Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 198

Internal Assessment Guide GCE Physics

Internal Assessment Guide GCE Physics


GCE Physics 6PH03 (1A & 1B) GCE Physics 6PH06 (1A & 1B)

12/12/2011 16:51

1 Introduction
1.1 1.2 Purpose of the guide How to use the guide

1
1 2

2 All You Need to Know


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Overview of Unit 3 Guidance notes for Unit 3 Marking Unit 3 Overview of Unit 6 Guidance notes for Unit 6 Marking Unit 6

3
3 5 6 10 12 13

3 AS Exemplars
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Exemplar 1 The effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey (18/40) Exemplar 2 How horizontal distance depends on velocity (26/40) Exemplar 3 Finding reflective index of Perspex (18/40) Exemplar 4 Measuring the internal resistance of a solar cell (32/40) Exemplar 5 Investigating the Youngs modulus of a nylon wire (35/40) Exemplar 6 Find the Youngs modulus for an aluminium wire (26/40)

18
18 32 47 61 73 87

4 A2 Exemplars
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Exemplar 1 Damped pendulum (21/40) Exemplar 2 Damped pendulum plan & Low energy light bulbs practical (21/40) Exemplar 3 Low energy light bulbs (24/20) Exemplar 4 Measuring mass in space (24/40) Exemplar 5 Measuring mass in space (35/40) Exemplar 6 Damped pendulum (34/30)

106
106 116 134 147 159 173

5 Further Support
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Consultancy Service FAQs Administration of internal assessment Marking grids Record sheets

187
187 188 189 190 194

1.1 Purpose of the guide


This document has been prepared to support you in understanding, organising, and applying the assessment criteria for the two internally assessed GCE Physics units: AS coursework Unit 3 (6PH03) A2 coursework Unit 6 (6PH06)

These units seek to test practical skills acquired throughout the GCE Physics course and are closely linked to the requirements of the How Science Works criteria. AS Unit 3: Exploring Physics Internally or externally assessed Availability: June Unit code 6PH03 20% of the total AS marks 10% of the total A2 marks

Content summary: This unit involves an experiment that is based on a physics-based visit or a case study of an application of physics. Assessment: This unit is assessed by means of an experiment that is founded on either a physicsbased visit or a case study of an application of physics. Students write a report that is either internally marked and externally moderated or externally marked by Edexcel.

A2

Unit 6: Experimental Physics Internally or externally assessed Availability: June

Unit code 6PH06 20% of the total AS marks 10% of the total A2 marks

Content summary: This unit involves planning an experiment, carrying out an experiment and analysing experimental results. Assessment: Students must plan an experiment and then carry out a plan of an experiment which may be their own plan, a plan provided by Edexcel, or a plan devised by the centre. Students write a report that is either marked by the teacher and externally moderated or externally marked by Edexcel.

As well as comprehensive guidance on the implementation of the units, the document features: comments on the assessment criteria from the Principal Moderator six examples of coursework from different topics for each unit an accompanying mark sheet for each coursework example with explanation of the award of each mark FAQs and information on Edexcels Consultancy Service.

1.2 How to use the guide


There are three ways in which you should expect to use this guide: Read through the guide before candidates begin the internally assessed units to fully familiarise yourself with the assessment methodology. Use the guide while marking candidates work to clarify requirements for assessment criteria and to ensure consistency with standards. Keep the guide as a go to resource for quick information on internal assessment.

This guide is intended to be used by teachers only and must not be provided to candidates.

2.1 Overview of Unit 3


This unit requires that students undertake either a case study involving an application of physics and a related practical, or a physics-based visit and a related practical. The teacher, not the student, identifies the visit or case study that students will be doing. All candidates may do the same case study or the same visit; however it is vital that candidates demonstrate that the assessed work that they produce is entirely their own work. This unit may be completed at any time during the AS course but it would be more appropriate to administer this assessment near the end of the AS year. Case study Edexcel will provide examples of case studies for different topics. Centres may devise their own case study to match local needs and the interests of their candidates. Centre-devised case studies will not require approval from Edexcel; however, it is the responsibility of the centre to ensure that centre-devised case studies match the assessment criteria for this unit and that students have the opportunity to gain all the marks in the mark scheme. Centres may contact Edexcels Ask The Expert Service to get advice on a case from the Principal Moderator. Candidates may all do the same case study or they may do different case studies. If all candidates do the same case study then they must ensure that work submitted for assessment is their own. There should be a connection between the case study and the practical work that is undertaken for this unit. For example a case study might be based on an application of Quantum Tunnelling Composite. This would offer the opportunity for practical work relating compressive force to resistance in this type of material. Ideally the case study should deal with a concept covered within the AS specification but this is not a requirement of the unit. Visit The visit is intended to bring candidates into direct contact with a real-life example of physics in use. There should be a connection between the visit and the practical work that is undertaken for this unit. For example candidates might visit a church or concert hall. A related practical could be to investigate the relationship between the length of an organ pipe (using a glass tube to represent the organ pipe) and the frequency of its sound at resonance. The teacher or the host may provide briefing materials for the visit. Practical The practical that relates to the case study or visit should give candidates the opportunity to be assessed in four skill areas: summarising details of a visit or case study planning a practical implementation and recording of measurements analysis of results and drawing conclusions.

The planning, implementation and analysis aspects of the practical work must be carried out individually and under supervision. The practical should lead to a graph relating two measured variables. Ideally the candidate should then attempt to derive the equation relating the two variables or a relevant quantity to the topic, for example the value of resisitivity for a particular material.

