

of each is atmospheric. and the flow is incompressible. The ..' " contents of each device is not known. When released. which TI he four de~lces shown In .Flg. P5.5~ res.t on fnlctlOn. devices will move to the right and which to the left? Explain. Iess w hee s, are restncted to move In the x directIOn on y anc are initially held stationary. The pressure at the inlets and outlets (I) ,-- - - ~ ~I .

We (),pply jt.e.
Y>1 Om e,..,

horijoYlfal

c()mPOYlenf. of f1.,e II~ e~ ~

(Z),~~. __::=;:_-=::J'~~L-'
(oj

I I

. -'

/urn

eg/,f(.f IltJn f,

/he

("OJ1kj1f$

~f fl,e. CdYlh-;;/ I/IJluYlfe

(bfl);:'en liYles) aY'ld delel"n1J;'e the. 5e n$e of fll e


;If F.
tll'l cJ"

.,

~;t1

..fo.taL ~.
(cJ
(eI)

Is

/n

fhe

d"~cJ-i()n

Shown I~

the .fke~l,es, nulion

will be. f.o {he /e fl. .If ~ if

/n

~ d{Y.cf/(Jn

()flPIJS;

Ie

fr;

{-Jaaf shown.! the. Y??o~;'Y)


1'10 )'(J'rJ

is'

fhe

riJhf . Fr,-y-

.J..F FA:O.; there- IS


~ ~ ~ Al.

jonI-,. /

l?1(rhOn.

ske tel, (a.)

- v, ~v, A
5(ncf:.
~

~
mIJh'on

is

fo f1-,e lei f /

/J -/tJ

fhe.

YO;J},!.

PlN s/r:.e

kh (b)

-~f'~,A,+ ~f~A2.=:F ().nol {y()n/) Ulnset"vah'trn of YY'Ja>J

fJ V, A, :::"p ~ 4 l..
~I'ki
)"tnee

V '> V
I

Fov s~~ ~) (nD~:

2.;

rhe"

FLI
n

If

-/7J 11.e /eff


(t )

a'JPI 1"I1(J~~",JIoIl.e~;flu..
,/

flow i.r ,;".ft, c va:f

a~d ~ ;.1 h

-l1p V, A = ~
I

ft,e lelf-

f,

nro hon /s

h lJ,e

njAf.

FIN' 5Ke. f-c~ (d)


-v,p~~ +
and ~
{And ~ <.

~ p~,.42.

= F;;
of ~a.fS

UJYI.JerVtA 170 n

,.0 V, 4J ~ f'V2,

A2.
lAne!

"2.
~Pf.~r'J /$ /r; the Jeff.

so

~ if -10 fie r/!/'t-

5-61

~. 5'1

I
30
fl~ ,~

Water d ischarges into the atmosphere th rough the dcvice shown in Fig. PS.59. Determine the x component of force al the flange required to hold the device in place. Neglect the effect of gravity and frictio n.

______

, , ,

To

,,,,,,,/~k fht ;(-d,.-<ch~~

"fU'Ye,) to hold f/,e device In flac / the x- d/.-edio'1 CO>'>1I'OYI,,,1- of the 1,'.,,,,1" mommlu.., egl/ali."" is fAJed 0" h.e (ft,k-.. iJ
",-,clo.,,'''3
fj,e skt-kJ.,

{o".

+0 .I.fa;n;

-V,,,,VA -VflV4 \ 112.2.1.


To dekTI'M/ne
./,fa ,';., :
VJ
I

+ V, +f." 1/ , cos'~'f' V 3A 3 = - F. 1/
LJ

(i )

.1A

Jn ~

CIJn5rvAT7 J, ..,

7-D

Q.,=>;<" T Q,}
~ II, = Ii A, f

>J A J

(20 ~f;:O. 8r~') ~f(J~t)(f/'ff'f')t- v,. (b.3h')


f.

V3 =S ff
S

fY7f'r->

E3 ' / we

,e!-

_ ('20 V)(I.U it}(2O j{d.Zff')

F A

-=).'1 '+0

Ib

1>-62

S.60
A vertical jet of water leaves a nozzle at a speed of 10 mls and a diameter of 20 mm. It suspends a plate having a mass of 1.S kg as indicated in Fig. PS,bO . What is the vertical distance h? 5. 60

FIGURE

P5.60

To de/eYYJlllne.
cowtpbY1enf

fhe ve~H(.eI1

cI/sfttnce

we

apply fk verhl.al tilfecho""!

tJl
fhe
-;()O

fhe. II~eIlY
con-fn,/

I"n()YHehfu".,.,

e'6u().h~h (61' >.2Z) fD ft,e

wafe r

I;"

voluY11t2-

shown 1i1 fhe .s-kefct a.bove.. Thlls,


== -;0

- R~

.7

-if - - V A V wale,.. If I J

l{ ~ ~
tt

J.

2-

(J)

7Ae verfico,/ reaciion force of lhe ;/ole on Jhe kI~/er is efu,o./ in 1n49nilu de 10 lite l,fKiIighl of Ik pJII.le) ()r

RJ : :" 9 !11p /a l e

('1. $1 !f) ( I. 5

~J:: I if. 7 N

A /050./ !he. wBiyh f of M wQ.ler willl/n I/J cfl)1IYo l volt/me J fJ.9 ~41e.r J ;.s 17~1 lig iiJle I and fAe /?It.Z.fS flow role is

m jJ ~ l{
=:

== ;; Ao Yo

-:: ( 999 ~ ) f
or

(/J. o:J.
N

hi )'- (

10 ; ) ;:: 3, /3

l!f

Thull Elf / becames


- /~. 7

II ::: -

v,::
,

3,/3.1t1s-

11f-. 7

- If. 70
Wi!

tp

From lite Berl1lJtI// tjpg!itJn (Er;.3.7)


~ + i. fl v,,:l+ J1zo
T/;I/~
::::

h9ve

-f1 .J. 1:(/ 'v; ~ 0' ~

wAe.r8
20
1#

/'0 -::It :. 0
J

2,

:::,.1

1fU2~ ifJl1~

h
I =::"2. (q.81!f{J

or .Ji/lce
L If
I

l' ~~?
0 I

=:21 (~,. /I 1)

(:z.. :z..) m ~ /0 -- JI.. 70 ~

=:: 3. q 7

/J'l

5.6'1 Exhaust (assumed to have the properties of standard air) leaves the 4-ft diameter chimney shown in Video VS.3 and Fig. PS." ,."ith a speed of 6 ftls. Because of the wind, after a few diameters downstream the exhaust flows in a horizontal direction with the speed of the wind, IS ftls. Determine the horizontal component of the force that the blowing wind puts on the exhaust gases.

..-

15 Itls

FIG U REP 5.61

For -the

control volume indic4fed fhe x-Gomponen!


= ~ Fx

()r the

momenlvm eCI'Jafi~f7

s:u pV/1 dll


cs

become.s

where Rx ".s the nef hOl'i'l.()IJio./ force fha1 -fhe winrh pvis 0" -foe exhaust 9a.ses.
===

p Vz- Ill-

Rx

ThtJs
or

Rx ~ m:;. V~
J

m ::: e!9" \4 == ~ A, V, (i. e. m,:::: '+',. ) 2 m~::: (0,00238 sJ?-)I1J (lfHt Jr 611) ::: 0, /79 ~~~
Whel'B

He nCB.!

Rx '" O.1793J?(Jsf}),: 2,6'1 0f.!1:= 2.tQ/iJ

S-6tf

5 62-

5. 62. Air discharges from a 2-in.-diameter nozzle and strikes a curved vane, which is in a vertical plane as shown in Fig. P5. b2.. A stagnation tube connected to a water V-tube manometer is located in the free air jet. Determine the horizontal component of the force that the air jet exerts on the vane. Neglect the weight of the air and all friction.

FIGURE

P5.~~

Note.
0+

+hat
)(

R ;n

we 'Iqnoyc. -\-l,<. ef~+ of o~ost>h(,ri c.. Pf.f'SSUfC On ~h(. \lal~~ OUf SOlu1iOVl below a~ck lASe. ~~e. pye~SLtfe.\. I\s 'In~\c~6 in
L ' .

~~Sphc":l to ?y~ ~~uye -rvrc.e. MOJ-j r\ee.d c()ns I"~r~+ll>"" whe", id.t~ti~iY'l~ rto.L+ioV\ +orc.e!,. For ~e Qty .f'lowIt\~ ihY~~h+he C-Ot\+rol votu,,",e., ~ ~~ a\oove) +he. X - d 'f~C -He>'" COMpot'le.\I\i of +he. I', neo.'(' M()mc.r'\1u~ ~(AO.,fi on 'I~
- VI P
\Qlf

Ex.~mp\e. 5, 10 J '#\(.

,vI AI

V'l. eos

30

0~.

Q\r

V2,.Al..

= - R;(.

(I)

I\fP\/\~tioY' 0-(

8eroololll\ IS ~W)..p.oY\ 11r t-he. flow fn>M

(,) -tv

('2..)

y'le\c:is

V2, =VI Ihe n ) +ron'l +he. C()",c;erV'a.-i1on of Mo.S~ t>Y'Ylc.iple

A,V, :: AI...V't.
e..rlAAfioY\ ~dl~ -+0 oJ::,~~1'\ +he .fDlloWlt'\~ e,~+lOY\ fz,y ~ S~~~(7Y\ -hAbe decele.~~Oh

(~)

We

lAse

t3c.rnotAll',

VI
'2..

:::

~ (l\r

(~)

For +he

V\f\o."'o me.kr'" I

w\.t-h. +h-c.
\.e,y
-

e.\IAct1io,""
(s)

Pt\~ +

h fY'~ t'\OCS' W

Q.

0'.

1Ytt;tr\g

o.lr

1:s+o. ~

( G,)

( eDV)'i )

562..

(COn't)

Rx. ==

~x=
ThiS

2.9f, \b

is the .f-ov'ce -eKe..rkd. ~~ -\hc. vane

CY\

--the. .f.lovl,~ ~~V'.

The. .fu.ru2. -ex.uktl


\

\?~ th.t. tlc,w 1~'1 <:\\1 txer+s on 1i1e VCl.n~ ~ ~~ ~y\ ~7 \I'\\-Mo\4. b~ Of posi k iYl d ;~c:nCTY\ 00 -Ihe rl1h-f)

5"- 66

5.6S
5.6 S
A 3-in.-diameter horizontal jet of water strikes a flat plate as indicated in Fig. P5,65. Determine the jet velocity if a lO-lb horizontal force is required to: (a) hold the plate stationary; (b) allow the plate to move at a constant speed of 10 ft/s to the right.

(al

(bl

FIGURE

"5.65

The COI1/-rr;/ volume


the
htJYlj()nft?1
/u,yy,
OY

shoWn

In The

skefch

is used. The
IIpfllicaltan ~I

sfah'oYlPYJ plale CAfe if. cPI1J'ldeYea

fi;ff.

x- dlf'ec.iltJY1
y / e/dj

cOYJ/If1~nent

of

fj,e /;i1eor

tyJ () Me yt

e~ ua/j(7}/l
-

-~

Oy lA,

Thus

()nd

f.,(,

plate

tit

fP.eed
r

V= 10 :s ff /

the
or
and

x - dIYec,fioY]

-the lin eery hI~hZehluh-t erUIl/;OY'j

-==

====

ZOo Z

ff
J'

/)10

VI;'" platt!

5- 67

5,66 A Pelton wheel vane directs a horizontal. circular cross-sectional jet of water symmetrically as indicated in Fig. PS.66 and Vidtm V5.4. The jet leaves the nozzle with a velocity of 100 ft/s. Determine the x direction component of anchoring force required to (a) hold the vane stationary. (b) confine the speed of the vane to a value of 10 ft/s to the right. The fluid speed magnitude remains constant along the vane surface. D

=1

.,; m.

(a)

(b)

FIGURE P5 ..6.6
(A)

To

deferm,nG -fJ,e. )(- dl;ecli~n cpl'H{J4J1ehf of qJ1c.h~Y'I~ ~e !7!fUI'i-etl iP V4J1{!

hlJ/d fhe

S"1ei1/onlJry JIVe use file S'lRh'dJ1~'y on"/rrJ/ v~/JtM(!


tlJtd th~ x- d,yeCndn

e,

skwn
MA:n#1I1

tU?IJV~

ct?m;;~l1ehf of- the //heo.- m,Jlfle"lu"",

(1' Ii 2"2 )

l"hu~

~ :: m(tft ~ I.IJS 'Is ') :::j7AJ ~ ('1 t~ ~Jljl"1 :: I' ~p/I{~ of ~ t;.5'1~'

F. :: Iii Ib
(6) 70

" de!e,YYn,;'e
~

fhe

X'- d,;e&h'Oh
fr;
()l

CIJ"VJ()nel'1f

or /lJ1cJ,fH'~ ~e ",(HIed

11J U)wh'ne .fife. Vane..


life

Chlsnrl1f s/eed of It)

fr";"
t{

IRe Yl9"'f w-e


ejlo"h',,,

Clhrlrol

V()/ume.

Ynov/nf/

fo
()f

ftt~ Y/1hf WJ'fh

$,ud pf /0 ~f"

and

me x- d/ved/on comp4J1od
&t

tHe. I/;r.u.r

MOJll1.tJ1/ztm

IrN-

f YtlJ1.rlitn"?j
J

clh1fy,1 vO/~Ylte (1' $".21).


of"

lJut~"

,: ::. ~ A, ltV
Ii

(vv
I

W CIJ$ Y.r D)
l. /

&

(it'

7r~). W

' ('

/W
I

t W
1.

U.f .f D)
/

{t}

We

JI16-k 11tA-1-

/'1-1 'I,

s- 68

'i.h7

5.67 How much power is transferred to the moving vane of Problem 5.66?

P"wer

E V A

where frolf} Prohlem

s. 66 Fa -::. II/bib
n

( l/.fb \b ) ( ID
PDWer :::

ft ")
':2

t;S'o ~+.lb \ ( ~. hp J

2.6S hp

~-

69

Water enters a rotating lawn sprinkler through its base at the steady rate of 16 gal/min as shown in Fig. P5.68'. The exit cross section area of each of the two nozzles is 0.04 in. 2 and the flow leaving each nozzle is tangential. The radius from the axis of rotation to the centerline of each nozzle is 8 in. (a) Determine the resisting torque required to hold the sprinkler head stationary. (b) Determine the resisting torque associated with the sprinkler rotating with a constant speed of 500 rev/min. (c) Determine the angular velocity of the sprinkler if no resisting torque is applied.

5.68

/ /--

! r ij. /NOZZle exit . --t;--/,.,..----=

area

O.04m.

---

.......

1/
"

~~

'\ ~ ~
.//j

...-///

--- -- -::-:--t(sio.fit1nd. YJ

@
--- -

t.........
=16 gal/min

ClJtrfl7Jl
I

IItJlu~e.

FIGURE PS.,8

Th;s if f/~;I"y -It> GK'amfJle 5: 17. (a) To dekvtlne fhe ~5"ir/Jy,f 1t;Yi Jt~ r~tlli~d fz> ;u4d M~ 5jJn'hk/erhead sfafl~l1t:1'Y we U$f:.- The. m"JIIt.~f - tJl-;;noJ1teJllfu"" ~f"Iue

etlA.alidn {EI' ~. 50}. i'Jul5,.


(;)

= 6'/./7 t!
oS

-r. :$/uil-I
(b) T()
ml;')

z.96 ff.16

dehYm,ne the r~5iJh'~1 -I-oY'ltl~ a>$dd~f.ed w/ft,.. tt spYIVJkiet' ~ttd of 5"t1~ ye.v we. a.5e c1 / attll;'. fhn.veVey I (/ot'i fA ro/7tI/t/YJ Wf.. /,ave.

(Z)
FI7Y W ,..
Wl..
c

We

use
bL

2 AI1()J}~
exi,,"

(16 !~a(
(GLJI1'

) (Ill'! ;;~~)
,;"....)

(2){ ". ()'f

(7. '1R

9,4 ,

F/~

-=
~ ~.L )

{, '1./7 ff.
J

....,;.,

f ) 5',70

S:6B

I
r~y

(cOJ1'f)

Z{

/,Ale ('(fe

= (9 In.) (soo ~ ) (i7r ftt )


(;2 I;")
off

(6tJ ~ )
;Jfm

Th{J J with

1' 2. (,N~ htMe.


2f/- 2{
.J"

V.
C/Jlfti

~2.

:: 6'1./7 If - "llf.91 ff =T .J

ff-

wilt,

T
,$/11llf

- (to 9'1 f.!!J.!)(I~

E't. /

W~

tJ6"kt,;"

(~'fK

e-z

9tf
rf2

I) (bIJ ~)
him

f.."/ lJcin . /

Y8 In.j{zf. zt t) (/ iJ!..
sll4,.

fI.sa..

/12.
(

i" ' )

alo'U/

/. 3~ f-l. /h

CC) To de/e",m/YJe fAt.. ~n.I~/ar veto~/ fy ~f- I1rL >jJ}'/nlder /f ~ Y~/>h~


f()y~ tl.e
fl;

!s

p-p/I/ed we.

U.${!

the

~/Y1tA-h(;YI ()f CtjS. / aJlut 2

() bID. Ii?

tf
~

::W
2.-

)..

W
yo .....

=:.

(6'1.17 ~/)(I Z
(S,;'.)
fI, Ci .J

if)
920

":::.

9~J

ypd

7h e

Yl; ftJy

~ 1MU.I IV.I i.r


YQd)

N -::::(?I.?

(b()~)
rev

/(277

~d)

-======A=,=''''

5-7/

5.69
S.t19 Five liters/s of water enters the rotor shown in Video V5.5 and Fig. P5.69 along the axis of rotation. The crosssectional area of each of the three nozzle exits normal to the relative velocity is 18 mm 2 How large is the resisting torque required to hold the rotor stationary? How fast will the rotor spin steadily if the resisting torque is reduced to zero and (a) () = 0, (b) () = 30, (c) () = 60?

II FIGURE P5.69

7b de/erm/l'Je
we use, -10 obfa/~
We
nl)f~

fh~ flJ~u~
~oJ+tenf ~ y

fhe.

}u,/d ..fhe. YrJly fiP./7i;)Ylaq ,,1-- m()JIH~Iu;+1 rorf"G I!.j;UIJtIJ'un (1:1' s: So)
(I)

"'~UI"ed -/zJ

;- Shlll'f -

~uI-

duf-

t115!)

fHaT

J1I1

::

p t:2.

3A""'"1le
eXl!

1.$.

I J Z. aJlld 3

we

r' Q
3
To

~t co.> 6'

(it)

AI'I6JJle

exit

riekY"w,ine

fhe
Wl.

Y7Jtrrr
~!IJ In

fAJ19/,1Itt y

veltJvify

t1>s()c/tJtf~d wifh

3ero

oSha! f

iDrfJ/lfe

use.

fhe
it,)$

m()~eJ?f- of - fflomel'1luW'l -/Dt"ffJe

e~J,(ah'oV1

( 'j. ~. So)
Y)1

+t> "hm,n.l
CbS

l7~e

w /t?t hJIRhol'7)
(5)

~hah-::
W-e
nofe

~"f (tv 1)1A.7

qt.tf- )

tha.f

(7)

(cOYl'f)
5-72

5.69

(c~n'f)

r;half :::

s"4.11 Fr~ 1"

= Zt:Jo

AI.

not

w~ obJ,un ~

fl.t:?H::

tJ

If I~/ (OJf 3()")(/PI?P ~),.


3(18~~L-){ IPI}~ ~)((J.S"..)

-= IbtJ

YAel
.$

--

(c.) F7Jy

e ==
&

r ~4fi
py

60 d wt use (9ff!1) (s
~3

~/(t).'-'")(Co! to') {tPtJtI : , . : /(f1'/;" )


~~y~ (3) (IYn-.n,~)
~
f>

" 'I

Iv ge.f

(/IJIJIJ

r :: Jhaff
~ t'j. f
W

III N.~

we 16hun -fp.., ~

=- ()

(S

~)(UJ6tJ~

'firr (IPPd

2-

(3J(13ht,.,~J(lOPcJ ~) (d~~;)

;-73

5.7 J A water turbine wheel rotates at the rate of 50 rpm in the direction shown in Fig. P5.7J. The inner radius, T 2 , of the blade row is 2 ft, and the outer radius, r I , is 4 ft. The absolute velocity vector at the turbine rotor entrance makes an angle of 20 with the tangential direction. The inlet blade angle is 60 relative to the tangential direction. The blade outlet angle is 120. The flowrate is 20 ft3 / s. For the flow tangent to the rotor blade surface at inlet and outlet, determine an appropriate constant blade height, b, and the corresponding power available at the rotor shaft.

b1 j1.

f-

Section (1)

Section (2)

since
Q. 211;-; b ~,I +hen the blade /'el,kl-, b I
II::

FIGURE PS.7!

1.5

:Iffr;

~I

OJ

The

51101f

P()WeY'"

vv:.~tlH

) 15"

lief (NIt

powef" ~uah'tJn (1.5'53) .

-vtt;.haff .::.

(Ina

nef (Jt.ri the Use

1/

.,

of 11+ 'I

0,.

wi It,

l{ V~ 2. d el'end.s

0"

wire/her

Ve 2 /s- opposi Ie. 7-0 or i" +he. 5"ante d/rechon as V; respecfively. / To defermine the value of ~,I we use. the velocify fYiong/( af se c. Non (I). Thus we hallf:
I

V. R,I
V,
Wi~ fhe ve/~ci1y /Y/(Jn9Ie

we.. have

~,I

hn

V. R~ I
fAn 60
0

+ V,

2()(J

However

V;

r;w

(con't ) 5-74

5".7/_1

(c()n't)
leads fr;

thus fq.]

V
R,/

::

r,w

rOd) (if ff) (5() rpm) (/-271' ;;;


:::

/ -L _ I ') ( hn 2.0~ fDn 60,/

tV i ff" ~9 ,I we
b

tJbh'n (to #1)

211"('1/1 )(9.65 1

9")
t'p~)

tJ. O~25

if

For

fhe blade lIe/ocifl'es 1i1 E~.

we ref

7J = r, (J.)
I

==

('I Tn (so YPWt) ( 2TT ~)

= 20.9'1 If
.s

(60 .s: )

1.l:z.

= J: w =

('Zff) (5 0

"'11" ( 2-71' ~) --------------~'~~~---== ~.~7


60L
HI/I?

ti

Foy ~I J we we

fhe, velrJc/ Iy iYj(Jnv1e af secf/(}n (I) -h; ~blzi,;'


_".
0

~
I

,::'

~I fz:tn 20
I

mh 2(}

6 ,1

T
t1

~ 2~. ~ l

ff
of'
./

F-or-

V. ~2

we

COnJirucf

The se.cfiol? (2.) ve/(h:,fltj fy/1I1'10/(: ske.~kd 6elfMI

(Ve, 2. ntrt h

salle)

(AYld

We
::

L{ yeahie -fhaf
~ Z fan ~() 0
I

8,2.

VB 2
I

t{

(It )

From

cOf/servaHon of Mass

'II.:

R,2.

V.

/(, I A

A,:::
2

(con'f)
5-75

50

wi Hz

~.

'T we obmln

V~ 2. -=
Finally w/111

{ltf.3

~f)1-rJJ1 30
2

0 _

/&.'17

ft

== 0.673

;f
J~

r.
(,"

we (}b~/~
sluff\fi.o if) )!(zfJ.71f 1 )1;.652"rl-f{O.'f7 fJ:)'/O.6 7 JB)}/i !it- ) 1-+1/, s If co S /(4. S/ s I s"(j{ sllI1.ft

virshallnet ou.t

~ I!,ti'l

Or

W s)1tI.H
net
a~c{

":

'2.. /8 X I() 'I ft. II:;

4ltf

-s

-W sna.If
nef"-o/,tf

1.. iN X II)
s~o

'I

If 110 s

-::: '39. 6 hp

ff./b s. hI'

5-76

An incompressible fluid flows outward through a blower as indicated in Fig. PS.72. The shaft torque involved, T'haft' is estimated with the following relationship:
Tshafl

5.72

= t1U2 VO.2

where t11 = mass flowrate through the blower, outer radius of blower, and VO2 = tangential component of absolute fluid velocity leaving the blower. State the flow conditions that make this formula valid.

'2 =

.....-

_...

FIGURE PS.1Z

I
valId

S-i1a It

i11~

~)2

(;)

J1I1a..y 6e
of

Ide",.l/hed

6y

UJ>?1ffJl'I

"J

~&J' I

with -IJ,e /Ix/a I


ar~

c(JY14fJ~neJ1f

Ee. s 'f2..
- flit! -

Thast!

co hd i -n (n,,$

a.. s tah'oJ1.IJl;':.Y and


". slea.dJ - I;' c. ne&I'j/6Ie
d.

h~J? - de/w~/~ CQ'y1~1 volume

(see .rtelc~ a6uv&)

MeQI'I

,clow
w;~ ve>Iee-f ~ tlx/s IJ{ ttJ/r../JOh

She4Y sIY~s.! 1oY9UL

e.

0,1 no

::: 0

sftt!>~e~

f. u J1 / flJy~

d /s fy/huh'on

of t,.;,
I

~77

5.73
5.73 The radial component of velocity of water leaving the centrifugal pump sketched in Fig. PS.73 is 30 ft/s. The magnitude of the absolute velocity at the pump exit is 60 ft/s. The fluid enters the pump rotor radially. Calculate the shaft work required per unit mass flowing through the pump.

V R2 = 30 ftls

FIGURE P5.73

The stah'o}fcuy
Sk~l-ch

aMt! 11011- d~/PYMlry

ct)J1irrJI vt)/tlYJt~ shown /~ -IJ,e


(he

abtJve
./
1""1_

i.s
$ntlrt

used.
I""""

/0 ttebYmln-R
C~"'" l,. U~I ""'L

shlJlf wOy/<.. fer

lIni!

Wlt/5J

r,

Id~

4. II

s: S"~.
..fiJI/(}w>,

TJII~.J

w.$/'tlfl7}te

= 1J
2.

V 9)

2-

(I)

bIt/de

~".ud I tJ;. )

cd;r

be ()6M,ned
~/;'

(lS

V
"l-

::: C W ::;; (0.5 ff )(2.000 y!!'

)fTT ~)/l)::: yeV (~O...E.dbl,J1net/


(/J

JD5 If
s

The. fangeJ1hd ve/tJti/-yJ ~

~2

= (v:$' I

v~ ... )i [(6off/-(30~t/l ~
='

CAli

fp/;;/.,;~

52

{f s

ThuJ I

.frn.n

(105 :1)( ~2

t;lf60

ff/6

s/uJ

~78

A fan (see Fig. P5.74-) has a bladed rotor of 12-in.-outside diameter and 5-in.-inside diameter and runs at 1725 rpm. The width of each rotor blade is 1 in. from blade inlet to outlet. The volume fiowrate is steady at 230 fe/min and the absolute velocity of the air at blade inlet, VI' is purely radial. The blade discharge angle is 30 measured with respect to the tangential direction at the outside diameter of the rotor. (a) What would be a reasonable blade inlet angle (measured with respect to the tangential direction at the inside diameter of the rotor)? (b) Find the power required to run the fan.

5.74

" " ....

....

,c

I I I

.;;:--._--FIGURE PS.74
I

The ~lah(;Ylary and


skel-ch above.
Ih/ef
tJ~1/e

nOn -

delrrrm/~J confn;/ VtJ!ui11e


10
de~n1/h-e.

1pin.--J I-the

.fjzDWYl In

is UJed.
we
aSSume

a retrst)JlUf61e. blt:lde

fhat

the

6/adl. $htJl1/d ft,e /-t;;n~Mf fo

-Ihe

/>

ve/afive ve/ocJfy ttl lite Iy,/~f. JkekhuJ belttw.

The.. Inlef ve/tJcl/-y /Y/an!/e

WI

(;)

Now
::.

Q
A,

= 35./

f!

== YoJ
I

= (2.5 11].) .
(12.
ff
fI-

In)
'f 3
0

7hu;

e = +aM -t{J I J) 7 =
, (37-"

wifh E~. /

51 ) ]

(Con'c)

5: 7/f

(con It )

The power ye~~"y.ed) ~J,tlll) may be tJb-blird wi/tJ


Thus

&1-

5".53.
(2)

W:::mVV
fha/l1..

z.

~ "L

VV1IiH -!Iow-ra-!e /

rl17-J

YYlay k

~bIt;l~i

a$ hl/lIWf_
fIIlh).

th< 1Also

'"

jl Q

='

(2-31

3 X 10- S/"ffJ (z"i0

if J

tf Yto.!... -'- );;


111,/)

q.12

xmJ~
S

u.. : ~w '"

(6 In. ) (172 ~
(/2
H

Jf J{27T fl! ) '" 90."3

t!.
.s

In.) (6tJ .ff-: )


/Hln

The value. of ~I ~ may be. o6-/r:(Jnet/ by cOh-rld'Ylj .fh~ lIe/:i7 friPYJ1/e -fpy -Ihe. flow letW'l1j -lite j?J~ af 5ec;hdn(~_ The ye!/ftfNc velocily at /he Yl)~ exjf- i> UMsJdereti -IT; be. IoWf fld -Iv the-- hhde fheY'e _ !he yafw exi f flrJ/N vtl ()~i fj -IY/aY/le is

skel-d1eJ

belfIN.

An axial flow gasoline pump (see Fig. P5.75) consists of a rotating row of blades (rotor) followed downstream by a stationary row of blades (stator). The gasoline enters the rotor axially (without any angular momentum) with an absolute velocity of 3 m/s. The rotor blade inlet and exit angles are 60 and 45 from the axial direction. The pump annulus passage cross section area is constant. Consider the flow as being tangent to the blades involved. Sketch velocity triangles for flow just upstream and downstream of the rotor and just downstream of the stator where the flow is axial. How much energy is added to each kilogram of gasoline?

5.7S

c~m+-ml

VIJ /Utl1e
I

~5C
I

60

I mean radius blade sections I

J
I
)

:7U:~coYlfro l
I

I l

VDlume

FIGURE P5.7S

lhe veioc-i-f'l l'IiI1YJj/e." f;;r {low jusf (Jff~tM11 ~ /he, y,,1-tJy Is


SKefrfrled

belaJ

lOY

fhe arithmefic mean Yael/uS.

WI

V-"3rn

,- s -

With

'he TriorJj!e.,
:;

We
::.

con~(ude fhai

W
ay,d

V,
cos 60
6

(3 ;:-)
Co> 66"

m s
5,2

v;=
5"- 81

5.75

-coy/Ii)

The ve-I()ciiy -/-vldYJg/e I()r (I(}w jllsf c/()/)JJ1.JIYetlM


ske hhed
Thus
b~/(NJ f()y

pf fhe

Y()1-or is

-the tJyifhmelic, JlY/e tlYi Yadws, ~


~)2.:::' ~.

t'i7UJn1fJm5ib/~

flow

f:or

/J1eon ratift.l.f t~
Wt

faYJgeJllf fr; fhe blade ve(rJcify -Iv/angle.- .>kefd7ed belM.

lor relafive

lIow

l{=Z{. obkiln iAe

W2.

~l I
With fhe fY/an,/e we undude thaI-

Vn., ~~

= U~ -

W@JZ -:; TJ 2

v: 1anl/D::: J2

5,2

m_ h
s

l-

m) -M~ '1/=
$

2.2 ?Z'
S

5"- 82

5.7~
5.7" A sketch of the arithmetic mean radius blade sections of an axial-flow water turbine stage is shown in Fig. P5.76. The rotor speed is 1000 rpm. (a) Sketch and label velocity triangles for the flow entering and leaving the rotor row. Use V for absolute velocity, W for relative velocity, and U for blade velocity. Assume flow enters and leaves each blade row at the blade angles shown. (b) Calculate the work per unit mass delivered at the shaft.
/

J ~76~Ufe
/

I \/oll.(jIr\e
(0,.+11)1

FIGURE PS.7b

/ 45'
, I
I

'A'
I
J

\lOhl~e

Blade sectIons at the mean radius

I I

arith~etic

17.5
I

The ve/oci.fy -/Y-/dr},f/es foy fhe.. Tk>w enleYl?J and fhe flow
leav,h9 fh e
below.
vofrJr
Yow

cd -!he dJ'lfhmelic.-

metlh Ytlc!tu.J (1ye JKelched

1J 2.

Ai fhe

ari~lJtefic
::

m~a;1

vCid/uJ)

the bltlde ve/oclfy ) ~ is


I DIJO
nt/~

V:: t{ I
th~

rw
f\!I

(fD ,;".)

re.",

(Z'Tt' Yev ~)

(12 In.) ('02-: ) If


)lHlh

:: ?:? '3 II s

W;t4,

vel~cify
7()fJ
" I

fYl'aYl!/Ie.- f,Y fh~ flow l nHn-IYtJ the Y7JIuy Wl- cmclwle fIdf
(I)
(2..)

~>in

-= VgI
= ~I

V, (;() 5 70
W

I irl LfS II

= V~ ,- u
'Ix,
I

('3 )

\tV I

Co> '1-5" ;:

(Con

'e )

('I)

5"'- 83

5. 76

(con '7; )
Fro}1l1 fhe rtlfio tJ{ ~5 . 3 /AMI if we. Obf71'~

V. X,,
which
when um6/necl wift;. Elf.
(J

~d 2.

y/e/ds

1af'llfS

v U)S 70" I

or
=
.s

u
[5/i1 70
0 _

=- ~'7.foflTheYl

V Bt
I

::

\.j' S1i17i'
(.f)$

= (f7' ~/)

'S,;" 70 ()
0

=- SZ,3 If
.>
:-

~/

= \tj
I

7(/ -=

fa7.b ~+)
U'Js If r

(()5

70

z"

'1

flS

()nd

WI

Vx , I

cos fs D

(~'1, q ~)
()

::

12, '-I

!! s
we.

W/th fl1~ ve/ocify -/-Y/OYl9/e fllY fhe fl()w leavlnJ fhe r-olrH conclude ihaf

(5)

\I

v~ l
I

V2. - W2- S-1Y1 s

()

\{ $,;' z.

Vz. (,0$

O{z.

=
_ Zq, Cf {lS

(conI t )

ThUJ

{yom

G~. 5

= '12. 'I f-f


.$

oJIId fr-uwt ~.

fLJ

V
(},'2-

::: U _ W ~1Y, Iff; 0


")..
2.

= 52.3

f! _(ttl,'! f.f) ~/~lf) S


$

4:.

22.l{-!J
.J

The

valio or 15. 7

aMd!
fru-,

.x;
aJ1d

= -fan-I

(Vt9

I '-) -=

V x, ~

-!

y/e/dJ
(2.2.4

it )J
~+; J

37

( Z'i, 7

-IYl7Y'n E,/ . 7

v :z.
We
mass
CLJn

Ve, z
U5~

Etg. S:S'I
().f
-

fz;

C'a/ClAltlk fhe

WdYf,.

per u~;f

deJ/veyed
W

/he s-ha.ff. 71zt-1I

5htl.fl-

::::

TJV
J

~I

+ 7J

V
fJ.
I

:f

(5"2, 3

ft)(n.3 ~+) f (5"z.3 f f)(z~. '/ fI-~ !.L ) s1Jl/t flUj. (f


5
J )

5).

::: _ :3130

fl. Ib
5/uy

5- 85

5.77 Sketch the velocity triangles for the flows entering and leaving the rO lor of the turbinetype flow meter shown in Fig. PS.77. Show how rotor angular velocity is proponional to average fluid velocity.

..
'"
FIG U RE P 5 . 77 (CoutICsy or EG&G Flow Tech. nology, Inc.)

F"" '" 5edjt7l-> of {he /uYbj'lG Mo.de. af r",<I/u6 f/ fl.e b/tff/~ J17fN<S t-~"fhl!> w i /I, '" vdQc.i/y V = rrAj. 1k ve/(Jei!;t Irl"'''9/e ! hltJ.y be fkl.heo( as ShtM>'> .

W,

v
v

V,

~2. J
IE$. 5". '50
IN

/.1s'''J

'lei

- V -+-1... - r W X 2.
J

50

cu fJ-86

5".78

S.7f:3 By using velocity triangles for flow upstream (1) and downstream (2) of a turbomachine rotor, prove that the shaft work in per unit mass flowing through the rotor is
Wshaft net in

V~ -

Vi

+ U~

Uf

Wr -

where V = absolute flow velocity magnitude, W flow velocity magnitude, and U = blade speed.

relative

Any
YOw

.fef

or veJo(ify fnaJ19/e.- fw
Jdme

,rIM fhYI/lA;/'
IA.Sc

t{

/z,tvbt'YJltPch/fe

ft)/Py

wtJlAld 9/Jle.. fh~

I'e~u.lt. We

~ l;r/dnt/es Df 10,. ?S. 77.

~2

Fr()/'YI

fhe
':2.
'=>.

,'rile! Ilow
V -)/ V
I

velocify

fYl'aYJ9/e w4Z qef

V.KI I
tlnd

l."l.

v, I
D

(;)
2.

': W J - (~ +u) ~ I I

1.

:
_

\AI - V

'l.

'1.

~ I
\

- 2 Uv -U I e I

).

(2)

c~(, /Y)J nJ
if ~I I
FrO)IVI
I

Cjr.

/
'2..

t:IM-d
_
I

c.vc ohfaly)
til
I

'l

vl
Z

-fh t!.
'2
::: y

outJe f V .2.

flow

v~/pt;fy

fy/an9/e.

we- gef
('f)

V
and

~ 2..

(s)
/

(COy/It)
5- 81

? 78

. COY) 'f)
we. b6h/~
"l-

C(YI/yt /n'n /Y/J

Etj~.

'I
:;?.

tA nd

S'
T

Ull ~ 87..
I

lj'-W""2-

l{

(,)

;t:-()y

the
uJ

~ef

of veltJcify

-Iv,'a 119 /es

sh4f+

~1s.
:::