Use of ICT Candidates may use a word processor to produce their summary of the visit or the case study, although they will not gain any extra marks for doing so. In order to ensure that candidates demonstrate their understanding of the principles and techniques involved in analysing data, the use of ICT, eg spreadsheets, may not be used for analysing data for this unit. Draft work Candidates should do a variety of practical work during the course so that they develop the necessary skills to succeed in this unit. They should not, therefore, submit draft work for checking and re-marking. However, teachers should check candidates plans for health and safety issues. Work submitted for this unit must not be returned to candidates for them to improve it. Summary of visit or case study Students should produce a brief summary of the case study or physics-based visit, which may be done as homework. It is recommended that students word process this part of the assessment. Plan Students may be given the title of the experiment that they are to plan and carry out in advance. The plan should be produced under supervised conditions in class in the students own handwriting. Students should not take any documents into the classroom, other than the briefing sheet and a blank copy of the criteria, as they should have gained sufficient experience of planning practical work during normal practical lessons. Teachers should collect in the plan at the end of the session to check for health and safety issues. The plan will need to be returned to students so that they can carry out their plan. At this stage teachers could either: i) photocopy the plan, mark the original plan if it is to be internally assessed and provide students with the unmarked photocopy in the laboratory so that they can carry out their plan. ii) collect in the plan, not mark it and return it to students in the laboratory under supervised conditions so that they can carry out their plan. Practical The practical work should be carried out under supervised conditions in a separate session from the planning session. Unmarked plans should be returned to students so that they can carry out the experiment that they have planned. Students must work individually. If necessary, teachers may allow students to analyse results under supervision in their next lesson. In this situation, teachers must collect in the written work produced by their students. Teachers should not mark the plan or practical work. In the next lesson, the documents should be returned to students under supervised conditions for analysis. Students should not have access to any other sources of information while they are completing the analysis of their results, other than the briefing sheet and a blank copy of the criteria.

2.2 Guidance notes for Unit 3


Assessing work The assessment criteria are shown in the next section. Each criterion scores a maximum of 1 mark. The criteria are not hierarchical. The assessment of the summary of the visit or the case study, together with the planning, the recording of measurements and the analysis is based on documents produced by the students and the briefing sheet supplied by the centre. Centres should also supply any necessary additional information such as the identity of unnamed materials. They must include brief details of internal standardisation. The marks for the report should be submitted to Edexcel on the Record sheet provided on page 194. Each piece of work should be annotated by the teacher. This can be done by writing the skill code, eg A10 near to the appropriate section of the report and ticking the box A10 on a copy of the Marking grids included on pages 190-191. Guidance to students Teachers may provide guidance to students without penalty. Guidance is feedback that a teacher might reasonably be expected to give to a student who asks questions about the work that they are carrying out. In effect, the teacher is being used as a resource. Students may require assistance whereby the teacher needs to tell the student what they have to do. Assistance in this respect carries a penalty. The teacher should record details of any assistance provided on the report. Important reminders Students should submit their work for assessment once only. Internally assessed work should not be given back to students to be improved. AS Exemplars The AS exemplar coursework can be found in Section 3, which starts on page 18. The coursework has been reproduced as it was submitted by candidates. The annotations on the scripts are from the original markers and so do not always correspond to the mark sheets and Principal Moderators commentary.

2.3 Marking Unit 3


In the assessment criteria grids below, the Principal Moderator has provided additional guidance notes to clarify the requirements for each criterion. These grids are intended to be used by teachers only and must not be provided to candidates. Candidates should use the assessment criteria grid found in the GCE 2008 Physics specification. The Principal Moderator has also provided the following important notes: The key words in the criteria are Discuss, Comment and Suggest. Candidates must do more than state a fact for the award of these marks. Planning criteria must only be awarded in the planning section. Report criteria refer only to the report of the visit or case study.

A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit Ref


S1

Criterion
Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/ websites/journals/magazines/case study provided by Edexcel/manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information

Notes
Statement that a visit carried out or used three different types of sources. One source could be the case study.

Mark 1

S2

Sufficiently detailed to find the source, eg web address with date of access or author/title. States further details of visit venue, eg department of hospital visited. Statement of what they looked at/will discuss. One correct statement of physics concepts. Relevant physics principles. Does not need to be the same principles as the experiment. Any incorrect use of physics language in this section does not gain the mark. Centres should provide briefing sheets and notes so that this can be identified.

S3

Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles

S4

S5

Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical)

S6

S7

One example of social/environmental/ historical/medical/safety context.

S8

Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study

Either/or benefits/risks linked to physics content. This could be in the experiment.

S9

Maximum marks for this section

B: Planning
Ref P1 Criterion Lists all material required Notes Can be on diagram or in the body of the text. Should cover all essential materials. States most appropriate instrument for one measurement. Mark 1

P2

States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken

P3

Needs justification i.e. should comment on the uncertainty if a rule used to measure a length or a comment on the precision of instrument. (Number refers to the use of data logger.) Any second quantity not necessarily the dependent variable. (Allow the same instrument for two different measurements, if appropriate.) As P3.

P4

States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument

P5

Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety

P6

eg zero error, stirring liquid, contact resistance, set squares. A statement present.

P7

P8

Realistic but should say there are no others, if applicable.

P9

Comment on repeat readings of key measurements. Comment specific to the safety of the experiment and should be explicit. If there are no safety issues the candidate should state this and justify it.

P10

P11

Discusses how the data collected will be used

Complete statement of how candidate will get the result required from the measurements taken. Main source of uncertainty in measured quantities. Should be a schematic diagram not a picture of each piece of apparatus separately. Logical not necessarily step-by-step.

P12

Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used

P13

P14

Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-bystep procedure

Maximum marks for this section

14

C: Implementation and measurements Ref


M1

Criterion
Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range

Notes
All measurements and repeated measurements where appropriate. Significant figures in measurements not processing. Results and conclusion Minimum of 5/6 measurements depending on relationship Should at least double minimum value. Maximum marks for this section

Mark 1

M2 M3

1 1 1 4

M4

D: Analysis
Ref A1 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Notes Dont penalise units if penalised in M1. Mark 1

A2

Data occupying at least half a page in either direction. Easy to understand scale. Check the first and last points on the graph. Points should be within half a small square. Should not force line through origin or draw a straight line when a curve is more appropriate. Comment on variables using technical vocabulary such as directly proportional not positive correlation. Relationship between two variables in the experiment or determines a constant. If curved graph, determination of constant could be from data (not graph) if sound physics. Might be in the planning

A3

Plots points accurately

A4

Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve)

A5

Comments on the trend/pattern obtained

A6

Derives relation between two variables or determines constant

A7

Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties

A8

Statement related to context of the experiment Realistic and justified

A9

A10

Justified % uncertainty in one measurement/best or worst straight line from use of error bars with justification of size for one. Not deviation from accepted result. Correct conclusion that relates to the title. Maximum marks for this section

A11

Provides a final conclusion

1 11

E: Report
Ref R1 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Notes Should not interfere with the understanding of the text. Minimum of two subheadings in body of report (section A only). Maximum marks for this section Mark 1