U!/ I ~I

~~~
I

(7)

he! /n

Corn b/YJ ,fij


W5htff fhel Ii-?

3/ h ClL-vtd 7

(AJ(..
l.

ok-/-,; I;'
2-

V 2_ V
;).

2-

+W-t V-U :a.. I


~

2.

W"22-

5"-88

5.70/
Summarized below are air flow data for flow across a low-speed axial flow fan. Calculate the change in rate of flow of axial direction angular momentum across this rotor and evaluate the shaft power input involved. The inner and outer radii of the fan annulus are 142 and 203 mm. The rotor speed is 2400 rpm.

5.71*

Upstream of Rotor Axial Velocity (m/s) 0 32.03 32.03 32.04 32.03 31.09 0 Absolute Tangential Velocity (m/s) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Downstream of Rotor Axial Velocity (m/s) 0 32.28 32.37 31.78 31.50 29.64 0 Absolute Tangential Velocity (m/s) 0 12.64 12.24 11.91 11.35 11.66 0

Radius (mm) 142 148 169 173 185 197 203

1ItL

chA.llje

lit

across

the.

~FAMx

ov
f}Jhey'~

(/ )

r
(,

ttd ( f)
aye local

~ nnu II,( S

.
Ih1/e

()nd

t1tt. /ey

rad'-;

~ anti ~

y-a.dii af secfil)n

(2) dll.lll1s/tla-11-! ()f

1aJ1

y,hy

ClAd 5c,c+io~

(;) I.If$~ of ~ ~iur


()Yf!.,

OVId.

~2

V~
I

local aj,5tJluk k"le)1h4! vdlJcJly

al

secftdJ7J(2)IJIUiU)
a-Itd (I)

lIx'/L

aMd VX, J

a~ (1)(4/

a-x.i(J.1 vt-/()( i ffes

aJ

Sec piJn.1 (2)

As
and

5Wj1t!,JktJ.

bj

t~. 5 '15

7: Jlu/ff

~.tJ FAMJ(

(2)

Gj. 2- IS eva {ua./(tA nUYY/fJY,"{,Il,/l witr... a. U/mlufw fYP<jYdll? Maf (,iht~J !ttL -Iror' Jt)l' dA. 1 rukwi/'t, tAJ1e~Yl inWet/J. & pri7Y~ fisi ~yf.d (e.su.lfs att!, on fhA.. Yle)C-f paJe .

WrA4ff- =- ~Illf
:3 ;' s
.eN1t tlA.ojuI

~h((ll) ;f ev~ 4-takD/ w'-f(., Gj. 5. '17. ThUi.)


fA.)

( 3)
6~

IIu.. ~ujt,./ tJr;r;Y~ I/)/e~ on bu

(um If )
5"-

8'1

(Con 't)

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210
220

230 240 250 260 270 2130 29U 300 310 320
:3~~

340
,3'50
~wo

PR HIT ., :+. tt*******:t;*.******************:*********:*********:.t:" PRINT ":rt This program computes the change in rate of *:t" PRINT ">1* axial-direction angular momentum and power**" PRINT input for problem 5.79 using the trapezoidal **" PRINT "** rule applied to unequal intervals. **" PR I NT "i' t::!.~~.t*****~~*********:t:*.*:t:* :j;~;~;~;**:t,*t*******i:*;t:*****i:" PRINT DIM UXU (19), UTU (19), UXD (9), UTD (9), R <19 ) ' , Initialize the variables N = 7 RHO = .L .:::.. PI = 4! * ATNO! ) RPM = 2400! FOR I = 1 TO N PEAD R (1) , UXU (I) , UTU (I) , UXD (I) , UTD ( I ) RO) = R (1) ,/ 1000! NEXT I DATA 142.0, 00. 00, 00.00, 00,00, 00,00 DATA 143.0, 32,0:::-" 00.00, 32,28, 12.64 DATA 169.0, 32.03, 00,00, 32.37, 12.24 DATA 173.0, 32.04, 00.00, 31. 7,13, 11. 91 DATA lot=: 0, 32.03, 00.00, 31. 50, 11.35 DATA 197. 0, 31. 09, 00.00, 29.64, 11.66 DATA 2():3.0, 00.00, 00.00, 00.00, 00.00

"**

")0
,.~

~) -~ ,

'Compute integral u:sing trapezoidal rule 380 .:3UJ{U :;:;: O!


SU]lfD = O! 400 FOR I = 2

:3(~' (I

TO N
ft

410 TEMPU=UTU(IJ:t:UXU(I)*R(I)A2+UTU(I-1)*UXU(I-l)tRCI-l)A2

420 TEMPD=UTD(I).tUXDrI)*RCI) 2+UTD(I-l)*UXDCI-1):t.R(I-1)-2 430 BUNU BUMU + TEMPU (RCI) ReI - 1 / 2! 44(1 SUMD = ,sT):MD + TEMPD (R(I) - R(I - 1) / 2!

* *

2! PI 470 }{:FXD = RHO 2 ! t PI 480 POWER =:: 01FXD - MFXU) 490 ' 500 'Print the results
510 PRINT

450 NEXT I 460 MFXU - RHO

* *

* SUMU * SUMD * 2! .t

PI

* RPM

(60!

* 1000!)

520 PRINT USING "The shaft torque is ##.## N-m"; MFXD - MFXU 5:30 PRINT USING "The power input is ##.## KWH; POWER

This program computes the change in rate of ** axial-dire . ::tioYl angular momentum and power )j~* input for problem 5.7~ using the trapezoidal ** rule applied to unequal intervals. ** ********.t*****~***.t*******************:t:*******.t***

**************************************************

** ** **

**

I L.. The The

shaft torque is 4.79 N-m pm',er input is 1.20 KW

5"-'10

S.l:{() Air enters a radial blower with zero angular momentum. It leaves with an absolute tangential velocity, VB' of 200 ftls. The rotor blade speed at rotor exit is 170 ft/ s. If the stagnation pressure rise across the rotor is 0.4 psi, calculate the loss of available energy across the rotor and the rotor efficiency.

10

!he.

~haff w()y/::...

~
11"1
j

nef

In

(I)

lNSh4 1:1tlt:'f ,},

CAh

be ()6~/~e?l wilt-..- the" V/.1tA11eVlf-ofsr-<t-). 7hM.s,

MCJYI1eJ1fuYYl uJS;'ulH net-

wcJvl,- e~ lA.a:f,'1IY\
:=

(. E~.

v;,uf14-J,tt/2
-

dkr

(Z)

In

c~ ndnY')J'""J
loss

tr

/~df -ID
auf

~ I';. "

Po

"

r tr

i71A-f-

t'1,t,J

;0

loss -=

(lJ1,cI

loss

1t9tJo

rf.

It

5"- 9/

Water enters a pump impeller radially. It leaves the impeller with a tangential component of absolute velocity of 10 m/s. The impeller exit diameter is 60 mm and the impeller speed is 1800 rpm. If the stagnation pressure rise across the impeller is 45 kPa, determine the loss of available energy across the impeller and the hydraulic efficiency of the pump.

5.81

The

antl/y.fi$ of

EXtfI,nf'le

~. Z 7

/5

a/pi/cable

10 S()/V)~

#til

py()bleVl1'

!.JS1i1J ~. ~ &f Exq"".pJe 501.7 we

uv&;2 2

tJb/aln actual ir)'fp/ Py($$U~ Yise ({&-Yr;$f I),.~ fk""

H()lIIe 1If/r"J

~
Thus
/0$5

:::

t;.UJ

(60

yY'''''

(1900 ~) (17T

,.,.4 )
Yw

(2)(!()()O ~ )

= 5.66 ~
.5

(bo.!-. )
}'?'lIn

::

(5.66
/ /. 6

J)(!Os'jf~,~", ~
s2-

t ' ;;i)(f1f~~)
5)(10

AI

/055

:::

/II. ~

7<J

Fronz

&1' 5'

of

EX~k
f1"t'eJj(Jf(

5. Z 7

we

tJbM,;"
I~pe/I""

{)C~aJ foia/

ti.re aCYlJJ

;::

to

5.82. Water enters an axial-flow turbine rotor with an absolute velocity tangential component, VII' of 15 ft/s. The corresponding blade velocity, U, is 50 ft/s. The water leaves the rotor blade row with no angular momentum. If the stagnation pressure drop across the turbine is 12 psi, determine the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.

To

defeo'J1lne

fhe

ef{/c/ency of

f),e, fuy/:;/ne

We

use

'1
The. achttl-I
momenf -

acfua/ \Nod~- ou.f


ocfua/ //II()r/<..
Wf.!'rK

our

of

loss
}

(I)
Ir

o('vf;

w,ft,af{
fief ouf Wt7Yf:.

of - rnomenfuYl'l

v (f J~
I

(2 )

To
rofvv

fhe

I ()5)

of a vtf.f/la6/e..

eneYO'r ac.Y()sr the

use

fhe

eYJ~ j
-I-

e~ lAcL/-;'tJy, (61' 5:?2) ~ ~6hln

loss =

~;..
V

~Uf

-I-

9(~/" h~~o + ~h(1fl-

~ n~,Juf

1-

(3)

l'Jef ,;.,

p.-I! f ", I 411, IJu.


J1

Ii?

t/ . 6j I;.

V tI . In ~ II?

7.J V . 1III ~
In

=
/055

a.nd

5-'13

5.$13

j
.
.ff3ctd
CJ)...t.. I
---:o-:~~-~ ~.} ~,~
~

5.83 An inward flow radial turbine (see Fig. P5.83) involves a nozzle angle, 0:'1' of 60 and an inlet rotor tip speed, U l' of 30 ft/ s. The ratio of rotor inlet to outlet diameters is 2.0. The radial component of velocity remains constant at 20 ft/s through the rotor and the flow leaving the rotor at section (2) is without angular momentum. If the flowing fluid is water and the stagnation pressure drop across the rotor is 16 psi, determine the loss of available energy across the rotor and the hydraulic efficiency involved.

\IOfct,ae

:\ ,,~'-1IiIIg1!

,---- FIGURE PS.83

An

analyJf.~ //ke fhe One of ~)(tlmf/e 5.Z8 IJ/(juld be liff~flyjok fw 50/V;'!j fhis flYbh/eJ'J1. ~j"ce t:4 fur6ine is Inwlv~d lit fh/s
pJ1)b1eJ1t'1.1 wshaff :: - W $half nd i" hel (Jut c.())1c/ude that
s itlfn ali ()'"

and fnm" ~.

()f

EXtJI")flJe ~ U

we Cdn
/055

pf"e.s.5'I'1~ dfPl' acyO~s

yofuy

r'

V 1/ ~ I
J

If) $5

-=.:

51?A(P1~Ht1YI

pt(.s.sU'l(

dY'Pf o.CrtJSf YrJIuy

(r)

;0
-fh(.
V()/{"(e

10

c/elwTJ'1J~e"

ft;y fn(..

I/(JW '~/ny

we eX'tlm/~e file.- ve/dclfy fy/ol1j/e fhe, ~ fhal- iJ JJ::.ekhuJ k/vw

o-f ~ I

hvm fhe velOcity

fr;'tll1,fJe

we Obltil!1

From
It/55

we,

(;6 f:. ~ )(/'I'Il,': )

ob1-al;'

(t 1'1 f!:J $)
{f"3
=

I'I!J

fh ,,,

tv$htlff
hel ()uf
Oy In

J655

sla?l'u/jJ'fFYl piU.> u re

dJ0/J acrou ihe. roJuy


PlU'~.r

;0
lite l/VlI'Yk
Slayifa.'6'on preIS u Y!.
dyojO

ofhe,y wWti.J /

-Ihe.

n:drJy

re.Jt.l/ir

/n
&f

J'ju/~1

alu:/

/0$.5
If

I/f dt/tJ/'/a6/e

~er,/

7hl/ 5

me aA 1~:fiA.1
UJShtlff

e ff;c-ieYlC;Y

l1er OlAf

5.8 if An inward flow radial turbine (see Fig. P5.83) involves a nozzle angle, 0: 1, of 60 and an inlet rotor tip speed of 30 ft/ s. The ratio of rotor inlet to outlet diameters is 2.0. The radial component of velocity remains constant at 20 ft/ s through the rotor and the flow leaving the rotor at section (2) is without angular momentum. If the flowing fluid is air and the static pressure drop across the rotor is 0.0 I psi, determine the loss of available energy across the rotor and the rotor aerodynamic efficiency.

105$

P,-~

/he
WOr/c.

slJa{f

wor1..,

WSJulf~
,,(!f ,;,

e~~~

CEi.
=

5".5'1/).

wS/-'Q.ff_
l1ef ,;,

-VI/.: I ~I
~s.

-=
v,2_
2.

W: ha (.1J?~ t
DI1..!-

ol1d

C~61""/~
/t7$5

I t:tA-fd z

y/elds
~~

P. - P-a. /l

U\I
I

~I ,

~I ,

(Coy/f)
5- 96

con'f)

With the velocifJ

/-Y/an 9 Ie.. /life


==

~
and

::

(-Zo

~)
SIn b()

I/O

.fls
SIn

v~ ::
I

-::

('fo -H)

~()

::

3'f.~Lf it
I

5iYl c e
~

the

flow /eav/~ fhe YD/w is


R,L
=

Yael/a/

theY!

V. =- l/
~

20 f+
S

1.3
-=

we-

tJ6~/;"

lOSS Ie

(b, 0 I I". /!!-.) (I' 1/'1'1 f+~ i!J. ...)

(1a1X10" i.J.1j ')


ffi/
fl().~

lhe

t.- {{/c/ency

may he

o!?h:lIi1t:.d

wilt,

1 ::
oy

(lclvtai woY/L

Qui

aclvtal wov/.-

o-wt + / ()S$

Ses I
5.S5 How much available energy is lost during the process shown in Video V5.7?

All
fr;,

of tA~

pore"IitJ.1 eneY9!!
~y ~

/0;1-

I;'

I'YJOI/ly

fhe

of Ihe

the. bo7ldh?_

What is the size of the head loss that is needed to raise the temperature of water by 1F?

in

c(r - r) ~lAl
})J

Ib~ . It
lb.

57..) . Bn.)

\;j7f

f.f.

Ik \

h = 77f -= If
L

S"-qq

5.B1
S.K7 A 100-ft-wide river with a flowrate of 2400 ft 3/s flows over a rock pile as shown in Fig. PS.87. Determine the direction of flow and the head loss associated with the flow across the rock pile.

IIlI FIGURE P5.87

To dele.rrn,;'e Hte d/'~.c~ of ~ we will


u.r~ -fivL

Q$.rLinte p.

dJ~cIJ8n

:/

head
t'f

eA?~ e~~ (Gfo 5":tt'l) aJ'u;/ C'QlclAlQk the. > /bS,J. .Ir I/t.L /vaal 11)5$ is ?()fi~ve '" OUy aSJ'tlmec/ c4~o)"

I..f fJ.,e hR.atl /lJf~ if J?ryal,~ whjlh iJ J1td fJAyfic~/0 ;tJ()ss;ble.,J OrA' a.!stJ""et/ d/~c.-hlrn (JI }Iqw iJ w~.
50.;

ft~ if ~CI:

tlSfllm/~

POI'" r (i)
fA sin}

-Iv

is ~ Y&Af -k lei; (/Y' ~ po/ni- (2.) I~ !he .5'kehl, I1bcv<./ we gef {he

HdlN

.JJ" (J

If wDrL

N(IIN

~ = (:Zlf(}() fr3) \0 A, .(Lj fi) (in: ff)

G f+

(Jl'ld

V2,

-:::

AL

~ -::: ('].lf~o

ft )

12

(2/-1- :(100 ff)


_ (If+)

S
l..

fr

So

~_/oo

5". S8
5J:{S If a t-hp motor is required by a ventilating fan to produce a 24-in. stream of air having a velocity of 40 ftls as shown in Fig. P5.88, estimate (a) the efficiency of the fan and (b) the thrust of the supporting member on the conduit enclosing the fan.

40 ftls

--+-

1m FIGURE PS.8S

(0.)

The s~/uf;d"h -IZJ fJ,if fM] df ht.t poblew, iJ It"k.e b:dMJ'1e s: ),'1. We. lAse-

7 = ~~<tf{fJ,e.

/"fS

fr,

ca;/Ctf.l4'/~'

rd41

IPs-h,r/!. e .f17c /eYlc).

We use fl,e
~-h-t VI//ume f.oll~5"

~ e~a,,;,rnr11.5;S2.)-Pr f/(IW -fA~Uj'h the

fJ.elel,ed abow.. 10 c,/A/cl1la,!e fh<.


-=-

iPJS II!

fJ
8fA f

+ '/,.2 -I- a c 2" .I l.


!{ ::

r'

!i. + ~~ + 9r
':lI

of

WfJ,tJlft nef in

los s
==

R a-rJ

2-..z -:

~J

j
~

\.j::

0)

wfJ,~1
~f~

~
m

fUse}
So

~ :: fA~~

=L

~clJ. V;z... I?T 'I

101

5.88

(c.orj'+)

/0;5 -

'Itt- 1-/./6 _ 2 i/.?


Ibn-,

II. /6
1~Yt?

= /9.2

-I'././b

50

7-

'f'f ~~ _ 1f!,2 fU 16_ Ihl"" Y ..p.~


1/'/!tO

~~b

Frrr (/:;) We uSe fhe hOY)Jdn/a} ctJYl'IptJnehf of fhe //YJea yo YY)Qyyle,n ~ etjvtt:~,;h~ ~ e valuak /I....L anch()Y);'J fWa reJu ,.;e 4 Iz; h()/d ih( 1ztv? In place

F AX
h-~

= Vii? 2.
=
1T dv f<T 4

pf).;{f (fA.,)

n:,
m
.

2.

L{ =

9.t!-1 Ibm

s
('10 ft )~ 'II
. Ih.

fo

Ax

'f')

= / 1.7 II;

(~2.2 (k.f+ )
$').

5-/02

Air flows past an object in a pipe of 2-m diameter and exits as a free jet as shown in Fig. P5.89. The velocity and pressure upstream are uniform at 10 m/s and 50 N/m 2 , respectively. At the pipe exit the velocity is nonuniform as indicated. The shear stress along the pipe wall is negligible. (a) Determine the head loss associated with a particle as it flows from the uniform velocity upstream ofthe object to a location in the wake at the exit plane of the pipe. (b) Determine the force that the air puts on the object.

I' = 50 N/m2

~
el

U! ___ .___________ C!:)~.~ Air l

I_
1

1_

2m-dia.
I I

'_

r-:::: __ ~ ___ - - - -- - _-J


'\

':~W~ke ~
"I(K ,t
, , , - ....... "

l-m,dia

~4 m/s
12m/s

,-"..t

l 1 '

V= 10 m/s

Exit/"

(rA) T(')

de/-fH--m/(Je fhe

f,--qn,a (I)

ene49J

flu/d po~/i"k (}{s;1 !loWJ -10 ~ I()u"h~n I~ lite VII()*e ,,-I- (2.) we (J.fJply fht.. e$uaA'on (f' ~. 8l/) -fr; thaI- pay/7'de floIN' 10 'Ie!:
/O$}

rlJfle~eel h,

i'; v/ .-1' = r.; fj' r vJ~; fi ~;g ~ i9 /~


V, '1-

h
-

(t)

()'"r

J,L
e;...,~

=
::

'I

f,

~ +2J

"3-

- ;}.J +
2

v,

'1

hL

(5"q ~~)

"1.

(10 ; )

('7-~)

(If

1)

"l-

$'. '15

(9.i';i)

~(9,'1 ;'~)

n7

ffVA)
7'~
.$

(coY'/f)
5"-103

avu::J

1/ r'lx

=_lIt)

IV

5-IOif

5.90 Oil (SG = 0.9) flows downward through a vertical pipe contraction as shown in Fig. P5.90. If the mercury manometer reading, h, is 100 mm, determine the volume flowrate for frictionless flow. Is the actual flowrate more or l~ss than the frictionless value? Explain.

~- f .. ;0

- 9

_ h(

$G/fJ
5(;011

(tf )

COMb/I'JJ~

v
Oy

:;I.

J _ (' OD
a J1d

",m) 't
O.

']()O PtM

.fnJn"

~f' I

wC

ha ~

1Y (Oo/",,) 1- (S.
~

7-9;') :.
Ie.>.! fhol'!

oz ~ 3
s
fhe.. {y/c,!-/"I',1esJ \Iv Iwc /.e-l.4MJet-t-;.eP(

AcAv.~ /

I-I(Jw rill<WO lAId.

wdl-1.IJ

j,!.

!he /05.5

be.. frt..a ky- livtl'l fhe. }e-nJ a""unl

a/'ov( .

5-105

5.91 . A~ incompressible liquid flows steadily along the pipe shown 10 FIg. P5.91. Detennine the direction of flow and the head loss over the 6-m length of pipe .

FIGURE P5.91

A.sSllme

f/()'-'V /Y(Jm

(I)

1-0

(2)

a I'td 1,1.5 e

fhe.

enedj'J

efut((-,'t:)n (1- S:BI./) h c(}n~1 volume .>howl1:

gef hY- 11te,

CQnfe-l?h of fJ,e.

145

f{

-r}. -

f, +
"I
-::.

- p, _
(f

Z - 'l:I

(f

J.

'3

tNt

I.

0 Yn

I, S"."

tJ. 5 ~

5_106

5.'1Z

I
5.92. A siphon is used to draw water at 70F from a large container as indicated in Fig. PS.9Z. The inside diameter of the siphon line is 1 in. and the pipe centerline rises 3 ft above the essentially constant water level in the tank. Show that by varying the length of the siphon below the water level, h, the rate of flow through the siphon can be changed. Assuming frictionless flow, determine the maximum flowrate possible through the siphon. The limiting condition is the occurrence of cavitation in the siphon. Will the actual maximum flow be more or less than the frictionless value? Explain.

FIGURE PS.92..

::: Aa

Vs

'1

-=
we

frY8 VB'
Lf

(I)

To
A

01,1-0 I~

anrJ

apply -I-he ene,,) e~lAah'()n t'n fh e skefrh above -Iv ()bftA/n


VB'

j:
or
1
2

..P.. 1- 9Z~ ==

v.'

2",0

jOJO rh
~ 1-

.!..
2

f- !&/I

lf "leI in

~ ::; 9{~ -~e) - los}


and

(3)

('f)

or

Vc

==

Z (q, 11

s..

!!:!) (- 3 ff )f030'/s ",,) ~ii

1- (101000 /'I n,-z

'"

-122 B N )
lh~

(c.on't)
~-I07

(999. 7 ~)(/ ~ )

::;

9.0'18

!?!

,.,J 1t,,;:,

b. q1...

(con If )

= Ac ~

~c ~
if
mtLX/Y'1/Um

z.

we have. hv Ik1.

fitJW~~
2-

-fhyoVfJA ih~ 5//ho Y1 ;

Q. '::
With
/ovJ-e,.r
Oi/IvtJ

'!YO /Y1.)
If (Iif'! Ii,.
7'P'

7.)

(f).1()ft

In) (tJ,Olf8 P1')


fi
S

";

~.)8.kIIJ-:J ~3 s
WOWd pt.f Ir;

E1f. J
the.

tlJ'lrj

we

Co~clkde

Mal Pny los!

va//l..e of V /11 Ik SJf;hIJYJ OYld I'1w"f maJ..e. fJ"e max/mum f/owmk wi#! fy/chon /e.fs fft4l'1 IJ,e ~axl"mlJl'VJ
wi/11ou t {Y/cfi't1n.

flowr~1e

5-/08

5.93

A water siphon having a constant inside diameter of 3 in. is arranged as shown in Fig. P5. c;g. If the friction loss between A and B is O.5V2/2, where V is the velocity of flow in the siphon, determine the flowrate involved.

i
3 in.

4ft

12 ft

4ft

1
FIGURE 1)5.93

10
To

c/elel'hJlne -fhe /Iowrak I Q/

we

Use

Q .: A V =
obfo/~

1t11. V
J/

(/ )
fhe
eneyfY e~lAAj/on (E~. '.i2.)

w~

apply
I;'

6elweeYl

po/~ Ir

A anti 0

/fOr v/+ F,
tJr

;4:4:fJfl
().

IAL J/aJd

&0 lie.
7-

1J-..M S

~hoff
nef- ,-.,

los.!

J -Ill

'8 V
].

v=
OVId

9(~A - ~II) 0, q
'2

o.q

f6. 9 ff s

wifl1 Ij. I
~

-=

1Y ('3/n .)
~ (I'll/ff'~

{I 0.1 ;f)

'!:....)

::::

O.l3 {fl
J

"-Ioq

5,95 J

5.95

Water flows through a vertical pipe as is indicated in Fig. P5.95. Is the flow up or down in the pipe? Explain.

: : 1 .:::r
I

r
H

r(AA

'-"-i'~
I
I
I I

~
h
!:a!i;;;;

Mercury

"""""

FIGURE P5.95

TheFov
we

~onIY()1

vtJ/ume
~

5hown

11'1

fhe

skefc-h ah()V~ i.! uset/.


dowJ'!wa,rd

Sf~t2.d'tl ;"nCQM.fJlessible
Dbfelin

flow

.fnw.. (AJ fD (8)

ft. s.n
fI

r'

Ps

1-

2:'

~r

to

F;:; + ~ 12

g ~A

los S
A 8

C~.5eYII(lLl(}}'1

t)f

Wlfi>$

we

(onv/llfde

fhaf

= V8
~,. I

Tnu s
A

fi..urn loss

= q H
fhe

J./tJWever

f?1til'JtJmefer

ej1Aah'un (5 ee

Sec-lion 2.6)

y/e/ds

~;;;

- g[ h(l- S't,)-H}
a.

[JJhic--h is

ne$tlfive. ~t(al1lif! .5/nce

j() S ~ is rJ(}f fJhys i Cd /17 pt1ssJ6/e vpwllyd ~ 8 -k A. Fur ~wtJ/rd

lij So -fh~

SG

~ /3.' . /I ne.Jt:i.f/ve
flow /'nMsf be

fldW fAe

tlbt1 ve anti;SiJ

leads
B

-Iv

It; 5 SA =!J h
, of
p()Ji five

( 5" GHi lIlY/d

1)

wh; ch

fh~Yc 1rH--t.

pAj'si CA 1ft p"ea.5tJn.a6/e.

5'- 110

5.96 A fire hose nozzle is designed to deliver water that will rise If 0 m vertically. Calculate the stagnation pressure required at the nozzle inlet if: (a) no loss is assumed; (b) a loss of 30 N'm/kg is assumed.

1b delemlhe fhe- rlaiJllan't7n ptt:sS~ a f ~ MJJk Ih/ef we. a SJ ul'J1e ilia! fhe. 5ktfMt:l/;'gy, ples.fUle aJ- htL ;1()]}/e exif if & Same af fl"e. >1a5 Y141ftfr' tY'tJJute a/ fh~ nOJ]k ;h/ef Clnd we apply fhe eJ'% ~J e,.,.".alJPYJ (f,. S:i'l) -/7; Ik -f!tJw ~ h )203Jlc ex/t iv t1u.. i1It~o(;muYJ-t e/~ vt;"nift" of IN. w~ ~IAN -,0 ~el
~
(a)
~
;110

-.:=.

?f l1 ~

+ 17{I 0$$
/eods
(J "" )

(I )

IO~J ., ~~. /

-Iv
-=-

p
0

:=

(9. '(D n,1 1< AIl'l


30
tv.

"?q1-

-kN =S
",-z.

"2

-k.. PC<..

(b)

Fw

/()SS

1'1
.)

*7

&t.!

y;'eldf

s:.lll

For the 1800 elbow and nozzle flow shown in Fig. P5. q7, determine the loss in available energy from section (1) to section (2). How much additional available energy is lost from section (2) to where the water comes to rest?

5.17

6 in.

.j:'"

(I

rrt,., I
V6h.tme

- - ...

"\

:YL
I

12 in.
Pl

Vl

J = 15 psi = 5 fUs ~ u.---l.~----,~~


Section (1)

FIGURE P5. q7

fOr

so/v/ny fhe II's f fClyf of fhi.J jlT()bleYn,l the [(};rfrol 1/()/tI~e &h(}wn t'n fhe sl::eh;h ahtJlle 15 lIser-1.. To defe1"nriYJe the /1J~5
flow fYl'/YJ1 sech'P>1
I it;

acct!n1.p()lIYI7
CiS' .jfJ//OW5.

Sec/ion 2.

E9'

5".

71

Cdn

6e UJfd

~-

P-z.
'2

;0
a",eI

5',';'ce
15

x -y

C.()oyd,;'",ks
2, - ~2.
:

hot,'},,, fa /

o A/so.; ?Z'::' ~h.,::


PJ'/;u./ple vv~

0 ?'si.

Fr{frlA

fh (!

C-I)-1se rva,n,,1'l

of

JI'Ylflf!

(..QYIc/lAtie Iha f

11 ::: 2.
ThU5

v,f;:j
~

( loSJ:;..
oY
I

::

{(I
Z

-(iJJ
2.

/055

::;
;l.

--

For

fhe

second

5/U! ptWT- tJ{

th/S' ,roh/en.,

flu/d f",yh'c.le. ~ Jec -hOYl 2.

fo

t:f

we c~n5;de" .Jhe Ilow 01 p.. .$/nk o~ mf;, 4'8- ~ 79 /f!Atis -1-0

jtJss
2.

tt

Nofe.
7hllJ

T1ta:f

5"- 112

An automobile engine will work best when the back pressure at the exhaust manifold, engine block interface is minimized. Show how reduction of losses in the exhaust manifold, piping, and muffler will also reduce the back pressure. How could losses in the exhaust system be reduced? What primarily limits the minimization of exhaust system losses?

5. 1g

We. an1y -f~ e)1~J ~~'I/Y) ( Eb ~. I)) h f/1L lJo~ ~ Me. en7111e bloc/<. I ex-haus t YJ14J1Jift;ld I~/er-kta fp IN- ex.l1auff J!lJ~ eXif fo get

i;"r; :::; ~
Wifh E$. J

t.t f-

-r ;;( toss )
Y(,ducfJ'oYl
In

(I )
/)1

lIVe

of loss

!he

-exfJa/,o-J.

5y>j-&w1. resulh b().cJe.- p1ers[JYe. .


Caj-~lyh'c

a..

ItJlN'er

valtle

of

LtJsse J In

ftt(..
ike

P;;,

OJlld

fh" J

l11e enf'he.

exh~.ff

.J)'f /4",

C(J)A-IcI 6~

re.tiu.ced by e l/wlIY14. rh' !J


UlYJ I/"W

mVt7Y

los .J

UI Wt(1t)}1 ~ n

/f

.fue/' ILJ
()f~

/he

fe r-

and

M/,(ffler

()J

/~

done

In

race

CiJrs.

fhe e.x. k YL f

In

10 con venh'onaJ veh/cler.


~I'YlJjJYiak

noise Qi1d emiJ.r/dns le!ps 1~/i(/)1 //m;fs with h /"hiJ ,k/Vlt:t of /~.fl ~cf,'()1'J can OCC/..IIY"
However,
S~P1.C
IOSI

rec!.MciJOn
P/{J'ny
Howetl~,

can

aflo

6(("("('v

by
OJ'fd

((JIl hjUY'":J !he ex hatlJ f


area

.f ffJen,

wilh few 6eHd.s

clis~"6ul"()nf.

ve..T",nyefr/ el'rh (Ina


CO.rff

of~ /et:ulJ Iv behci.r aJ?d t-UYJ'}.J" I" fhe PIPI"

/;mif the

exhxd of ofJf/"Yl/j/~

C/J"eC(

diJInbu//d)'Js.

5 ... / /.3

5. 91 Water flows vertically upward in a circular cross section pipe. At section (1), the velocity profile over the cross section area is uniform. At section (2), the velocity profile is R V = We ( -Rk

_ . s~c--fj,n. ('2.)
I

,)117 .

where V = local velocity vector, We = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe inside radius, and, , = radius from pipe axis. Develop an expression for the loss in available energy between sections (1) and (2).

I I
I

-f ~sedj~I'\(i)
M 110YJ(;

I I

fl 6 !AI

Fay- deI-eWJ/~;~ /~Sf we


(jYli-/Qym

use.

-tlte, eneYJJ eg/l'lafh'on


-:to

fld'WS
:::-

g. S.i7-

ThuS' /
-2

loss
~

~-!{ -,/J

+
of

0(, ~

t(2.

-t

J(~/- ~)
I,tk

UfrI S eyv 4.

h fly,

J.'nti. sf

Z (tj. S.l3)

kve

II Is () ha lie
/

C('

S/nce

-fhc..

== /.0
ve/o( ilJ
~1

I
pyt)-h'le. af .rec/'oJ'l(I) /$ un/Iov"",. /If

we.

sollie

'

S'.3 (sec. sol( nOn

fw

p>ob/~ 5./25 (c

secho..t2) i I tvYIoI db/a'n


i

c:r: :::
J.-

/.00

7J.u... s-'

~1' /

Yields
_"2-

loss
5. 100

~-~
jO

CJ O~

V;
2.

1-!} ( ~ I - :Z"2. )

5, J(Jo Discuss the causes of loss of available energy in a fluid flow.

50me

cc("uses of loss of Q.Vd.lllA.b/,e; fYVIf!H9't


t1

In

a fluid fJ(jW

,. fj,i c 17'01'1

z.

heal trCln.!/w acft)ss


I1.CYOSJ' fA

km,-t-rt1Iure. d/fM8Ha.,

'3. /law

S ho ck.,

5- fiJI-

s: 10 I
Consider the flow shown in Fig. PS.91. If the flowing fluid is water, determine the axial (along the pipe) and normal (perpendicular to the pipe) components of force that the pipe puts on the fluid in the 6-m section shown.
0.1 m

i
I

3m
I ,

[)5/~j f1, C-fhlm / v(}/umt. ,$41wn b hrD~~ I ;ne.s we '~l'Jfl/Y ~e aXJ~1


11. (y'r n1tI /
(. Q M!(Jne YI

t &Inri

.:1

_.:

- ---::

c'

h tJI.-/he I,'", ea yo
$i;'ce.

n-, ()me H Iu rVJ

e-rlA..Q; h fn.. -Ir;

get-:

Z ~ ::
PY1d

IJ

t1,e~ i.l

no

mflY"le,.!u"",

flow I~ !Itt 1"1(/~nfA/

rlJlech;..,

2 F ::. 0 ,fl;"c,e the flow i.s 4.$suI"'JeeJ. f~l/tf de",eUJp~P/ a ~CI the A he f- ~Y'1(JIM-lf- (Jf Qx/~I J.,,'~cf/(J n ~'r11enlf.1lN1 {Io IN 0{,.#1 of & CV if ~e~

So

I?N -

Wcos 8 ': 0

OV

~: Wco.rB

W = n! " "4 A.R = )'


fJ :. S I';, ';::.

_lor

~d '1 - f!. IX1/ ~ l'-- (17.'",)"'&..'.';= '162 tJ


~N

/'1.;-

f<N .:: (ifb 2N )(~f /9.S') ==

f!W- ~ 4X-/~J cJ ;~th~ ~ Al. + RA of W>';'


DI} - D A R}q :: r, r-z l.
I

(7-

~ II,
(J

=0

00;

1- WSJ;'

=If:-f1.)11 ;

.f- W>I:' t9

~ the-

,..,1( ~omefe,y
>h)...
~r;(

~ad/~.J

f{'=
fJ,us
Pi.".,c/

f: =- d' h)
)

I1-P2, = ~ (h;- h2

= t/(h ,-h )f) -(Wfln ~ =r.cx1o':' )(7. 0 ","2

Irt.SO)

o.s:JtrtI"'J~ (r62 N

j(.f;;'j9-5j

R~

32 N

5- }/5

5./02
5.102 Water flows steadily down the inclined pipe as indicated in Fig. P5.102. Determine the following: (a) The difference in pressure PI - P2' (b) The loss per unit mass between sections (1) and (2). (c) The net axial force exerted by the pipe wall on the flowing water between sections (1) and (2).

w/UfYte

6 in.

*
(fA)

The.

d;ffeyeYlce

In

pr'eSSuf'e.; ~-

P2,

J')1~y be. obfa/~ed fY~ -the.

Mercury

WlanOYHeter (see Jecf/oVl ~. 6)

with tAe fiLtid slllt:Nc.J


1-

e~lAll.fiol1
.)

p. - PorD 1/ -

:. - 6'
H2
:=

2.

l"
f.I i

f(s it) S/~

3(JD

(6 in.) ]

(/,;Z};)

+~

~~

(,;). f~)
f-l'J
-f+3

( 6 I~

P.
2..

-42.4
\'"

Ik)fSff )Si"J11,o-f (0.50)j7+ ~3.6)(62..'f'&)((J.5.ff)= 2]7'1,


I ':

and
P,- P,
I).

=
EZ'

2~7.lJ2.

f+' (lw ~~
Thu5

/.65 f

S /'

(h) The

IOSf

per

".,if ,"7,;)

be!wee h

Sedi."I (J)

Ii mI (2)

"'''1 be 06i

J~1'4

wlft,

~. 71.

R -= - 77. 2 110
)(

5'"- II 6

s: 103
y

5.103

Water flows through a 2-ft-diameter pipe arranged horizontally in a circular arc as shown in Fig. P5.IO 3. If the pipe discharges to the atmosphere (p = 14.7 psia), determine the x and y components of the resultant force exerted by the water on the piping between sections (I) and (2). The .stea?y flowrate is 3000 ft 3 /min. The loss in pressure due to flUId fflction between sections (I) and (2) is 25 psi.
Section (1)

Section (2)

FIGURE P5.103

"y
X

TO defeYYJlJJne
ihe. w().fe Y
and.

fhe X 4nd Y
On

c(}ht{Jonenh

of lite teru/fan"; -1'C~ exerlep/

fhe. p/YJJ~

be~eYJ

sechdn (I) and (2.) we lAS e the

01 -lite. I,j"eay mOYnenfu"1 e$uaf/OY/ (Etj Z2) . fi';r fhe. CtJnlrtJl vo It/me Con-I-~,'ni~!he w(:('/ey I'? the p;r klwtey, secf/~YJ (,) 4nd (2) / 1' 22 le~d.f fo

C()yY!po}1e HI J

R><-=-~It-V;fQ. =-RlI~ -!{f1~ and Ry -= r:....4,4 7- ~ f{}

(2)

7he resu /!-aMi IoYCe pipe ('h1 -jh~ vvCt~.

c.ompo)"Jenl:r
l/-t~

Elf. / C'R1t1d 2. att exeykd by-/JrG Yl.!tdktYll fir.u. of wah" lin p/,e if ~/ltd In
In

mayni ludt hi-fi

To de{oymln~
~

o,,,aldr:. ;'" dl;~cf/oYl. PI we use. the e 11e,.-~y ~ua lIun) Efj. ~ Kl.
':. :25 fS i

711.UJ/

= ~ (loSS)

Also

~ ~

A,

()

::

().nd

Rx
(J..J.1d

=_11.,850
On -/1t.t

110
for-c.e.

the.

x dlt'~c-6~n GtNYtptJYlenf of ft,e,


p/"e bd~eey>

exe,!ed &7 ~

watw

se..ch'~J (/) tlMrJ (2.)

Js +/2,850 110.

(con'f)
5- 1/7

.oS

,J 03

(GOII '

t)

{)JiM

t;~. 2

vvc. ob-/-4t"n

~ = (1).92
Y
CU7Ij

If) (ql{.
s .

r!!!1!)
ffl /

lJooOft)t ~ .) J ~ 15'10//; (~ no.. ~/"J' : :)(lo ~


of

the

y(2)

d J;let;H~Y)

UJmpoYJenf
IS ifd lb.

In-e-

mil?

fwee
( I)

eXf!/kd

b'l the.
t5

walw ~Vl the... pIpe

be~ sechdn.J

aY! d

-//8

s. /041
S.lOLf When fluid flows through an abrupt expansion as indicated in Fig. P5.10~, the loss in available energy across the expansion, loss eXl is often expressed as
loss ex

~~

~_ _~.

{j
II I
(1)

= (1

_....!.

A)Z VZ
2

-()

f ,'~

I \ \ I
(2)

I I

Az

_I

where Al = cross section area upstream of expansion, Az = cross section area downstream of expansion, and VI = velocity of flow upstream of expansion. Derive this relationship.

(1t+(t'",a~

Sectiln

10 c.afi ()(I ~ f .u.dio"., (I)

'.1 S:ctiln

II / \ ;'

FIGURE PS.I0if

A pply/nJ

fhe ene,.,'1

e'tIA~h'()Yl (r=IJ ).!Z) fo the fl()w ~ Jech'qn(J)


,. l

to secH()Y/ (2)
/OS5 :::

we. olofrA/n
(I)
C.

~-P .. + \1-11 -~ ex 2;0 I d,~echfJ n APply/)'},J f~e ax/a.


I

Oi'VtptJne n f
ctP'l.frv~ eo!

()f f/'e /;~etlY" mIJYhel?/z"""

c~ IAA-HtJ Y) (~~. 5 Z 2.) W ~e f!iA.,'d

'n

fhe. UJh-h--D1 voluYl1t


(2 )

fr-gyv,

sec -hoY!
f

(I)

-Iv se c. fr()yt

('G)

we.

010 fa I~

Rx

A AI - P .. A). ~ - ~ f AI l-j

l( fA l. 112

NOw, ;f we.. consider sec.+io'VI (J) as tJCCUYY'lry af f;,e evrd of the. 5ma Iler di(lW/e~ p/pe (-the be91;'J1J~ of fhe /(A'rger d/(ll'11eiw pipe) uS 1~d.iCA.1-ed In -IAe.. skid. above I I fnll

yields

fhe

C~tJn.J/oy, /oss
-

~nd

ES' 2. 1oe~.J
(3)
fhe

Rx + P, A 2.
Nofe

P'1. A"

- - ~ t' AV, -t- ~ I' ..42 11:1.


ptJsih'tJY/ed

th~f-

wife,

sec.flo n (I)

at- /1,e, QJ?d of

Jma.lleY'

d/4me/e flfe~ .t; ().dJ ovev- ar-e~ .A2.. Also, b(!CtUt.Je of fj,e jef HdW fy~ fl1e.. S"Ynalle~ d/a.~t-eY' pl;"e- Info f),e /orfe-r
d/(lAeff!Al"

p/,o-e) the

Va./La.
1;-,

of

;fx

/AI/II
11t~ f ~

fpe

sYna/1

eJ?4k,jh (.PwIf'4~tA

ft;

ft,e.

olher
::

ie"-m.sV ~- V
2.
I
~

E<e. J

can dY()jO Rx' F~

E;.3

~ - P"2.

-;0
L.UYYl h/YJJ.,

A, A2,

(f)

joss

eo(

5"-1;9

FrI/WJ

CtJY?.Jervah'p n of

}'YJIIISJ

(&I.

s: /i )

we have

II = I/. II, :l. J_


A.".
~h/1'117
/OJSex
t:Jr

f1S.
=

~ (A~/ ~ 11)
~
Z

> ill nA

we
f

,er
2

_l{_'2. __

~_~_A_~~)

/OH e)(

f
2((21 )
til.
'2..
"2,

A, +-1
liz.

it,')}

(). Jll()

/oss~x . '=

~{(- A ~.)
2-

5./05

5.105 Near the downstream end of a river spillway, a hydraulic jump often forms, as illustrated in Fig. P5.1 05 and Viu,'() V10.5. The velocity of the channel flow is reduced abruptly across the jump. Using the conservation of mass and linear momentum principles, derive the following expression for h2,

section {I

h2 = -

i (i J
+

+ 2VgIhJ

The loss of available energy across the jump can also be determined if energy conservation is considered. Derive the loss expression

FIGURE (15.105

A'I'//ca;f/oi'/
etjt<~h'(JYI

of

!'he.

h()~Jjoj!J-/r,r1

cOWLl'lJnenf

of

fhe.

//neay hllJn,el'1iuw.

(Ef' >.22.) -fo the. wale,....

see-tim U) Iv se ch'(JY7 (2) /ea.dr


- RX

'0_, _
~

h2.

In fhe.. (dYl~1 Vo!un-tf! -hw. fo / -&- Un;f w/dlh ~f' FIII'W/


r
J:)

r h~ ;:

= - l{l'h, ~ + I{

h:L ~
we
dYf)p

(I )

Rx

d lola In

(:;;.)

(con'-f )
5".. /2-0

5105

(COy)

t)
/ and
_
2.

we ololtJ I;'
I

2 V

- 9( (&)-1
hi

/; ]

!:~) + h,

2.

h~) 11,

__,
9"',

Zv'l.

(3)

2.

Jtll'YII

/IS!

::

g 'I h"2. hJ

5=-/21

5".JOb
5.1 % Two water jets collide and form one homogeneous jet as shown in Fig. pS.I06. (a) Determine the speed, V, and direction, 0, of the combined jet. (b) Determine the head loss for a fluid particle flowing from (1) to (3), from (2) to (3). Gravity is negligible.

1'1 = 4 m/s

FIG U REP 5.106

f:Dr +he wakr .flOWing throll9h the. tOntYl)\ volume -sk(.ttY!!td o.ioov, the x. - tAY\cA 'i- dlt(.dior'\ GOYY\pof\et\n ()l -\1,e. lir'\u'f rY\OMe",h,tM ~cAo.tiOl-\ ate
- ~~ ~ V2. A2. -t
Q..V\O

"1> CfJS (8 ~\J3 Af

=0

(I)
(2)
(~)

- V, ~VI AI + v~ Sin e fV 1 A3= C H-oy)\ -the. <..Ons-enb-hOt'\ of ~"S s p.,.i nc..~p\e we. qd" V3 A-?, -= 0 - ~\)J A I - ~V2.A"l. + P COY'\~"I)'\',,,a f=a..s. l aVId 2 We.. Obktl.-, r.' ICJ. 'l. JP d ' ) ~ITYI) +o.V\ e = v;- A = V I (~ ~ '\
"1.

-:7r7A V'). '1

\-

V ndl.

"

:. -----:...-- -= 0 ,';os b ( I' ~ '2.. 10 i-) 'IT ~l.m)


'1

So

NOW) c.ofYI~;n;n'3 f:~s.

o..nc:l:; we. "Ie.t


V'J.

\J~~A2. t

V;Cos

e (~\j,Al T f

"2.)

==-

( c..on'i )

(4 )

(C;)

(6)

anc!
felk

of

(05$ :;::

S"

22

~#"

123

5".1 D7
5.1 07 The pumper truck shown in Fig. P5.107 is to deliver 1.5 ft 3/s to a maximum elevation of 60 ft above the hydrant. The pressure at the 4-in. diameter outlet of the hydrant is 1U psi. If head losses are negligibly small. detennine the power that the pump must add to the water.

Hydrant

II FIGURE P5.107

hs

= ~."3 f"l-

W .rhtlf.f
her in

s- /2/f

5:}08
S.lOS What is the maximum possible power output of the hydroelectric turbine shown in Fig. P5.108?

6 mls
Turbine

III FIGURE P5.108

lOr IIDw .(;.()fY1 sech'()n(t)-h; sechol'tfz.), yt.5.i2. y/e/cls


r.-

J.;.

:2 f- 92}. : !5 + '12
= /!,.--L r,vn,)
9 (i, J1ef in

+- Q

W~hq{t
1'1(1 I;"

loss

(; )

JO.,./I f ~

5/nce

P = I? / 2.

w =-w fhq( r SiJqH


nel

.,d

~ 2..) - y~
2

'2..

- /t;'sf

7htl5

, MW

W;i1alf
IJe{

sltt,1f

ou f

lief ou.f
~/Jxirnl.t"'"

llIaXihluhl

and ,

-W5 haH
hef bfA..f

.
W;haff
hef ()IA./mil. x/ ,." t JNI

pu~p of the.l~ge-scale water tunnel shown in Fig. P5.109. The

5.109

Estimate the power in hp needed to drive the main

design condition head loss is specified as 14 ft of water for a flowrate of 4900 ft 3ts.
Test section

II FIGURE P5.109

7he
of

Sf) It,{

-hi; VJ

(Jf

fhif prob IeI't1 is fimi /a r ~ !he Ohe


p.rtJunc/ iJ,~. wafer tul1l?e/

t;x~fJ/e.

~ &iy 5ame, cl7JSS


e. f (,url/tr;,)

i'. 6. L00I'I~ Cn;of.f I"et//jan t7F-S"t;Jcn"rfr,

the.

-iunY)e/ bacl
WI;'j
~fhe.

-It>

1/,e

we. UYlc!ude

ener,fJ

GS'

~ B If

hs = hL..
The
y?

~ E8 5: t> S

=J,f r C<
. W
S"hq/f
I;'

nef

5-125

5, I/O
Section (1)

P.1. Q

= 60 psi_ = 150 ft 3 /s

VI = 3 ft

5.11 0 Water is supplied at ISO ft3 / sand 60 psi to a hydraulic turbine through a 3-ft-inside diameter inlet pipe as indicated in Fig. PS.ll'"Q. The turbine discharge pipe has a 4-ft-inside diameter. The static pressure at section (2), 10 ft below the turbine inlet, is 10 in. Hg vacuum. If the turbine develops 2S00 hp, determine the rate of loss of available energy between sections (1) and (2).

...,...~~

10 ft

P2

=
=

10 in. Hg vacuum

D2
~

4 ft

(I )

= (z /. 22
FrlJW1 Gf. I

If)
s

2-

(3 If) (Lf 1+1

:: II. '1'1

t!
.5

power I()s!
( 5'50 f+. /10 ) S.hr

-t'

p2.1f! )~(J f1- J(I 110 _\ . slu!. If )


s~

- 2500hp
pllWe t()ss":

sa.

30 I hp

5"-/26

5, /1/

A steam turbine receives steam having a static pressure, PI, of 400 psia, an enthalpy, hI, of 1407 Btu/lbm, and a velocity, VI' of 100 ft/s. The steam leaves the turbine as a mixture of vapor and liquid having an enthalpy, h2' of 1098 Btul Ibm, a pressure, P2' of 2 psia, and a velocity, V 2 , of 200 ft/s. If the flow through the turbine is essentially adiabatic and the change in elevation of the steam is negligible, calculate: (a) the actual work output per unit mass of steam; (b) the efficiency of the turbine if the ideal work output is 467 Btu/lbm.

5.111

(tl)

This

pmblem
=

If

fimi/ay

Ex.am/,/e

5:21.

2.
11:

/'1-07 ~ _ /Ofl KIw


/,,~ Ib~

(loa fj ) 2,

(200
II, .

f! )

l.

('2.').

Ibm. ft)(771

s 2.

f.f.,j,) flhA

308

'!i::/he
of ac&aJ worJ. ()ulpwf

=/hm

(b) /I reaS()fllJ,hle
it;

e,(!-/ciency

15

rtlfit)

Jd&.ll

I/V'lJ rk
_ _ _/~"I'f'>;..-

out-puf
X

() y

J()B 8!!3

100

'It? 8&

- 6610

Jb;..

5-17-7

5//Z

I
5.11 '2. A centrifugal air compressor stage operates between an inlet stagnation pressure of 14.7 psi a and an exit stagnation pressure of 60 psia. The inlet stagnation temperature is 80 oF. If the loss of total pressure through the compressor stage associated with irreversible flow phenomena is 10 psi, calculate the actual and ideal stagnation temperature rise through the compressor. Calculate the ratio of ideal to actual temperature rise to obtain efficiency.

We
fin

aS5ume
ideal

-II, 0..1- -the air compressdr


pyoces~ is
+0

Opera

re.J

Compl"e~$;"Y1

fl"/c fitlnleSf
IlL'

tJdia6afkal/y. IAl1d (;l.d/abalk


(//ude

()//Id thus
Or

~cc.oyd/~
aclu~ I

Eg. 5".101) if is
Wi fh

ct/J15fdM.f e;?1YOfl1
c.I)JI'!

/5e//l /Y~pic..

pYOC. e 5S.

9'

5". It)!

we p.,1$t)

fhaf
IJ1tJsf

an

ad"abpn'c.
idt!/A I al'ltl
In
S

CVWt/J;IC$$/()YJ

pY()ceSJ witt, rl"/c.h'tJYJ


femfJe,yr,tMl

IMVO/VC-

aM en~y In~YCIl.>e.

tJJ1

-141:/nJpy

cdo/d/Ylate.;;

fhf!.,
J~$

/Ae-fJ.t.a1
~I<f!fd"

C~~I/~$,ti()'yI PYPC.ti!CS

()PI'ecw
ft-r(..

a5

l~dicak<J

-the.
70psitl.-

6eltIW. A/~o shMn


dlA~ ~

i5

/0 jJf i

I~

~f"1al"()Yl

pY~S$ uYt!

fYic,IJ()J'I.

___...,.~_~;......~_o !f:JA. ~ ~ 2, tfchtJ ~2, ideAl


"2 4cl-wJ.I

::

,Po'

'::

,,
I

-----.,01'--...-.--7; 2.
J

id~(J.1

I I

S--1z'8

5:/12-

I (lIJ,,' t )

5. //'f

5.11q* Total head-rise values measured for air


flowing across a fan are listed below as a function of volume flowrate. Total Head Rise (mm H 20)

Q (m /s)
3

o
0.14 0.28 0.42 0.57 0.71 0.85

79 79
76 67 65
70

76

0.99
1.13 1.27

79
75 64

Determine the flowrate that will result when this fan is connected to a piping system whose loss in total head is described by loss = KLQ2 when: (a) KL = 49 mm H20/(ml/s)2; (b) KL = 91 mm H2 01 (ml/s)2; (c) KL = 140 mm H2 0/(m 3/s)2.

7he
of !ttL Ufrn6/i?af/tJYI of
f)fJll1J

II~wy-ak

a.. -IaJl1.
tis

tN

pump

an4 IL uJ1l1eckd
of

sys~

IS

qe/~)IJIJI'y]ed

by /J1t..
V/J(Uhle..

/nwsecl-/",.,
fl6NY'tLk-

/h.e

fan

Oy

pump
/t/H

head y/u.
vs I/olul'l'le.

S'ls~

.f/(jyo/ yak...

uo've.

7~

I1te dehm/J1e I1u

utrv{.. ~l1.tJI

!It.t.. ~ of !tz,/,J 'p~b~ /{ ~nYleck~ f?J Il1.L ft,l"e~ [( aJ(b) ~(c)] p/P)i?y sys~s / Ik. )j.,/eysec-f/Ph.J <:J f fkt. III 111'2} .sy5' ~ / tJ S S vs. b( W YII'f..J () i1 ~ flu. fan -roW hc~d yise... v.s. ~ UuYlle fil- weye de/wY11iJ1Cd
flO'Wya.k

Y'esu/~

Wh~

wirh I1u U/V'J-tfJlA./e pn;rY~ liJk,l On ~ ~?/IIII'W)~ ftifeJ. A p~/yn()mia I /etl,rf fjuwye.s 4lyl/e. f/I ()f ~ /tJ..6ula..k.d cL~ /5 used 1k- jY1/e-rsech'()"I pd Jj;,f> wey~ dejeyJl"1/~ee:l
1# i ttt

I1v..

Ne.w+oYJ - I(O<.f/h JdYI

f- e. c.-~ ;'; 11/ e .

(UJn't)
~-/30

5.//1

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220
230

240
250

260 270 280 290 W(n = 1 300 F(l) = YO) 310 NEXT I 320 DATA 0.00, 79.0, 0.14, 79.0, 0.28, 76.0, 0.42, 67.0 330 DATA 0.5 7 , 65.0, 0.71, 70.0, 0.85, 76.0, 0.99, 79.0 340 DATA 1.13,75.0,1.27,64.0 350 PRINT "The polynomial fit to t.he head ris:;e dat.a is of ordey-"; .360 PRINT U'::~ING "##"j NTERMS - 1
370 '
380 'determine the polynomial coefficients
390

CLS PR ~NT "****************.***********t;************************ :t*" PRINT "*:t, This program determines the intersection of the PRINT "** head loss and head rise curves for problem 5. 11lf *:r." PRINT "** A least square fit polynomial of the form: :t.*" PRINT "** Y = dO + d1*x + d2*x 2 + d3*x~3 + ... t:*" PRINT ":t:.t: is used to describe the head rise dat.a. **" PRINT "*****************)!'************************************" PRINT DIM B(21), DC2l), S(21), XClO1) , WOOl), YOOl), FOOl) DIM ERRF (01), PJ (101), PJMl (101), YBAR ClO1) ' 'intialize t.he variables NTERMS = 8: NTERMSAVE = NTERMS NPOINT = 10 INPUT "Enter the head loss coefficient."; KL PRINT FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT READ XC!), YO)

**"

400 410 420 430 440 450 4()O 470

PRINT "The coefficients of the polynomial are:" FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT FCI) = FCI) - D(NTERMS + 1) * XCI) - (NTERMS)
IfEXT I

FOR J
DO
E~
)

=
0

1 TO NTERMS

BU) = 0
=
(J )

NEXT

480 C(U

= J =

490 FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT D (1) + F (1) 500 D (1) * W(l) ~,10 EO) = B (1) + X (1) .* W (1) 520 S(1) = S Cl) + WO) 5::::0 NEXT I 540 DO) = DO) / S(1) 550 FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT 560 ERRF(l) = Fer) - D(l) 570 NEXT I 580 IF NTERMS = 1 THEN GOTO 850 590 B(l) = B(l) / S(1) 600 FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT
6 1 () F! J M 1 ( I)
=

620 PJ(l) = X<l) - B<l) 630 NEXT I

(un 't)
~-.I31

(~n't)

640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710 720 730 740 7e:-.;0 760 770 780 790 800 810 820
8,30

FOR J FOR I

= =

2 TO NTERMS

1 TO NPOINT

840 850 860 370

e.r:,o
890

900
~)20

D(J) = DeJ) + ERRF(I) * P P = P P]CI) B(J) = B(J) + X(I) * P seJ) = S(J) + P NEXT I D(J) = D(J) / S(J) FOR I = 1 TO NPOINT ERRFCI) = ERRF(I) - D(J) pel) NEXT I IF J = NTERMS THEN GOTO 850 B(J) = B(J) / S(J) C(J) = se]) / S(J - 1) FOR I =- 1 TO NPOINT P = PJel) PJO) = (XCI> - B(J PJ(1) - C(J) PJM1(l) PJM1(I) = P NEXT I NEXT J PRINT USING" d# = +#.####-"~~"; NTERMS - 1; D(NTERMS) NTERMS = NTERMS - 1 IF NTERMS ) 0 THEN GO TO 400 ' 'determine the intersection using the 'Newton-Raphson method

P = PJ(l)

*'

WO)

910 qNF = 1!

QN
==

QNP
O!

930 F

940 FP =- ot 950 FOR I = 1 TO NTERMSAVE STEP 1 ,. 1) (} 960 F == F + D <l) *' QN 970 NEXT I 980 FOR I = 2 TO NTERMSAVE STEP 1 ., (l D (1) 990 FP = FP + I QN 1000 NEXT I 1010 F = KL QN 2 - F 1020 FP = 2! KL QN - FP 1030 QNP = QN - F / FP 1040 IF (ABSCQNP - QN) > .0001) THEN GOTO 920

ft

1050 F = O! 1060 FOR I 1 TO NTERMSAVE STEP 1 1070 F = F + D ( I) QN (I - 1)

H)80 NEXT I
1090 1100 1110 1120

ft

PRINT ###.##"; KL PRINT USING "Head loss coefficient: ##.### m~3/s"; QN PRINT USING "Volume flow rate ----: PRINT USING "Operating head ------. ### rom of H20"; F

(COn 'f
5"-1.32

5./1'-1

(Con't)

** **: ** ** **
(e)

***************************************************~**

This program determines the intersection of the ** head loss and head rise curves for problem 5. 11'1 ~:* A least square fit polynomial of the form: ** y = dO + dl*x + d2*x-2 + d3*x-3 + ... ** is used to describe the head rise data. ** ******************************************************

Enter the head loss coefficient? 140.


~he

The polynomial fit to the head rise data is of order 7 coefficients of the polynomial are: d7 = -1.7369E+03 d6 = +8.2623E+03 d5 - -1. 5353E+04 d4 = +1. 3788E+04 d2 = -5. 9543E+03 d? = +1.0551E+03 dl =- -6. 2329E+Ol dO = +7. 8983E+Ol 140.00 Q.705 m"3/s 70 rum of H20

Head loss coefficient: Volume flow rate ----: Operating head ------.

****************************************************** ** This program determines the intersection of the ** head loss and head rise curves for problem 5.114 ** ** A least square fit polynomial of the form: ** *t y = dO + d1*x + d2*x-2 + d3*x~3 + .. , ** is used to describe the head rise data. **

**

**

**~*******************t*******************************

(b)

Enter the head loss coefficient? 91. The polynomial fit to the head rise data is of order 7 The coefficients of the polynomial are: d7 = -1. 7369E+03 d6 - +e..2623E+03 d5 = --1 . 5353E+ 04 d4 = + 1. '3788E+04 -' r, c.':" - -5. 9543E+03 C:2 = +1. 0551E+03 dl = -6. 2329E+01 dO -. +7. 8983E+Ol Head loss coefficient: Volume flow rate ----; Operating head 91. 00 0.928 m-S/s 78 rom of H20

(COJ'7't )
~-13.3

(Con If )

**

****************************************************** ** This program determines the intersection of the ** ** head loss and head rise curves for problem 5.11Q ** A least square fit polynomial of the form: ** ** y = dO + dl*x + d2tx-2 + d3*x 3 + ... ** ** is used to describe the head rise data. ** *****~************************************************
A

(al

Enter the head loss coefficient? 49. The polynomial fit to the head rise data is of order 7 The coefficients of the polynomial are:
d7

d6
d5 d4

- +1.3788E+04

= =
= =

-1. 73~59E+03 -+8. 2623E+03

-1.5353E+04
--5. 9543E+03

d3
(i~~

ell

dO
Head

-- -6. +7.

+1. 0551E+03 2329E+Ol 8983E+Ol 49.00 1.203 m~3/s 71 mm of H20

loss coefficient: Volume flow rate ----:

~ -/31/-

5'.115"
Water is pumped from the tank shown in Fig. J =~ -~1~ PS .1ISa. The head loss is known to be 1.2 V2 /2g, where V is I the average velocity in the pipe. According to the pump man-: 6m ufacturer, the relationship between the pump head and the ftow- J rate is as shown in Fig. PS .IISb: h" = 20 - 2000 Q2, where, hi} is in meters and Q is in m'/s. Determine the ftowrate, Q. I
1_

~ lJ)

I
I I
J (
I

L
:
.- - -

2.)
-,

Ii"

= 20-2000Q2
0.05 Q, m3/ s
(h)

/"\,
,.

''',

,-? - .
- - Pump
(a)

'.

i.......t

0.07 m

oO':-------::--':-:----.i

0,10

VIe wanf Iv 1:.'11"" !he ftowrak

b2.

'FrN-!'he- C/Jnl-m J

Vd /41"t1e. f

hfJ 1/11Y7 )

a/p/,u/f.htJn ()f /he.. fYherJ:;


ej1AfA.hlgy. (G~, ).gl() y/eii.r,

+ V~ (( 2J
~

2-

f- 2-z

= 7.I- ~
6':2J

~I 1- h;
1(z)

nd

hs

=h p
=:

:::

20 - 20a?

'Z.

Since ~::: V2. A1. w<-

h~ ..fn,."

et

h
().J/}~

'1

Z9
).

!..:.!:

( ) A
2.

"l,.

Unb:n'j

~.L (/~(])~d. ('1)

I/Jt!

2.J

..L

(!E.) Az

-I- -t

=~
I

-J-

~-

2,.000

S--/3S

5.116 Water flows by gravity from one lake to another as sketched in Fig. PS.116 at the steady rate of 80 gpm. What is the loss in available energy associated with this flow? If this same amount of loss is associated with pumping the fluid from the lower lake to the higher one at the same flowrate, estimate the amount of pumping power required.

FIGURE PS.116

or
: 5.1/ 7

1/1 tJ

~-------:::::---T--------------------------------I

5.11 -, A !-hp motor is required by an air ventilating fan to produce a 24-in.-diameter stream of air having a uniform speed of 40 ft/s. Determine the aerodynamic efficiency of the fan.

The Qeyt)djJ'1dnt/c.

efFic./e"yzc,!/

or

fhe

fan" '(
IS

/5

yejl4lrld ev acl"tA1 Pd1Al Ye.IU,;eJ/

"dept

?~wey

fAcill1."'/ .rhflff p"wer resu/yM.) WAc.fl.(.::</)

O.7S hI' .

The. ;dr.al ~h(iff I'0JA/er rtjw;&:/" vV;Cleal J i.1 Wifhou.f loss tl.CYDS$ fire fal1. Thus

()~/;,ed ~ ES' ,.32 hY /low

lN7,.1D_1 ::
/ tlFr:Jf.

I'M

~uf

2.

::

I'A,ut V ~uf = -I' ?r..!!ou+ ~ut = 'ilT 2. 'f l.


J

1.

'2.

v3

4r

VV;ded :: tl. '135 hr

~-136

5".118
Aerator column

Water is pumped from a tank, point 0), to the top of a water plant aerator, point (2), as shown in Video VS.S and Fig. P5.118nt a rate of 3.0 ft 3/s. (a) Determine the power that the pump adds to the water if the head loss from (1) to (2) where V2 = a is 4 ft. (b) Determine the head loss from (2) to the bottom of the aerator column, point (3), if the average velocity at (3) is V3 = 2 ftls.

5.119

FIGURE P5.118

(a)

The enerqyeCfvof/on {rom {/J to (:;.) ~ + JZ + z +h - h ~ P:L + li2. of ~ ~ 2j I P 'J. 7 z1 J.

w,-fh

A ::: ~ :: 11 ~ ~ ::: 0 9/ves hp == hi- +z2.- Z, ::: iff! f(;O+3)ff-slf


==

12ff

Thvs , the pump power ;'s

==

't (J h.s

~ 62.'1-

(3!f ) (JJ-H) :: 22"'15

tt; Ib (551~)
0
S

= '/-.08 hp

5"- /37

~.IJq
The turbine shown in Fig. PS.119 develops 100 hp when the flowrate of water is 20 fto/ s. If all losses are negligible, I determi~e (a) the elevation h, (b) the pressure difference across I the turbme. and (c) the flowrate expected if the turbine were J removed.

(:=--"-r~"~~~"--:::--

(I)

1
h

1
I
1

/(/ (,V,. L

0
-

P3

t
/ .:: ::--

CVB

0
/

1'4

~ .' ______ 12..in_ (-aJ,'


~---=.l..

'.' - . . . (2) ~~ i~ \

:. J
-/
Free jet -

-,' - - - -:I' -

(/)

2 S-5 li..J

(C)

[;"-/38

5. /zo

5.120 A liquid enters a fluid machine at sections (1) and (2) and leaves at section (3) as shown in Fig. P5 .12.0, The density of the fluid is constant at 2 slugs/ft3 All of the flow occurs in a horizontal plane and is frictionless and adiabatic. For the above-mentioned and additional conditions indicated in Fig. 5.120, determine the amount of shaft power involved.

t -7
-..r;--Section
Pl V1 Al

Pl = 50 psia V 2 = 35 ftls
1..------.

Section (2) Section


(1)

L (3)--1 .6 ~
P3

= 14.7
=

V3

psia 45 ftls

A3

= 5 in.2

=
=

80 psia 15 ftls 30 in. 2

FIGURE PS.12D

Fi:J~ fhe iricfiOY1/tSJ

rAJIlri.

(JtI/abah'~ flaw +hyoUj" -/-his IlbO(J WlllCh/ne

&j5.

5'.64 J S. 65 and S.7' lead

-h>
2 )

vir :: m 3 (!l S'htlff ;0


nef- in

+ ~2) _ n1
2. /

(fl. + I{ + fO i )
.) v <AI m.l. U).- n1J

(I)

S/nce
rn I UJ
V
-

. v . v YYJ U).. - YY13 ()3


2

( .

m1- + m3

~ 0;: Yn2 lA,-iA 2.


I

'"

. (.,

V)

IIf secfioYl (3)

+ n,3

(u-u ) ::
'2.

~-13'1

5./21
5.121 Water is to be moved from one large reservoir to another at a higher elevation as indicated in Fig. P5.121. The loss in available energy associated with 2.5 ft 3/s being pumped from sections (1) to (2) is 61 V 2 /2 where V is the average velocity of water in the 8-in.-inside diameter piping involved. Determine the amount of shaft power required.

Section (2)

HGURE PS.121

flow

.(y.IIYn Sech'oh (t) -Iv secft'ol'J (2) E~. 'i.iz leads

loss],: ;at; [!J(~-~)


FrtJVJ.-t

",

fj

(I)

the
\I
:::

v()/ul'He

flowrale

w-e
(2.5

obhl'n

If

bl

-=

;;:-i/Lf

{t7)

11- /!.i:!...
( 12 117.
fT

)z

7.162

fJ:.
.J

.
s-liIlH ner i"

-1'1-0

~.12

z..
(2)
6 in.

Oil (SC = 0.88) flows in an inclined pipe at a rate of S ft3/ S as shown in Fig. PS.l22. If the differential reading in the mercury manometer is 3 ft, calculate the power that the pump supplies to the oil if head losses are negligible.

12 in.

--+
3ft

L
-.
_"':::t . . ,::r,.~r

S" IIi'
~ =
.r
1-

ZS'5 J

1'1-

; ( : ft)

~-Jlf/

5.124

5.12'-1 The velocity profile in a turbulent pipe flow may be approximated with the expression

E.
Uc

(~)lln
R

where u = local velocity in the axial direction, U c = centerline velocity in the axial direction, R = pipe inner radius from pipe axis, r = local radius from pipe axis, and n = constant. Determine the kinetic energy coefficient, a, for: (a) n = 5; (b) n = 6; (c) n = 7; (d) n = 8; (e) n = 9; (f) n = 10.

ror -the kinetic. eneryy ctJelhci~l1~ ~ we ma, use Efj. s: 3, . 711/,'($,

rx

= ;:

I<

1f'U

27r;-r)y

= 2

1/tlJ(f) ,,~) fr= 2 c!, f- i)rf)d(f)


1
I

.L

fA

-3

{.(

-3

(Z)

(~)

(5)

IX :::

/.08

(C)

For n = 7

(d);=w n=

r
(f) ~n=l()
::::"/~J

IJ( == 1()5

(e)

I=tJv. n::: q
0(' :::

/.0"1

tr

5"-/.'1-2

5.125 A small fan moves air at a mass flowrate of 0.004 lbm/s. Upstream of the fan, the pipe diameter is 2.5 in., the flow is laminar, the velocity distribution is parabolic, and the kinetic energy coefficient, (11, is equal to 2.0. Downstream of the fan, the pipe diameter is 1 in., the flow is turbulent, the velocity profile is quite flat, and the kinetic energy coefficient, (12' is equal to 1.08. If the rise in static pressure across the fan is 0.015 psi and the fan shaft draws 0.00024 hp, compare the value of loss calculated: (a) assuming uniform velocity distributions; (b) considering actual velocity distributions.

(Jml

loss

:::

3.36

fl- Ib

5-/Lf3

5.126

Force from a Jet of Air Deflecled by a Flat Plate

Objective: A jet of a fluid sU'iking a flat plate as shown in Fig. P5.126 exerts a force on the plale. It is the equal and opposite force of the plate on the fluid that causes the fluid momentum change that accompanies such a flow. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical force on the plate with the experimentally measured force . Equipment: Air source with an adjustable flowratc and a flow meter; nozzle to produce a unifonn ai r jet; balance beam with an attached flat plate; weights; barometer; thennometer.

Experimental Procedure: Adjust the coumer weight so that the beam is level when there is no mass, m, on the beam and no flow through the nozzle. Measure the diameter. d,
of the nozzle outlet. Record the barometer reading, H oam , in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. Place a known mass, m, on the flat plate and adjust the fan speed control to produce the necessary flowrate, Q, to make the balance beam level again. The flowrate is related to the flow meter manometer reading. II, by the equation Q = 0.358 1Il/1, where Q is in f(l/s and h is in inches of water. Repeat Ihe measun:ments for various masses on the plate. Calculations: For each flowrale, Q, calculate Ihe weight, W = mg, needed to balance the beam and use the continuity equation, Q "" VA, to determine the velocity, V, at the nozzle exit. Use the momentum equation for this problem, W = pV 2A, to determine the theoretical relationship between velocity and weight. Graph: Plot the experimentally measured force on the plate, W, as ordinates and air speed, V, as abscissas. Results: On Ihe same graph. plot the theoretical force as a function of air speed.

Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and dick ,,~/'(! to bring up an EXCEL page with Ihe data for this problem.

II FIGURE PS .126

(C!on't)
5- I'f'f

(COJ1'-t )

Solution for Problem 5.126: Force from a Jet of Air Deflected by a Flat Plate

d, in. 1.174

Hatm , in. Hg 29.25

T, deg F Q = 0.358 h"0.5, with Q in cfs and h in inches of water 70 Experimental V,ftls m, slug 35.0 0.00069 49.5 0.00137 58.7 0.00206 70.3 0.00274 78.5 0.00343 85.8 0.00411 92.9 0.00480 98.9 0.00548 105.6 0.00617 111.2 0.00685 135.7 0.01028 156.8 0.01370 176.3 0.01713 Theoretical W,lb 0.021 0.042 0.059 0.084 0.105 0.126 0.147 0.167 0.190 0.211 0.315 0.420 0.531

m, kg 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.060 0.070 0.080 0.090 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.250

h, in. 0.54 1.08 1.52 2.18 2.72 3.25 3.81 4.32 4.92 5.46 8.13 10.85 13.72

Q, ft"3/s 0.263 0.372 0.441 0.529 0.590 0.645 0.699 0.744 0.794 0.837 1.021 1.179 1.326

W,lb 0.022 0.044 0.066 0.088 0.110 0.132 0.154 0.177 0.199 0.221 0.331 0.441 0.552

Experimental: V = Q/Awhere A = nd /4 W=mg


2

=n*(1.174/12 ft)"2/4 = 7.52E-3 ft"2

Theoretical: W = pV Awhere p
2

= Patm/RT with

Patm =YHg*H atm = 847 Ib/ftJ\3*(29.25/12 ft) R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T =70 + 460 =530 deg R Thus, p

=2065 Ib/ftJ\2

=0.00227 slug/ft"3

(con't)
5 - /JfS

s: /2-' (Con' -t )

Problem 5.126 Weight, W, vs Velocity, V

0.6

i
--.--~-- -------~--~---~-.-------~-,-

O.5
0.4
..0

~--I

I I
,
!

-----~--i
!

~ 0.3

--------------~---~--~-_r_-----------

Experimental 1 - Theoretical
I

0.2 0.1

--1I

J
,

0.0 +,- - - - - r - - - _ r - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - j

50

100
V, fUs

150

200

5"-/'16

5 . 12/
5.127

Pressure Distribution on a Flat Plate Due to the Deflection of an Air Jet

Objective : In order to defl ect a jet of air as shown in Fig. P5.127, the fl at plate must push against the air with a sufficient force to change the momentum of the air. This causes an in crease in pressure on the plate. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the pressure distribution on the plate and to compare the resultant pressure force to that needed, accord-

ing to the momentum equation, to deflect the air.

Equipment: Air supply with a flow meter; noule 1 0 produce a unifonn jet of air; circular flat plate with static pressure laps at various radial locations; manometer; barometer;
thermometer.
Experimental Procedure: Measure the diameters of the plate, D, and the nozzle exit, d, and the radial locations, r, of the various static pressure taps on the plate. Carefully center the plate over the noull! exit and adjust the air f1 owrate, Q, to the desired conSlaIll value. Record the static pressure tap manometer readings, h, at various radial locations, r, from the centcr of the plate. Record the barometer reading, HOlm' in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. C alculatio ns : Usc the manometer readings, h, to delennine the pressure on the plate as a function of location, r. That is, calculate p = "Ym h, where "Ym is the specific weight of the manometer fluid. G raph : Plot pressure, p, as ordinates and radial location, r, as abscissas.

Results: Use the experi mentally detennined pressure distribution to detennine the net pressure force, F, that the air jet puts on the plate. That is, numerically or graphically iIllegrate the pressure data to obtain a value for F = P dA = f p (217"r dr), where the limits of the integration are over the entire plate, from r = 0 to r "" D/2. Compare this force obtained from the pressure measurements to that obtained from the momentum equation for this now, F "" pylA, where V and A are the velocity and area of the jet, respectively.

Data: To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and did..' "('re to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

II F IGURE P5.127

(c on 't )

57 /2.7 I (c()n 't )

Solution for Problem 5.127: Pressure Distribution on a Flat Plate due to the Deflection of an Air Jet

D, in. 8.0

d, in. 1.174

Halm , in. Hg 29.25

T, deg F 77

Q. ftA3/s 1.41

r, in. 0.00 0.39 0.79 1.24 1.59 2.04 2.41 2.85 3.23 3.67 P = YH2o*h P

h, in. 6.62 5.92 3.04 0.55 0.19 0.13 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.00

p, Ib/ftA2 34.42 30.78 15.81 2.86 0.99 0.68 0.47 0.26 0.16 0.00

p, Ib/in."2 p*r, Ib/in. 0.2391 0.0000 0.2138 0.0834 0.1098 0.0867 0.0199 0.0246 0.0069 0.0109 0.0047 0.0096 0.0033 0.0078 0.0018 0.0051 0.0011 0.0035 0.0000 0.0000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

pr;+pr;+1 0.0834 0.1701 0.1114 0.0355 0.0205 0.0174 0.0130 0.0086 0.0035

r;+1 - rj 0.39 0.40 0.45 0.35 0.45 0.37 0.44 0.38 0.44

=Palm/RT where Palm =YHg*H alm = 847 Ib/ftA3*(29.25/12 ft) = 20651b/ftA2


R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T = 77 + 460 537 deg R

Th us, P

=0.00224 slug/ftA3
Fexp

Using the trapezoidal rule for integration

=2n*0.5*L:J
2

TO

9[(prj +pr;+1 )*(ri+1 - rj)] = 2n*0.5*0.189 = 0.594 Ib

Theory: F = pV A where A nd /4 n*(1.17 4/12 ft)"2/4 0.00752 ftA2 V Q/A (1.41 ftA3/s)/(0.00752 ft"2) = 188 ftls Thus, Flh 0.00224 slug/ftA3*(188 ftls)"2*(0.00752 ftA2) = 0.595 Ib

= =

= =

5-IJf8

>'127

Problem 5.127 Pressure, p, vs Radial Location, r

40 35 30
.-.--~----~------~~--

------_._---------j
------- ----- -----------..j

.----~.. -------------------~-

--- --_. __ ..-.- -

<

25

- - - - -- --------.. . . ------------------------.-.------- --- ---i

I
! --.- Experimental

. c 20
ci: 15

---'\-------~---~--'------~~I

I
I
i

--~~
------4

10 5 0 0 1

----1

i 2
r, in.

------

--

Problem 5.127 Pressure Times Distance, p*r, vs Radial Location, r

0.10 0.08
c: ::: 0.06 :

{ 0.04 0.02 0.00 0 1

-\-----~--~.---.~--- -

..

1--.- Experimental 1

2
r, in.

5" - IJfCf

5.129
5.128 Force from a Jet of Water Deflected by a Vane

Objective:

A jet of a fluid striking a vane as shown in Fig. PS.128 exerts a force on the vane. It is the equal and opposite force of the vane on the fluid that causes the fluid momentum change that accompanies such a flow. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical force on the vane with the experimentally measured force. Water source; nozzle to produce a uniform jet of water; vanes to deflect the water jet; weigh tank to collect a known amount of water in a measured time period; stop watch; force balance system.

Equipment:

Experimental Procedure:

Measure the outlet diameter, d, of the nozzle. Fasten the 8 = 90 degree vane to its support and adjust the balance spring to give a zero reading when there is no weight, W, on the platform and no flow through the nozzle. Place a known mass, m, on the platform and adjust the control valve on the pump to provide the necessary flowrate from the nozzle to return the platform to a zero reading. Determine the flow rate by collecting a known weight of water, WwaleP in the weigh tank during a measured amount of time, t. Repeat the measurements for various masses, m. Repeat the experiment using a 8 = 180 degree vane.

Calculations: For each data set, determine the weight, W = mg, on the platform and the volume flowrate, Q = Wwate'/( '}'t), through the nozzle. Determine the exit velocity from the nozzle, V, by using Q = VA. Use the momentum equation to determine the theoretical weight that can be supported by the water jet as a function of V and 8. Graph: For each vane, plot the experimentally determined weight, W, as ordinates and the water velocity, V, as abscissas. Results:
vane. On the same graph plot the theoretical weight as a function of velocity for each

Data:

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and dick herl' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

FIGURE PS.123

(con't)
5ISO

5:123 I (COfl't)

Solution for Problem 5.128: Force from a Jet of Water Deflected by a Vane

d, in. 0.40 Experimental W,lb Q, ftA3/s Theoretical W,lb

m, kg

Wwater,lb

t, s

m, slug

V, ftIs

Data for 8 = 90 deg: 0.02 7.71 0.07 8.66 0.17 8.87 0.12 8.92 0.22 9.66

29.8 18.2 10.1 12.6 10.6

0.0014 0.0048 0.0116 0.0082 0.0151

0.044 0.154 0.375 0.265 0.485

0.0041 0.0076 0.0141 0.0113 0.0146

4.7 8.7 16.1 13.0 16.7

0.038 0.129 0.440 0.286 0.474

Data for 8 = 180 deg: 0.05 6.81 0.10 9.02 0.20 8.84 0.25 7.88 0.30 8.86 0.35 7.97 0.40 6.37

24.5 20.8 13.2 10.9 11.1 9.5 7.6

0.0034 0.0069 0.0137 0.0171 0.0206 0.0240 0.0274

0.110 0.221 0.441 0.552 0.662 0.772 0.883

0.0045 0.0069 0.0107 0.0116 0.0128 0.0134 0.0134

5.1 8.0 12.3 13.3 14.7 15.4 15.4

0.088 0.215 0.512 0.597 0.727 0.803 0.802

W=mg Q = Wwate/(y*t) V = Q/Awhere 2 A = nd /4 = n*(0.40/12 ft)A2/4 = 0.000873 ftA2 Theoretical: W = pV2A for 8 = 90 deg and W = 2pV2A for 8 = 180 deg

(Con'~)

5-/5/

5:/28'

CDn't)

Problem 5.128 Weight, W, vs Velocity, V

1.0 0.9 0.8

-,-----~------------1

---

------~~-----------------

-----r;~-------

0.7 -0.6
..c

Experimental, 90 deg Experimental, 180 deg Theoretical, 90 deg Theoretical, 180 deg

~ 0.5

0.4
0.3
-.#-+--

0.2
0.1

-~-~~---~~cF----~~---'----:~---j
~--.-----.--

----..rr-----~-~-~__J

----- --------1

o. 0

J-....-I!~=--..,----r-------t------j

10
V, ftls

15

20

5""-1$2

5.129

Force of a Flowing Fluid on a Pipe Elbow

Objective: When a fluid flows through an elbow in a pipe system as shown in Fig. P5.129, the fluid's momentum is changed as the fluid changes direction. Thus, the elbow must put a force on the fluid. Similarly, there must be an external force on the elbow to keep it in place. The purpose of this experiment is to compare the theoretical vertical component of force needed to hold an elbow in place with the experimentally measured force. Equipment: Variable speed fan; Pitot static tube; air speed indicator; air duct and 90degree elbow; scale; barometer; thermometer.
Measure the diameter, d, of the air duct and adjust the scale to read zero when the elbow rests on it and there is no flow through it. Note that the duct is connected to the fan outlet by a pivot mechanism that is essentially friction free. Record the barometer reading, H atm, in inches of mercury and the air temperature, T, so that the air density can be calculated by use of the perfect gas law. Adjust the variable speed fan to give the desired flowrate. Record the velocity, V, in the pipe as given by the Pitot static tube which is connected to an air speed indicator that reads directly in feet per minute. Record the force, F, indicated on the scale at this air speed. Repeat the measurements for various air speeds. Obtain data for two types of elbows: (1) a long radius elbow and (2) a mitered elbow (see Figs. 8.30 and 8.31).

Experimental Procedure:

Calculations: For a given air speed, V, use the momentum equation to calculate the theoretical vertical force, F = pV 2A, needed to hold the elbow stationary. Graph:
abscissas. Plot the experimentally measured force, F, as ordinates and the air speed, V, as

Results: Data:

On the same graph, plot the theoretical force as a function of air speed.

To proceed, print this page for reference when you work the problem and click /tat' to bring up an EXCEL page with the data for this problem.

Centrifugal fan

II FIGURE PS.129

5"-/53

s: /2 9

I (COli 'f

Solution for Problem 5.129: Force of a Flowing Fluid on a Pipe Elbow

d, in. 8.0

Hatm , in. Hg 29.07

T, deg F 73 Theory V, ftIs Fth,lb 0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 0 0.02 0.08 0.18 0.31 0.49 0.70 0.96 1.25 1.58 1.95 2.36 2.81 3.30

V, ftImin

Experiment V, ftIs F,lb

Long Radius Elbow Data 0 0 1200 0.38 1420 0.51 0.79 1800 2160 1.05 2440 1.38 1.65 2700 2900 1.91 2.19 3100 3520 2.83 3.12 3750 3950 3.38 Mitered Elbow Data 1400 0.30 1780 0.55 0.74 2000 1.12 2300 1.44 2630 1.72 2900 3150 2.06 3360 2.38 3550 2.62 2.74 3620

0.0 20.0 23.7 30.0 36.0 40.7 45.0 48.3 51.7 58.7 62.5 65.8

23.3 29.7 33.3 38.3 43.8 48.3 52.5 56.0 59.2 60.3

P = Patm/RT where Patm = YHg*H atm = 847 Ib/W3*(29.07/12ft) R = 1716 ft Ib/slug deg R T = 73 + 460 = 533 deg R Thus, P = 0.00224 slug/W3 A = rrd 1l 2/4 = rr*(8/12)1I2/4 = 0.349 ftll2

=2052 Ib/W2

(CtJl1'-/: )
5"- 15"1-

Problem 5.129 Force, F, vs Velocity, V


4.0 3.5 3,0
Theoretical Experimental: Long radius elbow A Experimental: Mitered elbow
------~,---,------

2.5

.c

-_ 2.0
LL

1.5 1.0 0.5

----.. . --- ---------1 I

O. a -t-..e::::.---,------'""1r-----i------l

20

40

60

80

V, ftls

5"-/55

'-./ J

6.1

The velocity in a certain two-dimensional flow field is given by the equation


V

= 2xti

- 2ytj

where the velocity is in ft/s when x, y, and tare in feet and seconds, respectively. Determine expressions for the local and convective components of acceleration in the x and y directions. What is the magnitude and direction of the velocity and the acceleration at the point x = y = 2 ft at the time t = 01

FroM
5:/nce

eJGj>rt'$S 14J"

ft,.,. II~ I"c; 1-:; ,)

a"

(Ci!Jnv)

(,{ Ju. +1/' Pll. !);< ~

= (Z.X'.1;) (2.t) -t

r- Z!:Jt)(o)

S/mi Jell" /'J)


a~
CO'1 PI

,+xl:2.
u ~-t

::

Tt:+

pi/"

t9;(

v-q
J~

a;

(local)

1.!! =- = atl);<.

2!:J
d !J

a.,
At
So

(C~nj/.) .:

u~t-1r~

(2xt)(o)

-+- (- 2}jt)(-l-t-)

= If lj t-2..
x.-:.1.j=2ft U = 2.
~

Clnd
(2) (0 )

t~o

=0
=

v- : 2 (r.) +
_ ,2

2.

(2 ) ((}) .:: 0

-that
a~
j

V==o

.2;<. + il-xt'2

tt (2) (0) =

Cl =

-2J +

'f.!Jt

(2) -t

2- .:

(2) (0) :::

Lf .ftls z. - If R Is 2.

a: =

41: - LfJ +-tis"

6.2

Repeat Problem 6.1 if the flow field is described by the equation

= 3(x 2 - y2)i - 6xyj

where the velocity is in ft/s when x and yare in feet.

and

a;( (tDnv)

= [.(.~~

+r~ -:: 3{;tl:.!:J2.)(b,t)-t (-6~.!J)r-b.!J)


XJ

= / g(X. 3 +

2.)

qnd

a..'J (/OCtJ/):: ~; -

0
T

a.j (~nJl):
==

ff r rf
i:~o
=0

==

3 (i 2_ !J "l. )

(-6.!f) -t

(-h)(!J) (-, I.. )

Je(.x 2 ':J

~ !i 3 )
v- :: -b (,)(i) = - Ie

At K=!1 = / ft (/hd
fA.

= 3
~

[O/-ut]
A

V= -&,j

Qnd

a i = /3 (x 3+x :/,)
a!J = IS( x~-+y3)

= 18> [(0 3 ..,. (/)(t)~

::

gtlt/.s

= 18[{/)2{1)

3 -t{n ]

= 3{, -ftJs~

,,-z

6 ~ tion

The velocity in a certain flow field is given by the equa-

xi + X2zJ + Yzk

Detennine the expressions for the three rectangular components of acceleration.

From e)(.frt'j>/~Y1 /t,1" ve /()'l"t!1)


Sinc.e
a.~

fA. -::

><

::

-!hen
a~

::

0+ (

><

)(1) ,. (i~)( 0

+~r:)(O)

5t'mt/arl'j./ a - olr :;- t>t +


and

--

a. ~

0 +

~w +
p~

fA..
(

~ -J-

ox
2-

'lr!J!F 1" 8~

W'

J~

Jur

o 1xLi'

) (0) + (X2~) (~) + 6~) (fj )

:1 r

The three components of velocity in a flow field are given by u = x 2 + y2 + Z2


U
W

6.4

= =

xy + yz +

Z2

-3xz - z 2 /2 + 4

(a) Determine the volumetric dilatation rate, and interpret the results. (b) Determine an expression for the rotation vector. Is this an irrotational flow field?

(t:L)

V()/I.{me.fr/c. d,/t<la.flon v-a.fe

J(.I. ;a;:

+ Jy T

Jir

Thus) {"Y fle/()c,fy


I/()

tdJ/'rJjJtt7l'1fl'll-s

f/ien
2.t. -r

I"tn~ In Co

d;/a.ta.t,b"

rate -:

(x.,. r)

-t- (- 3 x.

-7:)
-the

.=

This

YfSU/t.

/nd,ctl+es
(lI1IJ1he r.

ih~1: 1heyt! I~

Volume. e>,f. a.. +Itlid elemfl1i

chtllfl/e I;' (I~ it rn~lIeJ -hm


nD

dJl1e.

/I)Cltt'OIJ to
(j,)

F'IPm .Gss. 'lIven:


W
~

:: :i

( ;; - ~;) =;
oi:.

(!f - 2!J) = -

1:

W;(.

CU!f

(1;-- ::) = -1 [0 - (y-tZr)J " - (!J: H) 1 = sz~ - - ( ~ ~):: [2i - (-3z.)J = :l


I
I

;;..

.!...

p;(;L

- r-; +7:) i
SI'nt.e
/s
~

S-fo
2.

W
I

/.5 nat

)fr~

elleffjwheve -the fl{)w field

nCJt

~Y'oia-t';'1111 J. N ~ .

6.5 Detennine an expression for the vorticity of the flow field described by v = - xy3 i + y4j Is the flow irrotational?

FY'CJm
C( n

cl

e;<"fr"t~s,i;n -h,Y ve/tJci-l-!j) tv ;' rA : 1- (~_


W;e.
W 11
~

tl

=-

X!J3 J tr= !:J'f)

ond w-= o}
~. /3)

:2..

Jy

or

JJr)

( t

~ ~
;L

~
ax.

~~)
0 !:j

(po.

6.

11f)

W =

1- (Jtr_~)

(EZk./2.)

/i

Iolll)ws

inA-t

CJ~l )

- z [CO)

r+

(0)

j + (f. ~f1") k

S/nce
/~

:f
hot.

.-.l.

,'.5

not jer()

evef'fjwhere -f;,e

/;/,()t4",6'(,I1I1I,

N tJ.

t:.. ~

6.6 A one-dimensional flow is described by the velocity field

u v

= =

ay + by2 w= 0

where a and b are constants. Is the flow irrotational? For what combination of constants (if any) will the rate of angular deformation as given by Eq. 6.18 be zero?

i=tP1'

/~rottl.~/6,~q/ ./-/~w-

---"'

'=0

tJ1r) _ -0
of:

Thu.5) c;)

/5

n~i

7'fY't)

ellfr!1w/'ere

(If/Pi

fife

f'/tJu/"

is

no i

irr~l:-tL~itPn(J/,

N tJ

Since.. (~m

~:: ~ t-

I:i$. t,.18) oU- JL.4


J!;j

(I:

~//~w.s

.fr:,,, hie.. IIt/I)(./-/:y c/iIfn'hlli.;()J1 7 1J1fJ1 1114.1:

i=~f

a + zbfj

Thus) 1her-e tire no va. /1{ ts et(,{q/ -h> /~r()) -uud. wil/

tJ/
rlv~

t4 1111(/

( eJt~~fi:

k11t
I)a/wt'.s

a- =-0

.r;,r

4//

:to

N~ne.

6.7 For incompressible fluids the volumetric dilatation rate must be zero; that is, V . V = O. For what combination of constants a, b, c, and e can the velocity components

u v

= ax + by
=

ex + ey

w=O
be used to describe an incompressible flow field?

For-

CI n

ine(f)mp tess //'Je

/I,,/t/)

Ju.
~;(
-t-

Jtr

Tj""

~1Jt-o

o~-

lv/In

-the

Ve /C;c./-/!1
~tr

d,.!J'.f,.; bl('t;{)~ r I i/el1


oW- _
-

;'1 =e

~t

-0

a. +e =

An incompressible viscous fluid is placed between two large parallel plates as shown in Fig. P6.8. The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves with a constant velocity, U. For these conditions the velocity distribution between the plates is linear, and can be expressed as

6.8

u
Moving plate

u =

ux. b
FIGURE P6.S

Fixed plate

Determine: (a) the volumetric dilatation rate, (b) the rotation vector, (c) the vorticity, and (d) the rate of angular deformation.

(a)
(h)

(/e>Jtlmett/c

d//a.. t~ tt4?JI

f'"11

te ~ ~ +
I

()fj

~i"

cW41:.

.=.O

--

,t:;,,.

(/e/~c./ry
~

d,'.s I,; hI.( f,'eJ11

'11 11 1:11

UJ~

'" Wi! -/;..


(~_ dU ) = oJ< 0 'J

4ntl

tv~ = .J. :2w


24)

V zb

Thus;

- 2b
=

V ~

.-'\

CC)

-S ::
"0

.b

'" U -{
(~t b,le)

cd. )

::

-r p;<. J!:J

otr

cJu

Thus)

(' =

[r b

6.9 A viscous fluid is contained in the space between concentric cylinders. The inner wall is fixed, and the outer wall rotates with an angular velocity w. (See Fig. P6.9a and Video V6.1.) Assume that the velocity distribution in the gap is linear as illustrated in Fig. P6.9b. For the small rectangular element shown in Fig. P6.9b, determine the rate of change of the right angle 'Y due to the fluid motion. Express your answer in terms of ro, ri' and w.
(b)

(a)

FIGURE PS8

Foy the. lInear d,.sfy/buf,o"n


t<...: .5c

r; co !J
~-Y"','

thai:

d"!. - _ V;w J!j Yo-Y;;


alllf

S/"te

r= 0

The nejal-i II~


rfjlJi- anjle

sifn

~./O

I
fl.l!) Some velocity measurements in a three-dimensional incompressible flow field indicate that u = 6xy2 and v = - 4 y2 Z. There is some conflicting data for the velocity component in the z direction. One set of data indicates that w = 4 yz 2 and the other set indicates that w = 4 yz 2 - 6 y 2Z . Which set do you think is correct? Explain.

To

;5A..t,54 -In e ~"-t1;1I,"1!1 e ~ u.~.fItD~


Ju air u..,. 75
1"

Tt.

~w-

.= 0

(/)

J"lnce
-tlIfl1

~x

dU :; ts,!J 2-

II i1 II

~fJ

Jzr= - 3'1 i

IttJtn

b3' 0 ) fS,:; '2._ 9fJ % + oWJt2t,U~i:

::'0

Thus)

8'fJr -~d2.

c.

Z)

Ff "A-f", iJ

CZ)

(!fin

be ink Jra-kd w/fh Y~S~ct h


:::

i-c
(;I.;

()j,flJl)'

fdw- J 8!1
~r

1: d:J -

f '!J1.d ~ + +
1-

!1 )

w-=
:5et ~f

'ffj1: 2 _

":J 2.-J:

'(Yo) ~)

The

dA-bo.

(tvJ'-n-,

kt,'J) =0)

w- ::: 4/J:r 2. - ~!:J l.:z


woui tA
tlflfllY

-10 he fne ~ff'ec,t se i:: .

('-10

b. J I

I
6.11 The velocity components of an incompressible, twodimensional velocity field are given by the equations

u = 2xy

= x2

y2

Show that the flow is irrotational and satisfies conservation of mass.

II

-the

t:.UJo-d/mfnSIr;I111/

.{jew
~;<

15

1~~()I::a..be,ntI/)

UJ =".J... (~V-

:e

,;J.

_ 17 Ju.)= ':J
f' ven.l

F;; r

1J1e.

ve /()Cit,

d/~ fri /:)/1'1-1';/1

Ct 11

c/

71te

IS

-r; Sllt;.s!::t ttP;1.serJ/ail4J1f "I eJu. Jtr_


~-;.
"t"

mass

P!J-()

-then

'./2..

I
6.12 For each of the following stream functions, with units of m2/s, determine the magnitude and the angle the velocity vector makes with the x-axis at x = I m, y = 2 m. Locate any stagnation points in the flow field.
(a) '" = X)'

(b)

'"

= -2x 2 + Y
~f ~~ ~fY'e/lrn fl.4 Hc..:hiP J1 J
tr-= -

~
d'X

l{'::

dt
~,

=x
J-,.",,) I

.
i

V-=-~ ::-~
~~

Ai: x::: l.-m) 'f ~


Th~s I

-4/1IJuJ.J ~.f::

-~
5Jn!c '" =0
p()/n I:
(j,)
Ft'y

>Co

C"a n 9 ":

z.

",I:.){:: C>

ClI1"
X

v:. 0

a--t

~::o /

tt

j+a9n4f../~;'

(!)~C.IAY.s

at:.

=- ':J .::. ().

u. -= 0 cf -=

TtJ

J hM j

1r.:: 2-/I't1 I

~ ~ '!-x
D~

A 1:- )(. =

jlWl}

I:J;::

it ~11f)W5 fhA-/.

tA.:: I

(.f"d

1r= ~

0/

'-. , '3

I
6.U The stream function for a certain incompressible flow field is
'" = lOy

+ e-Y sin x

Is this an irrotational flow field? Justify your answer with the necessary calculations.

~'r 1'h~ /f"w -tD hfC

l;r()-ttLt:lo~a I

(S4'e

l:g.

1../2.)

W ~ = -L 2.
alt~

(~ - d!?~)-o ~/.

/z,r

f;,~
tA.-

S.f:rerun .f.U)1c. t.,';rl (J I'veI'!

=-

~=

/0 -

e-~/';~
-:1

11"":: ThUj

J tf :: - e 7i
.sIn ~

~s ;(
-~ . alr_ - - e SIJIJ
~;(.

~()

OlA.
~j

=e

-':1

--/J1a;t

W~ ::' 1 1Jln"e
Wl;:O
I

( e-~jJ~
-r;1J':s
JS

l-

e s int.

-!j

='0

an J'rroi:(L+r()~t:t1 flow -I,eid.

Yes.

~./'f

I
6.14 The stream function for an incompressible, twodimensional flow field is

IjJ = ay2 - bx where a and b are constants. Is this an irrotational flow? Explain.

Ql1d

#r the slrellln
IA.::

~1'I'~J1
CL

7 HI(J1 J

()If ~
~;(.

u-::: - ij:

=b

Thus;

S / n t. e

w~

(t{n/-es~

1:- 0 a =0) .

lO./5

I
The velocity components for an incompressible, plane flow are Vr = A,-l + Br- 2 cos f)
Vo = B,-2 sin 0

6.15

where A and B are constants. Determine the corresponding stream function.

Fr~m

1he de/;;'/i,blt of th~ StYi'II/11 Iwnc,6/~n J ..,,... _ ..!.. dip .,,... :: _ _ dip
v~ -

Vt;

Or

So

tha.t.

+OY' fhe velocity I cJl; -I ;:. Ft9 :- A- r T B


;r;,.
J~
;

c/Js'ft;'I7J,(.it~1/ fll/en,
-2

I-

~s

(/)

- /3}-

-2.

S;'11

&

( 2.)

Ii? Ie 9n1fe

I:'j'())
::

w/-ht

r-eSf~t-t:

to e
e ) da

to
+

~b-b,/~

Jd J{A+

8 }--/ e.~ s

.f. (r)
I

S/~/Jar01 /nte'lrllte E~,l Z} u/rlh Y'l'~fec-i

+0

fd if
If::
Thw5)

=-

fa

j--2 sil1 l!} d/'


1-

I'.. fB)

13 j- - 'sin CI

~ (t) )
(.3) 1(l1d/lf)

.fo

.sa,tIS.f.!1

both

./;"gs.

t.f:: Ae+ /3~-I.5/I1C1 +C


where C ~ an

Clrb /trA r.!:J

c~n.5itll1 t.

t,.I'

6.1 G,

For a certain two-dimensional flow field

u v

=0
=

(a) What are the corresponding radial and tangential velocity components? (b) Determine the corresponding stream function expressed in Cartesian coordinates and in cylindrical polar coordinates.

(()..)

A i-

an arh i fyay'J pfJ,ni P


Vr=V~/na

(.5~e ti'llAY'e)

ve = V ~s
Cb)

Since.
u=

Jif
d':J

=0

v-= -~:::v oX
15

/t

f" I low thai fII


C
is

n()t

~ f/,fnc I:ltJ~

l)

f.

I;j

wher-e.

Lf=-Vx: -fC
lin

Ii r

b / IrA 1"':1 UJ1siol1i .


B

IIlsrJ) tui"ht

.x.:::

t.t!;S

'1=

- V f"UJS& fC

6.17

Make use of the control volume shown in Fig. P6.17 to derive the continuity equation in cylindrical coordinates (Eq. 6.33 in text).
Volume element has thickness dz

8
x

FIGURE P6.17

fo' +

f-V:' 0',4
cs
"......

"'0

( .E'S,

&,,)'1)

CV

J~ f ~ t/-tr
Cp-

net i"ll.te o! mNSS ()ui//()w fhr()II9h


cf
~nff"()/
oS /'(Y'ffu.es

(I)

Clnd

f~y,~ dA Cs

J/()/wme
or

( f V/. r
FrPR1

d::1- t) (I- t )de d~

h'lwn

f ~J;h t.

Ne t: rLtc 01 m~~s ()U-tf/DW /n r- dJ';-e,..i/(J~


( /J r,:

=
.

r, . .,. '4.f3
f)y

q.,JI'
2

J.I' of tk) .". d(; d1:

v,.

- {t ~ - ~ r)(r- t)dGdl
C 2.)

~,/7

(con i)

FrfJl11 !t9~"{ at- ttfht.'

Net Y'a I:e


~utfl"/N

~/

/nASS

,;.,

t) - d/ree:t";JJ

=
~~~____