R2

2.4 Overview of Unit 6


Introduction This unit requires that students plan an experiment, carry out an experiment, record measurements, analyse their own results and draw conclusions. The unit may be completed at any time during the second year of the course but it would be more appropriate to administer this assessment near the end of the A2 year. The assessment will take about three hours to complete with the work spread over three one-hour lessons. Teachers must collect candidates work between lessons. All candidates within one class may produce a plan for the same experiment as each other and do the same practical work; however it is vital that candidates demonstrate that the assessed work that they produce is entirely their own work. Planning component Candidates work may either be based on briefing material provided by Edexcel or briefing material that is devised by the centre. The brief for this assessment is to be set by the teacher, not the student; however, briefs should reflect the interests of students where possible. The planning component of this assessment may be done at a different time to the other components and should be carried out with candidates working alone under supervision. Experiment and analysis of results The experiment and analysis of results may be based on the plan produced by each individual student in the first part of this assessment, a plan that is provided by Edexcel, or a plan that is devised by the centre. If the centre produces the plan on which the experiment is based, it is vital that the plan is not too detailed so that students have the opportunity to achieve the full range of available marks. Centre devised plans should contain some minor flaws so that students are able to modify the experiment while they are doing it and suggest improvements. Centre-devised plans should ensure that a nonlinear relationship exists between the variables that are investigated. If a candidate is given a plan to follow, the experiment may be different to the one that was planned by the candidate. Use of ICT Candidates may use a word processor to produce their report, although they will not gain any extra marks for doing so. In order to ensure that candidates demonstrate their understanding of the principles and techniques involved in analysing data, the use of ICT, eg spreadsheets, is not permitted for analysing data in this unit. Teachers must also ensure that candidates do not have access to the internet or any archived material during the assessment.

10

Draft work Candidates should do a variety of practical work during the course so that they develop the necessary skills to succeed in this unit. Therefore, they should therefore not submit draft work for checking in this assessment. However, teachers should check candidates plans for health and safety issues before they implement the plan. Neither the plan nor any practical work submitted for this unit should be returned to candidates for them to improve it. Plan Candidates must produce a written plan for an experiment. They must also produce a laboratory report for an experiment that they have carried out. The experiment that they carry out may be based on the plan that they have produced, a plan that is centre-devised or a plan that is Edexcel-devised. Students should not be given advanced details of the plan that they will carry out; they will be expected to draw on their experience of practical work that they have completed during the course for this assessment. Students should not take any materials into the classroom other than those usually required for an examination. If more than one group of students take this assessment at different times, then the groups must submit different plans for assessment to prevent plagiarism. Centre-devised plans and experiments will not require Edexcels approval; however, centre-devised assessments must ensure that students have the opportunity to gain all the marks in the mark scheme. Teachers should not provide students with feedback on their plan until they have carried out their experiment and analysed their results. At this stage teachers could either: i) photocopy the plan, mark the original plan and provide students with the unmarked photocopy in the laboratory so that they can carry out their plan ii) collect in the plan, not mark it and return it to students in the laboratory under supervised conditions so that they can carry out their plan iii) mark the plan and ask students to do an experiment based on a different plan. Practical work Students will not need to take any documents into the laboratory for the practical aspect of this assessment, although they should bring a scientific calculator and a ruler. Teachers should issue students with the (unmarked) plan of the practical that they are to carry out. If necessary, teachers may allow students to analyse results under supervision in the next lesson. In this situation, teachers must collect in the work produced by their students. Teachers should not mark the practical work. In the following lesson, the documents should be returned to students under supervised conditions. Students should not have access to any other sources of information while they are completing the analysis of their results. Teachers who opt for internal assessment should mark the practical work after students have completed the analysis of their results.

11

2.5 Guidance notes for Unit 6


Assessing work The assessment criteria are shown in the next section. Each criterion scores a maximum of 1 mark. The criteria are not hierarchical. The assessment of planning, recording and analysis is based on written evidence in the form of a report. Marks may be awarded for a plan for one experiment and the implementation and analysis of a different experiment. All briefings and plans used should be included with each candidates work. Centres should also supply any necessary additional information, such as the identity of unnamed materials. They must also include brief details of internal standardisation. The written evidence should be annotated. This can be done by writing the skill code, eg A15 near to the appropriate section of the report and ticking the box A15 on the Marking grids included on pages 192-193. The marks given for the report should be submitted to Edexcel on the Record sheet provided on page 195. Supervision Students must work on their own for each part of this assessment. All aspects of this assessment must be done under supervised conditions. Assistance for students In some cases, it may be necessary for the teacher to assist a student by explaining what needs to be done to obtain data. Assistance in this respect may carry a penalty. The teacher should record details of any assistance provided on the students work. A2 Exemplars The A2 exemplar coursework can be found in Section 4, which starts on page 106. The coursework has been reproduced as it was submitted by candidates. The annotations on the scripts are from the original markers and so do not always correspond to the mark sheets and Principal Moderators commentary. Important reminders Students should submit their work for assessment once only. Neither the plan nor the experiment should be given back to students to be improved.

12

2.6 Marking Unit 6


In the assessment criteria grids below, the Principal Moderator has provided additional guidance notes to clarify the requirements for each criterion. These grids are intended to be used by teachers only and must not be provided to candidates. Candidates should use the assessment criteria grid found in the GCE 2008 Physics specification. The Principal Moderator has also provided the following important notes: The key words in the criteria are Discuss, Comment and Suggest. Candidates must do more than state a fact for the award of these marks. Planning criteria must only be awarded in the planning section.

A: Planning
Ref P1 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Notes A list of the basic equipment is sufficient. Mark 1

P2

Meter ranges, number and size of masses, dimensions of card and mass of bob are expected. Candidates should select the range of variables. List should enable correct apparatus to be supplied without further explanation. The apparatus list and diagram can provide some evidence as this is a development of P1 & P3. All the evidence for P1P3 should be in the same area.

P3

Must be informative. Diagrams should be dimensioned where appropriate and labelled and, for example, rulers should be drawn close to the measured length. Given P1, P2 & P3 could another candidate do the experiment as planned? Any quantity but candidate must clearly state ..use this to measure that..., the examiner will not make assumptions as to what the candidate means.