(;~

~ ~e)

drd

(fife - dfife dB)cJl'"dr:


09
~

-fv;; - ; ~~ ~~ )drdilaI'/J{; ely d~d~


(J$
I'lfPl'n

( 3)

hitlYe
f"11

at: rl9lJt:
tnQS.J

!Ve.t
/IJV"; (I

te (;/
In
2-

{)u-t-R~u;

r - el;~c....j.ldH

r~

()f"i-

Ji

~) rd&df

- (/1'j. - of"i dl:- ) rd~ til' )2: ;l,


(;t~ ydrd{)d~
(:)r
('I)

5u"sl-/-j.j,tI-'~1j

t r dydf)Jr -r Jr:r
-+
a/v[;
)9

~f

Gjs. to

inY'/'< (fl.)

,"nl-o 1. "./9 'j;eIJs

f- eli"

11'6 dt
+

+! v;.
J~

dY'd&d:&

drdf)d2

0 f~ r dy-dedr : 0

or

%.,. -/: fi (r~ lIj.) + -f: ;j~Ilj;) ..


,,-/ g

De.

wr/ He 1'1

,q .s

~,/8

6.18

It is proposed that a two-dimensional, incompressible flow field be described by the velocity components
u

= Ay

v = Bx

where A and B are both positive constants. (a) Will the continuity equation be satisfied? (b) Is the flow irrotational? (c) Determine the equation for the streamlines and show a sketch of the streamline that passes through the origin. Indicate the direction of flow along this streamline.

(u)

10 :5otisry the Ct'JI1III1U/1y


Sin ee
J u...,. d II"" =-0 p;( J';J /1:;r 1J1e ve IDtif.y

e~uai'';J1

c/''s-';''''/b,,/-ti;/J 1i1I~11

&..!:!. -0 t>,K. -

q,x =tJ~

~l1hiJl,/t1 e.! ",a. &;'J1 ls 5 a t;/sfietl. Yes, (b) :t.n ~I"der .ft,,.. the .fl(!)w +D be 1~f'~t:flb~i1111 wz.-=Oj

the

IAJheY'{!

w~~l(t-~~)
tf-'/3 a;(. -

(~%-b,/Z)

~ =A d r:1
(I3-A)
,4=-8.

wi =
(!)

I
;L

Thus; f/~w will ()fJ/Y be ;rr{)l:atl()~t:// ,'f


4/~n9
a.
d~

s.fre/lI'l1/;;'e
fA.

dy _ (/
S" that for fhe tle/Deit!! dl;fn'bu!tPH

ttl tie"
(/11"

cI!I =
dZ
1htre fe,re

B x.

fi!:1
slope::

'1 c/!J
J
t./ 2 -

=-J)(. d x
,,(,z+ C

r1

.t:11.ferrlll/!:)h 'fields
-

/.3 -;r

(p.jq

I
6. I q
In a certain steady, two-dimensional flow field the fluid density varies linearly with respect to the coordinate x; that is, p = Ax where A i~ a constant. If the x component of velocity u i& given by the equation u = y, determine aq expression for u.

For

p..

vCll"it:l/;/e.
~x.

del1~;.J.'1 f/~t.V)

J fcou.) ~ J (fv-)
J!:f

(t<..:: C4~)(J)
11-

= AX!J

/t;/llws -thllt

otlA.J . Ay
Jt'fV-J :: -AfJ
t1b
( I )

Th

(As)

In Ie 'I rille

eg .(;) wi fh

r~sl'ec.1:

tD

!f 10 ~61rt/"

jdrtV-)
With

= -jAjd'J

fIx)

=A-x

v=

v- _- - ~ z.
:2.,;(,

f{)I.)

where

~-2..0

(p, 2,0 6.20

I
y, ft

In a two-dimensional, incompressible flow field, the x component of velocity is given by thl" equation II = 2x. (a) Determine the corresponding equation for the y component of velocity if v = 0 along the x axis. (b) For this flow field what is the magnitude of the average velocity of the fluid crossing the surface OA of Fig. P6.2D! Assume that the velocities are in ft/s when x and yare in feet.

1.0

________ A

CPoA

\
.f ~DG
0'

1-7 I
I

1.0

:8 ~8
(i.,

x, ft

FIGURE P6.20

(a)

ro
SInce.
I

s~.J/s~ the t.D"tl;'U~.f!J

-Rg U4 b()~

(con~'der
un/t

tnJcJ:.lllSS

=1ft)

dlA

'?X -r

Jb

Jtr_
-0

~~

'\

=2-

~/I"ULS

thft-l. JLr=_Z
t?!1
E"1,fJ)
With

(I,)

rn.f.e11'~6p;' "I

resrc.-t. to :t
f{~)

'j/eJdJ
=0

1r= -

2:; +
:2..:J

rf
(h)

'2r=O

~/tP"9

X-AxIS

(f/:'O)

7hen

/-(;1.)

So thd

1/= -

1;, ~al';;4
tt/()n'j A/J
(j)AI3

C4?11.st!YIIA-k"o'f

~f m~s.3

%,4 :: 0;.~ - 4113


U

(,,~~ !t7t1~)
oft-

= ~ (,) = 2
AA8 = (.2..

.50

1h4.. t.

ItIs ) (/ ,ct)(/ ,ct) =


ih~t
2
(/)Ot3

/f/0I19

t!)13

'1/"

=0
{Jt;1J

Sa
::

= CJ ,

Thus)

~,tI = {/J;/3

-5
=

-Ft 3
2

Y;v

a f"elt.

()A

v:r

+-1: 3 s

+t'J.

...

/. If. / +-1:
S

cD. ;2/

I
6.21 The radial velocity component in an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field (v: = 0) is

vr

2r + 3r 2 sin ()

Detennine the corresponding tangential velocity component,

vo' required to satisfy conservation of mass.

J.. r
S/nce

~ (rtlj,. )
~

-r

-;.

/ J~ gB +

-v; ::.tJ )
oU{; :

Pllc/

wIth

de

("I)

v:. ::' r
1htt t

:<. r

31"3 05/ 11

l"f fr;//ows

Thu~

Tr E$. (j)
~

~ (r 'J/j,.) -

v:

be,-",-"es

=- -

(II r

qr 2:S/11 e)

E$Ufli:I4?I1(l)

Ctin be ;"'-teff'tLieq'

with r~.5rc.t

Jd vg
!( r)
I";

= -f
an

(If I-' f- qrz. si" e) dB r

VB::' -

tfre - 9 ,...zcos ~ + .; (y.)


Hncle ter/rJ,npd
Ittl1ctle;'H

~/ Y".

'-.2 Z.

6.22

The stream function for an incompressible flow field is given by the equation
IjI =

y, m

3x2y - y3

1.0 B

where the stream function has the units of m2/s with x and y in meters. (a) Sketch the streamline(s) passing through the origin. (b) Determine the rate of flow across the straight path AB shown . in Fig. P6.2].

1.0

x, m

FIGURE P6.22

If.: 0
(a..)

Li~,s

FOrhas

fJ/ 6Pns/:t?lJ I: If ore str(1/1If}/Ii7es. tf: 3;( 2; - 1 ~ tht! slre/lllllJ;'e


thrDllfA
vpl,,~

fX'ssinf
&t.

1h~ ()I'if,n

(~:=~ !I=())

cf=o,

Tfltl~

-the

e$tlat-ldJl1 .{()Y

fHl!.. S-f"flll11/iIlPS ihmllfk

-----7(----"':""-":"'-'

If=o

1he

()f' 1

In

I~

() :: ax z!J _ 'j3
j=

zv3x
sJU)Wi1

4( b)

~fel:c"h

()f these sfrellm/Jl1e.s 15

il1 1Jfe ;;jllr~,

4?=Y8-~ ,4 t 13 .x. =

()

':1:: I MI

.so tha..t

lfs ::
Ai

B(o) ~/) - (1)3

= 6

I Mf~/s (per tlnd WJdtA)

3(1)'(0) - (0)

3 --

Ihus)
The.

ne1al-l~(' sI9n l~d,C4k.s inll';' the Iltjw /s IT()I'YJ rl ,h t .f.o Jett QS We /fPtJK ./rpm A Ie E

t-23

~.23

I
The streamlines in a certain incompressible, two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles so that v, = O. Determine the stream function for(a) Vo = Ar and for (b) Vo = A,-l, where A is a constant.

6.23

Prd)m

"the. de-h/1;fltPll

~= y Je
So

.J..a
~

0/

-the

.5.fr~(Jm knc.t'()'11 )

v-: (;;
;f '/:'//t)tuS

-= - ~

Jr

/hilt tt)/f1t and 1l1prej,,,.e

1/.~-t

:::'0

= f(r)
( I )

(A)

ht

~ = A;-

Jr

dlf :-Ar

EIl1) with 1'I'.s/,ct

t:.

l-

fd", = -jArdY
'f =
JIoweVf') .sill~e (jl is

A:
A.

'2.

+ ~ (~)
htl1C.i./()1I lJl &1 It-

1/6t

,t; //"U/.! thL t

t.f = Where.

t!f2. f C
Uf1sMl"rl:,

I~

tin

Qrbifral''1

Cb) SJfn"/tlY'i':J)

-k.,.

~ = A- y-I
== -

fdtfor

fA-r-'dr
Y

tf = - A 1/1

+C

('-24

The stream function for an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field is 'II = 3x 2y + y For this flow field plot several streamlines.

6.24-*

The 12.~ ua.:tltJlJ Icy a ~.frellm/il1~ ,:S -h,fll1d'/''1 ~fh~ tjJ =~lJsizJl/i

/n

ffJe

ejua.f::lon -Idr 1JIe offlllllll -func.t:j~l1. Thusl lew -t11e


./uHtittJ#

9/11el1 ~fre/l111
/ I:: ~ 11t)u)J

Lf =

inai

t1Je.

3i y +-b eStJd..tl(f)JJ c I

loS

'j=
kJh-ere
-rhe
XI
VIIY'I()/,LS
tl

t/J 1 + 3x"2

+0 t)hto/"

fbm,'/.!t "f ,jrrf'lIm//lJes.. I-J- Py",NIn? '1 eoord/n;ks ,,{ 1/'4Y'1(;~ Sfreqm/;d/ZS "?;//f)II/S

Ct;IJ,st:""t 11r,III'.s erNI be Q~.sJ1 ned Iv If-;


{" yo

cq Jc" 14.

1:, ~

-':'00 cls

110 120 130 150 160 162 165 170 180 190 200 210

print "****************************************************" print "** This program calculates the X,y poin+.s for **" print "** various streamlines **" print "****************************************************" print dim y(4,) print "x y(Psi=l) y(Psi=2) y(Psi==3) y(Psi=4-)" for x=-10 to 10 for psi=l to 4y(psi)=psi/(1+3*x 2) next psi print using "###.# ###.#### ###.#### ###.#### ###.####";x,y(1)
R

,y(

2) ,y(3) ,y(4,)

220 next x

( C&>I'/t )

..:51-f"ell/l1I1~~

Tabu/alea

res", Its

4J1'~ 71?-t'11

-h'l'

..6tluw.

if = /;

21

~ If

ol1d a... fltrt .sh"uJ/~" the

~***************************************************
:7:

-5.0 -L,..5 -4.0 -3.5 -:3.0


-2.:'-

-2.0 -1. 5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

ylPsi=l) 0.0132 0.0162 0.020L,. 0.0265 0.0357 0.0506 0.0769 0.1290 0.2500
0.571~

y(Psi=2) 0.0263 0.032L,. 0.0L,.08 0.0530 0.0714 0.1013 0.1538 0.2581 0.5000
1.1~29

1. 0000
0.571~

:'. a
3.5
!

0.2:;,00 0.1290 0.0769 0.0506 0.0357 0.0265


0.020~

2.0000 1.1429 0.5000 0.2581 0.1538 0.1013


0.071~

0.0530
0.0~08

Lj,. '-

r)

~.

:'

y(Psi=3) 0.0395 0.0L,.86 0.0612 0.079:) 0.1071 0.1519 0.2308 0.3871 0.7500 1. 71~3 3.0000 1.71L,.3 0.7500 0.3871 0.2308 0.1:)19 0.1071 0.0795 0.0612
0.0~86

y(Psi=L,.\ 0.0526 0.06L,.8 0.0816 0.1060


0.1~29

0.202:) 0.3077 0.5161 1.0000 2.2857


~.OOOO

2.2857 1.0000 0.5161 0.3077 0.2025


0.1~29

0.1060 0.0816
O.06~8

:).0

0.0162 0.0132

0.0324 0.0263

0.0395

0.0526

5~----------~----------------------------------~ Legend
.~--E)Ps1-1

"

Ps1-2 Ps1-4

~---+I

Ps1-3

-1L-~

__

~~~

____

__

__

~~~

__

~~~

____

______

-6

-4

-2

o ~ (J ~ n13.

6.25* The stream function for an incompressible, two-dimensional flow field is 'I' = 2r l sin 38 For this flow field plot several streamlines for

Tile e$u ..b~n ;;" . <t st,~qm/;;'e "' HII"d b!l sellin.! /n t'he "illlt&t''' .,4:>1' 111e sfr~"m Alndlc" . TflIIs~ 'lIven sfrfl1lJ1 Itt/utt;,,,

It

1<> //(lI<IS

2;-30$';" 3~ file fft"ai:IOI1 cf ... . strellm/lli.,

If=

IJ

r=//f
1-0 obb"j., a ibm//!!
where VPrt"ll.5

t"",f,,,,i

(Z

~i. 3 B

)~
"",/

epic/daMI)' f"lJe ~"rp;,~ks (t./;'"re JC=yc~se 'j= /-5 /"19) o-f yarlt'UJ sftepm//II~ ~//ows .

",.!J

()r

be I/J5/fjlled-lt, shwm/Jites. ;1- ~r()Jrqm ,I"()I"


CQ/1

VII/lies

100 cls 110 print " ~* '~***~*********************************************', 1 20 pri nt " -..>1' This program ca lcu lates the x .y po ints for **" 1 30 print "** various streamlines **" 150 print "~****** *** **************************************** ** " 160 print 162 dim psi(4). , :C4J,y(4) 161.1 print" Psi"'1 Psi =5 Psi=10 P si;20 " 165 prin~" x y x y x y x y" 166 pi=l.I*at n( l.O) 1 67 date 1 . 5.1 0 .2 0 168 fo!:' i=1 t o 4 1 69 rea d psi(i) 1 70 n ext i 1 75 fo r theta=pi / l 80 t o 59 *pi/ l SO step Pi/45 180 for i""1 to J,. 18 2 r"'(psi(il/(2*sin(3 *thetaJ))-(1/3) 185 x ( i J"' r* cos (theta J 190 y Ci)=r*sinltheta l 200 n ext i 210 print u si ns " 1t.UIt M.UM II.UM *,UII II.UIt it,UM II.UII x( 1 ) .y( 1) ,x C2) , y(2) , x (3 ) ,y ( 3 ) .x ( 4 ) ,y(t... ) 220 next theta

It.UIt" :

( C{)t1 '-L

Tab,,/a.f(d Y-l'.sllih
The ~ fl'"ellm/J;je,.s

~r If ::: I; S; /~ 2CJ Cire 9 1tifJJ bellJw.

** This program cal culates the x, y point~o foy *)f' ** various streamlines ** ****************************************************
Psi=l y x 2.122 0.037 1.2/,),1 0.109 1.020 0.162 0.902 0.208 0.826 0.252 0.296 0.770 0.728 0.339 0.385 0.695 0./,),34 0.668 0.649 0.489 0.635 0.552 0.630 0.630 0.734 0.638 0.672 0.892 1. 235 0.802 Psi=5 y x 0.063 3.628 0.186 2.122 0.276 1. 744 1.543 0.356 1. 412 0.432 1.317 0.505 1.244 0.580 1.188 0.658 1.143 0.742 1.109 0.836 1. 086 0.944 1.077 1. 077 1.090 1.254 1.150 1. 526 1. 372 2.112 Psi=10 y x /,),.571 0.080 O.23/')' 2.673 2.197 0.348 1.9/,),4 0.4/,),9 1. 779 0.544 0.637 1.659 1. 568 0.731 0.829 1.496 0.935 1. 440 1.397 1.053 1.190 1. 368 1. 357 1.357 1. 374 1. 580 1.923 1. 449 1.728 2.662 Psi=20
x
y

~***************************************************

5.759 3.368 2.769 2.450 2.241 2.090 1. 975 1.885 1.814 1.760 1. 724 1.710 1. 731 1.825 2.178

0.101 0.29:: 0.439 0.566 0.685 0.802 0.921 1.04:) 1.178 1.327 1.499 1.710 1.991 2.422 3.353

5
0
0

Legend oPsi=1 a Ps i=5 l>Psi=10 e> Ps 1=20

-1~~~~

__~~~__~~~~__~~~~__~~~__~~~~__~~~ 4 1 5 6 2 3
x

A two-dimensional flow field for a nonviscous, incompressible fluid is described by the velocity components

6.2~

u = Vo + 2y v =0
where Vo is a constant. If the pressure at the origin (Fig. P6.2') is Po, determine an expression for the pressure at (a) point A, and (b) point B. Explain clearly how you obtained your answer. Assume the units are consistent and body forces may be neglected.

B(O,})'

A(1,O)

Po
FIGURE
P6.2~

Chec.K ~

;U.

;'{

,?'/()uJ
J-

is Ir'r~t(J.:I:r()~A/. 5 1Y1 c'e


~
LI ) (

2:

::.J..

(!.Jt' _ d
~;(.

/3"'.~.I2.)
b

an d lor fne rive" (le/~ctf'J c!tSfrlbU.bl()#.J ~::::.{) 1111# j~ =Z I ; f fr; II ~W.J thfi I- tU~:j:. O. Sinee I/~w i.5 nat / 'rr()ta it{;;14/ CLJl1noi ().ffJ/'1 the. i3ernou.lli .f!gU(:I:I~1I bet.Wtel1 an3 fw{) poi n 1s

In

the.

f/()w

lie/d.
1"he

(a)5/I1~e 5.a me.

1/=0,
.5

~Y'19;11

and

p()/ni A t'/Y'e

{)IJ

the

frelJln //"e..

Th us)
= -P14
4'
(I)

..po
;r

"t-

~ 2,
:L~

At the Dr;'r1n
f.r~m E~.
(.b) ~/ ~ t
0)

~~~

15 Ij /Jot ~11 St'lh1e ~rrY?II/'11j/lle as tJJ"/9In ~o aff)::; Ber/')tJul// e!"lLt'~# betw~el1 13 pnd tJ. 10 Use the '1- wm~J1ent ~ Gu.lfY'; .e~tlA,t:'tJl1'): L) ~ -!...! = -<J u Jlf 7/)tr fAY Jtr)

r- (f!J

; ':J

[JIl" . ,. pi
)

pX +

; 'J

l'

) t

1fJ =0
=0

c,- 2'1

, ~,l7

J
b.Zl
In a certain two-dimensional flow field the velocity is constant with components u = -4 ft/s and u = - 2 l'tis. Determine the corresponding stream function and velocity potential for this flow field. Sketch the equipotential line 4J = 0 which passes through the origin of the coordinate system.

k= "" -t11e lie /"Clf-rt

*
_

t~I7If'J"flfh J/vell
0)
J

~
p':;
~

=-i{-

J;< - .(,..

'7

{2

'1' (;) /AI;rh Yt'5f~Gt ti, b +0 OhtrUh

jd If

::-

f- 1/ d!1
-(-

7-

~ (,-)
( .3 )

If =- If ~

+; (x)
/AJ i fh

iI/feJr4i:e e1. (Z)

res/ni. .Jo)( .j." "b1711 h

fd'l .: I
If

Z d;l.

+ .{ (!J)

=
/;ith

Z X. -r

I&. (j )
11 d

Th U5) -h

Sa

I: I'S 1'1

s s, (3) a
2;(

(If)

If,:
wher'e

-Lf!J -f-C

IS

till

flrbi 1rtJY.!J ~51:t;I1i.

tf(J)H1 1he deli'''t'.f'47;' 0./ the lIe/()cif!J ffJ-/;tlfhQj


fA..
'=

00

fh~t /r;, the lIe/f)CI'nj

~~

@j 4-

v=

II p~
'lIve fI
(5")

Mf11POflfttt.s

E-i J;<.
J':;

=: -

!.-4> = - z

(~)

{,-30

t..27

In.f-e frio k

E ~ . (5 )

(,IJ

/tn

'('eoSfe t

f.j.y,
+

.f,;

/,f//I it

fd4 = f- ~dx
~ ::- - It-x t

~(!J)
( 7)

!ar!J)
-t

k+efYllk 13;,
OY'

(It,)

w/h re5fee..i b J -k aj,.j",;,

fdp = J-z d:;


9:: - 2.)
'Sa f:/'5.f!:t

1Ij.(~)

-r

4('1.)
tlJtti {a)

Thus) -k
t.Jhfte

b()P,

E$ S, (7 J

=-/ft.-Zjt-C
C l:S
(1;1

aY'blfr'4Y; ~slo!1i.

jJl1C.e, ihe .e!lIlfp,LPHf,q/ 11I1e) rI~a) flfs.se.5 1hr()1I9h Pte ()r"91i1 ()C:.y=o)) ihel1 C.:::. 0 ;'it E"f,fr) So 7hlff -file e1litt1n~H ()f 71t( ;:::o egfJ'Jeftlff'4/ /111' IS
2

fJ

=: -

'Ix.

~=-,Z)(

,,-31

C:..Zg

I
6. 2. ~
The velocity potential for a given twodimensional flow field is

= (!)x 3

5X."2

Show that the continuity equation is satisfied and determine the corresponding stream function.

to sai:ls/!1
fi,y

fhe

~"-t/I1,,,if!:1 ~ 0UIL t/(~i1 )

~
-t;,e- ?/~t'1'I

-r

~ =0
~
Sx 2-5!:J2

tle/~c,'..fy f'ctel1tJdil.;

u= ~

= (3)({))C2.- S !JJ..

IOx.~

Since

fA. ='

::-

S';{2. _ S"!:J l.

and

I/'}I-e!rl/I'h~

P!J

.
With

re.s'pe~i.f()
5";( "--

9Jlle.J

//11- : if
51m l 'Jar l, ) ...,,.. - _ J J v ~X
til'ltl

5'!/ ) d!1
0)

~ =- S (x1 - }J) + !, ()f )


== -

lOX w
..J

Inff,rAitl);'

wi"tl,

re.s;evt to
7-

x.

q J i/e..s
( <)

If::: 5';( 2!:J

-f;z. (!J)
(2),)

10 sa-t-';/!;

both Ets, OJ qn~


2

tf -- S x !J - f. :J 3 -f C

6. z'i

Determine the stream function corresponding to the velocity potential

x3

3xi

Sketch the streamline If! = 0, which passes through the origin.

fA..

= q.J: :: ~ ; =- 3X
J'j

ox

2_

3!:J ~
-t()

Zn let "" it!

!d fr
I.f :
J

tV I

n, (,PS/~C.:I;

-h !1
dJ

tJb';"1;-;

3;1.2- 3fj 1..)

..5!;"';/lIr0
and

1/.- -

ij:
pi

1~I-e'lrAfllJ',

~ ~!j 'J.J. = -

Iex!:J
x.

with

Y'eJ/Pc,t 1:.

f1/~'/ds
(2.)

jd If ::-

fix!!
GiS'

d;(

If -= 3x 2!/ t !;.fjJ

To

'stl.ti.sfJ

h(!)"/h

(I) 11114 (Z)

Lf:- 3 x"J. y _ :/3 +


wheY'e
passes

{'

C t.s
1hr~tlfh

4h

tlY'bilrlfll"fJ
Drlflit

1J1e.

et)lIsi7Il1t. '51;'C~ -the ~+re4m/;l1e 0=0 (x.:=())y::o) t"t 1:,/I~tUS th~t- C=o qi?~
"3
(3)

tf=

3;(':; -!:f

The. -e~uQ,bol1 0/ the stream line p(J..sS/n~ tnrotA.:Jh the ()Y'lgl;' I~ /o/.{l1d b'.t 5f!H;'n:; If=o IH ~.r3) -1-0

r=c

ij/eltl
x

,4 ske icJ,
4/'e

fJ=!-V3x ~I ilJe If =0
IH

sfrellm);I/(;S

~hotVl1

-the lijwye..
b-33

630 tion

A certain flow field is described by the stream func-

r/J

= A (J + B r sin (J

where A and B are positive constants. Determine the corresponding velocity potential and locate any stagnation points in this flow field.

1h - .!. Jtf - d r- r;n;--;n:,-

.e r + IS ~S e
t B yo

:t"'nkJrai:e. Win, rf'.s~",f ~ ~ ~ ~bl-olj,

fl ~ f 1-t 8 ~.s(?) dr
A /11 r
;.
~

Or

tf ~
VI? -

~.s ~

-t-

~ (~)

(2)

S/mj'JAr/~ ) ;<J r' _ _ J If _ .J. ~

Tr -

= - B 51 n8
r- ~in l} d ()

aH~

f; ~ =- ) 8
tj:; /3 J~a,i-'s.f!j

~s~

+ t; 0-)
{If}

(If )

To

tf : -

bO in E JS. {2) tt H PI. ;.J. / n r + B r- et;s e


tin
arb/.fr~Y.!:J

+C

fA)hey~ C /~

~nsi:(JI1I-.

51:a.'I14./:"18/~ ~/;,-h 6CC.~~ U)"er~ Vj.:;() al1ll ~.:o . PrtP/11 ~r. (3) ~=-o IJ..-t: G:o a~",< () =-rr. t=r~1?1
~!.
So

(/)

wi'fh 9=0

1). = -$
7J;. :
0

1- /j

thlJ,i
b~Th

h>r'

=:

-"8 .

/'1TJl.}ev~v.;

/1

~/11"!

A-

411d []

t:(t'<l..

fie!},,+-, v~

p",joh,i.e, ~".$'frlYJ -Is "n1l~ Yes,,/-/:. il1d,ca.1-e.s va/"e ~I' r 1AJ/11i.J, /oS I'}()t de fined.

a..

Ii- -t
~o

t9:; 7T

17f,.
-thAt
sIT;..111 Ai-T~JI

ry.. .: : 0

=1

e
r="Jj
,A.

f'llit o (!C UY$ a,t;

e==-lT

aHA

~,

31
6.3 r
It is known that the velocity distribution for two-dimensional flow of a viscous fluid between wide parallel plates (Fig. P6.3 \) is parabolic; that is

with v = O. Determinoe, if possible;o'the corresponding stream function and velocity potential.


-

FIGURE P6.31

--

To d e-t-ernll;,e

-!he sireQI>1 hnc/.JoJ1

let

~=~ = [{ [I-(t)~]
an'; 111/efrg.fe
WIn,

YIZSf~C.1:

.fv.!:f

1-0

fdY! ::
If =
7/= -

f~[,-{t)jd,
0; [ :J -

3~:
Ij

]
f

J; (;( )
A.

J'f ) I.f lX =a

net

I'UJ1c. t-/O~ /t).{ X

/t)

-/hit t

[{!1
where C /s

[1- ; (-/)Y+ c

an ar/n.ftor!:1 6!JJ1stal1t.

Tc de.termJYJe. ihe /I~/tXrl"!:J ,()ifJ1-/;/~/ let: fA. = ~f 7{ [I - ({) 6)

::

I~ief"..tlie

PI J
=

wi f1t

Y'e~fect

-/;0

1:0 ob-l:(lil1

7:{ [, -

(%f-) d;<

1 ==
~,..or/; v - d!J -

L{
0

[;< - i)6;e] + i. t )
_.2D(X!1

+ Jo-fz(.!J}

h'J.

dJ
ve/oc./"ft1 ,Poi:.ent/q/ 17111"/:
IS

.x.

tlnd~.

====================~

desct"lues

Thus) "there 15 not q fl1/j -'c/otd (" 17te .fl()w

/J(Ji

l'rrc;ill..-btJnql) .

6-35

6.32, is

The velocity potential for a certain inviscid flow field

cP = - (3.ry 2

l)

where cP has the units of ft / s when x and yare in feet. Determine the pressure difference (in psi) between the points (1, 2) and (4, 4), where the coordinates are in feet, if the fluid is water and elevation changes are negligible.

5/;' Cf!.

is

1n~ 111)4.1 -/ie /4 1..5 de.sC!j but by A. I/e/{J"-fr; pot:ellt';'/ -fhe /I'H~/'r ro &a. t-II)H (J 1 01'1 d '111 ~ 13~".n~"//i -eJ/,la..t,tD~ ~11 be appl,;d beiweei1
.fwo pDlni:s.

tin (j

lit", s"

3+ JfA..':: P;t. 0 t/J

2..#-

Yt'2.

OJ

: -" x. ..J '"

At

)(.= /

-I-i

'J = 2 /-i:
I

= -

{, )(2.) =

-/2.f:t:

'V'"r :: I

3 (I) 2+ 3 (t) '3..:. '1~


S

00

thll.. i::

V;"2..: 4/'''' 'Pi 2.::: (-/2


J

1) z.. T('f +: ) =
2..

2- Z"(7) 2.

A- t

x =- ft

'J:::' if ft
=- ft:.

U2,= -b{If){Lf)

:# oS

1-i ::
So

-3(tf)4-r 3{JI)'l.=o
(_

1h4.i

~ 2..:"

f~ ~) ~

(p.33

6.33

Consider the incompressible, two-dimensional flow of a nonviscous fluid between the boundaries shown in Fig. P6.33. The velocity potential for this flow field is <p = x1 - y2

y'

(a) Determine the corresponding stream function. (b) What is the relationship between the

\
"r
/

discharge. q. (per unit width normal to plane of paper) passing between the walls and the coordinates Xf' Yf of any point on the curved wall? Neglect body forces.

1/;=0

z
x

FIGURE P6.33

(a.)

To qet.errm"e tf

1~t-e1rll k

(#

/h re.sfu,.1: .;.. !J

.;.. ob-blIH

fd tf = p.)(
J If _ '1r~ - ~ -

d!:J
(I)

'f:: Z.x!J + "Ix)


SIMi/III" /'1.1
So

o!J

~$

-;: - Z ':J

thAt

Jd
If
6"th
IS

if:==

!Z!:J dx
2..x.!J + h l j )
'1111/ 11..)
(2 I

To

sa./;i.si!;t
~
tll1e{

E$s. (/)
tf=:LXj+

C
ttf)II-f-/:qHt.

where C :: 0
C.b)

tln

ArlJilrl'lf'fj

S,nt.e tf=O

a/"nJ

!f=O
(3)

if =b)

Z)C'.:J

The

the

pqssin9 1hrf)U94 tll1fj stlr~ce +WD UlQlls) stich as .48 (see nfllre) I /:S

dischaY'~e)

t~
F1
.l3))

- 911

~ =0

6.3 Lf The stream function for a two-dimensional, nonviscous, incompressible flow field is given by the expression

!/J

= -2(x - y)

where the stream function has the units of ft 2 / s with x and y in . feet. (a) Is the continuity equation satisfied? (b) Is the flow field irrotational? If so, determine the corresponding velocity potential. (c) Determine the pressure gradient in the horizontal x direction at the point x = 2 ft, Y = 2 ft.

(a..>

-r; sa.t/s 4

,.;ne

C{)n II

i,," fl1
-t-

eSti a.-/;I rd I'J)

p.JC.

fA

Ii !1

a.J!' =- 0
91,;~n)

F;;y

iJJe

:5l-rellh1

knc.-tI4Jn
2-

u=
So

qJf
P!j

fr s

v-=

-l!t aX.

=2 .It:

anc/

7Jte

~111"/~tJ/';'!1 elulJ.i/~J1

1.5

's4tls/;ed.
A

Yes.
.sfretlm IUnc.t:I()J!

( fl/ofe: 0J,e" ~ //(')w .field /5 -the ~l'1il;'u/-f!J egua.iliJ;t /,$


(h)

dt:-hht>d h!:J
(lIWtHIS

/del7l-lc~,;1.:t .saill;//ed.)

S/~{~

(/11"

~fA
-

alj

'='0

a;<. .::

;;tr

CJ

; t-

4//aws

1hat
~;<.

CJJ = a
~

Clnd

the .(/()(,U -hidcl

15

iY'r~ia-ti()1f4/.

Yes,

tA-=

04

2-

Clnd

'l1'.fefr4t:,olJ

!f / idcb

=2{x + !J)+ C
CJhere
(c)

C /s
the

an "Y'bl.fran;j C/Pl?si:"d.
h~Y;1/)11"~ /) d~ = 0
0'"
J';('''~
J

Wi1n
anll

.x - a;(t'~ - ~ -= /J (IA. lJ;<: (~


2.

a nv(
T-

v- ~ )

a.i:

X=

~t:)

=2.+-1;

~f = ~

[z

~r (0)

2 ~t- (0)J

11

c;,. 35"
6.35

I
at the origin the velocity is zero. (8) Determine the y component of velocity so that the continuity equation is satisfied. (b) Can the difference in pressures between the points x = 1 ft, y = 1 ft and x = 1 ft, y = 4 ft be determined from the Bernoulli equation? If so, determine the value in Ib/ft2. If not, explain why not.

In a certain steady, two-dimensional flow field the fluid may be assumed to be ideal and the weight of the fluid (specific weight = 50 Ib/ft 3 ) is the only body force. The x component of velocity is known to be u = 6x which gives the velocity in ftls when x is measured in feet, and the y component of velocity is known to be a function of only y. The y axis is vertical, and

( a.)

To sa iisly the (!t),rl:,~tljf!J eglla 1:U)# ) Ju. ocr_t:)


~x T ~ -

17 u ::: ~ ,,;(. J~
(!q11

it

.t~ / /{)141.$

71111 i

;v-

= -t,
t:~

bi!

/J,.J.efrAfe,f w~1h re.ste~t

!J -Ie :J"eJ~

1/= -

~J + ~ (;()
,,(

Since
,.b) The

11" IS I7tJt a. HtIfCi:.If!i"

Rnd

JJ

~er()

at The.

OrJif/ H )

-rr=-6 ':J
I3frn"u.JJi Rgu4f/oJt Ct/n he QPpJ/~~ hel:wten 4"!J +Wo POln+':' /f -I-h e f--/"w l.s J yo /"'(') i It i:t011" J. :s JJ''lCe..

t.v=J.(~V-_~)
i:2..
Jx " 'j

(Eq.h,JZ) ()

( 2)

6.3~

The velocity potential for a certain inviscid, incompressible flow field is given by the equation

4J =

2x 2y 2

(ih,3

where 4J has the units of m js when x and yare in meters. Detennine the pressure at the point x = 2 m, y = 2 m if the pressure at x = 1 m, y = 1 m is 200 kPa. Elevation changes can be neglected and the fluid is water.

SinCe

1h~

,fJ{)w

i..s
+

-J(Pith

.p,

;Y'() -64. 61f)ila J) .fJ2. .,. \{.2.. Yj2. - :: r '-} .2.;


I

)'~it11 II; J
~c$

'J J ve J1
7.
'Z.

~::

Z;{ -2!J
~()

Ai
CI n

fDI;' f

Ie t
(1)(1)
'::

)(. =. I

h7I

(:oul

u.. I -- If
cI

tf~ S
::

!J =. 11m v-: :- ~ (I) 3. I

tn,i
:2.. (J)z

2..::-

('I

~ ),.

" -

/1112..
$ '&

f()/~ t
~

:2

IA :: J.f (z)(z.) -

(/" p)~ -

,uA"Z.

s ...

::.

&'0. I ~

Pa..

6.37 (a) Determine the velocity potential and the stream function for a steady, uniform, incompressible, inviscid, twodimensional flow that makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal x-axis. (b) Detennine an expression for the pressure gradient in the vertical y direction. What is the physical interpretation of this result?

(ct,)

Pr'l?7
(iI/Pi

1::$5_ (,..80 anol /'.8/

tf ::~r

C/ (.>< t4sol.

-+-:J

:s I;'

01..)

(!='J. ~, 36)

tf = 0- (;< OJS1o" + ~ S/11300)


I

ot.::: 30"

~ V-(~,8'b;( + ~.5'h~!1)
(Ef. ,,80

Sin" /111' /!j tf = v (!f U;sd - x. sin~)


t/ h

a.

fpr 0(.:; ;-" c

If '"
(bJ
,

v ('J ~j JiJ'- ><


t'lt11l

J /"

:11/) .. l/

(~. ffU,J -

O. S()(),( )

SJ~'{'

If ~11~tI)J 1nd
1A.::~.f"Vp:;,.f)I?J
Cll'ttl

U. :: l:; cfi ~

1,r..::

~'::J

V-:::. ~. 5"00 r;I

itt e
if ~ -

t=IA fev
J~

-R. ~ tl.1L -tJix

~ "the

IIfr1-/CA. J

.!J - d I y~dtolt
(='9, '.Slb)
6

1) t:1

.1 -:: I[) (0 IT+ u ~Jr -r dt 4~.x


1r:='
&;115.fz1l,

V-

e.r + JAr E) P!1 dr

anI!

hi I in

Clud

#1):: - ~

or

*~ -tJ
'r'f1jI.(JI::

/fJJ~

h'1d"~s-taI-(G ,Th/~ I~ nDi ~ ~l1r/,Y/$ln, Vt'.5u/-I: .sInce. -tJ, ~ ~ frn~/,( II; e$ UI-/~11 Inti, c.al-e..s ~ f II- 1Ittrt.. loS no ehfll1'1e. 111 Vc. J~'-/:;'.!::J 1h~ eltlll-1pt' 111 pv-e.fS"Y~ Ii Slmpl 'J ~jtl e ..fa */he. We 19h f of fh(. ,fluId.; L: Po) a..

/Yld,C4.J.e.s jh4/- 1he pres.suve dJshi hU.J-,D~ 1.5

h fj d rt>.sta..J.ti.

v4 y, a. 1-tt> n'

6. '38 The streamlines for an incompressible,


inviscid, two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles and the velocity varies directly with the distance from the common center of the streamlines; that is

Kr where K is a constant. (a) For this rotational flow determine, if possible, the stream function. (b) Can the pressure difference between the origin and any other point be determined from the Bernoulli equation? Explain.
Vo

(a)

~=

_ J If
17","

=k

y-

En.f-e? ra te

/dt{; - for
:-

1,.lI} w/1h

re.sfec.t.

dr

"y-

if
Sinct:.
/t Iol/()ws 1ha:t

::

1<: r"

- ;z.

-r fIe)

11 - ? u;
t.p

_ ( ~ If

=0
J.5

ntJ1..

a.

fu 11 C. t /tJJ1 ()I a
Cton S1:411 t .

a;,d 1heye~ye.

wher-e
(j,)

C
Ilew

IS

~=

- J<;-6.

+c

an
Js

arb " va. V:J


ohd

"" +

The

l"()ta..tl()~IIJ
be

Therefore

fne

13erl1t/uJJi

o..pp);'ed betWteh --the.. oY/~/i1 a h d q 11 ~ pOInt J SI h ce These fo/nb QV }1{Yt 6)J1 The Same ~fr"etlm //l1e. Nt). (I?e.fer 1-0 d'SCtI$S'DI1 t'fS.sOCICll:t-tI tu/fh der/~IJ.I:I~h olE; Z. it>. ~7. )
CA nt10t

e~ U~&/DI1

'.31
6. 39

I
y

The velocity potential = -k(x 2 - y2) (k = constant) may be used to represent the flow against an infinite plane boundary as illustrated in Fig. P6.~t For flow in the vicinity of a stagnation point it is frequently assumed that the pressure gradient along the surface is of the form

ax

ap

= Ax

.. _._----

---_.-

FIGURE P6. ~9

where A is a constant. Use the given velocity' potential to show that this is true.

Fe>y

the

II

e /() c. /-J.!J poi:en.f,Q J 7' ve fJ


LA.. ==

~cP

a;.

- -2.~)!.
2. '" !:J
() CCtlrs

u)
(Z)

11"::Clnc!

tne.

S~JtJA.ft~11
-6fea , ':J.-

o~ =~b

pt!),~i

at the
/It;w

~r'.j In

...

;:';y

'this

1-kJO -

dlmt/l.s/~II/
1"

-ij.
Qnq

~ a~ =-t (IA, 1))<


SUyfac.e.
1J.x.

r~)
tJ !:J

(:. ~>/o.)
So

(lIon?

-the.

(:;=.o)
dX.

v-= ()

1J,a. i
(..3 )

?l. :
u ': p;(.

/JU I

t-;..t)m

E1. U )

Z--k:X.

au.: -z/{
qnP(

Gg . (3)

beu;me.s

~ ::
PX

fi) (- Z

Ie)/ ) r- z~) - IfJe G,x

where

Water flows through a two-dimensional diffuser having a 20 expansion angle as shown in Fig. P6.40. Assume that the flow in the diffuser can be treated as a radial flow emanating from a source at the origin O. (a) If the velocity at the entrance is 20 m/ s, determine an expression for the pressure gradient along the diffuser walls. (b) What is the pressure rise between the entrance and exit?

'.'fO

2m

~\

~-----

,.

-~~

-"",,~,

:~ran~

Flow

7m

~/Exlt

(Sf'e

Ta'ie ,. J

11 =2.0 ~~
1??'1

5(>

"/hILi:

-=

2.

rr y. 7rj,.::

2. rr

("2. hH)

(2t!;

?)

Pr~i'Yl

/he. /3fYI/~ul/,' ~ lJ.4.;/:J()}1

-p -+ it 1"';-"2.. =
:50

~(Pl1slr1l1t:.
(I)

~ = -~ v;. ~ tJ;.

"y

I
-1-1.

~r

JJnc.e

'\

., ,..,.,.",
VI'":;

~1T'Y

Inel1

~ Y'

v;.

==

6.4 I An idealfliilcffiows betweenthe-inciined walls of a two-dimensional channel into a sink located at the origin (Fig. P6.41). The velocity potential for this flow field is

A
"

2n where m is a constant. (8) Determine the corresponding stream function. Note that the value of the stream function along the wall OA is zero. (b) Determine the equation of the streamline passing through the point B, located at x = 1,
Y

m = -In'

o FIGURE P6.4\

= 4.

(et)

( I )

n fe~ t"rt .J.e.

~g ./1)

w/fh

fe/if
t>Y'

f ~ it;
:l7T
/t11~

r-e.s/ec.t:

to

Ir,

~6io/11

if=
~=
,

5/ nee.
Lf
is

-27T I -~ tPi'"
A

+ ~ f;")

oB

qj

= 0

(1. )

n()i

tu nc.+;~/1 01
~

r-

So

eS .f'l) bectJl1Us
!p:=.o

~C if:: ~ .:;,,,.

where
-So

J,j

~I1SiP"t . If /~&)

;;'1'

~~

It .3

~a-t

= -C.
/1"n So

n?1

qh"
( .b)

/jJ.:

(~~

-- )
I
&:.

(..3 )

At
f11e

8
I/Idw

I-tJ n ~:o;-

Pt II. i:

({) .:- /. :3 3 r d d . J:;.I!) /YJ ~ g .t 3 )

of tf if ~
fI1e

Possil'1f
t?'n

-t;,Y~w'lh ih/5 ?(),hi


D.

1.5
.

4,nd there~re
IS

eg(J~biJ,J1~.f

(1.33 - ~ ).:211
=
/)?1

~1fS"olYl1

1he. sirellll1hlJe. plIsslnJ 1hrtJL(jh 13


-

(). 0 "SO 11'11

(~~

i)
1htl.t fAt!
,;Irflllf1 lilJfS

(fj/)

Ie.'

It
tlY'e

CtlIJ

II/I ~"""'1I9I1t };heJ f'k~.sl'n~ 1hrlJtI&11 -!he "yiglit. )

be

seefl

/rom '&1.

(3)

6.42.

It is suggested that the velocity potential for the flow of an incompressible, nonviscous, two-dimensional flow along the wall shown in Fig. P6.4Z is = r~/3 cos !8

Is this a suitable velocity potential for flow along the wall? Explain.

:tl this ;5

suifaJ,ie ~ -fiJe C/!)rre.sp()ndln~ tfJ must hAVe. I/o/we fI/on~ the 1U1/1/ (s/nce -the tvll/I tnust tt:)rl"'''~}'~l1d --h -...L ~ If- ~ If Vj r JB =- d ;r;. - "3 r ~~.s"3 &
et

et u;IIsT:t!l1i

sfr~A/IJ/i"e).
(I)

:1:nk1t'Aie I:iS.tJ) w/tIJ

reSfect

1:a B 10 ohtolH

jd if:: f

.!j f-"~ c..S


,JIb

:
T

e
~ tr)
/I

If:: !- +/.8

~B

(2)

~. :: - 3 ~ r o5J :t:. e .3
I,

J:j

if =

r -; .5;'1'3

If

: S +

+;. (8)

(3)

both E'Is, (2) an4 (.J) If:: f 1f~ SIn : B + {

where

is

an (/rb;~rlJr!1

e()nsbtllt.

A-JotJ? one se~b~n ~I fJu! wl//I; t) =0) Qnd tj;::: C. A-/()nf 1ne other set..-bo'n e::: a nil tp C. Th us) tp hils ~ c.~ n 5 1::11 n i va/we. a/f)!'''} ihe WtI/J and the 1/vel1 j)e/~c.;-h; t~)'fe I'rh q, j Ct/n b.e used -k y~tYese" t f~~ a/tJ"1 the Will/. Yes.

ft" if.3

6.43 As illustrated in Fig. P6.43 a tornado can be approximated by a free vortex of strength r for r > Ret where R, is the radius of the core. Velocity measurements at points A and B indicate that VA = 125 ft/s and VB = 60 ft/s. Determine the distance from point A to the center of the tornado. Why can the free vortex model not be used to approximate the tornado throughout the flow field (r 2: O)?

""......

". . . - ---

}
/

fA

t
R
x

---

-,.,.,....

./

/ I ,"".. I //~

FIGURE P6.43

Thus)
(:011(

ILl:

fA

~:

/zt5"
(Po

it
.5

Sf)

ina i
that:

Ie =/zS' fA
/G::
60;-/3

a.-t
J

13

~:

-:r )

..50

Th ere /r:;re

~/nce

/ ZS'

fiJ

.::.

Go

'B

/1-

f~//t9IPJ ~t
J 2.5"

"k - fA =/{)() l-i


'A : :
I> 0

(/~O + fA )

fA.

~ '11.3

It

7h e hee
t/e/o~ifrt

vorte.(. the

1nrou'lhoJl.t

C/ln/Joi b~ tlsed .j." CljJpro,( i"'41:.e t<. /:or)'UIII'o /-ltJUJ .fle/d Since at:- r=o The
/;'f;';,/fe.

b~~me5

6.44 The velocity distribution in a horizontal, two-dimensional bend through which an ideal fluid flows can be approximated with a free vortex as shown in Fig. P6.44-. Show how the discharge (per unit width normal to plane of paper) through the channel can be expressed as

q =

cJ(1

where Ap = PB - PA' Determine the value of the constant C for the bend dimensions given.

= 0.5 m = 0.9 m
/

FIGURE PS.44

~A

= a:.
2..~

1<

~S:

7:
~

fh e. 13fl'o/)~f,t / It; eba fi" -6u:;'n 1~ .,. ~; = P13 +~


d-

-ve.e 2-J.

t
=

(~A" - 7Ijg8'- )

= ;;; I("l. ( (J.I,.

or

1<.
)

::

7.111 .J!. tt.

Thus
Of'"

tJp=

r"l. -1t (~ -f: )1(.tL

( ;~ - i~)
-k
('

t
Clncl

::

.b
a..

;;; - i~

')

iff I'
tJ,'1
hI'f
hwt

1he~eh"~

.
/,Q/th

c=

V2 jn

rY
I

J,

VTh

(),S'
/

r~

--

bl.

V(ft; . .), - b-'f~

=-

~,S"oo m'I

{o, ~",,/"

6.45" When water discharges from a tank through an opening in its bottom, a vortex may form with a curved surface profile as shown in Fig. P6.4S' and Video V6.2. Assume that the velocity distribution in the vortex is the same as that for a free vortex. At the same time the water is being discharged from !he tanlc ~t point A it is desired to discharge a small quantity of water through the pipe B. As the discharge through A is increased, the strength of the vortex, as indicated by its circulation, is increased. Determine the maximum strength that the vortex can have in order that no air is sucked in at B. Express your answer in terms of the circulation. Assume that the fluid level in the tank at a large distance from the opening at A remains constant and viscous effects are negligible.

FIG U REP 6 .4-S

,. b )
(14-

8.,,-l.r'Z..J
A-/r w/Jj

be.

_ J/ I sUCJC.et

/I1r;~

....L

P'fe.

~ J h en "'"

J::...

7.. ~

= - / -r-r: f' 1

.fr, ".

;- =- 2

it .

/ hws)

Ir I =

/01

-s

__

~B

6 . /fb The streamlines in a particular two-dimensional flow field are all concentric circles, as shown in Fig. P6.1f{.. The velocity is given by the equation VII = wr where w is the angular velocity of the rotating mass of fluid. Determine the cir..... culation around .thep~~!!.~_~CD~ ____..._

r=

Pri- d-; - f ~ f
ABeD

FIGURE P6.Lf:b

j,

df)

-v;.

dl-

+f~ adt;
CD

Iv;.
lJA

fli'

(I)

A-13

/3,

Sln~e

7/j. =0
(7::

4ntl

fezi/'
tv
~I

~= CUr

d~

+0

fe,
t<)

E~. U)

be OJ) m e.s

a.. l. c/ e r{)

~L

t6.~7-

6.47 Water flows over a flat surface at 4 ftls as shown in Fig. P6.47. A pump draws off water through a narrow slit at a volume rate of 0.1 fe /s per foot length of the slit. Assume that the fluid is incompressible and inviscid and can be represented by the combination of a uniform flow and a sink. Locate the stagnation point on the wall (point A) and determine the equation for the stagnation streamline. How far above the surface, H, must the fluid be so that it does not get sucked into the slit?

..--------~ ....----t
H
-

4 fils

------------

t-I$~

0.1 ttl/s
(per foot of length of slit)

FIGURE PS.47

t.f= t.f

"'I)I ;;,f"In

7-

Hew
I

If:sl~k.
V

- Ur SIj,em1
2rr~

!!!e
2.7/

0)

Thu.5;
Cind

?If :' '"F dCJ ~ Y" -

JIp

CfJsB-

(2..)

- ~tp - -US/~e 1/;= I)


the

1I-/c)fJ?

willi
J

~:: 0 )

ClI1r/

the s.fa9IJAiltf)H

p"J/1i

(jcc('{I"S

wheY'{: 7/j. =0

.so

1111 t

..f~m

Beg. t'/.)

t; ::

/YY1

.s

Ql1d

the

.Jta91J~t,ol} fo/ni

IS

pn the

teJlII/

t!),

007'f~

+t.

-bo

1he f"lfl1t

cl

S//t.
( CfPl1 '-L

('-5/

t..47

I
The
IS

( COl?

'i )
si:fltll1llitOJ1 f~,~i (r = ~.t)()7~~ It) e :'0) the- e~t.iai:'4)H ~/ the cjk'1I1'1t/to~

c/ If Itt the. i.e,..o (E"'g.1) :so thAi


(/Q/&1e

sfr~t1mhi1~

i,s

Sinle
can
b

y=- rSln . (;
W/I'I ffe 11

1he.

.eJ

Ii it.

t/~1J

01

the. ~*,9/1I1-bP" sf"'~J1",J/1I e

as

!:J=
P/u/e/
aboVe

:::Va
tJ.2

the. ;5i-dfn~I:'~11 sfrellml1l1e w;11 luJi b.( sucked 1~+lJ .:5/' 't. Tlte tn4;(imlAm c/,~tt1h,e.1 HJ ~y -Inc sl-otf/llhd,,,, s-trel/mJIi1e t;~Ctlr..s as c9 ~ 7T :s 0 ~ t

H=

tt2. s

Z (If '{~)

(Noi~: AI/ th~ ./It//d be/f)W -tne s-lA9nl( ttDI1 s+f"ellml,;'e must 111r()tl 9h the. .s//t. Thus) f,."m t4J#S~rJ/4t'4JH ~I mASs
/-IV =- ,f-/()W
'f~ .$

,,iii)

/;i

~, ~ 250

.ft

wh ic..A

e-hec.k:.s

WI'fh

71te.

tll1swer a J,~lIe )

'-52

"'.!.f8

Consider two sources having equal strengths located along the x axis at x = 0 and x = 2 m, and a sink located on the y axis at y = 2 m. Determine the magnitude and direction of the fluid velocity at x = 5 m and y = 0 due to this combination if the flowrate from each of the sources is 0.5 m 3 / s per m and the flowrate into the sink is 1.0 m 3 /s per m.

':1

At pel~i. Pr IlI~H1 The )C.-tH.U A.~ Th( V e.\oc..; +-I:U dl.l" -h Th~ -two
e:t~~
11te
SOuVce

j.,,::

SMA

SOI4 VC.eJ

!:I1~\c..

a.v(

a.s

,G,llow.s:

i
::

{VY1 } A=

2lT

(r- z"",)

0,5 "5 ?rr

/#tl.

(S' IW\ -l""" J

FoY' The

i)\ 1<fYV\

(1r~ ) A -=
;)0

W hev(
"I. ':

y-=

~'(2./M) "l.;{s3l-

~ 2~ ;;.,.

2..rY"

-i'hD.lt.

(V-y )
Th~s,

1.0 ~
A=
2iT

'rv:'
S"'i

C>.OZq~: ~
(A.j

1M

a.-i A
LA..

n~

ht>,(,I'~t>",~J ve\oc.;~ ~VY\po)'\e . . tl

\.~

-=

0.6\

~+

0.0"2.(05

~,

(0.

O"2.q~ ') ~

=- O.O\\f'i~
o.VI~

-tne

ve v+ic~1 ve \Oc.~+1j ~YY\fo~e,,",i) 11", LS

v=
T~e
V.\ 0 c. \

V2q

2.

(O.02.qt)C!:! = O.Ol\O~ ~ S .. A \~ nevety"~


0 \ 4-q

+,
VA:

(I..t

f Lt~-t1rl = ~ ( o.

~'; 1.+

,
(0. 0 II 0

~) 2-

O. olg5

~ ~Lf-c

6. ~ 9

The velocity potential for a spiral vortex flow is given by = (f/2n) (j - (rn/2n) In r. where f and In areconstants. Show that the angle. a, between the velocity vector and the radial direction is constant throughout the flow field (see Fig. P6.~n.
::c

FIc;URE P6.1.f ~

HW

me

I/e /0'/"::1

p~ 1::e11 til:! I
~
~ .".;-

'II IIf H J

'1=Sln"ce
oord

~d
~I--100

:'

~
CtJscl.

or/> r 0& :I

f7
2.7rr

Ve y = I VI
A
~

V :-

r;. er

-1

+ ~
~

eB

"'\

-then
Cbs~:

"" V eJ-

IVI

7/;.

Y 1/j.1.

-I-

VB

1. 1

= /+

(..i2 )
.2..7T,...

1-

( _ ; , . . . ) 1.

Th US)
a..

;;, .,.

a.

rand

angle

01.

IS

Ct; J1 st:a n

t.

~.5"O

I
6.50 For a free vortex (see Vidt'tI \'(1.2) determine an ex-

pression for the pressure gradient (a) along a streamline, and (b) normal to a streamline. Assume the streamline is in a hor izontal plane. and express your answer in terms of the circu-

lation.

1r. " .L &lIP =

~B

5,;',,,,
..f-/d4 ,
's
(a.)

fne .fy~~ 114r&" refre,fnH ,ql1


-me

';r"td'M"/

Ilow
(j )

I3fY'm~II;

f?l''(L-t'o;,
i:

Jz...~ /lei,#( ht.'!:w,-el1 an, -I:wo poi".b.


,4/,1/1 u .ffru",I,Atf; (r-=- wnsf""i), ~ )j ~"sfq.1all'" 1).=0 $0 -tIIaf from '3.(11 w,111

1: + X.:

= i!J11ls7:t1l1 f:.

:z.

i!,p/ls/-tt"f-

.-In .. ,

press""

,J C_:;h:lltf) I..'.e.)

..e ': ot9-

"lretlml,i1~
2-~

wi'" 10- =0

({nil t-= cpns1:J,.f

~ 2. + i: -= ~"s.Jq"",
.5.

(,-S5"

~.s/

6.51

Potential flow against a flat plate (Fig. P6.51 a) can be described with the stream function
'1/

= Axy

where A is a constant. This type of flow is commonly called a "stagnation point" flow since it can be used to describe the flow in the vicinity of
y

the stagnation point at O. By adding a source of strength, m, at 0, stagnation point flow against a flat plate with a "bump" is obtained as illustrated in Fig. P6.51 b. Determine the relationship between the bump height, h, the constant, A; and the source strength. m.
y

/'

[
Source
(b)

(a)

- fiGURE PGSI

lj;= A-x ~ ..,..


For 1J,e. bump

/h1 ;z.. ITt;; -- A

}--lS/11

28 +

(!!J
~7T

the

~t:(l.1nlt tlOh

.>G= 0) ~=/,.

(B= ~)

po,'"i will "cct/y Ai f-=-P..). FDy -the ~'L1e H o t.retlm Iu YlC- tl (11)
~~ z.!I
:)111
oJ.

V;=?ae =
(JIn'

, J if

A-r

qn

:z.1T'r

(' 1 )

J/f v::: e

or-

AI-

2.8
A

Th e lOIn /;) B:

r)

r- =- t,) w/// be
0.

.:;-t:a1I1tft f/~;,

pOlni:

Ir
(J )

v;.. =0

~ /)''Ue

v;;.::: a

i:

-htJ~ jJo/n t:.

Th us)

Ir!Jm '1.

o ::: A h C"$ 7T +

'.52

I
6.5Z The combination of a unifonn flow and a source can be used to describe flow around a streamlined body called a half-body. (See Video V6.3.) Assume that a certain body has the shape of a half-body with a thickness of 0.5 m. If this body is placed in an air stream moving at 15 mis, what source strength is required to simulate flow around the body?

2rrb

b=
EZ{,9'1

b=
wheye

rn

15

Sf-renJth) (JHd

iheve-/Cye

(/51f)(t',:;)
7.SCJ
/h12.

-S

(P.5'3
A body having the general shape of a half-body is placed in a stream of fluid. At a great distance upstream the velocity is U as shown in Fig. P6.S3. Show how a measurement of the dif ferential pressure between the stagnation point and point A can be used to predict the free-stream velocity, U. Express the pressure differential in terms of U and fluid density. Neglect body forces and assume that the fluid is nonviscous and incompressible.

6.53

FIGURE P6.S3

!3ernrJulh' esuQ,.fl{)~ bei:ween A- ~ ()iPTxlI ;,

1;1:a.J = ~
It Is f
ql1d

7"

~t ~ 2.
+ 2.-

(I)

\I.: 2. It

='

2. ( /

e,,, s e +

!=.>' ) ;:2If

(~'t.

'./01 )

b (7T-B)
j-=

(E'g . tt..J()" )

05,-;.,
JT
2-

e
So

At

P()/~t

e.:.

7h1J.

t
:::-

t:= A
b 'h
.:

b(rr-I)
SliJ
2-

7Tb
2.
( :l )

r -:z..

7T

5u. /:'51:: i tLl. t/(;11

IJ

f [;b . (2) ,rl.f-c)


7. ( /

E j. {,..

10 J

:flf feb

~ :2.: VClnd

+ 0 +

=iz.)
7.. ( /

1n~yt krt!

/rtJl11

J;g . (/)

-F]b.j =

fA

it

T/

+ :; ... ) -

r tJ.7p3

V '-

Thus)

6.54 One end of a pond has a shoreline that resembles a half-body as shown in Fig. P6.S4. A vertical porous pipe is located near the end of the pond so that water can be pumped out. When water is pumped at the rate of 0.08 m 3/s through a 3-m-long pipe, what will be the velocity at point A? Hint: Consider the flow inside a half-body. (See Video V6.3.)

15

m----J

FIGURE P6.sLf

lud.f -Io(!)d~ )

tf -= V- r-SJh B
.::50
QIIP(

"f"

(l2g.

(p,

97)

-that.

VB =- JIl-

~~

:::
:::

.51j"B

dfj; '1/.'= 1.. I" ae

77 &;S e
)

.,. .

:tvJ.q,,~

Thus 41:
/

p~J;'

t A

e.::t:J

/-.:: IS'_

l..-B .:: 0
1/:.= r ~:

V+

AN(

~TT(JS)

( /)

!=or

4\

f/()w ra te
~ /-reng'/h J~

/OI'JJ f Ipe ) the.

Sou rc e

(I:g. '.99)

then
V=
Z1T (S,,")

(P.37

-It M4
xl/)

{g,37 )( 10

;IJ4f

6.5.5*

For the half-body described in Section 6.6.1 show on a plot how the magnitude of the velocity on the surface, V., varies as a function of the distance, s (measured along the surface), from the stagnation point. Use the dimensionless variables V,I U and sl b where U and b are defined in Fig. 6.24.

oj, - TbU

On 1JJ~ Stlr/ttce,

6/
/-=

the hflJf-b()dy .b (7r-e)


S/h
2.-1

e
{d.J).1

d5

=:

1((d;<)
!}

wIth

X ::.

t~s

ol1d

!1 =

Y'
-t
of-

5,;, 8-. It
til" S/nB d~
C(),s (}

~1/(JuJ.s ihpt.

d;(.:

y- (- Sill b) db db = V' (~se) dB

ClitP

there~ye

ds ::

V r '2.(d e)

2.

+- (d yo )

l.

"V
Let
.::s~=

ds -::

~
=

r2-f-

(~)" de
1/6
So

sib
ds;;'

qncl
,

y1' :

7hA. t
~

V{rI'F+(UjZ
5111

de

(I)

r-r~m

E Z.

c.. /fJO
e
r
IS

-de
Th IA S)
'f}u..

dr~_

( rr- B)

C6'J

19

( 2. )

S/n'17

tire / e12jfh

s+

.5~=
O~cP='7T.

//;;1<)'"1- {~/- de
1T

"J lit 11

by
(3)

(e&r/t)

The. ve/oc; ~ .I ~ I (')11 -!he. .s",.fp(~ ~f. th~ hal/-b~J!1 CIt H WI"'I'Hl'11 111 11t~ ft,rm (!)b#//;"" #Om '1. /()/

".

b~

V~=

tis V

=-

D
tlif II

-r 2. I!fJs!, +
j---110

I ] [p,.) l-

~
tf. t. /~O)
,4- fY"()9f'(/ffI /t,y-

Thus I ~Y'
S""
.frpl'II

a..

7Jv't'fJ e )

".-1' 0111

he ~6kllle~ fr~",

el. (3 ) J
V""
1.5

V #- fj..Ptn
4.5

Ef

.flr).

CtlJ~lAla.J-/nJ
1}1e pYf),rlllfl

V* tls a iul'1c.t.Jl)it fJ/ S'" f,;//()u}s. (Not.~:.I;,


c/e~J9n.kd
V' 41111 S'" QS

S.)

100 c:1""

110 120 130 150 160 170 171 180 190 200 210 220 222
22~

print "*******************************************************" print "** This program calculates the velocity distribution **" print "** over the arc-length of a half body **" print "*******************************************************11 print dim th(18),r(18),s(18),intgd(18),v(18)
pi=~.O*atn(1.0)

226 228 230 232 236 238 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360

n=18 dth=pi/18 s(l)=O. for i=l to n th(i)=pi-(i-1)*dth if i>l then goto 230 r(i)=1. drdth=O. goto 236 r(i)=(pi-th(i))/sin(th(i)) drdth=-(sin(th(i))+(pi-th(i))*cos(th(i)
intgd(i)=(r(i)~2+drdth~2)~0.5

))/sin(th(i))~2

v(i)=(1+2*cos(th(i) )/r(i)+1/r(i)~2)~.5 next i for i=2 to n sum=(intgd(1)+intgd(i))/2 iml=i-l for j=2 to iml sum=sum+intgd(j) next j s(i)=dth*sum next i print" Theta Arc-length Velocity" for i=l to n print using" ###.# ###.#### ###.####";180/pi*th(i),s(i),v(i) next i

(con't )

to.55 W'-I

(~I1t.)

TObU/ofed

da-ta..

(Jlla

A.

fie-/:.

~f

-the cf4-itA. tire

gnifH be/tJl().

** This program calculate::-. the velocity distribution ** ** over the arc-length of a half body ** *******************************************************
Theta 180.0 170.0 160.0 150.0 140.0 130.0 120.0 110.0 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 Arc-length b 0.0000 ) 0.1751 0.3527 0.5352 0.7255 0.9269 1.1437 1.3811 1.6464 1. 9495 2.3052 2.7366 3.2814: 4,.0079 5.0539 6.74,87 10.14,19 21. 54,87

******************************************************~

..s

Velocit.'}T V5 0.0000 ) U 0.1739 0.3444 0.5078 0.6611 0.8013 0.9257 1. 0322 1. 1192 1.1854 1.2306 1.254:7 1.2588 1. 24,42 1. 2134 1.1693 1.1159 1.0577

1.5

.......

~
...c
U
~

::>

r
1.01-

>0

.,
c::

>

0.5 h

Gl Gl III
~

...c
III

c::

Gl

E ...c

0.0

-0.5~

____

____

I~

__

~~~

__

~~

__

~~

__

~~~

____

~i

____

____

10

15

20

25

Dimensionless erc-length.

sIb

Consider a uniform flow with velocity V in the positive x-direction combined with two free vortices of equal strength located along the y-axis. Let one vortex located at y = a be a clockwise vortex (1jJ = K In r) and the other at y = - a be a counterclockwise vortex, where K is a positive constant. It can be shown by plotting streamlines that for Val K < 2 the streamline IjJ = 0 forms a closed contour, as shown in Fig. P6.56. Thus, this combination can be used to represent flow around a family of bodies (called Kelvin ovals). Show, with the aid of a graph, how the dimensionless height, HI a, varies with the parameter ValK in the range 0.3 < ValK < 1.75.

".5''''

----L-l----t:--",.L1---x

--

_7/

(I)

e ,&.

(/) Illul
2-

yk: H~. tttUP..f,f)fl

(I)
( 2.)

(.!j -t j)
t;,y
A

(-* -I)).
:Jlec;';;~1fJI va/1ft ~I Va./k 1=1.L2) ~11 1)(: S'tJ/tleA b'1 ~ +r/~j tfnll err~r :)o/(.('h{;11 /0 t'6-klfl HI),. 5 IPme -itJ/;ulak4 till/ties Alit( the
~6?rre~ff)I1I"i1j'

tjl"R,lJ1J tJre

$hpWIJ

bel/9/.().

2.5

Ua/K

H/a

0.30 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 1.75

2.65 2.09 1.74 1.54 1.32 1.25

H/a

"1

.-.- - --

---- -- ---

-- -

- -.. __ .__________ _

0.5

-- -

---

-----------1 - --

-------115
2

O,------~I------~I------~I-____~
o
0.5
1

Ua/K

ro.57

I
6.57 A Rankine oval is formed by combining a source-sink pair, each having a strength of 36 ft 2 /s, and separated by a distance of 12 ft along the x axis, with a uniform velocity of 10 ftls (in the positive x direction). Determine the length and thickness of the oval.

).
a...

::

[1r~~

+ I

J~

I/.,

(Et b./07)

{
a..
::

~ [( ~ ) _ I ] tt< ~ [2. CT;':") : ]

( E'b.

~. /0' )

/3, /

Ii

Th e fh /ck.neS5/
+rla'/ '111'"
fl'"Y'fJ)"'.

2..l)

Ctln

AS$"fme

w;'th

rl9 II t

A4nd Side

be de term/ned frf!)fYJ Fg. '.IOC, .h:J I/Q/"Ie ~.... -/"/It.. Cfl1d CtPmlflY'e ~f E$. to. It) ~. (See -& J,1e. J,(, IDw. )

-:.
C!J. ZSo

~ [(4)' - IJfa h
O.
2~9

r (!>.l~) fJ
2.

0.25"'1
~.

t).2'Z

25"2

o.

2S"I.
~

O. 25"3

0.25"0

use

Thus)

~ ~ a.,

D.ZS3

al1c/

-thickness

- 2J.

= 2. (".ft)(~. 25"3)

3. a'l- -fi:

6.58*

Make use of Eqs. 6.107 and 6.109 to construct a table showing how (ila, hla, and rJh for Rankine ovals depend on the parameter n Val m. Plot h versus n Val m and describe how this plot could be used to obtain the required values of m and a for a Rankine oval having a specific value of rand h when placed in a uniform fluid stream of velocity, V.

rl

cauf

w h{)Y~

Itl1fl1t ()f. the hody I~ Z), tlnd the W/dth IS z~. /r;r tt J /vtl1 /l'p/ue e>f 'IT 7/tt, //1'11, F'f. (P. /07 Cfln b~ Jt!)jtJed /r,y .i/a / dlU{ Ef. ,./tJ/f CIII1 be .s~/i/fd ("SJ~.f 4n ~ ceY'l-ft:Iff)d jJYtJcetlu~) kr ~/~. The Yllt-/o ~/-i Mn 1Jtel1 be dekrmll1f4.

the

jJr011"1I1')1 iDy Ck/~"lgl/111 t/a) of 7T V tJ.-/11?1 ~//()IVS.

Ii-

-A/a.,

"Nd

l/J

as

t1

htnc-I:I()~

:00 c15 2.. 10 pc:int, "* *~: *:+ * *** ** * * * * ** ** * * ** ** * * * ** ** *** *:j: * * *:t. * * * * *:t: * * ~,: I' :L2'J print. "** This program calculates l/a, h/a, and l/h as a **" 130 p:r:'int "** f1.lnct,ie,n of pi*U*a/m fOT Rankine ovals :tic" 150 print. II ** *** **** **** * ********** * ** *>l:******ll: **:k ****:**:)1:0+ *' *:t:** * *''' 160 print 162 print "pi*U*a/m l/a h/a 1/h" 168 data 10.0.5.0,1.0,0.5.0.1.0.05,0.01 170 for i=l to 7 172 st.art.=O. 001 175 read a 180 la=(1!a+1)~.5 190 for has=start to 10.0 step 0.0001 210 ha=O.5*(has 2-1)*tan(2*a*has) 220 if abs(1-has/ha)<O.002 and ha>O then goto 230 222 next has 230 lh=la/ha 250 print using "##.#### ##.#### ##.#### ##.####";a,la,ha,lh 255 start=ha 260 next i

** '"

Tabu/pted dabJ.. a"d


g/l/fl1
be/otV.

I(

pi,,-/:.

()f-

lit. as

a. .ffl11~t/~n Df 7T'Tr~/m1 tire

r****************************************************** **' This program calculates lla, h/a. and l/h as a **


1'* function of pi*U*a/m for Rankine ovals

**

*******************************************************
!:i:tU*a/m 10.0000 5.0000 1.0000 0.5000 0.1000 0.0500 0.0100
10
1

l/a 1.01,,88 1. 0951" 1.411,,2 1. 7321 3.3166 1".5826 10.01,,99

h/a 0.11,,27 0.2632 0.8601" 1.301,,2 3.1022 1".1,,227 9.9538

l/h 7.3,*83 1".1623 1.61,,37 1.3281 1.0691 1.0362 1.0096

10

-2

10

-1

For
(J) (2.)

tA.

f!6;U/d 6~

Rfll1KIIJe

O{/4!

~//OWftl It;

iAJl1H

1.

tinA

i.

:spec.;!J(~d the IoJJf)wJn~ s.J..eps

det:.fJl'InI!1e.

/Yn and 4..:

/7;.". a. 9Jvfl1 1.1.Jr. from -nte. gl"aph.

d~i:.f~/7J'I1e 7J,e reSIJIN'd value t:Jf 7l[r1Z)m

(....3)

tI~/I1.1 111/~ J/p/ue ~f 7rD"~ //1'11 ~h/cLtla;i:e 1~ +-1'{)1I1 Eg. ,. /" 7. W/1h 'the. VII/we of .ellt. c1eiermJ~e~1 tlnd ,R. :Jj>f'C,'tl p'd) dei:.frI11Ji1e
the
/,It}

the '!I4/we !)f a.. LIf) 0;171 7T77a/,m Clnd a.. de tf}l'm,He'!.;
/.5
-1r110WJ1/ Q 11 d

lue
0-1

f
t?11

/r;r ~ jlVfJ1 1/ the

u1m
/s f;.xe4.

I/p/U(!

6.5"'f

Assume that the flow around the long circular cylinder of Fig. P6.59 is nonviscous and incompressible. Two pressures, PI and P2, are measured on the surface of the cylinder, as illustrated. It is proposed that the free-stream velocity. U. can be related to the pressure difference /)./) = fJl - fJ2 by the equation

u~c~
where p is the fluid density. Determine the value of the constant C. Neglect body forces.

FIGURE P6.59

si:a.5n4. tlon
=

-P'2. + ~ 1.,

(I)

r:,2::
.2..

-J: ;0
So

(3 U:t) = -j-!, l!

<.

u:
1hey~~t"e

)ffy~.

r;

c=

V-f

6.60

An ideal fluid flows past an infinitely long semicircular "hump" located along a plane boundary as shown in Fig. P6.60. Far from the hump the velocity field is uniform, and the pressure is Po. (a) Determin~expressions for the max-

V, Po

imum and minimum values of the pressure along the hump, and indicate where these points are located. Express your answer in terms of p, U, and Po. (b) If the solid surface is the'll = 0 streamline, determine the equation of the streamline passing through the point () = n/2, r = 2a.

----

FIGURE P6.60

( ~)

()1'1

ine suv-1ace cf' ihe hump)

1;. = 1:," ;/ l/
The.
(/11

(I -

J{.

si.'-a)
$1;" 8::0)

max.IYnU/?? pY"e.sst-ft"'e

Dec.fAY'S

0hef'e

~Y"

a..-t
0-#/

t9.:q 71;

4.-t 1'hese..

f~;n-l=s

1; (rm ~IJ(.)
rn, n I rn III rn
A

10 +

~! V'-

(ILt

t9 =(J

7T )

. .

f~t5S u Y'~

t71{5

!Dln t
:1h( J1e,14h~e
..JCI

1: (mlln ) :.s
(.b)

(4.-1: e:::
d/t'Pc.b()~ )

r)

;:;r un/form f/r;w

In

If:: -

r (I - f:~~).r ~ a
the
dey/vA-flO;' ~I g. ~.JI:;').

d;5C"SS/~J11 as.s(!)~,ate'" w,f;.,

~-v-r(l- _ r'ttl

-a..)SII,B .

6.61 Water flows around a 6-ft diameter bridge pier with a velocity of 12 ftls. Estimate the force (per unit length) that the water exerts on the pier. Assume that the flow can be approximated as an ideal fluid flow around the front half of the cylinder, but due to flow separation (see Video V6.4), the average pressure on the rear half is constant and approximately equal to 1/2 the pressure at point A (see Fig. P6.61).

~----

u= 12ftls

.. FIGURE P6.61

-----

hJ.
~I?

'.2.~

t"t

!-o11"lJ/!
t.3

7nA.-t

-t:he drttj

C{
tA

.sec..i::/~J#J
Clrcw/(lY

(~twei'h 6)=0

C/J;'Jj(

,9=""J
17te.
~JU4.i:-/~'11

of

clj/lnt/fY'

7 1 ,,1('110<."'1
C)

DrP.J ~
;::;1" 1;,(:,

~ =
.j;.P4-t.

-1 t ep~t9
rrt)/n

",dB

-k>l'ce

6)n

me

hq/f ~ ~e c.ylln/fr

<Per III'I//: lei1flh)


OJ

r::;.::- - z
(
Dill!.

j; ~s ~ ~ d t9 1T/z
e;:(
6:.. lib

t1t{e

/::0

SrrnlJ'Jel-rlj

~ =tJ.

f.s = ~
d.l1P< sinCe
V-J(..

-t

;! u ~ (; II1.fert's/-PII
I",
7r

If
1lt~

.51;' 2-!) )

rEt.
6-0

6,J16)

(Ire.

tPl1/~
h/of!

-brce ci(.(e
/

fh~ //PUlIJ,j

;:/,,/d

(VIII
2.

I'f!t 1b'=6. 7hus


1/2.

h~hn 5!.f))
( Z)

1-;1 =

i
Chid

'IT

f -1;
'11lz
7T

(J -I

't .5/~ 1.f) ) cpse v... de

t-t;.sBdB == :5/"P

i1T5/~ 'Z-f) ~~l7dB


1!/z.

'1f/,

17r " /1.-

jf~3f}lIT

7T~

.: -j

('-70

~. ' I

{(!or;'i )
It
f,;1/()IIIS

+r()/?1 i:?! .(2.) -ina t

t:XI ~
lV()f~

.,0 U-za. (.3

slid /nciJcJi:-er %,.+ 1I1~ wlry J~ a c&all.!/ 'P4IFn.:; DI1 1J!e. c..rlOftlPy (,frpl1t h4/f) I'; tHe upst:re/lm c/1J'f'c:bf)I"'I. I-I-e>wevt~ (,Jhe It the -e .f.fe~1:.. of- t'lte Y'eIiY holf' of the ClfIJIfAel'" 6 tAJcPI1 Inib aC~ilJ1i (lit ct YPtd Flu,'d) -then fu,'ll be A net drtlj in til, dlYer;hD/f oI-f/lJlJJ.
It

-1J",f 1h~ neja.I:JI/~

The prtS~I(JI'~ A.I:


a/,(&(

1ht

-I:Dp D/ fh.f (!~kndfY' (pt>J~t ,40) /J

fl'/tK ""

P.s =: ~ + 1; 7)"2. (J - Lf -S/I1'l.{;) WI n. {) = 71' Iz.. -PI, :: -A - ; f V' ~

{ig . . IJ~

SInce. A-o ~ lJi)fo( 1),/-r ~n~

PA- :; - ""i! if
1ne.
~t

1-

/J@Jllt/iI~ P(~.5S{,4Y.f

w,l/ '1JJt..
~

4.

/:; : -

SC f'n .. /;.

~ >< Z

prf>Jt'"ft.d a VE'~ = 'Z.

~ L

D()..s/~f,J~ ~ ~ ;(.. 1.. a.. (I)

t- ::: .1 Ii< 7.. If

1/ (2.a.){I) :: 1: fD u-

'1.

f:;.

= ~I
= _

+ ~lp. V-~ +
3

- ffrJ').~
[,.u I ~

-In e datA fJ I ~e 11 )

t-; =7; (J.1~ ~: )(t2 ;~) 2(3 h)

fo-11

Consider the steady potential flow around the circular cylinder shown in Fig. 6.26. Show on a plot the variation of the magnitude 'Of the dimensionless fluid velocity, VI V, along the positive y axis. At what distance, yla (along the y axis), is the velocity within 1 % of the free-stream velocity?

6.62*

-:~
I.J./on,
D

-the

!1-I1;(JS

f 1I1e.

~e/I!)c.;ff1)

V,

1I'j..=O So th4t The m4'}fJrl-~de. i...J e!/IAI -fa /118/' J I;;Ut!..

- V- (/ + ;-:)

SIn b

(Pt. ~.JIG')

(a=:) r;::f;j)

/+

/+

/ (-1:)~

100 110 print "* * * ***-*- * *- *- * * * * *-* * * *- ** ** * ** * *' *:t: *- *- *- *- *- *- ** * * * * * * * * * * *:1''' 120 print "** This program calculates t.he velocit.:,r profile **n 130 print fI*:j( on the +y-axis for flow ar()und a cylinder **" 1~0 print. !! **:t:or. *:0: ** * * ** * * * *- * * ** *)\: ** *:I::;j: * *- * *;~ * *- ** * *- * ** * *)1: *;1: *:t." 150 print 155 print " y/a V/U" 160 for ya=1.0 to 10.0 170 u=1+1/ya~2 180 print using "##.## #.####";ya,u 190 next ya

( UJ:'J

t)

t. -72.

(C4'JI'/t)

da,ipS(Jfl1

n tI a. fl"t ().f /he data. fr"l?1 fh'J~ ye.su/-h 1h4i ",..


(j

a.

'1 > ICJ

** on the +y-axis for flow around a cylinder ** **************************************************


y/a 1. 00 2.00 3.00 4:.00 :).00
E,.OO 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

**'

~*************************************************

Thi:: program calculat.es the velocits profile

**

V/U
2.0000 1.2500 1.1111 1.0625 1.04:00 1.0278 1.0204: 1.0156 1. 0123 1. 0100

2.0~--------------------------------------------------------,

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

11

y/a

6.63

The velocity potential for a cylinder (Fig. P6.63) rotating in a uniform stream of fluid is

= Ur

(1 + ;:)

cos 0 + ;n ()

where r is the circulation. For what value of the circulation will the stagnation point be located at: (a) point A, (b) point B?

FIGURE P6.63

(1

(a.)

(.I:, )

II I /"f' r;

~/l1t

/3.)

e. S~j ('::

371'
2..

7TlIa

S;'n

A fixed circular cylinder of infinite length is placed in a steady, uniform stream of an incompressible, nonviscous fluid. Assume that the flow is irrotational. Prove that the drag on the cylinder is zero. Neglect body forces.

6. b Lf

D"fl~

: F; : -

f. 1's

:J.rr
eeS(J

~ de
tf

fs :: ~ + -it [/2(1 -

S/~~f))

( Eg. ,.

"I, )

[
=
s,~ (;}
. 3

f.
f
C>

27T

Css t7 dB

2.7r
S I j,

~ ~ ~s e dB ~

J2.
o

lT

=0

if f.o Jj DW5 ih(l. -t.

Drlt j = 0

_.

Repeat Problem 6.~4 for a rotating cylinder for which the stream function and velocity potential are given by Eqs. 6.119 and 6.120, respectively. Verify that the lift is not zero and can be expressed by Eq. 6.124.

6. ~S

27T

Dr-tl') '"

F;,. " - [
~ITI

CfJSI9 a. dt9

t = -fo +

1.2.('

( / - if

. ~~
5111 l7 of-

2f1s/nB

7r~ TJ

I
u

,ll

lrr

C!JS
2'Jr

de '"

sin

17].
~
3
3

=0

1. :;IM"'~

Cilsede- "

J
0

2T
'="0

z1/

Ct)58 51;' 9 de-

d: +0 II ows fh- -l:


DY'a.~

=0

,.17"

5/~e de =
3

J ~:iH
)

e de .de "

i s/~"e
"jJ

J-t !cIJoW5 1h().-t.

~-71

6." ~

A source of strength m is located a distance etrom a vertical solid wall as shown in Fig. P6.G,b. The velocity potential for this incompressible, irrotational flow is given by
<P = 4n {In[(x -

e)2 + y2]

+ In[(x + e)2 + y2]}


(a) Show that there is no flow through the wall. (b) Determine the velocity distribution along the wall. (c) Determine the pressure distribution along the wall, assuming p = po far from the source. Neglect the effect of the fluid weight on the pressure.

~e-i
FIGURE P6.l,.~

(A)

= ~rJ
~x.
::

S/~Ce. )

Ix 1., [ ex -;./"+ ~.]

2 ( x-~

)
"J..

(~_). ) ~ -t ~
2. ()(11.)

QYltA.

~ f. n [l;<. 1-1 ) ~ j ~J =
Mt

ex -rQ )
2

';l.

+-.!:J'l..

It 10 /J()WS 1tll. t
U:
-Jf7r

[2. ex -.e )

C;{ -t..e )

(X-).)2 rfJ 'l.

(x+~ ) 2.+ 'j 2-

J
o

Thus theye
)

IS

nD i/tJw ihr-ough -the


o/f!)IJJ
1r=
/AJa 1/)
~tfi

Wa

IJ

(b)

Tn!

l/eJ~c~+j

V. w- :. 7T

Slhce

u.. =o. A-l.so

dlj

Cln d

U)I'th

the.
t1?1

(il v'f? '"


[

tie 1t:)'/~
+

ftJ

leI''':'' ~ /

7/=

'fTr

4 ~ ( x-}) '2-r!:J 2-

(x+J)l. + ~ ~

z~

/)

( c.~J1't )
'-7B

( 2)

( ~)

!=; y

Ir~m ih(!.

Sou Y'C e.l

1;) =f;;
+

Qh

V ~ ().

Th us J

-PO _ -Pur 7 - 7
whey-e.

V;
2.d
1.J4/})

fw- l".s the fyeS5Uye ai the

.s~

1h4i

PJ,r:: ~ -

-1! VIu-

'J.

A long porous pipe runs parallel to a horizontal plane surface as shown in Fig. P6'(.1. The longitudinal axis of the pipe is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. Water flows radially from the pipe at a rate of 0.5 IT ft 3 /s per foot of pipe. Determine the difference in pressure (in lb/ ft2) between point B and point A. The flow from the pipe may be approximated by a two-dimensional source. Hint: To develop the stream function or velocity potential for this type of flow, place (symmetrically) another equal source on the other side of the wall. With this combination there is no flow across the x-axis, and this axis can be replaced with a solid boundary. This technique is called the method of images.

6.t. 7

sou.,.,e )

/s
.sh~wn

~ .".".

2n

1"''2-

rnea.suJI'ed

;".I!)fYJ

-fne SOl.{r,e. W,"th

the. C.tJOJl'dIl1~/e

/n
r?.:

fi9ure
X"2.+ {'j_3)2.
/ ()Wtt"

C/ lui

t'2.:

sou rre )

so -inA. t

l' = ~ f..en [x
u=
()X

~r

--the.

C!t9mblnt'c/
2

S(U(Y"ces

+ (!j-3

)~J . . in [x'+ 6+3)'J]


2.><
)(2

and

()

[ ;("Z

(~-:3) 2.]