P4

States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken

P5

Must explain why choice is appropriate in the context of the measurement to be made and not simply state the precision. It is not enough to quote either the range or the precision, or both, without reference to the experiment, eg A stopclock has a precision of 0.01 s which is less than the uncertainty of the manual operator which is likely to be 0.1 s. Or, the uncertainty of 0.005 V in a meter gives a % uncertainty of 0.7% in a typical measurement of 0.7 V as in the forward bias voltage of the diode in this experiment.

13

P6

States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques

Same as P4, any quantity. It does not have to be one of the variables eg resistance of the resistor used in Crossing the Tracks.

P7

Same as P5

P8

Anything that improves the measurement, ie outcome of the experiment. Good candidates draw on their own previous experiences when planning the readings. A timing marker at the centre of an oscillation is one technique and another is using the laptimer to record the time when the potential difference reaches a certain value. The technique should improve the measurement and be explained. Expect a correct context. Look for A0 in pendulum and initial voltage in tracks. Relevant quantities are the key here. If there are none to control the candidate should explain why. Those not controllable, like room temperature, can be measured before and after the work, if a change in them is likely to affect the outcome. A development of P8 and the key word is comments candidates distinguish between method and reading. If repeat readings are not appropriate this must be stated. Repeating the whole method might then be suitable. Comments should relate to the reliability and accuracy of the data in the context of the work and to the use of mean values. It is not enough simply to say that repeats will be taken.

P9

Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test

P10

Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment

P11

Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment

Credit sensible comments only when justified. If there are no safety concerns then that should be explained 12 V electricity is safe because it will not give the careless user a shock. The power supply unit might need more thought however. Do not allow plot a graph alone. Deriving formula for graph is done here. In effect a comparison with the equation of a straight line is expected. They must show how they will find the answer the briefing asks for. Deriving the experimental equation will help with A10 too.

P12

Discusses how the data collected will be used

14

P13

Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading

Referring to method as well as measurement. This looks forward to what will be done in the experiment and A12 looks back at what was done. Consider the scientific terms and explanations of techniques and method.

P14

P15

Expect three. Many good candidates follow the marking grid which is fine but some headings are still needed. Is the written communication clear? Clarity in describing the actual method is what is looked for. Must effectively state somewhere ...vary this and measure that... A surprisingly high number of candidates do not provide a method. Maximum marks for this section

P16

16

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Notes The numbers should show the precision of the measuring instrument referred to in P5 & P7. Time should be to at least 0.1 second ie NOT 10, 20, should be 10.0, 20.0 etc. The candidate should write down the reading on the instrument without processing. Should show at top or bottom of table. Candidates are expected to appreciate the uncertainty in what they are actually reading. This is for using correct units throughout measurement 1 Mark 1

M2

M3

M4

If no modifications are done candidates must justify this. Candidates might consider the ranges suggested for P2. Ignore trivial changes or obvious flaws in plan. Usually 6 to plot a linear graph expect repeats where method suggests these

M5

M6

For the variables used, candidate should review results critically. One variable should double/halve.

Maximum marks for this section

15

C: Analysis
Ref A1 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Notes Must include units. The quantity plotted determines the units of the gradient, so logarithmic quantities must be dimensionless, eg ln (x/m). Data must occupy half of page on both axes. Scales must be simple so that gradient calculations and interpolation are easy not 3s or 7s. Look at points not on the BFL (Best Fit Line) at least 2 points should be checked. Must be accurate to 1 mm. Plots checked should be underscored if correct or ringed if incorrect. Expect a good line at this level. BFLs will usually have plots on both sides and will not be forced through the origin. This is for the gradient calculation and linking this to the constant. Mark 1

A2

A3

Plots points accurately

A4

Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle

A5

A6

Evidence is the appropriate graph showing data that has been processed and usually follows from P12.

A7

Must not use tabulated values unless plots are exactly on BFL. Triangle must occupy at least half of the drawn line. Measurement must be correct to one small square - with negative sign as appropriate. If the data is a curve a straight line may be drawn on part of the data as an approximation described by the candidate to enable them to gain this and the next mark.

A8

Uses gradient with correct units

Must see the gradient used with appropriate units, as well as the unit for any constant. There might be no unit, as in a log-log graph.

A9

Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations

These might derive from P5 & P7. Candidates should use 3 (or very occasionally 2) significant figures in recording data, plotting graphs, gradient calculations and final answers.

16

A10

Uses relevant physics principles correctly

This mark is for good physics seen anywhere such as mention of SHM, radiation flux or whatever is appropriate to the context. Can be awarded for extra maths as directed by briefing, such as the log expansion of the equation, if sufficiently detailed. Seen anywhere, including in the plan. Do not award if a contradiction is seen.

A11

Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively

A12

This is a review of P13 and should refer to method and readings. Must be based on evidence from experiment(method)/ results/graph. This is a review of the uncertainty in the light of the experience of doing the experiment, not merely a restatement of P13. Expect %U in appropriate measurements but at least the dependent variable. Can be adding %U as appropriate or use of error bars, and must refer to the result or graph. Error bars to generate 2 lines resulting in % difference of gradients is a good way to combine uncertainties when logarithms are used. Must be practical in a well resourced school laboratory. Allow datalogger if the improvement is described fully.

A13

Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly

A14

A15

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work

A16

Refer to the aim given in briefing, so can be mathematical. Evidence must be quoted somewhere Candidates should consider the validity and/or reliability of their conclusion. Best is comparing %D with %U but they could discuss the goodness of fit of BFL.