-+ (f;j-3)
2)(

l-

2 iYl [ )( "2..-t-l ~ +3 )1-] =


;;;<

)(2.+

(:;'1"3) 1-

/1:.

/0//"w.s -thai

WII/I) '1

=0,
=

Vw-

= u

n;; (-X-'2.
't )

1/

=0

and

lf

--r-i..q- )

( Con

At

f()Jn

A)
VW-A

x.:.

Jj.

It)
Jf- 7T

find

wJ1'h
Lf

/'YY1

=-

0.57'

O. SIT

t;ta. [

(~Pt.)
2.

(If- -Pi:) '1. + 9 -PI:.

J-_~

-2.)
:ft
S

.2 5"

At- p{)/n t B)

x. =0
V'/(r/3

an d

=0
~

irtJm

the
1>13
5

/3ern()ulj i
Vt.crB::
:L~

-+ -

Or

~-~ =
::

J..L
2

VWA
Jb)

.2.

(~2.IfH3 :L (32. 2 ~ )

(3.

fE)

.2-

O. OOG> 2t> psf

25'S

6.68 At a certain point at the beach, the coast line makes a right angle bend as shown in Fig. 6.68a. The flow of salt water in this bend can be approximated by the potential flow of an incompressible fluid in a right angle comer. (a) Show that the stream function for this flow is I/J = A r2 sin 28, where A is a positive constant. (b) A fresh water reservoir is located in the comer. The salt water is to be kept away from the reservoir to avoid any possible seepage of salt water into the fresh water (Fig. 6.68b). The fresh water source can be approximated as a line source having a strength m, where m is the volume rate of flow (per unit length) emanating from the source. Detennine m if the salt water is not to get closer than a distance L to the corner. Hint: Find the value of m (in tenns of A and L) so that a stagnation point occurs at y = L. (c) The streamline passing through the stagnation point would represent the line dividing the fresh water from the salt water. Plot this streamline.

source
(a)

(b)

FIGURE P6.68

(a)

f;r

1n~ 1lve~

$f-rtam fun(.:f/~A)

= A- r 2$;"1 '2 e9if=-o


~,(
(JHP.

a/tin,

().=()

B-=-rr/2,
(!,(JI'I

lP=o ,
be

replac.eeA lv/Tn. a. "5&/;" b~Jllu'"y't 4/(!)A1 4Jh,;;'h the Sfrefll?f -Iunc.-tItP~ r1tJJr bt ~n$hnf. 7}J/5 b"u.;;tdf(Y"~ .j;;rmJ ~ Y"lint tlJllfJe. Allit 1'nff'e,/rJle Ink! sf-reAm ful1(...I-,D /I Cfln b" U$~~ fD yefr~.sfnf ft4~ JJ4' ~ YO/ill! qrtfle ~rl')er.
B,. 17'/2.
(J:;)

Thus) -f/,(, ('A~~ G=o

5'/1'l'~

11::::'

1 r

a..b

t9:: -rr/'l,..
1;-: :: 2 A

r Uls7T

=- ZA-r
1')?1

Zvr
To
J~ I;Cr-t (L ~fL
Ct

~ 1-1t7"lVbf)H

"lrr

= 11';.1 (~tp" 't

b-B2..

( CfJl1't)

2. hL

- 2.7rL

/n1

tjJ= A-r2.s/~'2.B -t
CI n a.
IA-Jl' th

g ()

rrn =: If rrA-L"l.

ljJ= ,A-;-2Sln 28 T lAL!'e


The
~4/ue "l /jJ 41- the. SJ.afnaf/~~ ~Int (r=L) G::: tr/z ) J~

'&/ A L2
= ,4L
Th'-lJ)

$1'"

7T

'1-

2.41..'"("1)
in v"~UfJ.t

2-

1T

-the !"UviIDI' .;,,,. 1he ~fre(unJltj.e, pa~sln,


,4L '2.11
=:

1n~ sh911aA-/~i4 p~/;'f Ij

A- rs/n 2B

t-

2.A L2 e

f.,..

f-

V
a

7T-28 St'11 2.8

,
;r~m

~Y'" pj~H-;'l1j
,

let.
CDS

X.
t:lnlA

= r-

~ pjr;z

().f-

In~ d/I/;d,ltj .sfY"e4mJ/~<t..

J?~.cn

I~ sh() wn ~1'1 17u. ~J1DW/~~

pa.,j e.

Theta(deg) Theta(rad)

r/L

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

0.175 0.349 0.524 0.698 0.873 1.047 1.222 1.396 1.571

2.857 1.950 1.555 1.331 1.191 1.100 1.042 1.010 1.000

x' 2.814 1.832 1.347 1.020 0.765 0.550 0.356 0.175 0.000

y' 0.496 0.667 0.778 0.856 0.912 0.952 0.979 0.995 1.000

~ .~~
0.80 " 0.60 0.40 0.20

-.----.,.-:'- - - - - , r -

.f-----+_!,------=i~-_--r--.---_--+-----r--------j

t----F--~_j~~~~~----~---ti---j
t----t------j------t---=~--iiiiiiiOO;~:.:__1
+------l-----I----_!__--__+----+__--_l
+------l-----I~--_!__--__+----+__--_l

IStreamline I .-;:::::::,:==..,..----,-!, -----, j

I
I
!

I~O.OO
Source

.00

0.50

1.00

1.50 X'

2.00

2.50

3,00

i L_______________________________________

J'

~. bet

I
6. ,~
The two-dimensional velocity field for an incompressible, Newtonian fluid is described by the relationship V = (12xy2 - 6x 3)1 + (18x 2 y - 4y 3)j

where the velocity has units of mls when x and yare in meters. Determine the stresses a:m ay)', and Tn at the point x = 0.5 m, y = 1.0 m if pressu~e at this point is 6 kPa and the fluid is glycerin at 20 e. Show these stresses on a sketch.

(j"

>t){

:: -

-F -r

2.; ~l.!:
,,(

( Eg.

b,lz5'a. )

(T,

~~ ~

-p-r~ ~()'"
O~

( '=g. b, J 15' 1.,)

txJ ~ f
Fo.,.
ih~

(OU

ay'"

2)tr)
~J<

( ~O.
X::.t1),S"",.
~
(JI1J

~.I'Z.'d)

9/(,/(11
12!J

lIe/t!>';+:;
'2

d;sf~ibui/~J1) With
4

j::1.0M-1:
/

-::
~x

dU

-/~;(

:::

12 (/'0) -Ie

'Z.

(b,s) ::: 7.StJ s


S
I

~.:

d!:J

,:1.if (~,S)(I,D) ::

1;)..6

~=
~)(

36X::;:
/dX -IZ!:f
C)

3b (~,S)(I,o)
2

If,

(j

s
I

~ ()"' ==
alj

Thus) .f.o~
+

and /"-:: /,5'0


2

~:

(I, 5"' () ~) ( 7, ~() f

) :: - S. r8 ..Ie fa.

cr'J~

::

tj = (1.5'D

6.70 Typical inviscid flow solutions for flow around bodies indicate that the fluid flows smoothly around the body, even for blunt bodies as shown in Video V6.-1. However, experience reveals that due to the presence of viscosity, the main flow may actually separate from the body creating a wake behind the body. As discussed in a later section (Section 9.2.6), whether or not separation takes place depends on the pressure gradient along the surface of the body, as calculated by inviscid flow theory. If the pressure decreases in the direction of flow (a favorable pressure gradient), no separation will occur. However, if the pressure increases in the direction of flow (an adverse pressure gradient), separation may occur. For the circular cylinder of Fig. P6.70 placed in a uniform stream with velocity, U, determine an expression for the pressure gradient in the direction flow on the surface of the cylinder. For what range of values for the angle will an adverse pressure gradient occur?

-u
e

FIG U REP 6 .J 0

rYP/71

Eeg .

~. /I ro

11 = -to + i

fVl(i -

if

;1'ln1.B)

( I)

Since
I

el/J

adverse fr~.s>nre J rdQle",,-t

p?Slh;e.,

t3lljPB)

/r

-!oj/Pills

hom

Hils

/17

1J;e rAl1fe

tJf

2.

Ei .f/)
1/11

rt'cJ

#r

tJdJlerse

p('e.sst/~ 1I'IU//I'I1/. Th/J 1"t/f1/fe e87rrRspl1ti.I -Jo Y'etlr half "I 171e C!f/ltlder.

'.71

I
6.7'
For a two-dimensional incompressible flow in the x-y plane show that the z component of the vorticity, C, varies in accordance with the equation

DC
Dt

v V'2[.
-<

What is the physical interpretation of this equation for a nonviscous fluid? Hint: This vorticity transport equation can be derived from the Navier-Stokes equations by differentiating and eliminating the pressure between Eqs. 6.127a and 6.127b.

~~. 1../27b
(1.)

f
b, fleyel1tJ~te
V'.esfe,:i:
fc) )( )
,

Eg.") W,.th Ye'f eci +0 l:J cliol E ~ . tZ) wi-h a""pA $Ubtl"'U.t, G:fJI) .fr fJ " , E~.lZ) ,,~-I:'IIH

;J (JVax 'it

-t

l.(.

~x .,. V ~!J
T

dtr

Jtr) - a!1 d (JU ~"t


~
~-z..

dIA. ax
-t

v- d ~
d':J'L

JI.(.)

~ [ d (~ 1. tr ]X. ~X'L

"1

V-)

d ( ~ 't (,.(
o}('L

d'1. '-<.

)J

(3)

'8~ cJe//","/-,()i1

(s~e li'~. '.17)

f~:~-r-;
Re-wr;te
Et(.3}
~

~v-

;;I..L

r;j,-/;g/h
)

- ,X
C>
~t:

d ( ~v- d L< (~tr_~)+ u. 'fX ~x- d!:1 Pfj

-+

v-

& '""i

e'"

a>< - ~

(j,,)

( If)

7[ at
~7..

(o~

ax. - J;

dU

~!J 'I.

ol. (~_J'<)J oJ< t3 'J

b-87

(P, 7/

-fer-rn :5/nce each it iol/()ws Iha.t

01

pqyen thR SI'S


~ fiL = J!}
CtV1

In

Erg.

(If)

lor

t
(S)

D f~

d~ tit

tA.

afr
a"><.

-r7.J'"

h.(~ ;0 J.x2..
be

+~

d'f. )
J.!:J 2.-

The I eli

f:J

icJe

of

~ Z.(5)

expyessed a. s
IS

f'slJe' G!.lf.S)

-Dt

t.J here

the

~teyab:;r

D ()

1hf!

mtJfenid
~h

Dt

de f"iva tille

Th e rl ~ h 1:; ha J1 d

s; eJ

t.

E ~ . (5)

b-e

ex.pYessed as

-v
where
-V =)L~

V2. ~
So

thai

E''!. tG")
.z
QJ1c/

~"11 b~

tdr/fltH I~

nfz :: Dt
Fo y
a.

-V

l7~
J

1'Jt:n{//~C.()u..s
-

.{/uid
Df:
-=0

-zj=a J

111

Thu Cq.s-t!

D f1:-

Th us ) -{O.,..

a..

fwo- ttllmpI151OA4J

+/~w

I){

On

Ji1~ompt~.s5aJ/p

lIon I//SC/J(J.s ,f-/"I(j I

-In e.
as t't

c.hal1/1
f?1 ()

/H

the.

v();-iJ~/r':1 t>f "-

/-Iu,'d j)rut,cJe is -,.fl"o.

lies

ih Y'~"9h the..

!..jaw It'eld

~.72.

I
6.72
The velocity of a fluid particle moving along a horizontal streamline that coincides with the x axis in a plane, two-dimensional incompressible flow field was experimentally found to be described by the equation u = x 2 Along this streamline determine an expression for: (a) the rate of change of the v-component of velocity with respect to y; (b) the acceleration of the particle; and (c) the pressure gradient in the x direction. The fluid is Newtonian.

(~) From

-the

C4Jni./~ul'-f!:t e8ua.tl~~)
c;u

ox.

"1'

~V'"'-o ~ -

.so tn~ t:

tv

in

u. = )(

:z..
-;LX
(/)

?;tr _~ ~:: oJ<

A/so) ~g .II)

Cal-(

btl ;".f.@9Y'4ftM

wit;, res.ft>ct 1:.0!:J +0

OJ,-i-4/~

Jel 11'"
SIHce the
X-fiX/J

=is
Jo

J- z~ d!1
z)(:; +
0.

1r::: -

f-l)l.)
o;tiJ

.s/-Ytlll'l1/Jhe) r=o 4/"11, "this

(J/I1~

theV'ekl"t.
(b)

(;<)::: 0

-tit. t:
-zx';j

'1r

'.73

6. 13 Two horizontal, infinite, parallel plates are spaced a distance b apart. A viscous liquid is contained between the plates. The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves parallel to the bottom plate with a velocity U. Because of the no-slip boundary condition (see Video V6.5), the liquid motion is caused by the liquid being dragged along by the moving boundary. There is no pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Note that this is a so-called simple Couetle flow discussed in Section 6.9.2. (a) Start with the NavierStokes equations and determine the velocity distribution between the plates. (b) Determine an expression for the flow rate passing between the plates (for a unit width). Express your answer in terms of band U.

T"
b

Ii' I

1/ >t

It

77 7

7 I

7 I I I n-X

J:/ )(~d

pJ ..-le.

(a.. )

7htl~ ~r ~.,f'O f'''.5..fIlY~ ~YdQ/;'''t

7JJz
..50

)2.k,

_
-0

1hd
'j=D
fA. ='0

U::: C,

j -t Cz.
C/ ==];
V

At

and ,.f -h//t)/.IJS 1h~t

at: ::J =-~


TheYekre J

u.-= V and
fA..

!J
=

(1:,)

c;::

f
0

u (I) d:J

J;

f~ ':J d::;
0

E~f j,
2.
0

Vb
2..

where

'6

is 111 e. flDwra te per unit- WIdth

r;.71f

I
6.74 Oil (SAE 30) at 15.6 C flows steadily between fixed, horizontal, parallel plates. The pressure drop per unit length along the channel is 20 kPa/m, and the distance between the plates is 4mm. The flow is laminar. Determine: (a) the volume rate of flow (per meter of width), (b) the magnitude and direction of the shearing stress acting on the bottom plate, and (c) the velocity along the centerline of the channel.

(k)

1-~)( Sln'~
all1d

I (tJ/,i. ~
I

~tr)
-r

~;<.

(Eg.

b.J2!i"J.)

lA.. :- -

').)A

-.......

op aX

;f

v-=o iO//f!)wS thai


~k a ':1 -

~ ~x

eE (Z!1 )
~ ('1)

Ot..r

a.x

-=0

and -theY'e kwe


Tj,x. ::

At- the boll-om pia ie) '1 =-,,. ) (/11 d S il1 C(! ~ ~x. ......:\.. =: 61' (-R,):: (ZO;<I03.1Y.-a)(Z'(JO~'/YYI) L'jJ<
;. /WI

::

- J

(C )

(2.81

xlO

-If

~)

(Z)(Z)( IO-3M-{ ')

- D.

105

fD75

I
6.75 Two fixed, horizontal, parallel plates are spaced 0.2 in. apart. A viscous liquid (J-L = 8 x 1O-3 lb s/fr-, SG = 0.9) flows between the plates with a mean velocity of 0.7 ft/s. Determine the pressure drop per unit length in the direction of flow. What is the maximum velocity in the channel?

Tn r.(5)

~ i ..

= 1. If 2 ~z. p.,,..It::

'3 ::: 2:

(P-b) 0.7 5 =

I.05

tt S

6.710 A layer of viscous liquid of constant thickness (no velocity perpendicular to plate) flows steadily down an infinite, inclined plane. Determine, by means of the Navier-Stokes equations, the relationship between the thickness of the layer and the discharge per unit width. The flow is laminar, and assume air resistance is negligible so that the shearing stress at the free surface is zero.

3)1. = 3
w/th
7/':0
J

S/11

d...

the

UJoyd'l14.t~
J

~'1s/-em
1l1e

Sh"Wh

t..cr::O

and

#()fl1

eLJl1tinuif!J e.tJtl4:i:IOH ~
()

froM -the

)(.- ~m'p'Mfl1t of the

ox. =0 Thus) lilli/lty -S.f.tJke.s ~!UlLtl()H~ (Et. '.I 2 7a..))


eJ/

,it the hjUye

() = _ i j
fJ.x.

1'1}
(f

Slit

+j

dZu

d!J

(I)

2-

A-/~o) s Jj.,{~ there /S 4(. free slwface there CtiIfMt. be a. pre.ssf.lY-e,. jYrJdlent Ih the X-dlY'ecf/~H So -h.c.i: E..e -= 0 Qut/ E'I. (I) L.1L, axCqh
De.
wrt 7T~11

I/lS

( Z)

6:,-1'3

(P.77
Direction of flow

6.77

A viscous, incompressible fluid flows be-; tween the two infinite, vertical, parallel plates of Fig. P6.11. Determine, by use of the NavierStokes equations, an expression for the pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Express your answer in terms of the mean velocity. Assume that the flow is laminar, steady, and uniform.

~h+h~
FIGURE P6.17

With the ~f'dtn4~e .j,/.stem ~hf)UJn t<. = 0) W- = 0 C(lId .frt!Jm 111e UJni/nu/f!:1 (Aa.I::/~J1 ; : ; = o Th liS) rr"m 11te !/- UJmjJDJ1bl'"i of -the Nllllley-SlDk~.s -ejtlal-ID;"~ (EI ~.1Z.1h)) tul1Jt ~:J -= -J)

ez

-h -f3

Jp

+;-

cJ 2 tr
d;<'2.

(I)

S/I1C~ 'fhe ,"~~stlye is I'}()t a h(J1(:.-b~n be wl"iHeJ1 IJs d 2 v- _ .p

01 .x.) '1'

1/)

C/l11

(t.Jhe~e

P =

# +;03)

-tlfi'L -/ol1d
dt.r:: d.JL

J:;1!)f)1

of

1,.

s'f/7J/nelr~
(2)

~if1/d.s

~r =c

r o.t:

/nff?rp/-en P X T C,
x=
(J

( Z)

.j~

Thu5

w/1'J-,

v
'!hai

V= 2:h
~
'4!:J -

(me~Yl veJocj~ ) 9ivel1 <!- = J..E -I.. "2.


3 /'-

r..78
6.78 A fluid of density p flows steadily downward between the two vertical infinite, parallel

plates shown in the figurefor Problem 6:17. The flow is fully developed and laminar. Make use of the Navier-Stokes equation to determine the relationship between the discharge and the other parameters involved, for the case in which the change in pressure along the channel is zero.

See.

Problem

to. 8 3

where

J5

3 ~ the ci'scha"ge pel" "1I11 t.vidth

Z=

'2.

p-l3

.f = P':J !.e

+/,q.
~

Thus)
3~g 2.. J

~ +/J - "to

-It.

CJp =

TY

-3

2.

11. -fJ

!=b~

':;

=0

(lIo/:e: Jj,(! ne!ah;,~ SI'!), iJ1dlC4ks -fh4t 1Ite d'l"e"tJ(/n ~( IIf)W


l?1us t: b.fl
d"wnw~lIeI

.f.o

create.

a IeY'O fY't'ssl.J~~ jradJlfrlt.)

6.79 Due to the no-slip condition, as a solid is pulled out of a viscous liquid some of the liquid is also pulled along as described in Example 6.9 and shown in Videu V6.S. Based on the results given in Example 6.9, show on a dimensionless plot the velocity distribution in the fluid film (vIVo vs. x/h) when the average film velocity, V, is 10% of the belt velocity, Vo.

l' VeJ1 b'J the ~tu4:h~)I

en

( 3)

(Lf' )

r",.,,,,
tlnll

e1.(3)

eZ.

(If)

V. ~ J.

~''U1

~VD

(J J:..~

2.7

wr, HfH
1_

a.S
J

3S

(f. )
I
I

27 [~ ) +

A pia+- ~ f. -tn(! I/~ /Oc./-hJ c/I'flt-vi 6/.(.J-/~1'I


xlh

o
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

vNo
1.000 0.744 0.514 0.312 0.136 -0.013 -0.134 -0.229 -0.296 -0.337 -0.350
1.500 ,---,----,---r--...,.--,----,-..,---,----.----. ! i 1.000
<>0 0.500

f'...

l_
~.,........,.-...,....."....--,

0.000

-1--+--+-+--~

lr-....t-..,. i

-0.500 -I--......!-I--L._.L...--L-~!----l_..l.---L---L--I

___~"...__-I---t--4----l -I~~:...-;Lj.

0.5 x1h

~ Calculated from

~-~~------------'

Eq. (5)

G,.FO

An incompressible, viscous fluid IS placed between horizontal, infinite, parallel plates as is shown in Fig. P6.80. The two plates move in opposite directions with constant velocities, VI and V 2 , as shown. The pressure gradient in the x direction is zero and the only body force is due to the fluid weight. Use the Navier-Stokes equations to derive an expression for the velocity distribution between the plates. Assume laminar flow.

6.80

FIGURE P6.80

RPr fne
Sa

:steel h iod

c~l1di .J-IDt1~)

=")

w-:: 0 ,)

p,l(.

tit:.

1:111"

! :: 0

J(.,)

171tl.t the.. X.-6Pmf~l1p"t ( EZ' ~. /2'71<.) reduces -1::0

01 the Natlle~ - S-iDkfJ

e'l"lttJol1S

In.f-e1rll 6,p;' t!J.f-

Gr

d zf.,( d!J 2.
(I)

.:.

u)

7Ie/cis
J
of ("2.
( 2.)

U:- ~

:J= 'J

0)

u.. =--L{

c
F;; r
=.

J.

=- - V ~
~o

b)

fA.. '::

V,

1ha t

V;=C,h-~

c=
I

u; -t u;. ) u..= ( b

t;J

"

Two immiscible, incompressible, viscous fluids having the same densities but different viscosities are contained between two infinite, horizontal, parallel plates (Fig. P6.E,J . The bottom plate is fixed and the upper plate moves with a constant velocity U. Determine the velocity at the interface. Express your answer in terms of V, 111 ~ and 112' The motion of the fluid is caused entirely by the movement of the upper plate; that is, there is no pressure gradient in the x direction. The fluid velocity and shearing stress is continuous across the interface between the two fluids. Assume laminar flow.

6.81

Fixed

plate

FIGURE P6.81

the. spec/hed C~lId;'tloIf.SJ 7/::: 0 ; w-:::0.l if. :'0j QHIiI Ix. =oJ -Se> '/hat the x- ~mf()nMt of th~ IVallier-5fDkes -esaa:l:loHs (E?fJ. ',/Z711) -hI- e/they fht! up~Y tJr IOIVIY laffer vedtlces t.o
/=r;r
-

dzu

d!J

':0

(I)

J,.

I.nk~rA:ti"lt

~I

E S.
tJt~

(/)

fj/e/ds
e/fhev
J alJ"'Y".

u=A-~ -f8
fA.)

h ;c h '1 Jiles
the

lIe/f)c/-ht dt.sfn~ktIDN
'j:= 2 -'.) '"

it

r",
W

uppey /4. reY' atI

= Z7

.so

/ha.:t

B -: V - A, (2.1,)

her~ the S'IbSC. "'pi POI' the lowe#' latter-

re fers 10 11te U.f'f~v la.Yfy', CIt fj::oJ u=o ..so thai

(..)her~ the. '5L1bu,JI'lpt


U I -::

B2Z

=0
Jl'eier.s +0 the
JOOty

JaY-iV'. Thus)

AI

( ':J - 2

t..) +- 7J

tlnu

fA 2.

= A'2,

~
Jo
.::

AI:

'J='{

U, ::: U2

1ha-l:

AI (~-Z.h) + U

AI. --{
(c'()n

",...

A:z - -A I

't )

(z )

( CI)I1'i )

S/~(e

1h(. lIeJ()C"-ht chs'frJ'blll:lDh IS /'~elll' '11 e~c.h Jtl~er


5he~Y'/n, ~fYi.s.s

he
Is
a J1 eI

"f-..

L':Jx

-jA.

( J u. .,. Ii J ~)x

tr)::

/-

.u. .i!::
d!J

~l1si:ql1i 111 r()l.(fIHt)I(,f. eac.h lA-iffY'. hr the "'fpl'Y J~'ttr

L; ~ /-1 A,
laf'
the
)tJWdy

/tl'1fY'

Li

":!

jJ,. A
~ .z.

2.

",... ., =ft, -

Co,.J.,a -I: lit

PI A, -=)tz. A

I-

liz. -

l:!-~

~,

6.82 The viscous, incomp.r0:Jslb1e flow between the parallel plates shown in Fig. P6.8~ is caused by both the motion of the bottom plate and a pressure gradient, iJp/iJx. As noted in Section 6.9.2, an important dimensionless parameter for this type of problem is P = -(b 212 p.U) (iJp/iJx) where p. is the fluid viscosity. Make a plot of the dimensionless velocity distribution (similar to that shown in Fig. 6.31b) for P = 3. For this case where does the maximum velocity occur?

Fixed plate

u
FIGURE P6.82

U ': ~

(dP) 2 ~ ':f t
Jo "'1}t1A..i:

/'I .... , 'J

-t

~L

At

t.< :'

Cz. ::-

v:

A -I:

C, :: -

/)..1"

.J. (lj") b _ ~
~;< /

(~ ) (!J "- b:;)


u -

[,r

(1 - ~)
'::J

i.~ (~)(Y r; - ttr ,;( b )(!LI) J,


,
SII1C<)

t I

(I)

h"'- ('?i') P=-ii rr ~


Can

1:1 . (I)

b<

wr/ffel'1 as.
];
~

u. ... - -p(t)(l-)-f7
IJ/$

( 2.)

p/oi 6/ -this
sh()wn.
On

VI! / ~(..;

+rt chsf(; b/.( -tIC ';" loy P =- 3


p4.J<! .

-h1t!. .ft, / /() u) I n' ,

, - 100

u/U 1 1.17

y/b

0.1

1.2

1.28
1.33

0.2
0.3 0.4

..,--.,--,...---,-\---,..--,----r--,--;-\-,--,-I----r--,---'I,--;-1

- ,

1.32 1.25 1.12


0.93

0.68 0.37

,
To

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8


0.9 1

It~:~1 I! ~ O. 6 +---+-+-+----+----+-----j---I----l----tl---i~..... ~d~-----r--T!-----j


0.4 +-+--+-+-+--+-+-+--1--+,-+-----+----i--1'l}l-tI, --j
0.2 +-+----+--+--+----+--+---+---t----t--t__ -t-~--r-::~-,r--:-I--j
0-l--...I....-...I....-.L.....-.L.....-j---!l.--J----1--L---'-=:;.l..---,----,---,--;

1 0.8

t:tl~~j;~t:r:[' JI=JI=JI=I!=rI=L ~i I! I i
1

, 1

0.5

1
u/U

1.5

Calculated from Eq. (2) with P =3.

L-____________________________________ i

de. krrrlJ~.c.

whp,,<

fh{

)114)(1I1U011

V )0(, I ~

DC'" C ..O"

c/,/ft.r-tl1tI4+-t!..

E'!. (2)
~-..L

Cll1d

.sei
.b

eS~AJ ~ 'ty~.
.= 0

Thus"

~'J
ClntA.
WJ

d .(1A-1v)
1-;,

0[1. (J. ) - 1] - J. b
J,a

P= 3
=_3

c{(fA./v )

dey
So

[i (2 i-1ij - = ~

-InlVr

~ .. 1 "I"" 3

&'-/0/

6,83 A viscous fluid (specific weight = SO Ib/ft3; viscosity = 0.03 lb . s/ft2) is contained between two infinite, horizontal parallel plates as shown in Fig. P6.S3. The fluid moves between the plates under the action of a pressure gradient, and the upper plate moves with a velocity U while the bottom plate is fixed. A V-tube manometer connected between two points along the bottom indicates a differential reading of 0.1 in. If the upper plate moves with a velocity of 0.02 ft/s, at what distance from the bottom plate does the maximum velocity in the gap between the two plates occur? Assume laminar flow.

u= 0.02 ftls

Fixed plate

'~~_. m_BB~ ~ .1=

r = 100 Iblff
FIGURE P6.83

MCI;(llnt.f/YI

ve/oc,1t:t ltI/// 4'JCCllr

at cllS-h}fce ~ntf tJl1t~e

Thus)

( J)

For rnanofYItte.,.

(St~ h~lJrt 1:0 r"IhtJ)

~+ ~f Ah -

'(1 f .An
) Ah
gD

= f1.

t, - 1'2. ~ ('0}t - ~

= (J
A-Is 0 J

()O

it

11

.ft'3

l:! ) (

I'

6. J

2.~.

111.) -O.I~7-~ _ Ih
.ft.

+t-

ox.

JP

::

.p, - R'l.

O. /(P7
(

4=t;2.

1'-'

(01')1. 12. ,'\01.

lb = (). ~3LJ H3

I. 0 I~'

12. ,'..,.

Shaft

6 . S1+A vertical shaft passes through a bearing and is lubricated with an oil having a viscosity of 0.2 Ns/m 2 as shown in Fig. P6. g'r. Assume that the flow characteristics in the gap between the shaft and bearing are the smne as those for laminar flow between infinite parallel plates with zero pressure gradient in the direction of flow. Estimate the torque required to overcome viscous resistance when the shaft is turning at 80 rev Imin.

75 mm

~"'i"

FIG U REP 6.84-

dF== "t'dA

The -bOY~ ue
~)\I\
1.5

().

'yce d r ac.+'~j d~++eyet,.hal ~vea.) dA-=- vi.Rc1e J due.

+0

Tr.2dB L

C$e E'

+1;
.J

ijll'.iC!

Il.t

VI'~t.)

cI~ ~ y.
l

d F :: y. 'J. r.1 d 8 l.
~ neAyil1j styes s.

().Iheve

IS

tne.

Thu S J
(I )

1oJT"

d8

:1.11"

r/ t ;

u= lJ.:t. b

Th us) from

E Z . II J

J= 2iTr/"r;-)f. = = ),11 (0. 015 {0.2


m1

Y
rm

0.355 N

6.85 A viscous fluid is contained between two long concentric cylinders. The geometry of the system is such that the flow between the cylinders is approximately the same as the laminar flow between two infinite parallel plates. (a) Determine an expression for the torque required to rotate the outer cylinder with an angular velocity w. The inner cylinder is fixed. Express your answer in terms of the geometry of the system, the viscosity of the fluid, and the angular velocity. (b) For a small rectangular element located at the fixed wall determine an expression for the rate of angular deformation of this element. (See Video V6.1 and Fig. P6.9.)

de

1 '"

c.~Jihdf(

Jen,1h

t .... sheanng s+ress


(ill)

The -torgue W~'c.~ must be. o.ppl,fa +v out(lv CLfIJ~dtf 10 ovevco",e 1k.t
kY,e du~

1v tk~ S~~4v(n, J1-l"'ts.s IS

(see .r,9u~)

d~:: ~ d F

=
ITT"

Y" (t ~ .Q de)
::: ;2:".,.

= ~ ~ 1:"..Q

de
(I )

J"
I. n the 3(). P

'fb'

tJ [ de

n ro 2. '-'" l!..

t:: F' Lt
1::: YQ G Z.
(J)

d..Y: : :
db

Y"l.'

11

+0 Ho ws

-hia+-

~.fS

I
(j,)

FYtJln E'fj.
~
/i;~

t,,18

P_~

- "K

01.( '+ 0'1

1h(

j Jt1ea r'

J,ifr;bu .j./~'1J
__
Z/~

u.= - r;~
~l-{

Y.'-y-. () L
V-

J,

__

Fb"
I/nll
6

b
v -.b

V.::.()

/h~ lIe!a..f/,t~ ~J1n indtC4h.! -/n"t;- iJt~ ()rt9J11~/


rl911t ClIt9/~
.Ihf)IINI

I;'

Fitj,

P', 'f J,

jJ

IhCretl..slh~.

6. 8~* Oil (SAE 30) flows between parallel plates spaced 5 mm apart. The bottom plate is fixed but the upper plate moves with a velocity of 0.2 mls in the positive x direction. The pressure gradient is 60 kPa/m, and is negative. Compute the velocity at various points across the channel and show the results on a plot. Assume laminar flow.

The

ve/o(;/t-!1 d/sfr/i1U";'OH 5

'iIi/eM

b~ the egt{~bt)~

=V
~
)

me
u=
so 1ha i

J
+

~~) (:;2_

b!1)

9111iw dA:U I

(~.:J. ;')
(tJ. ()t)SI'm

u = 'fO!:f +
tv/lh
U.
111

7.!f;<. It; 'I- (

O. O()S!:f -

:/J)

fm/5
t(

CCI / til J ~ 1-,;'.1

whfn !:J i~ I;' 1)t1. If pr0tjY4m as 4 I-ttl1c;bl)d bf f:J fO//()lQs.

100 110 120 130 140 150 155 160 170 180 190

cis print ,,******* *** **** ******** ** **** ***:+ *************** :t-* * II print II ** This program cal culates t.he veloci t.y prof il e * i l l print ,,** for Couette flow **" print "**************************************************" print print." y U(y)" for y=O.O to 0.0051 step 0.0005
u=40*y+78900*(0.005*y-y~2)

print using "#.#### next "}t

#.####";y,u

( CtPn't. )
[;,,/;II/ated dak.
4Hd A.

p/tJi ()f- the dlLia. a;e

!}/vf'J1

j,e/()w.

*************************************************w ** This program calculates the velocity profile ** ** for Couette flow ** **************************************************
y

0.0000 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0035 0.0040 0.0045 0.0050

u(y) 0.0000 0.1975 0.3556 0.4742 0.5534 0.5931 0.5934 0.5542 0.4756 0.3575 0.2000

* 10- 3
5r-------------------~~----------------

________------____

3
E

0.1

0.2
u

0.3
(m/s)

0.4

0.5

0.6

b-lo7

6.~ 7

Consider a steady, laminar Bow through a straight horizontal tube having the constant elliptical cross section given by the equation:

x2 y2 a 2 + b2 = 1 The streamlines are all straight and parallel. Investigate the possibility of using an equation for the z component of velocity of the form
w=A (1 - -a2 b2 as an exact solution to this problem. With this velocity distribution what is the relationship between the pressure gradient along the tube and the volume fiowrate through the tube?
Fr(Pin C/hd

X2

y2)

'/he descl"I,iJt/It 1)/

-the pJ"()b/{'m,)

U=O) V-':0

Ix- =0)

ur:j: I(t),

the. C4?l1ilnU; f~ eg tilt tl,,;n li?tl;~~~J' -II1,d Jur.:::.o. w;f1.t 11use CbI1t/;f/~;'nJ' The iE -CtPmp~pl1t of 1ke NIJII/e}l"-J~".s .e!(J,d,()H.s (Ef. h, IZ 7c.)

rePtlte s -16

J!, _ Ji: ~)'

(Lur ~;(Z.
"Z

1-

~J ~

"Zur)

( I)

)(,'2..

';/"2..

al: + 6'3,

=I
,

Thus) the
~11

pr()t~secl
5

veJoc,'-ht
the

d'SfYI

btl I-IO~

d,' +, f!JIt

/J1 ce

011

bt)LlHdtli'fj

0": A

~ -1':-- r)" A [i- (~: ;- ~~ =A D - oj) =()


tt

Th/s
Carr

V'~.sLlJi 1~(";att'J 7hllt the PY'tJfos('cl lIe/{)cir!1 d/~f~l:)jrho~


b.e used as

.s~Jli.JbM. Subst/tu 6til1 ~f the ve/oci ~

d',S"fr;l?t/fJoH II1'-1-lJ Et. the Pf'.e>StlY.(! 1Ylltltf;'t;

#)

t.J)

ql'/es ihe YeJa-b~sHj be.J-w~eY1 (/11# 111e Lle/oci'1tj. S;;;C'f!.,)


d 2 W-""
_ Z,4

d2 W-::P,x'z
I

_;(,4

7..

o!J'Z -

.bz.
(2)

~llows

1H4 i:

~ J-t

- - l AJ<. /

(-f.
G-108

j,~ )

( coni)

d4=-di.d':J

T
h

-t--

QV1d

1Y1 e re fr:, roe


,4:

zeD 1ra...b

!="rom

EZ(2)

~ =- Lf # C) Tr4b ~t

(-jy. i-~)

6. ~ g

A fluid is initially at rest between two horizontal, infinite, parallel plates. A constant pressure gradient in a direction parallel to the plates is suddenly applied and the fluid starts to move. Determine the appropriate differential equation(s), initial condition, and boundary conditions that govern this type of flow. You need not solve the equation(s).

D/';:kYPII~,(/j

e$ua.ildJl1S

OYt!

-hte

Sf/me..

QS

$5. 1..1291 6./3~ ql1~

~.

/;J J

e .t"ce,Pt
Q

7Hc t- : ; :# 0

(.5,;'a:.. iHe .f'14L.) 1.5 ~J1sl-ea",).

Ihvs J

1. '. IZ 1 r?/ws-t
HII

'nclwde

tHe.

IOCQI aCce/enJt:lo~ i:t'r""'.J


tlre:

1Jte

,/ov(lY'l1ln f

d,.,ch~J4hlf'j -ef""iJt9Xs

( x-

d/Ye(.-htJ~)

0::-

_ Jp
d!}

- fii:a

0: -~
dZ.

J:n, +, q'j
/3f)t/ J1 r/II,.!}

&;11t/J '..j.,p#

k=o

.ft:,y-

~r ,I'll

!:1
~(j

C4'JnQi .fioll5 :

u=o

h>r

!f=~~

-k>y t

6:,-/10

6.89 [t is known that the velocity distribution for steady, laminar now in circular tubes (ei ther horizontal or vertical) is parabolic. (See Vidl'Cl "\'6.6 .) Consider a IO-mm diameter horizontal tube through which ethyl alcohol is flowi ng with a steady mean vclocity 0.15 mls. (a) Would you expect the vcloci ty distribution to be parabolic in this ease? Explain. (b) What is the pressure drop per unit length along the tube?

(a)

C hec.K

Re =
flow /; ) IJm/;'" r (} Hd PIIY" /JoFc.. y~j .

= g

(/.I~ ></0- 3 yt,~)(t? /~f' )


(0. o;,lJ"") "

IV S7 / ,
;m

p.er

ml

j
'--1 1/

~.

'10

6.90 A simple flow system to be used for steady flow tests consists of a constant head tank connected to a length of 4-mm-diameter tubing as shown in Fig. P6.90. The liquid has a viscosity of 0.015 N . s/m 2, a density of 1200 kg/m3 , and discharges into the atmosphere with a mean velocity of 2 m/s. (a) Verify that the flow will be laminar. (b) The flow is fully developed in the last 3 m of the tube. What is the pressure at the pressure gage? (c) What is the magnitude of the wall shearing stress, Tn' in the fully developed region?

_ _ _ _IIIIIiiI_m

Diameter = 4 mm

\.

3m---I.!

FIGURE P6.90

(C<. )

Check:. Re'fIJ~/"s

hum ber::

Re::: !- V (2~)
/'"

(h)

/7;r

/qmlfJRY

/-/f)W,;

v=
SInce

K)4

J!..2.Ae
,.l.
0

(1;3-

1;, /sz)

fJt= 1: -1, :: 1:?


J

fs.ef! I/J'w r-e


=
B' (
0.0/5

)
::-

= J'1t

..e ~

vi

~:) (2 '; ) (3/IH)

/~o.le. ~

(0.0:' If I'M) 1

(c )

7Ij. :'0 I

50

tha. t

4he/

w/fh

v;,"'i::.z V
Lrr = .< y/

/ tJhf"-e.

V is the

me4n ve/oci"l:'J

(-

f"1-)
(2 ~ ) ( (). 0 I fj ~.. ')
If
(0.00
Z
ij. IYI1 )

ThuS)

(~" l Lri-)w./I

o.t:

the. wall) r= F2}


-

-\- ~ ': 1R

~O.O-z. m'I

f&.-1/2

1--'_'1_,_ . . .1

6.91 A highly viscous Newtonian liquid (p = 1,300 kglm 3 ; J.L = 60 N . s/m2) is contained in a long, vertical, 150-mm diameter tube. Initially the liquid is at rest but when a valve at the bottom of the tube is opened flow commences. Although the flow is slowly changing with time, at any instant the velocity distribution is parabolic, that is, the flow is quasi-steady. (See Vidt-o V6.6.) Some measurements show that the average velocity, V, is changing in accordance with the equation V = 0.1 t, with V in mls when t is in seconds. (a) Show on a plot the velocity distribution (v: vs. r) at t = 2 s, where v: is the velocity and r is the radius from the center of the tube. (b) Verify that the flow is laminar at this instant.

(a) [;.,,-

~rAj,~II' veloci-fJ dl;.fy"bH-h~ II

3: =
't;q).

J- (f)1(I)

:5,'""C! ~IIK:: 2. V

~=tV[I-(~Y"]
V= 6.1t ) 0.-1: i=15"~~111'1 :::- 1StmM1 . Thus)
2..

~ = 2.
AVz

ct. (6,2 r) D -("'~':""J" ]


(I - 178 r). )

2.s

V = O. 2~
(J)

1i- ': o. Lf
(m/s) r(m)

pl{)t (;f -hi;.; ve/~(,;frt d/~Jy"butl()'"


0.075 0.065 0.055 0.045 0.035 0.025 0.015

0.000

0.100 0.185 0.256 0.313 0.356 0.384 0.400 0.384 0.356 0.313 0.256 0.256 0.185 0.100 0.000

0.1

I
,..,~,
" ,

0.08 ~

0.06 0.04 0.02

o
-0.015 -0.025 -0.035 -0.045 -0.045 -0.055 -0.065 -0.075

0 t-------t--T------t----t-------I

-0.02 -0.04

t----t--T---+-~)--t-______j

i V ,I i~
, !

'

-0.06~!

i
I

~:.:ooo 0;" o~oo o~oo o~oo o~oo


vz(m/s)

(b)

o /'e-

f-Y D -

== '.5

6,. () NJ
h1'I~

2..J{)t;

Flow

J".s

14m/naY')

(a) Show that for Poiseuille flow in a tube of radius R the magnitude of the wall shearing stress, TTl> can be obtained from the relationship

6. ~ 2

I(Trz)wall!

4JlQ nR3

for a Newtonian fluid of viscosity Jl. The volume rate of flow is Q. (b) Determine the magnitude of the wall shearing stress for a fluid having a viscosity of 0.003 Ns/m 2 flowing with an average velocity of 100 mmls in a 2-mm-diameter tube.

( Q..)

/]J~ (..r~ -:: / ' pr

Vi- = ~t"
a~d

[I - (~]']
V 1.5

1H~

rn el#n

ve Jocl+'"J )

/f /o//{)II)S

0lJ.-= _
~r-

'fVr
/C2.

Th US)
CIII d

a. t

tHe
Lrr

u/(',// {}- ==-Je) ;

( "....)
";" "ftt

- _ willi Tit 2

'f~V Ie

cP ::

(0-~L./I
(b )

=
If (0.003

~ )(0. Joe> !!f)


"Z.

( 0. 00 2. ,.,.. )

= /.20

Fa.

6. 'J3

An incompressible, Newtonian fluid flows steadily between two infinitely long, concentric cylinders as shown in Fig. P6.~3 . The outer cylinder is fixed, but the inner cylinder moves with a longitudinal velocity Vo as shown. For what value of Vo will the drag on the inner cylinder be zero? Assume that the flow is laminar, axisymmetric, and fully developed.

Fixed wall"-,..

G'tua 6,;'1:/
CA.pplles
JJ1

t. ./Jf7 J
The.

wh'Gh WIIS 'ec/e/~ptd ~Y' flnnu/lir reJI()n. ThUll

fl"w
+ C%

111

clrcuilfY

-lubes)

~ = ;. (~) r~
With .b()"i1dtJr~ U)H(J/f;()J1S It fe>1/()w.s tnAt:
(

C,

in
=0)

J-

(t)

y.

=~) -v;
+

tlnd

yo ::.

rz)

~.:: ~ )

~ ) ~2
1.0

c,

i Y1 t;;

Cz
( 3)

( U) ~~ '{;
~"
C '::::
I

Z.

Co,in

1-';.7- C.

..-

SUh frac.t E~ . (Z) 1',./J11'1 E$ J3) Ie CJbl:~u~

? Of) (r,.z- r;')

c, 2~

The

w,'j /

be reY'o

Lri- -:: I M. (~T Jr


COIf:/

Vi-)
y

w;fJ,

v;. ;: a

if I"/I,,ws tha i

rr /

:::)k

(c.~n 't.

J Vi: or
)

~.93

I
D,t~/eY{1ntJ~l:e
~

$.

OJ

w;tn

NSfec.t

t:cJ
~
J-

J ~ _ -L
So 1h1l

- ;1.1<-

(..e)I-''''' 0r
+

(Z-'ttr.,,~&(~:)r .. ,
"rd ey

~i

r.: r..

Thus J

1/1

021'

./0 r ih e c/Y'II? .fD be ~eY'o -L (ll. ) r. + ~ - ~ (# )(~.7.-y;; 2.)


.I

; z-

/.

An infinitely long, solid, vertical cylinder ot radius R is located in an infinite mass of an incompressible fluid. Start with the NavierStokes equation in the () direction and derive an expression for the velocity distribution for the steady flow case in which the cylinder is rotating about a fixed axis with a constant angular velocity w. You need not consider body forces. Assume that the flow is axisymmetric and the fluid is at rest at infinity.