A17

A18

Must be non-trivial and develop idea behind practical work. Further work should be both relevant and realistic. It should aim to be the non-trivial follow-up experiment that could be performed by the same student in the same laboratory. Comments must be scientific not holistic. Maximum marks for this section

18

17

3.1 AS Exemplar 1 To investigate the effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey (18/40)
A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Comment All resources for case study are internet based. Mark 0

S2

Details of the precise locations of the data on the websites are not given It was not clear what the case study was about, e.g. which aspects of thixotropy were being studied. S4 for the shear rate is the rate of change of velocity at which one layer of fluid passes over an adjacent layer. S5 not given because other terms are not defined, e.g. shear stress, viscosity, etc. No additional data

S3

S4

S5 S6

0 0

S7 S8 S9

No social implications No benefits or risks No discussion of practical work

0 0 0

Total marks for this section

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Comment List of apparatus given Stopwatch used and details of start time and stop time given No explanation of the choice of the stopwatch with reference to the scale or the number of measurements taken Mark 1 1

P3

18

P4

States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-by-step procedure

No other measuring instrument discussed

P5

No other measuring instrument discussed

P6

No discussion of correct measuring techniques, e.g. eye level with marker when stopwatch started, etc. Identifies dependent and independent variable Using steel spheres of constant diameter

P7 P8

1 1

P9 P10 P11 P12

Reducing uncertainty by repeating readings stated Relatively high temperature of water bath stated No discussion of what is to be plotted etc. Temperature changes of the honey when it is removed from the water or ice baths identified Labelled diagrams of apparatus drawn Good sequenced step by step procedure given Total marks for this section

1 0 1

P13 P14

1 1

C: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Good table of results Mark 1

M2 M3 M4

Units correct in table, but incorrect units for viscosity in the analysis section 4 sets of readings in the table is not sufficient Even though there were insufficient readings, the range of readings was good Total marks for this section

0 0 1 2

19

D: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Comment Axes labelled and units Sensible scale, data occupies more than half the page in each direction Two points plotted at 60 degrees C, even though there is only one value in the table Curve is not smooth enough. Incorrect statement. As the temperature increases, the time taken to fall through the honey decreases not increases. The analysis is incorrect. The candidate finds (average) velocities but then assumes that the sphere is accelerating. Mark given for the discussion of change in viscosity with temperature due to the change in the change in kinetic energy of the molecules Sources of error discussed e.g. dropping spheres immediately after honey taken out of water bath or dropping spheres into centre of cylinder Greater distance for fall of sphere is a good improvement No calculation of percentage uncertainty There is no evidence for the conclusion that the viscosity is inversely proportional to the temperature Total marks for this section Mark 1 1 0 0 0

A6

A7

A8

Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error

A9 A10 A11

Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties Provides a final conclusion

1 0 0

E: Report
Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary has correct grammar and spelling. No subheadings in the summary. Total marks for this section Total marks for this unit Mark 1 0 1 18

Additional comment The title of this investigation, 'To investigate the effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey' will make it difficult for the candidate to obtain full marks. In particular marks P11, A6 and A11 are going to be difficult to achieve. Although at least 6 sizes of ball bearing would be needed, it would have been better to have a title such as 'Determine the viscosity of honey at a given temperature'.

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

3.2 AS Exemplar 2 Investigating how the horizontal distance travelled by a projectile depends on its horizontal velocity (26/40)
A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) S2 States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Details of sources given, but not date for web access given It is clear how projectile motion is related to sport Appropriate equations of motion used Confusion of horizontal and vertical in some places and not clear that the force of gravity is always acting Several good illustrations of projectile motion 0 Comment Three types of sources used, books, magazine, internet. Mark 1

S3 S4 S5

1 1 0

S6

S7 S8 S9

Study of projectiles related to sports activities (social) Benefits or risks not discussed Clear that horizontal and vertical motion are going to be studied in the practical Total marks for this section

1 0 1 6

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Comment List of apparatus given Metre rule to measure horizontal distance Mark 1 1

P3

1 mm precision of metre rule sufficient for this experiment.

32

P4

States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-by-step procedure

No other instrument discussed. Mark could have been scored if the candidate had talked about measuring the vertical height on the ramp with the metre rule No other instrument discussed

P5

P6 P7 P8

No special experimental techniques employed Dependent and independent variables are identified Keeping the angle of the ramp and the mass of the ball constant are reasonable suggestions, even though in theory they should not make any difference Average horizontal distance found to eliminate errors and anomalous results Safety should be related to avoiding the possibility of the ball rolling around the floor. Excellent section on the use of data Friction and air resistance discussed Reasonable diagram of the apparatus Procedure not clear.

0 1 1

P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14

1 0 1 1 1 0

Total marks for this section

C: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Vertical height measured to the nearest cm not to the nearest mm Mark 0

M2 M3

Correct units throughout 8 different values of release height is more than sufficient. Minimum of 6 values is required. The greatest horizontal displacement was 0.44 m. This could have been larger, particularly as a metre rule was used for the measurement. Total marks for this section

1 1

M4

33

D: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Comment Axes labelled and units On the main graph, the data for the horizontal displacement only occupies 9 cm. This scale could have been doubled as there are 21 cm below the top graph. The point corresponding to 0.63 m/s has been misplotted Best fit and worst fit straight lines drawn The comment on the graph is confusing because the candidate refers to the horizontal displacement and the acceleration The calculation of the gradient of the graph is correct and is shown on the graph paper Good discussion of the physics in the plan Air resistance and friction discussed. To improve the experiment, greater distances need to be measured. Hence sphere needs to be released from higher points on the ramp. Repeat results were in the plan Percentage uncertainty determined from the gradients of the out-lying lines. Correct conclusion regarding the direct proportionality between the horizontal velocity and horizontal displacement. Also gradient of graph = time of 0.36 s. Total marks for this section Mark 1 0

A3 A4 A5

Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment

0 1 0

A6 A7 A8

1 1 0

A9

A10 A11

Calculates uncertainties Provides a final conclusion

1 1

E: Report
Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary has correct grammar and spelling Subheadings are given in the summary. Total marks for this section Mark 1 1 2

Total marks for this unit

26

Additional comment This is a difficult experiment with several stages which might disadvantage weaker candidates.

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

3.3 AS Exemplar 3 Finding reflective index of Perspex (18/40)


A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Comment Visit stated Mark 1

S2

Place of visit stated

S3 S4 S5

What was studied during the visit stated Snell's law stated Good Physics throughout and details of correction of long sight and short sight given Table of refractive indices given

1 1 1

S6

S7 S8 S9

Social implications from the correction of long sight and short sight Benefit from clear vision produced by correction of defects No discussion of practical work Total marks for this section

1 1 0 8

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Comment List of apparatus given No discussion of measuring instruments Mark 1 0

P3

No discussion of measuring instruments

P4

No discussion of measuring instruments

47

P5

Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced stepby-step procedure

No discussion of measuring instruments

P6

Close to P6 for using trigonometry rather than a protractor but not really discussed reduction of uncertainty Identifies dependent and independent variable Same light box, etc. not enough for P8. Could have used monochromatic source. Etc. No comment about whether repeat readings are appropriate Hot light box is an appropriate safety problem No discussion of what is to be plotted etc. No discussion of uncertainty Incorrect angle of refraction on the diagram Procedure not clear

P7 P8

1 0

P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14

1 0 0 0 0

Total marks for this section

C: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Presentation of data could have been much improved, e.g. combined into one table. Units correct throughout 10 different angles is more than sufficient. Minimum of 6 values is required. The range of angles was allowed. It is over half of the available range (0 degrees to 90 degrees). Total marks for this section Mark 0

M2 M3

1 1

M4

48

D: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Comment Axes labelled and units Sensible scale, data occupies more than half the page in each direction Cannot check accuracy of plots because there is no visible grid. Line of best fit is fine, even though the data should have produced a curve No discussion of results, but discussion would have been difficult because the graph does not enable the candidate to discuss Snell's law. The gradient of the graph plotted is meaningless No physics principles discussed No sources of error discussed No improvements discussed No calculation of percentage uncertainty There is no evidence for the conclusion that the refractive index is 1.57 Total marks for this section Mark 1 1 0 1 0

A6 A7 A8

Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties Provides a final conclusion

0 0 0 0 0 3

A9 A10 A11

E: Report
Ref R1 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary has correct grammar and spelling even though the plan, implementation and analysis do not have No subheadings in the summary. Total marks for this section Mark 1

R2

0 1

Total marks for this unit

18

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

3.4 AS Exemplar 4 Measuring the internal resistance of a solar cell (32/40)


A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Comment Assuming that the Introduction to Green Chemistry is a journal, then 3 different sources are present Mark 1

S2

Details of the sources are given

S3 S4 S5 S6

The study of solar cells is clear Reasonable explanation of how a solar cell works Correct use of scientific terminology Allowing for the fact that this is photocopied, the diagram of the solar cell is good. Also table of efficiencies is good Environmental factors discussed Benefits and costs of solar cells are discussed Measurement of the internal resistance of a solar cell in relation to the energy loss in the cell is discussed Total marks for this section

1 1 1 1

S7 S8 S9

1 1 1

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Comment List of apparatus given Ammeter used to measure current Mark 1 1

P3

Scale to be used on ammeter discussed

P4

Voltmeter used to measure voltage (potential difference)

61

P5

Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case

Range to be used on voltmeter discussed

P6 P7

Changing range is an appropriate measuring technique Identifies power as the dependent variable and resistance of the rheostat as the independent variable Identifies temperature of the cell as an important factor but should also comment on light intensity Could have repeated the experiment to obtain a second value for the internal resistance. However I and V values cannot be averaged because of different rheostat settings. Hot lamp considered Graph of power against resistance and finding resistance at the point of maximum power transfer Connection resistance allowed, but light intensity changes would be a major problem Circuit diagram is correct, although it would have been preferable to have included some sort of protective resistor or lamp. Sequenced step by step procedure given

1 1

P8

P9

P10 P11

Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-by-step procedure

1 1

P12

P13

P14

Total marks for this section C: Implementation and measurements Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Significant figures used in the table are appropriate

12

Mark 1

M2 M3 M4

Units correct throughout 7 different values of potential difference is sufficient The range of currents and potential differences used seems very small. Could a different resistance rheostat have been used? Total marks for this section

1 1 0

62

D: Analysis Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties Comment Axes labelled and units Data occupies more than half the page in each direction The plotted points checked are correct The line of best fit consists of parallel lines in some places. Power increases with resistance, reaches a maximum point and then decreases with resistance discussed Determines maximum power and resistance at maximum power No discussion of why the internal resistance is equal to the external resistance when the power is a maximum Changes of light intensity caused by the lamps of other students are discussed Far away from other lights is not enough. Would like to have seen comment on control of incident light Lowest value of resistance at a possible maximum point is 10.0 on the graph, but the candidate uses 9.5 . Hence calculation is not correct Internal resistance of the solar cell has been found. Total marks for this section E: Report Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary is difficult to understand in some places and there are spelling mistakes Subheadings are given in the summary. Total marks for this section Mark 0 1 1 Mark 1

1 1 0 1

A6 A7

1 0

A8

1 0

A9 A10

A11

Provides a final conclusion

1 7

Total marks for this unit

32

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

3.5 AS Exemplar 5 Investigating the Youngs modulus of nylon fishing wire (35/40) A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Comment Visit carried out Mark 1

S2

Visited Cummins Turbo Technologies in Huddersfield Tour of the factory including seeing the test procedures Stress and Strain defined at the end of the report Technical language has been used correctly throughout the report Tension test from Turbo Technologies included

S3 S4 S5 S6

1 1 1 1

S7 S8 S9

Reduction in the environmental impact of exhaust gases and emissions Turbo charger allows more power to be produced from the engine The Young modulus of nylon fishing line to be tested Total marks for this section

1 1 1 9

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Comment List of apparatus given Metre rule to measure extension Mark 1 1

P3

Precision of metre rule stated as 1 mm

P4

Micrometer to measure diameter

73

P5

Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced stepby-step procedure

Precision of micrometer stated as 0.01 mm

P6

Plenty of good measuring techniques, diameter recorded at different positions and orientations, zero error check Mass is identified as the independent variable and extension as the dependent variable The types of masses used is not really a variable to be controlled The reliability of results is improved by taking several measurements of the diameter Safety goggles to protect eyes used If strain against stress plotted then the gradient will be 1 / (Young Modulus) Several sources of uncertainty are discussed. Good diagram of the apparatus Good sequenced step-by-step procedure.