6.'14-

p"t" this (//)W he/cf)

v;. =0) -z.; =0;


~(I-l/j-)

Pi'll!

frt)h1

the

t"t

10 IIt) w.s

'1h I(. t.

r
I

al--

+ -

d~

pC;

+ -=0
~z..

~l-i-

I hus) the Ntll//fY- S~kes efua-tlt/H 111 the e-d/}~ec.t/l)~ (Eg.6.1ZJb)


loy s tflld~
Ht)w

Y.ftluce.s
I

io
+~

o = - ;.

ae

)~

[f f J~) 1== h- l'" av- d

Due.

fo

the

S'lmme tl''1

tJ/ 1he k"lV )


::::"0

o -p
.so tJu. t
-L~

dB--

Jf-o

(r ~?)I

VB
/-'1..

=0

ti)Zt/j;

~",2.
4

1--;;;:
iul1c.i'f!)Jf

Jv;, _ ~
"f

}-~

=0
Cllf1

( I)

S,nce

/05

~n/!1 r.l E $ ,(J)

eA./"'~ .ssed 4~ t1n V'e - tv Y'I '#f' J1 t1 S

~ rd/)'JA1"!1 dl Ife"/'Inq/ e I tllJ til) J"J

dr
d l/(:; +
dl-I-

.!!.. (~)
T

=0

(2.)

"V&---- J-t-

d~
ely.

~.:

C1

(.4 )

( CCn 't

b -117

~. 9'1

1
~n

E$lIflt:/f) ~ t.J)

be

e)(.pY'~.ss(?d 4

d (;-I./j;) _

c, y

.405
So

I-

-~ eO) ~ ~ 0) (s,;'ce f/tI~d IS ai r~si O-t 1~/;;lIf~)


C, ;: o.
"'i~

1ha i

T h US)

ve'::

Cz.

.;Jince

ai

;-=-R / v: a -= RtV) /f

A viscous fluid is contained between two infinitely long vertical concentric cylinders. The outer cylinder has a radius and rotates with an angular velocity w. The inner cylinder is fixed and has a radius ' i ' Make use of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain an exact solution for the velocity distribution in the gap. Assume that the flow in the gap is axisymmetric (neither velocity nor pressure are functions of angular position () within gap) and that there are no velocity components other than the tangential component. The only body force is the weight.

6. qs

'0

(I)

( See

PY'(),bJeh1

W,th The. hOUY1dIlYf:J ~j.fd~ f,;Jt.5 t- =Yi,' ) ve.= 0) 4J.1 til r =:. r: V; :: Y'. U) (s~e fijll'e ~Y' hOia.t:IOI1)) it: kl/()ws. 0;
C7 ()

+-ff)1?1

~ b'

C1)

tna t .'
D::
~w=

c, r;..
.2..

"f-

eZ.
1"".' '-

(, Y'"
.2..

-to

C:J.,

2W

/-

-r:z.. o
/-

C:2. :::

.so

1n1l.:t
1/:::G;

r-tU
IrW
..... :a.

2r.. ~ I.

t.

1";10

1- (/- !i.~

or"

v:= (7

(1-

%2-)

[ I

r/]
1-2-

h" ()

,- //7

6.96 For flow between concentric cylinders, with the outer cylinder rotating at an angular velocity w and the inner cylinder fixed, it is commonly assumed that the tangential velocity (ve) distribution in the gap between the cylinders is linear. Based on the exact solution to this problem (see Problem 6.95) the velocity distribution in the gap is not linear. For an outer cylinder with radius ro = 2.00 in. and an inner cylinder with radius rj = 1.80 in., show, with the aid of a plot, how the dimensionless velocity distribution, ve/row, varies with the dimensionless radial position, r/ro' for the exact and approximate solutions.

(I)

/;1'

fh~

e~a(,.J S/)/U.l:,t~11

(see PrIJf,Jem

~
ClIJe!

rtc.J
::

(/ -

1=b~

~.I.)

[I -

!lJ
f-ao
V't>

i" 15')

It.

n~n d/fY1frlsi~n,,/ ~f"1"n

f;AJ
rf)Y

119

..
sh~WiJ

....

r;.::

(1- !.:':) ...."


1/ MAt;; := 2... Ot)

[I - ~':(lr1 Yo
/n .

(2)

I,g 0 In
t:1l"e

"

jY'A.'ph

beID"V. Npte

d;f./e'fll('e he-/;w~eJ1 the eJC.ac.t Q"d a.ppf'l'ilml.fe .sc/U:tlt9fl.S,'(;'Y' thIS srntJ/ JA..p wid-t'Jt. FtJr 1111 ,rA&'"C4i purft'Jt.s ho11t :5tJ1u.r'/f)Jl/s HII on 1/te SJhf)e C.UVlltl shpwl'J.
Linear

~.J; -h:tY~

S~I11~

k;u J4. fpP{


IJ

VII Juel

I'JI(

II

1:tt-.1e

",/r.w
0.000 0.125 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000

Exact Yo/row 0.000 0.131 0.260 0.387 0.512 0.637 0.759 0.880 1.000

r/ro 0.900 0.913 0.925 0.938 0.950 0.963 0.975 0.988 1.000

::::: .~_._. __.__1 ___~ _ ~


~ O.9401--~ ------.-.0.920 \/-------- .. --'---'-0.900 y - - - - - f - - - - - - \ 1.000 0.500 0.000 Vf) Ir;,w

a 960

-- .------:/-------------

().97 A viscous liquid (p. = 0.0121b . s/ft2, p = 1.79 slugs/fe) flows through the annular space between two horizontal, fixed, concentric cylinders. If the radius of the inner cylinder is 1.5 in. and the radius of the outer cylinder is 2.5 in., what is the pressure drop along the axis of the annulus per foot when the volume flowrate is 0.14 fe Is?

Check

Re'flll';ds

iJIIl1'Ibtr

1-0 JeternufJe

R ~
(!

I.. V iJ"
)"-

Whev-e

Di. ::

:l. (';; -

ft)

Q/I1

v::-

1T

(~).-ft..1.)

Thus)

=
3'1,Q
S/~ce

:J. (1,7t;

s!:/; )(t). ILl

13)

tr (~.()/2 I~~ ) (.?Sln, +

:-SI#.)
flow I~

12. 111

<

2100

h
IJ

the Re'f,,~Jd$
411 d

l7L1mb!y

w!/I b(,/ow

Z/oo

-the

/Qm /J1~'"

( 6. 6.1~6)
So

41' J

==

~
33.1 ~h
ft2.

( ~.S/;'\~ I~
12 )

(JIS/~

12..J.!l' )

,2J2-

-:rot

. 2.51/'1'
1,5'1'11.

ft:

fey

It

fr.-,i,

* Plot the velocity profile for the fluid flowing in the annular space described in Problem P6.Q7. Determine from the plot the radius at which the maximum velocity occurs and compare with the value predicted from Eq. 6.157.
6. '1'6>

The veloc/f!J

ch~ fy; btl. tlt)J1

f.ti[;< ~- ~ or r -~
- -!.
From ProbJem

'"

the annulus
2

.
IS

9 , yfJ1 hI; the -Rgtl~,",dj,


f;

1":.2_ y;
+

' .1n

2-

(/

r,.
Yo
f..

Jm

1:]
Y'()

(Et,

"ISS)

t .Q7
tJz

~: - ~ = - J. a. 'I- !.k.3

J.

tt

Thus) w/iJ,

/-.

J,t. =

o. 016 I~ ,s/~i 2. I

If fo//()ttlS "1hA i

r:: J.

I, 5" /11.

1//1 tI

= 2. S' I'".

~= -

(:u.'I i!:3)
if
"-L

(d. /)/1. ~ )

rr~ (Yft):
I:z.

(.. ft)':.M~)ln
)

2..~ 1.5

~J
!;{.ft

wh(JY~

c~/Ctl /~t-/ng
1,5 1'2.

111

.fils

w;th
~

J-

JH

ft. A
r
.
/"

fY'c9rtl!n .loy

~
12.

as

.,Ltll1c. t:1(/~ af

the.

Y'An'l~

ft

L.. -

1--=

~,ft

k//()WS.

:00 110 120 130


1~0

150 155 160 170 v=-~~~*(r-2-0.0~3403-0.05~38*log(r/0.208333)) 180 print. using "##. ### ##. ###"; r, v 190 next r

cls print "**************************************************" print "** This program calculates the velocit.y profile **" print "** for flow in an annulus **" print. "* * ** ** * ** * * * * * ** **** **** *** * * * ** * ** ** * * * >I: *** *** * * *" print print II r (ft) v (ft/s)" for r=1.S/12 to 2.501/12 step 0.1/18

( Ct?JI)

i )
\

'--/22-

'.1.&

.110.

(eO!?!)

Tahu}qted da.ttL ~l1d FrdJrn 1hp.5e dat:tt. 1--1; oCCuvs a.t-

JS

?/tJ t a.f the d" ia. ()r~ f/IJI(Jn beJ!)f.(). speJ1 1hllt -lite. f'n"XllYlttm lJeJoc.I'i!:J
~.

/"5 ft

************************************************** ** This program calculates t.he velocity profile ** ** for flow in an annulus ** **************************************************
r

(ft) 0.125 0.131 0.136 0.14,2 0.147 0.153 0.158 0.164

v (ft/s) 0.000 0.l19 0.768 1.048 1. 265 1. 419 1. 514 1. 552

'~I) t)

0.169 0.175 0.181 0.l86 0.192 0.197 0.203 0.208

1.53l 1.l64 1.3lj.l l.169 0.947 0.678 0.362 0.000

0.23~------------------------------------------------------~

0.21

11111/1''''

,/

0.19

...::. 0.17
L

Hat/mum

0.15

ve1ot,tlj OC('LO'~ a.t r= O./("SPt

0.13

O.11L-~

__

__

__

__

~~

__

__

______

~~

__

__

______

~~

0.0

0.5
v

1.0
(ft/s)

1.5

2.0

/;.-/'2-3

6. q,,)4c As is shown by Eq. 6.150 the pressure


gradient for laminar flow through a tube of constant radius is given by the expression:
-=--

zlC R(z)IRo

r r
1.00

02

03

0.73

. 0.67

. 0.65

.4 0.67

r r
5 0.80

0.80

07 . 0.71

08

. 0.73

9 11.0 1.00

0.77

iJp

811Q

For a tube whose radius is changing very gradually, such as the one illustrated in Fig. P6. qq , it is expected that this equation can be used to approximate the pressure change along the tube if the actual radius, R(z), is used at each cross section. The following measurements were obtained along a particular tube.

Compare the pressure drop over the length efor this nonuniform tube with one having the constant radius Ro. Hint: To solve this problem you will need to numerically integrate the equation for the pressure gradient given above.

/'//////.

/"

,.

.,

FIGURE P6. '1 Cf

(fhe prl'.sslIY'e dY'tJ,) ; t

K!4J ft [R(rT'tdi
;l.Jt..:;:

f.

r/J.

a" II Ie ""
7rR()

= ;e / Ro
I

!Jf>= g;;C/J).'jrR")-'f dr.-#.


0

(4)!),sitJrli

ra.d;us t:ube. (oJt'e bS. 6./S/)) ~A Cp}.


1r'F'() If

So

tha.i
LI P (/1()nl/()J ~rtn -tube)_
fj f

(tln,term I:llbe)

This

it?te'jrtlJ

Con be.

etltl/uated numfY'Jct:/l&
~/veJ1.

USII1.fj

SIft1PjON

Cll1d

-the da1;tt,

(~n't )
~*************************************************

** This program perf01.1l1S numerical integration *>1' ** over a set a set of an odd number of equally ** ** spaced point,s using Simpson s Rule ** **************************************************
I

Enter number of data points: 11 Enter data points (X , Y) Ncte: X/V t" and '(,.., ? 0.0,1.00
? 0.1,3.52

(RJt..)

7 O.2.~.96 ? 0.3,5.60 7 O.4~4.96 ? 0.5,2.'-1:'-1: ? 0.6.2.'-1:'-1: ? 0.7.3.9'-1: ? 0.8.3.52 ? 0.9,2.8'-1: ? 1.0,1.00

The approximate value of the integral

1S:

+3.5707E+00

LJ f (non IIn'#'rm -f"b~) = 3,57

Ap

(un,ftJrh1

i::uj,~)

6,. /00
6.100 Show how Eq. 6.155 is obtained.

;:;y -/It)tt)

lit

~11

Ql1 l1tt/ tl S)

1': .:: c>


1:
/rtJl'h

ttl:

r==
~.11/-7

Y: ~

t:l11 pt

1i=D a.t

r=
t;'"
I) ..::

y. (".

Thll~

Er.
C;

ft<
tf)A.

(l/?) '1;2. r tJz.


) r:. d i: {.
(!,

In

t; l'

Cl.

..1 (le

t-

el 111 Ii 1" Cz.

t:ll1a

~oJ IIlitf

~r-

tI)1~

C .::
I

- ~ L~

-L I~)

'z.

tJt!

hnlle

(z. fJ -

~.

.2.)
(I)

111 (~. )
~ -~
l.2..

/n

f;,

(z)

In (~. )

'l:l. / 't 1.:, .-,,{)

yo ]

/n(~.) n ~

I~

~. I()I

I
6.101 A wire of diameter d is stretched along the centerline of a pipe of diameter D. For a given pressure drop per unit length of pipe, by how much does the presence of the wire reduce the ftowrate if (a) diD = 0.1; (b) diD = 0.01?

The

(I)

(z.. )

//)c)

4 tk,d:.

';;'y

=0
~

( h0

w/re)

cp =
0:;yre.rjJt)J1ds

711(; 'r I::.p

?r' ;uJ.
PO/Jet/Illes Ltw

(Eg.
CO. J)

6. / b'1) .
'2..

= o. I J E 1 ,c if =- 7T~ If. AI'

$)A 1. Th us) ~'y 1ne stirn e

[I _

l)

'7 /(/~5

(tJ.l) '1-+

[t -

91
::=

==

6.';7'f

(J:J)

r(o tedttcl:t~1'1 t?.=- (; - ~. S7).>C )tJfJ St ~ a(ty~ .,t;;v 1; -=-~. () I E1. 91


(2.)
tJ-l'.j

I"

f:.,p +he

(n (o. J) ) -f/Ol()r~b:. l:.s reduced


'f2.

b::J

b%
D.]S3

cp; rid
t:>t

y.

g;uJ.

~I' [ , _ (/).01) 1',... V- (~. 01)9 ~7=J 11

(0,0/)

reductIon

/11

tjJ:.- (; - (j.7 F3) oX

/00 :-

:2. 1,7 0/0

;tit; ie 1Hlrl- t;,e lYeJfH( of e t/P 11 ~ t/f V1 S/'hfl/I un Ie Q!()jIf f -tlt~ kJe Cef1ffrJJ~e h II~ t:i ~';II; tC~Jllt e~c.-t t!Jn tke f/otJmde
b ~/ 2.7

7. /
7.1 The Reynolds number, pVD/I1-, is a very important parameter in fluid mechanics. Verify that the Reynolds number is dimensionless, using both the FLT system and the MLT system for basic dimensions, and determine its value for water (at 70 0c) flowing at a velocity of 2 m/ s through a 2-in.-diameter pipe.

Re'111 ()/tis num bit' =

fJ-VD
~

(FL- If r 2 )(I. T-)(L)


FL- 2

rOL~T~

. /=;;;-- wa..t:er at
r
LJ

(M L- 3 )(LT-,)(LJ
ML

10

tJc)

_1,-' ;V.s -

Qnd

M~LD

TD

/m 2

Cj77.

g ..k,.

/YYI~

(Ta b/e

13. 2 ,,, AppendlJ( B) .

7-1

7.2

I
7.2 What are the dimensions of density, pressure, specific weight, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity in (a) the FLT system, and (b) the MLT system? Compare your results with those given in Table 1.1 in Chapter 1.

. p = fr~S5UYe:" .../arce. are a.. .::: tv(liltj ~ = spec; lid. we/rift .:: Wlllt vi/tune L.~

. 13 -

HL T ...:.
L..3

-2-

/-1 T 1- Z
;1.1

MLT L

-2

'

-.

T2..

. ()/ILT T

/.

-2.' ;;L_2..

-I

M LT

(a)

1ft

t:: 1'::' &;


r:T=

the. FtT ~'t.skmJ


J= L -If T
t=L2
2-

(j,)

/11

the.
ft1L-'

!VJ L r .5Lf.sffm)

3 I~ HL-

p;
J

r2.

FL- 3
FL-

2 ~= ML-

r- 2

0-::-

M T -

;"

-.

FL- 2

/-=

ML-'T- I

7-2

7,3

1
7.3 For the flow of a thin film of a liquid with a depth h and a free surface. two im,E2rtant dimensionless parameters are the Froude number. V/V gh. and the Weber number, pV 2h/cr. Determine the value of these two parameters for glycerin (at 20C) flowing with a velocity of 0.7 mls at a depth of 3 mm.

'f;h

. -

6,7 "5

/WI
i

j (r.81 Cf-z)(O,OtJ31M)
(/ "2 fDo
,

If. 08

f- V 2.h 0-

Je !!-a )(CJ. 7 ~)~ ~. ~t)3


.33 )I.)D-,2. - "
tm

trn )

2 9. 3

7,Lf

The Mach number for a body moving through a fluid with velocity V is defined as V / c, where c is the speed of sound in the fluid. This dimensionless parameter is usually considered to be important in fluid dynamics problems when its value exceeds 0.3. What would be the velocity of a body at a Mach number of 0.3 if the fluid is: (a) air at standard atmospheric pressure and 20 e, and (b) water at the same temperature and pressure?

7. Lt

(t:?-)

V :: (),3
c

!=or
So

tllr

tit-

20De
tJ.

111 a. t

=3Lf.3. 3
T)

!!!1
S

( Tq6J~

e. if

J;'

//ppfnix /3 )

V-=
c.b )

3 (3'f3. 3
I

::

/03
t!!1.
S

I'm

WA-ter .:s () 1;Iat

Pol"

at to DC

c :: /'1-8'/

(Ta.6/e 8.2

111

/t,pfrld/~ 8)

V = ~, 3 (/'f~ / c;t) 7-3

'flfLf ff!1. s

7.S

I
7.5 At a sudden contraction in a pipe the diameter changes from D j to D 2 The pressure drop, !::.p, which develops across the contraction is a function of DJ and D 2 , as well as the velocity, V, in the larger pipe, and the fluid density, p, and viscosity, /1. Use D J , V, and /1 as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters. Why would it be incorrect to include the velocity in the smaller pipe as an additional variable?

?
n&m

== FC

the. pt.'

-tlJe~rtm) &,- 3 = ~

dlmfl1"M/ess
b
C

fClYl/metfYS

reg "in''''' Use

l1)

~ t/Md?

as refe~/;/n1 variables. Tl1us)


a:

1Tj = iJp q V ~ (;= L- '-) (L ) a- (L T -) h ( PL -J. T) c~ j: ~ L"T


I-rC=O

-2

+~,../:,-:2c=o

- j, + C

='0

1t

~ jJ"w.s

ih" i

a. : / ~ .h:: -

J,) C:: -/ ) 1/11 PI

1J1fY'~ f"r~

TT.=
I

/JI. /),

V/,

t::..

{, heck. d"';)fn.sltJfJs u~/n, 1/4 L 7 ~'Iskl11 : IJ.t DJ ~ (ML-1r-Z)(L)

v)<-'

( L I-i) ( HL-JT-)

.:...

M"LoT o

.'. ok.

11;::

'11),

((,

V;a
.b
2 ':0

L (L)Q. (LT-jb (FL- r) c.: rOL~rf)

'i'"

c=o
~ +b -).C=o

-.b + c
I

(.=-1

h=c

c=o

7r..
2

Dz. D,
7--'1

7. s

( CC)/I t: )
1:S

7Tz
'{?,y

Obv/~usJ'1

cilmfnslol'I/ess.

7T3~ /,1 V (F L - 1fT 2) ( L) Q. ( L7 - ') b ( F 1.. - 2. T) C ~ poL~ T


I+G
=-0

7T3.'

((.

I-

-If +a -r j, -2C. =0

:l-b -t-

= 0
f/HP(

(Ie"
1h-eJ'e{o~e.

T)

11

~J/f)tIIS thai

et

= I) h = I; c =- -/

77:= t-D,V 3 ~ . . Chec,/c JlmpnSIIJIJS us/nJ fv1 1.. T .5lfskm .' 4/), 11 (Mi.- 3 )(L.)(LT- ' )
( .
~

ML- ' T-/

-d

MDI/TD

., tJ/t..,

Th US)

~Yrhn~ /f!;J -rr

eg U(J..;tt"J'} )
~_

wheY't Vs
,j .sh"u Id

/s

V 7j. D, - ~ ~ D2 1he ve/l't:.;t!J I ~ the

7r

2..

jtn4

J/ey pi fe.. Since

Vc

.5

=(!j )2. V
/)z.

lis

(lot inrie(Jf}1deni of ~ I P2) I1J1A J/ til1d 1heYe~tt! no t be /11c,luded. Q~ tJYI /l1depeY1deKi lJav,able.

7-5

7.6 Water sloshes back and forth in a tank as shown in Fig. P7 .6. The frequency of sloshing, w, is assumed to be a function of the acceleration of gravity, g, the average depth of the water, h, and the length of the tank, Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using g and as repeating variables.

e.

FIGURE P7.6

w=. T- '
FY-"rn
1/,t. p,' +11 eo rem) 4 - 2 -=. Z d J'me 11's Ibn less paY"'!'t.eYs Y'e!",'red. Use 3- ann L a.s Y'.ep~(J.h;'~
.b
6

vaY'ltJ/JJe.s) Thll5)

and

"'" = W? a..1 (T"'I)(L T-2)Q.(L)b::!; LO T

(,f;,r L)

z+

h)/~ws

b = y'z

(r;,~ r) a"d 1here/r,ye

Chec..k

, Dk

Fo yo "TTl.:

7r'}.. := ?1 d L (L T-t. ) a:.(L.).b == / + a+b = t;


- 'l tL '::'0

q IJ

)(.. b L() T

tJ

7.7

I
7.7
It is desired to determine the wave height when wind blows across a lake. The wave height, H, is assumed to be a function of the wind speed, V, the water density, p, the air denand sity, Po' the water depth, d, the distance from the shore, the acceleration of gravity, g, as shown in Fig. P7.7. Use d, V, and p as repeating variables to determine a suitable set of pi terms that could be used to describe this problem.

e,

___ ..~+_H___~t_____________ ~_~~~~_V_.~


'1

#= L
F;."111

V'= LT- 1

f -=

FL -"r

fa.:

FL-

If

rl-

d::'

L
Use

d J ~ 411" I

the 1/ fh et>YftJ1 J

7- 3
a

= Lf
/I b;
C

f/ .ferms ret(; u/rpti.

4.s fete4.-/;;'lIj VP rt'a6/es

, Thus)
=

tT, = II d
(L ) ( L J(;.

(L T -I) b (Ft - 'f T ~)


~=o

F ()L" TO
( hI" F)
(~r L ) (.{".,. T)

a... rb - 'Ie

=-0

- b

-f"Z.C =0

Cl=-/
I

oJ

1,=0 J C=6 I

anti

ThftelCte

1r~J:t.
d
oj, '/J~{lSi.:J
tTl.:::

dJMtns/on/ps...5.

fa. a4. tr b t
I
-f C

[FL -'I r7) tl.. ) fA. (LT-1 ) b (FL -IfT~) t: = =0


- If -t- a. -t-b - 4- c
2-b-r2C

POL TO
6

==0

(~r' r ) (full' '-) (,fr,'(" T)

((!6)n 'i)

7-7

7. 7

( c~I1'i)

til'll'

e::{S

J;r

7T/)
-rr

a
-

=-I) b= 0)

C=o

,50

That.

1';3 -

cr
).

/;,. 7T'f:

11"'f:;-

d da. f
-

J, / '

c
(.for t) (-hf' L)
(f;r
C ::
0
)

{LT--z)(L)4.(LT-'jh (pL- lf r2-)c=. fDL()T"


C'.::. 0

/ -r

A. ~h

t.t- c.

=0

-2. -b

"1"2(.-=0

T)

,,
I

01<

H _ ).. d - r

(Ia.

f')

ft

d..)

~)
V'"

7-3

:-:--:s--:::;:S-:-:-~-::-::::-

t
H

Water flows over a dam as illustrated in Fig. P7.~ . Assume the flowrate, q, per unit length along the dam depends on the head, H, width, b, acceleration of gravity, g, fluid density, p, and fluid viscosity, J.L. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem using b, g, and p as repeating variables.

7.S

f---b-l

'f

~ L 2. , - '

Jf:: L

j,..:.

;= L ,-2 1=
vt/n 'af;/es

FIGURE

P7.~

Pi -'111-

f=- FL-2.r
Use..

FrtJn?

-the IJL the()rem


Vlnd

1,-3= 3 pi tfrmJ regUJY'f'd.


Th(Js~

bJ 31
and

as

relea-if h:J

77f= ~ b aJ~(c (L Z T -) (L ) et ( L T - 2.) b (F L - lIt


2 -f

:2.)

Co .-:

pOL TO
0

c=-O

(.for ;:)

a... -t-b -LfC


-I-L C

=0
'::0

- / - z.b

(:ky L) (lor T)

'p3~ J ~
C heck
d/~en~/~M

'J

us,;' j

1'-1 L T .5't:,f.em.'
, ()/<

77;.-- JI 6

t:

/,

(L)(L) ~ (LT-z).J(,t=t-'fT-a.j c. ~ FOL


C=o
I-t- ~ rb -tfC =0

oro
(J::,r r)

- 2-b -rl. C

=0

thy (.ky

L)
T)

a =-1) b ::())
11: 2..
1'.5 () b 1/ J ~ ~.50

= b1-1
7-Cf

dt'm !14.5IPI') Jess

7.8

(~I1'i )

113=)<- b j f (FL -2. T) (J-) (J- T-j /, (;=-L -If-T 2) c --= pOLO TO
Co
#I.

a.

"

-I-C

=0

(,k,- F)
(J;y L)
(oCy T)

-). 1"

t{

-t.b -tfc-=o
=0

/ - 2b-r 2 c.

:t.t- 10 IltP4IJ thai


3

= - ~)
I/Iz
~

= - 1z .)

c= -J

n=
o//rnel1~/i;f1J

/'1
ML T
s"'f~.J-em.'
-

u5iny

?:
f:,9Iz

if 'lz..f

(I1L-'r- ' )

(L)3/z(I..T-V'IZ (M[3)

11

()L.I tJ)-o

" ())(

7. 'f I
7. 'l
The pressure rise , !:J.p, across a pump can be expressed as tJ.p = f (D, p, ro, Q) where D is the impeller diameter. p the fluid den sity, (j) the rotational speed , and Q the flowrate . Determine a suitable set of dimensionless param-

eters.

-2

II .fellows 1h~t

tZ

= -2) b' -/ , _ 4p

C.

= -2

qnt/

111trehte

. . Tli- D'(o4J' CheclL. dl mel15l()11S IlSin, NI-T slfskm


t1p

..'. bl<.

D,/,tcJ'

Mf. -'T-'"

(L) Z (J..,J:')(r~

(L 3r)(L.),''(;:rr)b(rJ C : rLOT"

n; = rP D"'/4J c
.b=o
31''' ~b =0

I
:U f",11.ws 1hai
.
Checir
dimenSIOns

(;;,~ ,t)
(f"y '-) (Tor T)

-1+2/'-C.=0

a. =-3I b = 0, c" -/ ,

4n4 1h'",/(,re

1r;z CD
D0p,)

- cp

D34J

1151;', Mt..T ~'fsJ..em

"
.: OK.

L"T-' _ == NDLDFo
(L)3 (r-')

7-1/

7. /0

I
7. 10
The drag, ~, on a washer shaped plate placed normal to a stream of fluid can be expressed as
ill = f(d" dh V, fl, p)

where d, is the outer diameter, d2 the inner diameter, V the fluid velocity, f1 the fluid viscosity, and p the fluid density. Some experiments are to be performed in a wind tunnel to determine the drag. What dimensionless parameters would you use to organize these data?

~ == F
rrlJ)tn

"-, tlno

-= L

dz. :d: L V ' : : L T,-~

)A =-

FL _aT

tJte. p/ fhet7r'rm J

=3
d,
tl

fi Hl"l71s Y',!~,;'ed. lise


V4ntl"/e~. Thus)

d,)

V;

""

~ft'a,6/11~
pV

rr;.:
(F) (L)
(4

"C' t (L r-j b(FL -'trz) c: =


Al

j/

F"L ~ Tfj
(/;,,,.. F)
(-ICY' L..)

/-t-C=O

a.+h -Ifc=o
-.b-+2.C=o

(.fey
tJl1t/

T)

11: r;,//PI(I$ ihll i

/<..=-2.; },=-2, C ='-/ ;


1T:~ I

1here'ye

0/ VI'
NtT ~lfs-t-em :
MLT (L) 2. (LT-') (I1L-3)
-2

ChecK ql mfl1SI;'ns
~ d/' VZ;
71..' .z.

"'SlfJ.!)
::::::

NIJttJTO

. ..

()I<.

712 =

d;L d, V

c
c

(L )(L) tZ (LT -') b lfL - 1f T 2)


C1
=0

/-t-a

+ b - 1Jc. =0 .b +:J..c ':;0

7-12

7. 10

.zt

-Iol/e;lVs 1h1l t

t:l. :: -

I; .b = ole:: 0

tI/I t/

1heY'e /:;"e.

17:=~ 2. d,
tJh Icn
IS

ObV/()VS/;

til tnf'I1.5I(J/Jlpss

fOr

7?3:
IrC .::a
- J. -t
t(

(~r )=")

-t./J -ifc :: 0
=lJ

(.j;,r L)

/ -.b -+ 2.c

("'yo T)

11:= .3

d, Vj1

.:

~k

II)

S IhC(!;

I-V d
I"-

I~
(J

a.
I

sirJl1dtrtl

dl ~pn~/~l1less PtlrqmebY'
rnOYe

(Re!;//J"lds num bt!}")

E 3.

(I)

AJould

Comm t)l11':1

be.

ex-tressed

(Z)

As h,y
til? tI (Z)

AS

cfJmfl1,sIOl1et

/Jllq

!t1Si.s

Ij

~f1C'erl1pd I

,=;s.

(J)

qre

.fJgu/llalen t" .

?-/3

7. 1/ I
7.11 Under certain conditions, wind blowing past a rectan- . gular speed limit sign can cause the sign to oscillate with a frequency w. (See Fig. P7.11 and Video VY.6.) Assume that w is a function of the sign width, h, sign height, h, wind velocity, V, air density, p, and an elastic constant, k, for the supporting pole. The constant, k, has dimensions of FL. Develop a suitable set of pi terms for this problem.

FIGURE P7.11

tv: r- I b:.L -4t=L V== LT- f= r-L-'tr 7. .,k';FL PY'611?1 1'nt. p/ 1I1eorem '-J = 3 pi hn?lj YeZUlyptJ/. Use b.J ~ tin,!;; 11.5 repea.-t,Hfj INIYlable...s. Thu;~ tJ; ::- tv j, a. V f; C

(T -I) (L)tO. (L r-jh(rL "''fT~ c: Pi- "TtJ


a
C=:.o -t J, - i.fC 0

- I - j,

i"lC.
J

=0

(tor r) (/:,y L) (Joy T)

t t /-oIJIf}IJI..$ #fa
C he("k
c/"YlfI/S/()I1.5: fA) b

a: I
(

j,:. -I) C:. 0 ) CI If a 1htre ~re.

1Ti= V
V-'::

wb
(

T- 1 ) L) . . :. . L() TO
(L,J)

,: 01<..

7T; - h j,Ow
(! =0

v b/

(L) (L)(J. (LT-1)b (FL-'f


J -t

r2-)(.=. pOLO TO
(~y F)
(~Y'

a. +b- c. =0
- .b "i"Zc.. =0

L)

(,(oJ" T)

7- 1'f

7 1/

(tt!)l1t)

/=;r TT3:
1T3::

~ J/~' Vb f
h (

c:.

(r-L)( L)Q.. { L7-0

FL-'I

r ).) C = toL T
0

iJ

/-I-C!. = 0 l-t a...,. b - Jfc.. = a

-1 -r Zc.

=0

:Ii

~/jf)Wj

1;J"i

a -= - 3)
-k

.b: -l) c:::- - I) ~J1A 1here (ore.

173
-4<
),3V'/~

= .b'V'1
.
=
HL'1. T Z

Ch~CK r/;mel'l~PII.s ~ Slh..J ML T .s'l~klt1f I'


(L')(LT-,)2(HL-3)

- fi1 ~ L ~ T :. Dk.

7-1S-

7.12-

I
1.12. The flowrate, Q, of water in an open channel is assumed to be a function ofthe cross-sectional area of the channel, A, the height of the roughness of the channel surface, c, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the slope, So' of the hill on which the channel sits. Put this relationship into dimensionless form.

(p::' L3 T- 1
FYO/YI

the ?'" 1he~ye WI

S- -"2:. '3 P/ ffrrns Y'e 0/J/~r". US~


Thus)

,4 tlnli

9 as rffJ(Jul;'~ Vt(v/ab Je..s 11j = ([J ,44J 6


I(.

(i ~ r-I)(I..") (L r-1.) "=- L() TO


E+Z4-tb=c
- I - 2 J,

=D

a. :' - 5"/'f
~
1-

b:: - I/z. 1 a,,1 1Ite"'~ fo,re.

--=-.(/)......""",,==-

A5"/'fff

Check
.: 01<

I -t2.&L-tb

1J,p f

a ':=

- 2..b
-

0
D

(toy
1'ltfre

L)

1/4,)

b = (:)) Ii 11 ~

(rfr~ T)

f;,1I'e

- -e 1T.2IJ

t>bv/~I4.5J:J
-SC)
Jj

d,me"s/t!JJ1/eS'J. Th( 17l1vd f,' ~m dun tl1SJ~IIJ fSS. 7ft us)

r.A

Ij

7-/(II

7.

/3

I.U Because of surface tension, it is possible, with care, to support an object heavier than water on the water surface as shown in Fig. P7.!3. (See Video V1.S.) The maximum thickness, h, of a square of material that can be supported is assumed to be a function of the length of the side of the square, e, the density of the material, p, the acceleration of gravity, g, and the surface tension of the liquid, 0'. Develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem.
I' {' -I
~);fit~~8 i{Fm>4');~I~1

T
~=f(.J.)

()

1)

(/')

..,0-)

-l=' L l='L ;=
Fy~rn the

1=I--'t,2-

d=

Lr- 1
.f.fr/Y1J

p/

1he~Y'em)

b-- B ::. Z fi

Y'R11J1rnl...

t)

ffJ

(lI1d

(Is retea,6;~~ vl/f'iflbJe..s. Thus)

1Ti -:: ),. .1 a.1-

6;

(t.. )(L)~(l..T-~) b(FL- If


'-t-~-+,b-,+c..

r2.)
0
=0

c_'

rfJLD(-

C! :::
- 2.b +2.. c.. .:= ()

a=-')

j:.o)

e:&J,

(/1111

171tJrt"re

wAlch /5 ~j,JlJ~II.sJ!:1 cit in f,,~i!JIJ!1 s S .


/=by 7Tz....'
7T"J.- =

-It flt=7
~

rr t d !

IJ

c:.

(FL-')(L) 4..( L T--~ b (FL-'fr 2.) Co =


/ -+ C

j='tiO

:=

0
=0

-/ +tJ... -rb - 'Ie _ 2.~ -r '2C

=0
)

a:-z. )

l,-:-/

c.=-/ ) t/htl there{;r<.

rr
j.~t
If'!'J;'~

/vtt.. 7
0'

J, 2#f

= (L 7.)0. 1- ){ML- ~ )
Z

~'Is/e1l1 ( fo1 7- "L.. )

.-:. M ~L 0 T

..

-f:=

cf (t-f-it

7-17

7.Jlf

7.J 4 As shown in Fig. P7.14 and Video V504, a jet of liquid directed against a block can tip over the block. Assume that the velocity, V, needed to tip over the block is a function of the fluid density, p, the diameter of the jet, D, the weight of the block, 'lV, the width of the block, b, and the distance, d, between the jet and the bottom of the block. (a) Determine a set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. Form the dimensionless parameters by inspection. (b) Use the momentum equation to detennine an equation for V in terms of the other variables. (c) Compare the results of parts (a) and (b).

FIGURE P7.14

(a)

V = -f

(t)

DJ

~) b; d )

V; t.. ~-I f =p;.1)f11

r- L

-1f T -a.
J

1nt. ?/ 1htJ)rem

B/f

j';S?eVr/DI1

h:,y 11,

'-3 :

D:: L
3

t:p,J
p,'

=f
-krrns V)

b d: L

cJ -=

r ~tIJJY'ed .

(tDI1Hlil/;'..1

11i = V D f:G '~


US/IfJ

(L 7-')(/...) ({ r:~~T~)

"," rot!'

Check

I1LT:

Vb
H,r
aha

Y.l
=:

=
b

71., ....

J~~

11". z-

lor 17j
rr,3::

D
tT) tire oJ:, JlI ~u.s 1':7 c/; men~/lJl1less .

cJ

til1lt

b,,"In

1T~ tll1'{

{.hI t=;r Irnpend/n1 flPplnj aY~I(;1f' L MIJ =e>


50

171(1,,.1:

t= cl

= t:tJ (-;.)
7- 18

(I )

7. I tf I

( 6PJ1 ~ )

f:y-IP""

m",m~l1ftlm ~"~Jr/eya,t/~ t{51;'~ tJ,,~ CV


u ;.;.

sh(Jwlt

C9

!f

dA =-

L F"

f
7h H~j
$;0

V2,A = F

/rPTn

I='1. {J.}

(;V2.A)(d) = ~ ({) i114, t

V = V~ (j,)
2.f,4 d

" nil

/A/11h

,4 = . ,.,fir . DZ

11= \/21v b
r (

7Tf'd-D1

{ 2. }

(') Front

V 1?"f . 2.)

part Ca.) ... I re;;;-'


V~

A '1

(i E.) d) D
ifr 11
as
.3)

Clll1

IN yo I

.t:f h//oltJs b'f

&JlI1flJr'Jn.J

E ,/s.

(2)

tfn,;;{ /.))

1VJtJ.t

f (~) ~ ) = (~)(-ff)'
So

1/t..,t

1 (~)

~)

/.s

actua

":1 inrJetflf("J~nt

tJ

-i .

7- 1'1

7. /s
7.15 A viscous fluid is poured onto a horizontal plate as shown in Fig. P7. r5". Assume that the time, t, required for the fluid to flow a certain distance, d, along the plate is a function of the volume of fluid poured, , acceleration of gravity, g. fluid density, P. and fluid viscosity. fL. Determine an appropriate set of pi terms to describe this process. Form the pi terms by inspection.
/

I---d--j
FIG U REP 7 1%S

i:-= T
t=rpm -the

;.= J...T- !;;: FL.- r2. !- ~ FL-2. r


z
lf

pt,' 7he"rem

6, - 3 = 3 pi t.errns

rejVI"retJ..

B:;

/n.5f~dtt3;j / f;r

70

(('~11i:4Iitll1.7 -t) :
II,

1T;=iv'J

(T)(I-T-7L)

==

pOLdr o

,',

~/:.

C L ) ~.z.

7-20

7. Ie,

I
7.It;
Assume that the drag, ID, on an aircraft flying at supersonic speeds is a function of its velocity, V, fluid density, p, speed of sound, c, and a series oflengths, ell ... , e i , which describe the geometry of the aircraft. Develop a set of pi terms that could be used to investigate experimentally how the drag is affected by the various factors listed. Form the pi terms by inspection.

oJ.:: f ('0 /.1


V::;L. 7-1
r-rtJtn
L'

C)

)1) ., " Y/., )


Co

==

FL-If T 'Z

== LT-'

("/--fL)-3 = /+i pi ffl"tns Y"f'J"/re~ where IS the ntlmhtr of /en91h itrmJ (t'= ~ ; 3) etc. ).

the pi thetJI'etn)

Blj /J1Sfectl(;H) fer

1T. I -

7T; (Ct)J1fq/111)1~ otJ) .,(J -=F If I V2..J,/, - (FI-- Tl.)t1.r-'j 2.fLj 2Mt..T
_2.

::::

!=~L 0 TO

Check. us/nj

MLT:

rM/.c) .
Dr

3) ( LT- I ) z. (2) ~

t)/<..

Fbf ~
Cll1d

(c~nl-(jin';'j

7Ti.
both
tI / /

=
ft'

Co V

~
C

(lYe

abl/lows/'1 dllnens/on Jess.

/i;r

() the,.

.feyms c,tPl1 kI/~/iJ!J 7T.' =- t,'


t
J/~

J.L'
CI re

til1d

these
J

tefm5

/~I1()/III;'-' 1he

1;

obJl,otl~ Iy dim ens 1011 Jess.

Thus

wheyt:.

7- 21

7, J7
7.11

When a fluid flows slowly past a vertical plate of height h and width b (see Fig. P7 .17), pressure develops on the face of the plate. Assume that the pressure, p, at the midpoint of the plate is a function of plate height and width, the approach velocity. V, and the fluid viscosity, /.L. Make use of dimensional anaJysis to determine how the pressure, p, will change when the fluid velocity, V, is doubled.

Plate Width

= Ii

1'= .f (~) b) tI))<--)

t=

~c2.

J..':: L

b -= L

l!:: Lr- ~= /=C' T


I

FrfJfJ? the pt' 1heOYfm 5- 3 .::. z. fi' +trl11J 8'1 1;"'pec,t:/~:/II.1 h,,.. m (dd?11 1-4,iuh, -;):

1Ji = ~-t. ~
V)A--

(FL- )(L) .:.. C t.. (rl--:Z r)

,I )

Check.

IA$/~.! fit f.., T :

1'-4.. _
V)<-- frJ-

_lr--a.)(L) -.: (L 7-1 ) ( Mt.-',-')

fHL

M"L()T

tJ

, CJK..

ff; r ~

(CtP,rltJ/'1I;'J

=i

b) :

whIch JJ obvifJ('(sb

dlme~~~oll/tS.5.

Tn u~,

ti~ef({) V;So
0)

Fr~m 13"1.

if ,f:,;I" WJ 1),a1: -kr A. ?J v(~ re&flefr; and VI~t~5Ifr/ if 1At! v(eI(I+'1/~ Ii dou~/ed -t1te.. l...rlS5l1fe) wal he dCtlb/fd.
tJ)

r:

7;3 1
7.1 ~ The pressure drop, Ap, along a straight pipe of diameter D has been experimentally studied, and it is observed that for laminar flow of a given fluid and pipe, the pressure drop varies directly with the distance, between pressure taps. Assume that Ap is a function of D and e, the velocity, V, and the fluid viscosity, fl.. Use dimensional analysis to deduce how the pressure drop varies with pipe diameter.

e,

fJ I'

=-

f. (/)/ J) ~)t)
L
J

At=-

I=L-'J..

D-'

}-' L

V.; LT- '

1-;

FL-'-r

Frt)m 1he p/ fhet)~pm

s- 3 =.l pI.' 17rms ye$tlIYed. Bt{ II1:5fec.l-u;H) -foy -n; (CtP)1.Jqil1lhj A.p):
7r= /l.f>J) I /' V
::!:

(I=L- )(L) --.: (FL- 2 T) (LT-')

rOL~To

ChecK.

uSln~ ML T :

Af b !'" Y

(I,/}L""7- 2)(L)

. 11 6 LO TD

.: 01<.

(Mt..-'r-')(LT-')

FDy

-n;

(CtPnltlil),n,')'
1Tz =

Oblli()usJlj dlmeY/51()J1less.

Thus;
(I)

LJfb ~V

=1(1. )
D
So

shfrll1fJ1t af

rn us i

1Jte pY'()/'iem) LJ p oC 1 be t).f. the ~rl'Y1

1J14i

4f D == k
)'IV
whfll'e
I{

1..
D

IS

c50me

tons/:QJ1t.
I -D' 2.

It

'thus JcJ/ow~ 1hot

for

a.

!lIVen lteloci~.
7-23

7.11

I
/Cylinder

I. [q The viscosity, /-L, of a liquid can be measured by de. termining the time, t, it takes for a sphere of diameter, d, to in a vertical cylinder of settle slowly through a distance, diameter, D, containing the liquid (see Fig. P7 .19). Assume that

e,

\~~~

,>-<Gf'"

Sphere

= fee, d, D,

/-L, ~'Y)

where ~'Y is the difference in specific weights between the sphere and the liquid. Use dimensional analysis to show how t is related to /-L, and describe how such an apparatus might be used to measure viscosity.

rYllfl1

1ht f/

1heOYflf1)

, - 3::,

3
{ ,) (f:t..- a) (L)

7Ti ( tlPn hi11 IIi.J 1: ) :


1T: ,-

i:

L1a d. - . ,)A.
-!

( FL -2. T )

Che,k.
f;, r

USlhj

MI-T: -t Ar d
~

(T ) (N C 2T-2.~IL) ~
( "-1. L-'T- ' )

11;.

(CSJI11rti/11;'j

D).'
11'1.

=~

"bVIDUS).!1

dlmf"si~I1J~5s

(~fPn ft/ IJlIH .J


()6111~U6/~

J.) :

- t:i1T.3-

L
Thus,

dlmtl1s/o,,/es.5.

If.

hied tjeemef,. ~

-I::lJoa_ rf,(O ft) r d.;r d..


-/:Llad.= C
~

J:s

e.,11 :, -/-aM:i )

~r

)A- == ~
0..

!J /I

-f

:::

{!,

Mt

~"s.f-a",.. + ~ 1" a f.1 ~ eJ.

3 e()'l1 e fr.!:J.

Tit ~sI .fr,.".

)A. = ~ Dr-/:
Ilt.e e,1I,s.f.II/1-t (, talt

b'J ~a/,'b'aJ'f)')( w,1lt ~/Ul" ,/ ~iI~lJ)n Ih5eP5rh. {P, Th C, ~ h,w II fh( VISCOS,'-#, ~ I D 1/1(r fl tI' CD Ok-t. hL dt-/:e YlrJt /I'e '" ih Y'OtJj h 4 IYl eQs II. llem P4 ~I- 1'1u. -f.IMt! -t: Ii! t.pnjuncf,f)'x L<Jl7h. Et. (J) ,
be
at.termlt1'(,p{
A

7- 24-

7.2.0

I
C

1.40

A cylinder with a diameter, D, floats upright in a liquid as shown in Fig. P7.20. When the cylinder is displaced slightly along its vertical axis it will oscillate about its equilibrium position with a frequency, w. Assume that this frequency is a function of the diameter, D, the mass of the cylinder, m, and the specific weight, y, of the liquid. Determine, with the aid of dimensional analysis, how the frequency is related to these variables. If the mass of the cylinder were increased, would the frequency increase or decrease?

/Cylinder diameter

= f)

i'

w::.T
Fr~'"

-1

D=L

1/1e p/ 1heD~~W1, 4 -3 =
I;' 'f'ec.;f-rD~tJ .

8'J

71:= I
Check..
,: OJ(

S/~Ce-

-there

JJ

. ",,1, /
it.

p/ -/-en"" ;~ P~IIDWS

1h14:t:

where

W -D ~:: J'"
Is

C
Thus)

~"s1-aHf .

tv= CJ)

vr
tn1

Fr~m p,i$ reSHli /f ~1/~klJ tnoi:. /f tv w/Jl decrease.

,j

incy-ease"

7-2~

7.:lJ/f:

*7.21 The pressure drop, ap, over a certain length of horizontal pipe is assumed to be a function of the velocity, V, of the fluid in the pipe, the pipe diameter, D, and the fluid density and viscosity, p and p,. (a) Show that this flow can be described in dimensionless form as a "pressure coefficient," Cp = ap/(0.5 p Vl) that depends on the Reynolds number, Re = p VD/ p,. (b) The following data were obtained in an experiment involving a fluid with p = 2 slugs/ft3, P, = 2 X 1O- 3 1b s/ft2, and D = 0.1 ft. Plot a dimensionless graph and use a power law equation to determine the functional relationship between the pressure coefficient and the Reynolds number.

V, ftls ------j------_._._.__ . _-_. 192 3 11 704 17 1088

20

1280

(c) What are the limitations on the applicability of your equation obtained in part (b)?

(a. )

r +- (~
=:

DJ

f; f< )
I

I.Jp=

PL-1.

Y=LT-

D=L

FY'1'1I

fh(

p/ theDre m J 5"- 3 ::

8~ ';,spec.. .hc if .fc>r 7T,.)

-rr. = I
Che (.k
U'SIII'j

/,v:z.

A. P

-==
:.
l-

11 LT ~'I.5.J-er11 : Ap ML-1r-Z.
IV,," ==

Ok..

(Hc3) (LT-j
-

TT2
us,;"

=~
,#--

fJ VD

(PL- lf ,2.)(LT-1){Lj

( FL.-Z.
I

T )

I-VP::: (ML-a) (LT- (L).= H"L/)T~


)

MLT S'lsiem :

:. OJ::.

( /vi

L- '

7-

1 )

Thus)
~

IV
i..s

J1p
2.

"

aJit

unk.hOUJH

o.G"" Ct:ln b~

inc.-Iude d

.{u/lfc.;hoi1 1 a ..{(J.Gl::or 111 Tr, (/1 deS/re,) $0

_ .1 aStV2. - 't'
Thw,S/
(,uhel"t. Cp ntlt11 bey,

AL

(~V.b)

~.

Lp - c)(R~)
,..; tnt. pre~sur.e ~eff,c.I;' t
(Co c>n !t.)
tll1d

Re 1lr-e.

Re~"d/J..s

7. 2 I

I
(b)

( CDn 'z. )
fA $1';1

inl!. da.-/::a '7 J lie n )


.6. P

c;.

_ _.d~p---:----:-_ = 6,SfV'- - (6.5){2. V'

1;,r)

eli-II(

t ::

/:.YJ:>

=-

(~~)( ) r / (", ok 3Y (D. -M:..i


1...>< 10-.1 I~'),..

(DD

e)ATa~U/4-k-~

valtleJ
tire
Ll p, psf

/01" Cp
Show H
Re 300 1100 1700 2000

C/J!fP.

Re

1J,e 4 .. t-a
v, ftls
3 11 17 20

be /,u; .
Cp 21.3 5.82 3.77 3.20

192 704 1090 1280

.....

;g
~

25.0 -r---------~---__. Cp = 638 Re- 1.00 20.0 f - - - - - ' \ - \ - - - - ' - - - - - - - -..:g 0. 15.0 +---~'-------------l ~ () 10.0 f----~ .........~~-.. . .. - - - - - - - - - - 1
cQ)

5.0 1 - - - - ~----=----iiOiiiiiii,;~~---.... 0.0 +----,---...,.-----,.---...,.-----1

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Reynolds number, Re

{hlL

?() u.Jt V /t(w

Y'e

/d,o '"Sh, f
~3'8

,j
[1)

c~
(C)

Re

BII.sep

"11

1he

tI~rJ46Jej
1h...

Ust-d

1nL ern;/y./ca I
a pp/" c..

"I... ,.,,-

y-e/ ... /-,~II.sh, i')

1'h~ rille" aa..f:a. ~ $. (j)..) WI)u./~ (!)"J'J b4!


411,{

Re If 1101"$

h f.I {'II ~/Y

rA 11'i&.

300

< Re. 5...

200D

ND1:.e.: 41-thPI(tlh

he.. VI//,&I ""b/de -fh/J rtJJ191 re1/,(!-h .s-hflu/I( /lot- I:u.. ex. t:/'"#..fJdlal:e' loe,~"1f 1he rlll'lfe ()f d~ta used.

-me

efut/~11 I71JfhC

?-1.7

7.22 The height, h, that a liquid will rise in a capillary tube is a function of the tube diameter, D, the specific weight of the liquid, y, and the surface tension, (J. Perform a dimensional analysis using both the FLT and MLT systems for basic dimensions. Note: The results should obviously be the same regardless of the system of dimensions used. If your analysis indicates otherwise, go back and check your work giving particular attention to the required number of reference dimensions.

Us/;"

~= PL- 3 CT= /=t-FrtJm The P": the()rem I 1./--2 = .z pL'tertnJ 8'1 InSfec..ttDII) for iTj (~ni4i/1liJ, -l) :

-i

P/... T ~fjstem : -= L .D == L

11i=:f
/.5
OJ,V'Dt/S!y dt'/nfnS/onJess.
( cDnt:olnln,

;r

tlnd

rr) :
FL -/

{= ~ (a-a;.. )
USlfl'~ ULT ~'fJkm .-1,. L D-' L

/.J/tJ,o~,), '!here

~= ML- 2 ;-2.

0-=

r-2.
tJJ1/Y

a.fftll Y'5

f() be

.3 reierel1((!..

dl;'fI1S/~~)

,t reierFJ1ce dlmeflslol1-5 dYe act",ol/!I Yt'$tlIYfd ( Land M T-z) 1-0 de5cr/~e 'the i/qnqbJes, 8,/ inspec.i't!)"n,l hr 77; Csfle 41"ye)

CU1C,(

~Y'

7Tz

(~ittIHI""
~=
0OJ)2.

tt=:l. I .D
d- (JJ1t1 (j) .'
=
/VI T - 2. _ (ML- Z T-z."j(L)
_
l

H DL ~ TD

7-28

7:2g

I
7.23 The speed of sound in a gas, c, is a function of the gas pressure, p, and density, p. Determine, with the aid of dimensional analysis, how the velocity is related to the pressure and density. Be careful when you decide on how many reference dimensions are required.

c= f'

(?;f)

fJ:l: FL-'2.

/flf/J()tl9i1 1he~ ~'p'"r.;


011/'1

to k

reference c/Jmfl1~II)IJS
foss/Me. pi I:eyrns);
(/11&/

(wjJlch would I~c!tcat~ thac rhl'r~ tlre ilo


2
re/erel1ce. d,rn.fI1SII)II.s

(LT- 1
2

FJ...- 2 )

aYe

aciU4//'1 resulted since

t=

(rt.- )(LT

_,/2_I) 2 r~ F
U
3

Thu~ fr~m 1Jte pl' 1Jzel)~m)

3 -2 = / Pl' term re~ulred.


-2,1

8'1 In~pecl::l{;11
Che~k
U51J1J

.'

1T. = ~
J

~ '..0
-p

==

(1-T

L / ( L T d : riJL t) TO

-,)-~

PI..-'2.

N L T.'
(LT- 1 )2.(M/..ML-'72

):

MDLtJT

, OJ<

onJIj /

fL' term)

~= C
where C J~

1>

CtJHstani.

c=

c=

Clff
(4= rC ) .

where.

C, JS

a.

CliI1S,j;qHi

7. 2. 4 H r

-'I-

I. 2.L/ The pressure rise, t1p = P2 - PI' across the abrupt expansion of Fig. P7.24 through which a liquid is flowing can be expressed as
/
where A 1 and A2 are the upstream and downstream cross-sectional areas, respectively, p is the fluid density, and VI is the upstream velocity. Some experimental data obtained with A2 = 3 1.25 ft2, VI = 5.00 ft/s. and using water with p = 1.94 slugs/ft are given in the following table:
AI (ft 2 )
\

o
Vi ........
Area = Al

PI

0.10 3.25

I
I

0.25 7.85

0.37 10.3

0.52 11.6

I
I

0.61 12.3

t1p (lb/ft 2 )

Area = A2

Plot the results of these tests using suitable dimensionless parameters. With the aid of a standard curve fitting program determine a general equation for t1p and use this equation to predict t1p for water flowing through an abrupt expansion with an area ratio A 1I A2 = 0.35 at a velocity VI = 3.75 ftl s.

tJf=

FL-

AJ == L1.

A;L::: L

1.

f::'
pi .'

FL-'1

"2.

V, -= L7- 1

p;.~m iJ,e

p"

fJ1e~l'(tn)

s- 3 =

2.

ffrmJ '("e~tI/'et1.

B~ /,,~pec.tlbJl /;;r ~ (t:;n.fail1lhg fl f)

ChecK

USJI1!j

7r.= I Iv;:t
MLT:
~
I~~

AE _

Fi..-2. (FL-IfTl.)(Lr-,)l-

-.
.
~I<.

M L-/ T-2.
(1-11..-3 )(L rtiff"
J) 1-

M~L~TO

{;y 7T2- (tlllftli4lrlj A-,

A z

):

I r,
tI~/;'j

~;
J.

-the daia.
o.ofp7

1JI/el11

,+

~/I()JI/.5

tha.i

LlPR~2.

0,",2 O.2()o

0.212

o.2J~

0.2.5'4-

A,/Al.

O.ORO

().lq~

6.~lb O.4-F~

( r!41/ i)

0.3 .
0.25

--i------~----I
I .__ / ____

--f-.-
~I-.-

.,- 0.2.
i:J... 0.15 .

..

7------------------------------- IV ,-----

0.1
0.05

I--I-------~------- ------------L------------

o -f------!------!,f----+,----+-----I, o 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.1


Pi2

'

The

(!urlle

dl't:ltvn

1"'" 111 e ~ ylt ph

7'V1J11

7)r~

.e~IiIt.I:I"1f

~ / J0 /,4/ ) 1. + I. 0 7 ( 4'z. ) fl-j ~ - - . {:4z.

0, 0 103

7- 31

7.2.5
7.2;A liquid flows with a velocity V through a hole in the side of a large tank. Assume that
V = f(h, g, p, 0")

V (m/s) h (m)

3.13 0.50

4.43 1.00

5.42 1.50

6.25 2.00

7.00 2.50

where h is the depth of fluid above the hole, g is the acceleration of gravity, p the fluid density, and 0" the surface tension. The following data were obtained by changing h and measuring V, with a fluid having a density = 103 kg/m3 and surface tension = 0.074 N/m.

Plot these data by using appropriate dimensionless variables. Could any of the original variables have been omitted?

V= LT-'

-A =L
S- 3

;.; LT-2.

t=

FL-"'r'Zf"f'ifllY'fd.

0":: /="L- 1

Fr~m 1/1e pt' the()/"em I

B'1 iYJS;eCt./~H

p" .feJl'/'J'1S lOr 7T; (~/,-t(Jlnl.l1j V):

=2

/=r;r

77f = '{if {t- T -~ 'I,. (L) TT2. (eon /rJ;'lInfj t IIlfd rr) .'
IT: :::z.

.Y- _

/. r- I
If

1. 0 TO
1-

/-3-1.2. ==
(/

(Ft..- r2.)(/.T-'1.)(L)
r-L-/

..:. rOL o TO

Check

tAStnj

IML- 3j(LT-') (L J_2. ==


M 7-2.

/l1"LD TO

v
V3..A ..
;::;,,. fit.

data..

~J~en:
13.3 )(10 t'

f#*z.lrr Vl'fih
~
I

3."3 J )(.104-

2.'1.3 X 10 If
/. 'f I

S3.0

x 10;

J' 2. 'I x If)


/.Cf/

'I'

/. If I
__ .- j

I. '1-1
..

I. ifl

-: -j

:~~=J.:

rjT

-v

I.P~--+-~~~~~~~~~-+~~~~~~~~~~

The 9rr~ph
-the.

411d

+Able shDw- thaI: VIVjh


~ anti

I{J

l~clepfndfHi elf fJ#J.)./rr. Thus"

vtlnil6/es

rr

~,,/d hI/lie

hfen ~mdft-c/.

7 2~ 1
7. 2 ~ The time, t, it takes to pour a certain volume of liquid from a cylindrical container depends on several factors, including the viscosity of the liquid. (See Video V 1.1.) Assume that for very viscous liquids the time it takes to pour out 2/3 of the initial volume depends on the initial liquid depth, the cylinder diameter, D, the liquid viscosity, J1., and the liquid specific weight, )'. The data shown in the following table were obtained in the laboratory. For these tests = 45 mm, D = 67 mm, and), = 9.60 kN/m3 . (a) Perform a dimensional analysis and based on the data given, determine if variables used for this problem appear to be correct. Explain how you arrived at your answer. (b) If possible, determine an equation relating the pouring time and viscosity for the cylinder and liquids used in these tests. If it is not possible, indicate what additional information is needed.

e,

II
t(s)

17
23

39

61
83

107
145

IS

53

i
J..=L
FYtJrn -the

((1) ~ jA) ~) w2 ])=L ?-= FL r


5-3 == 2 p/ ffrms Y'efftl.,yed. ( C CJI1.J-t/;l1ln!J 1:) (T)(FL- 3 )(L) . pOLoT
D

pt' meoYern

8 0/

Jh~Fec..--/-tt:;"/1)

-/'0;- 7J;

77: =
/

t- tr [)
)A--

(!=L-~

r)
0

Check

{,/SII1,j

M LT

+;r-D
~

=-

~ 'I ~1-e1l1 : (T)( ML-2.


(M

r-2)(L) _ Me. L TO L-' /-1)

Wh/ch

.
Is
C)

b v /o{.{ 5 ~ dlmeJ1 j/lJnless . Th"s) t-tf D - cf (; )


)<.J/v(n

(/ )
(!()IIS I-oll-t ) .

For -th(!

dt1.,~

75-

.1--

I.j.S-/TIl /iH

'7/fHhf1

== o. Is, 72 ( a
e)115-kl 11+

h~m

Eg. (/)

IT-

10 1/005
:

i:lr.D

the dt'l.:ta. 9 I v~ Y1

?=
7- 33

7.2Co

J
?i77
Since ~
J~

? 70

871f

375

g 72

-e.~sen1:.IQ.IJ.!J

1ne eJt-peYJin en-ba. J da.,i-a.. a.. p pea y b be a6)Yrec.i:. Lb) The

CtPns1::ant ~lIey 1he. Y'an~e ofthe VtlYla6/es 1/6f4 ~Y' the pYtJ/;/em

So

Tha:i

i: =
WI fiJ

1.31. h
f.<Jhen /--

-I:- I~

seuMds f)US

JJ t'n

tJl1''f...J

tJ{ lV,s//Wt~

NtJ-I:.~

.for :L)B

r~s.f-Yl~~d ~zud/~JI /j 0'111 1/a.I/d ~;0:::~. (, 7t,; [) = ~ 7/111-*1) and 6- ~ 9: /pt}4eN//fn 3 Uil

1ha.t

t>.f-

1J1e

J/JI'+U!J' /

I/o

iwme be,n.J pour@d.

7- 3 '-f

7,.;2.7

I
Q (m 3 /s) 3.6 x 10- 6 4.9 X 10- 6 6.3 X 10- 6 7.9 X 10- 6 9.8 X 10- 6

The pressure drop per unit length, Apr, for the flow of blood through a horizontal small diameter tube is a function of the volume rate of flow, Q, the diameter, D, and the blood viscosity, jl. For a series of tests in which d = 2 mm, and jl = 0.004 N's/m 2 , the following data were obtained, where the Ap listed was measured over, the length, e= 300 mm.

7.27

Ap (N/m 2)
1.1 1.5 1.9 2.4 3.0
X X X X X

104 104 104 104 104

Perform a dimensional analysis for this problem, and make use of the data given to determine a general relationship between Apr and Q (one that is valid for other values of D, ~ and 11).

/' =- FL. -2.r


Fr()tn the ft' fhe"Yftn
J

/.f - 3 = / pi tfym

res

lilyed.

81f In;pec.tlon ~ ~ LlAo D' _ I ~ cP


.Ll~ Dif
~Q

(Fr 3) (L)

(PL-'Z r) ( L3 7-')

MLT:

(ML-1T-Z)(L)'f

::.
.' OJ<.

(M'- -lr-I)(Lsr-')

S/nce -there IS

wheve

= /,33 x If) Q
a J1 d fnere ft, re
U&ln,9

-~

.6p

the. da.&

IH

L1i1 Dlf

/0

'fo." ~, 7

40. /

itO. If

'fo.7

e,m
"7.28 As shown in Fig. 2.26, Fig. P7.28, and Video \'2.7, a rectangular barge floats in a stable configuration provided the distance between the center of gravity, CG, of the object (boat and load) and the center of buoyancy, C, is less than a certain amount, H. If this distance is greater than H the boat will tip over. Assume H is a function of the boat's width, b, length, and draft, h. (a) Put this relationship into dimensionless form. (b) The results of a set of experiments with a model barge with a width of 1.0 m is shown in the table. Plot this data in dimensionless form and determine a power-law equation relating the dimensionless parameters. 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0

h,m
0.10 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.35

H,m
0.833 0.833 0.417 0.417 0.238 0.238

e,

ft= i(b;J-)~) (r"l?1 the fL' 1h eoyrm) '-/-/ / I? .$pe c. f,o n "

iii FIGURE P7.28

=~

p,'

krl71s rP~l4;ye,f. 91;1

krms tjye obv/ousl!:! dJ mens/on/esS. (/:,) /="0". the dL.J:.a fivel1 1-4bltl"ktl va/U(ls for H-/b) l1/b J ~t1~ a y~ ShbtJIlt btl ow. I
h/b 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.35 H/b 0.833 0.833 0.417 0.417 0.238 0.238

A/I

~.f. 1h~ p/

1=~(i)4)
.{Ib
-

fib 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0 2.0 4.0

,----------------~--------

..c

--

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

"0.10

H/b = 0.0833 (h/br 1OO


--

"
--

I
I

o
0.00 0.20 h/b 0.30 0.40

~-----------------------fJ~ "l./b; (.f',,) 111-t "Sl1l?1f Ua luE'

All
"~t

J~sf"cA,()'1I
iI-ep~nd
obl-ttll:'~,(

61-

1He.H

d"i-A. reI/eli 15 1H1l.-t


IJ

H-/b d"e.s
Df. H-/b

Is

ICY' cI,'Flerf'''' t (/a {wtJ$

I- .l. Ii, . Thus,


U1~

.e$

41'1 d

4{)t1f

t;,~ plDt 01 ihe da.ttl.)

lAS

0...

pllwev- law-

u,4,. .f/D YJ

h = 0.0933 1:

1+

('-Pc.)- I."

7.2,Q A fluid flows through the horizontal curved pipe of Fig. P7."2.Q with a velocity V. The pressure drop, !1p, between the entrance and the exit to the bend is thought to be a function of the velocity, bend radius, R, pipe diameter, D, and fluid density, p. The data shown in the following table were obtained in the laboratory. For these tests p = 2.0 slugs/ft3 , R = 0.5 ft, and D = 0.1 ft. Perform a dimensional analysis and based on the data given, determine if the variables used for this problem appear to be correct. Explain how you arrived at your answer.
:;;::;ft2 )

v - >L---_I--.

I, ~:~ I ~:~ ! !:~ I ~:;


5 - 3 = 2. I"
(C4'nt:III#lny

~-,,--""'---

FIG U REP 71. 2 ~

Prt9m 1Jte pi thepl'em)

1::('1"/71 S

ret"'/r(#~;

130/ ItJ$;e~l1)

.(;;y

-u;

tip) :
Z)

..6p _
1Tj = ,,4 V 2.
C,heck..
USII1?

(Fl-

(~L -IfT1.) (LT-)

NI..T s'fs/-em .
~ f'

( M'- - I T -I. )
(1'11..-') (I.. T-tj
"
Z

~/,

Hr 1Tz. (~n-~iH,il7 R
which
iJ

1T;..=R
~bv;'o{,/f;,/~
;? j/ 2.
/jQ -

PI1P /) ) D
ThtlS) (I)

diM fI1SIOII/P.5,S_

'f'

(-#) r-

D _ (). /.11:: _ /

-s
i

C,rls&:tn#

J.

Thu51

;; t.

(j)

tv J'"'h-1 ~

CPH St:qH

/0 /J"WJ

-IrzJ

~1?.s-l:-t1l1i .

~/eve~

#1" the

C4? 1'1~ brJt i

/ 1:';- f,:; 1/() f().S 4 pi, -the

'/he

jJYD/,ltm tJlre

n~i

&f'f'ec.-F
I

7-37

7. 30

I
1.3 ()
The water flowrate, Q, in an open rectangular channel can be measured by placing a plate across the channel as shown in Fig. P7.30. This type of a device is called a weir. The height of the water, H, above the weir crest is referred to as the head and can be used to determine the flowrate through the channel. Assume that Q is a function of the head, H, the channel width, b, and the acceleration of gravity, g. Determine a suitable set of dimensionless variables for this problem.
Ib

-I

T H

Weir plate

Q :: H; b) ~) h:i L d = i 7- 2
p/ +(ftnj In 'spe d-/~/f .J:,y- 10 (t...~ntot'J11 n, 4'):
'::: 2.

+(

p/

the~yefYll

'1- 2

ri'~UJypJ.

4J
HSIz J IJz.

:=.

L3 T- 1

(L ) 5""/z. (L T-z)

1)2-

712.. ( CAIt HI#/l19 /;)


tr;z.

= -A f+

7- 38

7.

3/

I
J.51
From theoretical considerations it is known that for the weir described in Problem 7.30 the ftowrate, Q, must be directly proportional to the channel width, b. In some laboratory tests it was determined that if b = 3 ft and H = 4 in., then Q = 1.96 ft 3 / s. Based on these limited data, determine a general equation for the ftowrate over this type of weir.

7.30)

(j)

- c (J;)
Th (,lSI -ft,y he dd4. 9' Ilf)1

(/)

H5"/z..

J 'Iz.

where

J:.s

tt

CtPn s ftvtt f.

c
1h e

Jen&Y'4 / egIi a:t:zPI1


== 6. 5"'1t b

/. 91, if3

J.5

({J

Y &ft3

7.32

l
7.31 SAE 30 oil at 60 OF is pumped through a 3-ft-diameter pipeline at a rate of 6400 gal/min. A model of this pipeline is to be designed using a 3-in.-diameter pipe and water at 60 OF as the working fluid. To maintain Reynolds number similarity between these two systems, what fluid velocity will be required in the model?

Pol" Re~I'J~/ds num btl' s/m;/tlr/f!:J;I


V hH D.-m
Or
~(I)
:::

VD

and
I '-I. 3 I-t 3

+hen

v=
ff-()m

- 2.02

(sft) z.

ft s

Thus/

r. lJ )
5
X- /0-

\I.
m1

= (1.2/
(

{t; (3 ftl (2.02 t)


oS

If. 5" x /0 - 3

if.) ( ?z. ft)

~.52 ;C/o

-z.

7-t.io

733

I
7.3 3 Glycerin at 20C flows with a velocity of 4 m/ s through a 30-mm-diameter tube. A model of this system is to be developed using standard air as the model fluid. The air velocity is to be 2 m/ s. What tube diameter is required for the model if dynamic similarity is to be maintained between model and prototype?

FOr d'lntlliJ/c.. sim i /tTr/fy / i'he Reyno/cis numblY' rnu.st. be

the

S tim e

(;,r mode I
v~

aJ.1d prototype.. Th us J

D tm

~
So

Vb

v
(I, '16 XI ()-!J'"-;. 2. ) (tf f1 ) ( t. / 'I X /0" 3!l!1. 2.) (z ~-) .s s
..
O. 7 3 fe,
/'WI I'm

thai

DhY\

- VV

D .. 3

(O,/)3~/1f1)

CJ.

73IP ~/D

I"WJ

7-Lf!

7.3Lf

I
7.3 if The drag characteristics of a torpedo are to be studied in a water tunnel using a 1:5 scale model. The tunnel operates with freshwater at 20 e, whereas the prototype torpedo is to be used in seawater at 15.6 0c. To correctly simulate the behavior of the prototype moving with a velocity of 30 mis, what velocity is required in the water tunnel?

FOr d'lnQ"',"6 s/m; /tlr/ ty I the Re'l,,~/tlJ number must be fhe. SeNne hI'" m~r/e/ ClI1c1 prtJioiype. Thus J

V mr D":} _
~

'i!l
1/

~=-V411D
/)?1

V
/.

5 t'nce) ~
-V

(Warey @

~()oc ):::

()Olf

;(./o-ID 11)12.6

(7db/e B. 2) )

(SeplVaier @ 15:boC ):: /./7~/()""6-111~

(r;6/e /.~)J lind

.D/])/M =5 I;t follows thai

_, ,.",,2.) ( V::: /. 00 II- x. I/) ""5


M (/.

17 X IIJ -6 ' ; 2. )

/2 Cf

7.35

I
7.J5 The design of a river model is to be based on Froude number similarity. and a river depth of 3 m is to correspond to a model depth of 50 mm. Under these conditions what is the prototype velocity corresponding to a model velocity of 1.2 m/s?

Pi:;y.

I=;."ude

17/,(1n j,pr

s I'm ~ J~ Y'if!J )

V.;m

Wheve

I~

. the fflAIC;

V!/WI ctw.

V#- tJ..
depth .

7h (.{ S

v: I/f{ flirt d4H


Cll1d

w,'1h

! :: j'WI

V=

Vt

= ~(. ~) = 0. O.5() Z 5
Mt

1.30~

7-'13

7.3(0

I
7.3 ~ For a certain fluid flow problem it is known that both the Froude number and the Weber number are important dimensionless parameters. If the problem is to be studied by using a 1: 15 scale model, detennine the required surface tension scale if the density scale is equal to 1. The model and prototype operate in the same gravitational field.

t=br

dlfnqm/e- S;lru'/f/I";'+!J)

Vim

::"

V?rm ).,
ay,d

VjJ=

fm, V'; )~
0;",

f- V'-J
cr
( w~Th

To saflsly

F;.t:JlJ de

HumhtY' .s/~/'Jlly/-J~

a= J~ ))

_ -V
V~

et..,d

inere. -h,re !Dr Webev nlAmher a;, :: ~ (~)~ & ()

f
I/I~

.5 '/ mJ'lt:? Y/-f!J

(J

" ~(-r)f=~(;r
IJ

Thus) w'rth JIWI

/1. ~

and

~ /f=

7. 37

I
7.37 The fluid dynamic characteristics of an airplane flying at 240 mph at 10,000 ftare to be investigated with the aid of a 1:20 scale model. If the model tests are to be performed in a wind tunnel using standard air, what is tht" required air velocity in the wind tunnel? Is this a reaHstic vefocity?

For d ~J14m"~ sim; 14;i-lJ,I -the. ReYfJ()/d5 nUn? hiY' rn us.f ~ the. SaMe. #>Y' model tlnd pY'~ioi'J.pe. ThUS)

(/)

jJJ1Cf)

/-~ 3. 5'3Lf.x JO-

~
ftl.

)
I

A = 3.711- x JD-7
'h,1I<

. /=
1m

/, tsb x /0

-3

),,/1,,"

=1..0 ,+
J

""

Ib.s

ft~

~ = 2, 3 r~)f) -3 slui'

I s ut..s h J

(TaMe C.I)
(~kJe 1.7)

+i'

follows

/r()m

liZO)

-thai

3750

mph

No

If / s not 4

rea//stti, ve/()c/f::; - muc.h

fDa h/811 .

7-'1s

If an airplane travels at a speed of 1120 km/hr at an altitude of 15 km, what is the required speed at an altitude of~ km to satisfy Mach number similarity? Assume the air properties correspond to those for the U.S. standard atmosphere.

7.38

( V)
C

J5"~'1

_
-

(V)

C 8 ~~
Rgtltl:'='!J#

(I)

Th e
qHP{

~ fRfcl

~f

SoufJd

~lJn be CA/cedafe'" ~()m 1he

-ft,r

til y.)

I<.:j, ~())

~ ::

V -' ~ T

R:: z 86, '1 J /"*;, I<.


-

(13 ~, /' Zo)

It-/:
aHti

/ ~ ~"'" olh I-ude I


T= (4'1.

8 ~~

s" ~o

+ 273.16

J./&',7 k
23',21<.

(Table (,2)

T= Thus)
a,

3b.9,/ t:JC f ,;J.73,)~ I~'*1Wf oj I-,I",dt!.

(Iab/~ ( l )

t.

C
Ci 11 d

=l/-r;-.11-0-)(-2.-g~-.ri-.d---)-( :;.-/,-, 7-k-) =


if
-Ie#- '/<
~ .h. I1YI

/;-6."",
() f:

r------------------------C(j ~ = . .J 1(/'tfo) (21,.1 ~J' ) (13&,21<) :: 1Il; ./<


()~.,.,
~

308 ~ s

From 1' (J)


~.h~
=
1170

308=( ~ ) 1120
.2.'15"~
5

(I

{M( ) h ...

~ hr

7.t;o

I
The lift and drag developed on a hydrofoil are to be detennined through wind tunnel tests using standard air. If full scale tests are to be run, what is the required wind tunnel velocity corresponding to a hydrofoil velocity in seawater of 15 mph? Assume Reynolds number similarity is required.

7.40

For ?e'fn()/dJ number s;m "Jllr/f~ Vh)1 .i~


~

=-

rt
7/

IAJhere

J.

I~ Some cnoY'pcten'Sf,c, I eYJJth

of the

hfjdf'Dfoi /.

Thus)

~= -u"
m1

),.",

1.

a Ilt/

tv

/"ht

..,e /11tn =I
-z4,

7:l Y

(.,cull scale kst) _ fl,5"7 x /0-If !j'1..)

(/, z' x

(/5 mph)

10-5" .ft'&.)

.s

7-"17

7.'1/
7.41 A 1/50 scale model is to be used in a towing tank to study the water motion near the bottom of a shallow channel as a large barge passes over. (See Vidl'O V7.7.) Assume that the model is operated in accordance with the Froude number criteria for dynamic similitude. The prototype barge moves at a typical speed of 15 knots. (a) At what speed (in ftls) should the model be towed? (b) Near the bo.ttom of the model channel a small particle is found to move 0.15 ft in one second so that the fluid velocity at that point is approximately 0.15 ftls. Determine the velocity at the corresponding point in the prototype channel.

Ca)

(1)

:51 ~ C-e. f-rom


S 0 ~a.-i:-

t;;~. (I)

V"" V

V 1~

-1

= V~O ~
/.

V=

'/sO (0.15 ~) =

O~ V

7. 2

J
7.4'Z.
AI: 40 scale model of a ship is to be tested in a towing tank. Determine the required kinematic viscosity of the model fluid so that both the Reynolds number and the Froude number are the same for model and prototype. Assume the prototype fluid to be seawater at 60 oF. Could any of the liquids with viscosities given in Fig. B.2 in Appendix B be used as the model fluid?

As

dISCIISS(?c/

/n Sec./;/()11 7. e. 3 if) rnQJ~ tal h both ReynoJd.J

nurn ber- 411d Fr""r/e number SlInllq n'7-;; -V ].

: (AJ.) ~
3

) --;: ( /, /7 ( -!.. Jro


If. 6 J.
!VI). aYe
.>G

x/I)
oS

-" s tWI z..)

- if JD

/Y11 ~

The

VIJ

lues tJf y
/t1YfO'"

/c;thlll1

a/I much

I, Z't/lds tf It/t'n /It Ine. re~ lJ t'rer) va/ue.


the

Fi9. B, 2

?-'fr

7. '-13
1. Lf.3

A solid block in the shape of a cube rests partially submerged on the bottom of a river as shown in Fig. P7.43. The drag, q]j, on the block depends on the river depth, d, the block dimension, h, the stream velocity, V, the fluid density, p, and the acceleration of gravity, g. (a) Perform a dimensional analysis for this problem. (b) The drag is to be determined from a model study using a length scale of 1/5. What model velocity should be used to predict the drag on the prototype located in a river with a velocity of 9 ft/s? Water is to be used for the model fluid. Determine the expected prototype drag in terms of the model drag.

(a..)

r1J =.f. ( d.) ~)


d"n.eI1$/~111J1 an4/151J

V)

fJ

J)
1
'1-

i) == f d= L -l:: L V= )..7- 1= t=L-lf r /=1""111 the fi -fh-e~Y.flY1) ~-3 = 3 p/ 1-~"I?1~ r~1"I;p~,


()..

1/;,1(

#h.
-

'lie/tis

1 (~) ~)
prDf IJ -t:!:/ pe
::-

(b)

For-

~;m'l lari+!1 be f-w~ell tn "de I arrti


d +. Y1,Ak

d"",_

4", fA

VI'M

WItH d""

.JL V8~

Thus )
and

dMA. -/,."," - ( - X -5 d

v: 1IfJ-

V-F Y7

7V

= Yfr9~

Jf. 02

-r:

The fr'~dl~-I-JDn elua.-t1fPn J".$ Jj = ~m1 fV1. hl !'WI V,,; h~

7- so

7. /1.11-

7.44 The drag on a 2-m-diameter satellite dish due to an 80 km/hr wind is to be determined through a wind tunnel test using a geometrically similar O.4-m-diameter model dish. Assume standard air for both model and prototype. (a) At what air speed should the model test be run? (b) With all similarity conditions satisfied, the measured drag on the model was determined to be 170 N. What is the predicted drag on the prototype dish?

rtit)

I=rtJhI

E~. 7.19) Re'lJ1fJ/ris number

slm; 14r1Tfj

IS

Y'eglJiYfl'i. Thus,

~ lJ....

v ....
whey!.

-VD
-z/

I.J

the dt'sh clJtlrneteY".

It

~//"WJ 1f14t

~:~.12. V 7/ ~
1m

and

w/n, ~

/v = /
~ = ( 2. )/~~ ~-m) = ".,., ~. J.j IYYI ( ~ h Y'
/WI

(g~ ~~

hI"

)2.
17D tV

(tVote Th_+ I!) :.,/j1Yr! Ii-, -IJ,ti.s pJ'tJb/eWl) 5/~(e I....fJm The. CJJtI(ltf,,,'yj of Re'lI'1()Jds nwm My S/ffll/tll',.-ffj) v'll v,; = D; ID~ ThiS IS nrt

rrue

111

,ln~ra /. )

7-S/

7. '15"

I
The pressure drop between the entrance and exit of a 150-mm-diameter 90 elbow, through which ethyl alcohol at 20C is flowing, is to be determined with a geometrically similar model. The velocity of the alcohol is 5 m/s. The model fluid is to be water at 20C, and the model velocity is limited to 10 m/s. (8) What is the required diameter of the model elbow to maintain dynamic similarity? (b) A measured pressure drop of2.0 kPa in the model will correspond to what prototype value?

7.45

Foy //()W In a. c/(Jsed C6ndtJ/f;


De,PtfldfHt pi

I-e,m

f (-i', ;

7! )
vAYJahJe. I ~

(Eg. 7. 10)

T-;r 1J,/,J fJIlY/-lcu/lJr Py()b/fn? the deppndent


pJl'~.sSfA~ c!r'~f) Jj1>J So -!hilt

The

Deoey, cleft t pi f~rWJ .:


r

IV2.

1J.fJ

,4/so, the. ~h(JY'(Jcifn~f;c, lel1f/h hV flaw through c/ lame-H. v) 0 J So 1ha-/;


lJ.f _
IV:z. -

a.

q{)D

e/b()w

IS

the

J.

D)

,oVD) I~

d'lMIIIlJIc.. :!J/~/"jarl+!1)

;'11H ~ j)~ =
~~

&
v

VAH

D""

=:

'i.P

(/;/;/e B. 2)I
(lib),- /. ~)/
So

4Hd

thAt

:: If 9. i
( Con

1m IW1

Ii )

(b) W,''/H

same Reynolds number fer /nodel and pr~iol.fjpe.J a J1cJ tv ,'tH jeomefr.h 'sl m; )4 y;-I:J (tv h IC ~ I mpllec, ThAt fAM /Dtm = t / D) -t11e.,
1ne

A,p1)M
1/1')'\
(.) 2. V Mt

~
{

..0

y'"

7-53

76

I
7.4 ~
For a certain model study involving a 1: 5 'scale model it is known that Froude number similarity must be maintained. The possibility of cavitation is also to be investigated, and it is assumed that the cavitation number must be the same for model and prototype. The prototype fluid is water at 30C, and the model fluid is water at 70 0c. If the prototype operates at an ambient pressure of 101 kPa (abs), what is the required ambient pressure for the model system?

for naurie. number ~/m;J(JI'I+'J)

V-*,

-:

V JfW\ "i~
$0 -hrAt
(WIt;.. j:'Mt)

ViT
OJ

V; V!;
=
n()mbpy slmtlay,fr:J )

I="tPr

C(l{//I-~f/~1I

(-p". - ?v- ttf'l = (1-;. - p~ )

-t(hI\ V""l.
It
.f.o J/ow-s ~t

if V4.

(1'.". - tv-)Itt\
use
~f

& ~

2-

V.,..

J.

(AJ lJ r.,. -, v

afJfl m,k/J1~

'""1. ll) (-fr - P ... L... =

7- It- (tj.-fJ-)

(Z )

SD,2

-A Pet

(a/'o5)

7-51(-

7.0/-7
7.47 As shown in Fig. P7.47, a thin, flat plate containing a series of holes is to be placed in a pipe to filter out any particles in the liquid flowing through the pipe. There is some concern about the large pressure drop that may develop across the plate, and it is proposed to study this problem with a geometrically similar model. The following data apply. (a) Assuming that the pressure drop, Ap, depends on the variables listed above, use dimensional analysis to develop a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem. (b) Determine values for the model indicated in the list above with a question mark. What will be the pressure drop scale, APm/Ap?

Prototype
d-hole diameter = 1.0 mm D-pipe diameter = 50 mm ,u-viscosity = 0.002 N . s/m 2 p-density = 1000 kglm 3 V-velocity = 0.1 m1s to 2 m1s

Model
D = 10mm ,u = 0.002 N . s/m2 p = 1000 kg/m3

d=?

V=?

FIGURE P7.47

fa)

Llp=/{d;D)t;f;V) J.p=- p L-2. do:: L D=- L f<:: FC2.T


Fr~rJ1 the. pi theoJIPm, 6,- 3= 3 pi dlinen.5li)l14/ ~1')41'f.si.s ';jltld.s

t= FL-'tT
Y'e~UI rrd;

'2.

V= L Ta..

+--e t-rnS

tI ncJ

~
(b)

fJV:z.

=r ~ (.!L fX! D) ~

Foy ~/~,I~Y;+!J)
cI D~:: 15 w in 1n ~ fA a,./:a

cl"...

cJ ".,... :

0= 0

O. lOO""'hH

~ } J0 wS

ThtA. i.

::

~-

D.50Dlf fr~ ID.O~

7. 'IS ,
7.4 8 At a large fish hatchery the fish are reared in open, water-filled tanks. Each tank is approximately square in shape with curved comers, and the walls are smooth. To create motion in the tanks, water is supplied through a pipe at the edge of the tank. The water is drained from the tank through an opening at the center. (See Video V7.3.) A model with a length scale of I: 13 is to be used to determine the velocity, V, at various locations within the tank. Assume that V = f (e, ej , p, j.L, g, Q) where eis some characteristic length such as the tank width, j represents a series of other pertinent lengths, such as inlet pipe diameter, fluid depth, etc., p is the fluid density, J.L is the fluid viscosity, g is the acceleration' of gravity, and Q is the discharge through the tank. (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless parameters for this problem and the prediction equation for the velocity. If water is to be used for the model, can all of the similarity requirements be satisfied? Explain and support your answer with the necessary calculations. (b) If the flowrate into the full-sized tank is 250 gpm, determine the required value for the model discharge assuming Froude number similarity. What model depth will correspond to a depth of 32 in. in the full-sized tank?

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I

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7- 5 7

7.49 The pressure rise, Ap, across a blast wave, as shown in Fig. P7.49 and Video V11.5, is assumed to be a function of the amount of energy released in the explosion, E, the air density, p, the speed of sound, c, and the distance from the blast, d. (a) Put this relationship in dimensionless fonn. (b) Consider two blasts: the prototype blast with energy release E and a model blast with 11l000th the energy release (Em = 0.001 E). At what distance from the model blast will the pressure rise be the same as that at a distance of 1 mile from the prototype blast?

f--d----!

Ii FIGURE P7.49

(a)

/J
fj ==

P= .f ( E') f)

c)

F L- 2.

E';' F L
I

f ==

d)

f:L-'I T ~

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a

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The drag, qv, on a sphere located in a pipe through which a fluid is flowing is to be determined experimentally (see Fig. P7.50). Assume that the drag is a function of the sphere diameter, d, the pipe diameter, D, the fluid velocity, V, and the fluid density, p. (a) What dimensionless parameters would you use for this problem? (b) Some experiments using water indicate that for d = 0.2 in., D = 0.5 in., and V = 2 ft/s, the drag is 1.5 X 10- 3 lb. If possible, estimate the drag on a sphere located in a 2-ft-diameter pipe through which water is flowing with a velocity of 6 ft/s. The sphere diameter is such that geometric similarity is maintained. If it is not possible, explain why not.

-v
. Sphere

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7.51 Flow patterns that develop as winds blow past a vehicle, such as a train, are often studied in low-speed environmental (meteorological) wind tunnels. (See Video V7.S.) Typically, the air velocities in these tunnels are in the range of 0.1 mls to 30 mls. Consider a cross wind blowing past a train locomotive. Assume that the local wind velocity, Y, is a function of the approaching wind velocity (at some distance from the locomotive), U, the locomotive length, height, h, and width, b, the air density, p, and the air viscosity, J-L. (a) Establish the similarity requirements and prediction equation for a model to be used in the wind tunnel to study the air velocity, Y, around the locomotive. (b) If the model is to be used for cross winds gusting to U = 25 mis, explain why it is not practical to maintain Reynolds number similarity for a typical length scale 1:50.

e,

(0..)

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7.52

I
1.5l
An orifice flowmeter uses a pressure drop measurement to determine the flow rate through a pipe. A particular orifice flowmeter, when tested in the laboratory, yielded a pressure drop of 8 psi for a flow of 2.9 fe /s through a 6-in. pipe. For a geometrically similar system using the same fluid with a 24-in. pipe, what is the required flow if similarity between the two systems is to be maintained? What is the corresponding pressure drop?

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I

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=

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7.53 During a storm, a snow drift is formed behind some bushes as shown in Fig. P7.53 and Video \'9.4. Assume that the height of the drift, h, is a function of the number of inches of snow deposited by the storm, d, the height of the bush. H. the width of the bush. b, the wind speed, V, the acceleration of gravity, g, the air density, p. the specific weight of the snow, 'Ys' and the porosity of the bush, TJ. Note that porosity is defined as percent open area of the bush. (a) Determine a suitable set of dimensionless variables for this problem. (b) A storm with 30 mph winds deposits 16 in. of snow having a specific weight of 5.0 Ib/ft3 A half-sized scale model bush is to be used to investigate the drifting behind the bush. If the air density is the same for the model and the storm, determine the required specific weight of the model snow, the required wind speed for the model, and the number of inches of model snow to be deposited.

Bush

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FIGURE P7.S3

&

Dritt

ra)

:: +( d) H
d= L

bJ ~
/+~

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L h=L

-It -= L

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t ==

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ir".$~ FL- 3

1=

d=

L T-2.

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=
7

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= V(d)&quo