P7

P8

P9

P10 P11 P12 P13 P14

1 0 1 1 1

Total marks for this section

12

C: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Significant figures not appropriate original length value and the force seems to have been calculated using g = 10 N/kg but is given to 2sf Correct units used throughout 20 different values of force is more than sufficient. Minimum of 6 values is required. Range of mass is appropriate, with a maximum mass of 1.0 kg Total marks for this section Mark 0

M2 M3

1 1

M4

1 3

74

D: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties Comment Axes labelled and units Data occupies more than half the page in each direction Plotted points checked are correct within 1 mm The line of best fit is appropriate for these results Stated the shape of the graph but no real comments about the shape Perfect calculation of the gradient of the graph The error in P11 has not really been corrected here, so no mark. The suggestions made for the sources of error are reasonable Keeping a check on the diameter to get a more accurate stress value is a reasonable improvement Correct calculations for percentage uncertainty for both the diameter and the extension The young Modulus of Nylon has been found Total marks for this section E: Report Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary has correct grammar and spelling Subheadings are given in the summary. Both marks scored even though the document has not been word processed. Total marks for this section Mark 1 1 Mark 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

A9 A10

A11

Provides a final conclusion

1 9

Total marks for this unit

35

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

3.6 AS Exemplar 6 To determine the Youngs modulus for an aluminium wire (26/40)
A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit
Ref S1 Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/ case study provided by Edexcel/ manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Comment Three types of sources used Mark 1

S2

No details of book or magazine references, e.g. pages or chapter of book, titles of articles in magazine Title alone, virtually gives this mark Physics mark given for stress, strain and Young's Modulus at end of case study Some errors, density = weight volume and stress and strain confused at the bottom of third page Table of values for Aluminium

S3 S4 S5

1 1 0

S6

S7 S8 S9

Alloys used in environmentally friendly forms of transport Corrosion resistance and light weight are benefits of Aluminium Measurement of the internal resistance of a cell is the practical work Total marks for this section

1 1 1 7

B: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Lists all material required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Comment List of apparatus given Micrometer used to measure diameter of wire No discussion of the fact that a micrometer can measure to 0.01 mm Mark 1 1

P3

87

P4

States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-by-step procedure

Metre rule or mm scale required to measure extension. The candidate talks about the shift of the marker, which is assumed to be the extension No discussion of the scale of the metre rule

P5

P6

Parallax error avoided by standing directly over the metre rule when the reading is taken Dependent and independent variables are identified No comment about controlling other variables Two sets of readings to be taken but no comment about whether repeat readings are appropriate Safety goggles used No indication as to the graph that is to be plotted No discussion of uncertainty Reasonable diagram of the apparatus Procedure not clear

P7 P8

1 0

P9

P10 P11 P12 P13 P14

1 0 0 1 0

Total marks for this section

C: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Split table, difficult to relate the stress and strain values to each other and the mass and extension readings No units for the measured extensions 8 different values of mass is more than sufficient. Minimum of 6 values is required. Range of mass is appropriate, with a maximum mass of 1.78 kg Total marks for this section Mark 0

M2 M3 M4

0 1 1 2

88

D: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Comment Axes labelled and units Data occupies more than half the page in each direction Plotted points are correct within 1 mm The line of best fit ignores the ringed results, which are assumed anomalous The graph correctly shows direct proportion between stress and strain but this is not stated by the candidate The calculation of the gradient of the graph is not correct Discussion of the gradient of a stressstrain graph being equal to the Young Modulus of the material Shifting of the pulley discussed Allowed for not using kinked wire next time, but better to use a longer length of wire so that a greater extension is produced No calculation of percentage uncertainty Young Modulus obtained Total marks for this section Mark 1

1 1 1 0

A6 A7

0 1

A8

1 1

A9

A10 A11

Calculates uncertainties Provides a final conclusion

0 1 8

E: Report
Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Comment Summary has correct grammar and spelling Subheadings are given in the summary. Total marks for this section Mark 1 1 2

Total marks for this unit

26

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105

4.1 A2 Exemplar 1 Damped pendulum (21/40)


A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram No detail of mass of bob indicated. Length L of string not shown clearly Mark 1 0

P3 P4 P5

Labelled diagrams drawn, cone drawn close to rule Metre rule described to measure lengths Not explained

1 1 0

P6 P7

Stopwatch described to measure times Not explained

1 0

P8 P9 P10

Poorly described, why time 10 swings? Poorly described Reason for repeat readings described as ensuring reliability and takes a mean value Sensible safety precautions described No indication of what is to be plotted or how the graph is to be used Not described Some minor spelling errors Clear structure with subheadings Fails to describe damped experiment Total marks for this section

0 0 1

P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16

1 0 0 1 1 0 8

106

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 M2 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Comment Amplitude recorded with appropriate precision No indication of uncertainty in amplitude or in number of swings shown Correct units shown for all measurements Not stated 7 readings is appropriate in this experiment Adequate range of 0 to 35 swings which almost halves amplitude Total marks for this section Mark 1 0

M3 M4 M5 M6

Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range

1 0 1 1 4

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly Comment Axes labelled incorrectly. Logs have no units Points fill at least half a page in both directions Plots checked were accurately plotted Reasonable line drawn with points on either side Damping constant determined Appropriate graph plotted Mark 0 1 1 1 1 1

A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14

Large triangle shown but negative sign missing in gradient calculation Correct units (none) given 2 sig figs is appropriate for number of swings and 3SF for gradient Physics of damped oscillations not described Terms not used correctly None discussed Percentage error calculation for amplitude attempted Not done

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

107

A15 A16 A17 A18

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work

Suggested use of light gates poorly described and without justification Value of k and half life of pendulum described No discussion of reliability of conclusion in terms of aim Suggestion is unrealistic and not very relevant Total marks for this section

0 1 0 0 9

Total marks for this unit

21

Additional comment Although the candidate performed this experiment reasonably well, they did not write enough detail to warrant a higher mark. In particular, more details of the apparatus used and the way the readings are processed by drawing a graph were needed. In an experiment whose readings are very tricky there was no mention of uncertainty apart from one vague calculation. The final comments did not gain credit as they were either not relevant or too vague.

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

4.2 A2 Exemplar 2 Damped pendulum plan & Low energy light bulbs practical (21/40)
A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram Mass of pendulum bob not indicated. Length l of string not shown clearly Mark 1 0

P3 P4 P5

Labelled diagram drawn, this is the minimum standard required Metre rule described to measure length of pendulum Not explained

1 1 0

P6 P7

Metre rule described to measure amplitude Not explained

1 0

P8

Reading of ruler described as same eye level is not enough without a diagram No mention of a constant initial amplitude Not sufficient to just indicate that a repeat is made here, the reason for doing this is insufficient, will a mean value be used? Sensible safety precautions described What is to be plotted and how graph will be used is well described Reasonably well described Minor grammar errors only Clear structure with subheadings Easy to follow Total marks for this section

P9 P10

0 0

P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16

Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading

1 1 1 1 1 1 10

116

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Distance is recorded to nearest 5 cm, this is not precise enough No indication of uncertainty for distance Correct units shown for all measurements Not stated 6 readings are just enough for the experiment but more could have been taken Range of 10 to 35 cm ensures that resistance trebles Total marks for this section Mark 0 0 1 0 1

M6

1 3

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Comment Axes labelled correctly Points do not fill at least half a page in both directions All points accurately plotted Reasonable line drawn with points on either side Values of constants determined Appropriate graph plotted Mark 1 0 1 1 1 1

A7

Adequate triangles drawn and gradients correctly calculated since A2 has been lost Correct units (none) given 4/5 significant figures is not appropriate for gradient result Physics of energy efficiency of low energy light bulbs poorly described Poorly described None discussed Percentage error calculations not done Error bars attempted but not used

A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14

Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly

1 0 0 0 0 0 0

117

A15 A16 A17 A18

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work

None described Values for bulbs obtained from graph are compared Poorly attempted None suggested Total marks for this section

0 1 0 0 8

Total marks for this unit

21

Additional comment This is an example where different investigations were used for the planning and implementation sections of the assessment. This is allowed and may be suitable for some centres. A sufficiently detailed plan should be presented to the candidate, but it should not be too prescriptive and give the candidate opportunities to modify and improve the procedure. This candidate did not gain many marks for their final discussions and did not seem to grasp the physics of low energy bulbs at all. The treatment of uncertainties showed a lot of effort but no evident outcome. The plan for the light bulb experiment has been included so that anyone looking at the script can tell what plan the candidate followed.

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

132

133

4.3 A2 Exemplar 3 Low energy light bulbs (24/40)


A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram No details of bulbs given Mark 1 0

P3 P4 P5

Clear and well labelled diagrams drawn Metre rule described to measure distance Reason too vague as range of distance not given and measurement not compared to metre rule scale Just sufficient as multimeter described and shown connected to LDR on diagram Not discussed

1 1 0

P6

P7

P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13

Considers length measured to centre of bulb Relevant points made about background light and height Repeats to check first reading and takes averages Sensible safety precautions described What is to be plotted and how graph will be used is described Systematic error from background light described but does not consider length Some minor spelling errors only Clear structure with subheadings All equipment listed and also shown on diagram Total marks for this section

1 1 1 1 1 0

P14 P15 P16

1 1 1 12

B: Implementation and measurements

134

Ref M1

Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range

Comment Too few significant figures recorded for distance. 3 sig figs would be appropriate Uncertainty in distance not shown Correct units shown for all measurements No comment made 10 readings is appropriate Good range of 10 to 100 cm which changes resistance reading by a factor of about 4 Total marks for this section

Mark 0

M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

0 1 0 1 1

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Comment Axes labelled incorrectly. Logs have no units Points do not fill at least half a page in both directions, too much title Plots checked were accurately plotted Reasonable lines drawn with points on either side Constant incorrectly calculated Appropriate graphs plotted Mark 0 0 1 1 0 1

A7

Gradient from triangle just about big enough given that A2 was not awarded Incorrect units given 4 sig figs is not appropriate for gradient Physics correctly described especially in plan Terms not used correctly especially in plan Only one relevant source of error discussed and discussion not based on readings which vary more at the further distances Percentage errors calculated Not done correctly

A8 A9 A10 A11 A12

Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively

0 0 1 0 0

A13 A14

Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly

1 0

135

A15 A16 A17

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment

Suggested use of dark room to reduce error from background light Final values for bulbs described Conclusion discussed with reference to bulb manufacturers claim but no comparison of bulbs made and confusion about intensity Relevant experiments suggested but much is left unspecified Total marks for this section

1 1 0

A18

Suggests relevant further work

1 9

Total marks for this unit

24

Additional comment This experiment requires careful planning and implementation to give good results, but can give candidates scope to gain marks for graphical analysis and the discussion of physics and experimental errors. Students need to be aware of uncertainties in LDR readings due to background illumination and unwanted reflections. A suitable alternative to a darkroom would be the use of black cloth or paper to shield the equipment from unwanted light. The distance readings here should be to 1 mm since a metre rule is used and 5 mm at the foot of the table would indicate difficulty in measuring to centre of bulb and LDR.

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

4.4 A2 Exemplar 4 Measuring mass in space (24/40)


A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram No details of springs used, masses unclear Mark 1 0

P3 P4 P5

Adequate diagram drawn Metre rule described to measure length Not justified

1 1 0

P6 P7

Top pan balance described to measure mass Not justified

1 0

P8 P9 P10

Measures 10T which is good but fails to use timing marker Relevant points made including initial amplitude each time Not sufficient to just indicate that repeats are made - reason for doing this must be explained Sensible safety precaution described What is to be plotted and how graph will be used is described. Is this before the Carrying Out? Benefit of Doubt None described No errors Clear structure with subheadings Easy to follow Total marks for this section

0 1 0

P11 P12

1 1

P13 P14 P15 P16

Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading

0 1 1 1 10

147

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Comment Masses should be recorded to 3 sig figs Uncertainty in mass measurements not shown Correct units shown for all measurements Change to timing period described, change is to a much worse method 7 readings is appropriate in this experiment Good range of 50 to 350 grams which more than halves the timing recorded Total marks for this section Mark 0 0 1 1 1 1 4

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comment Axes labelled correctly Points just fill at least half a page in both directions Plots checked were accurately plotted Reasonable line drawn with points on either side but candidate joins top & bottom point, BFL is steeper. See candidates comment Value of k determined Appropriate graph plotted Mark 1 1 1 0

A5 A6

Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly

1 1

A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14

Large triangle shown and gradient correctly determined Units are incorrect 4 sig figs is not appropriate in this experiment Poorly described Not demonstrated Only one source of experimental error discussed Percentage errors calculated roughly Not done correctly

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

148

A15

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment

Use of video camera described and reason given assuming a clock is on screen Relationship of variables and value of n described Comparison of mass measurement made with known value it would be better if % difference was compared with % uncertainty Relevant extension experiment described but without sufficient detail Total marks for this section

A16 A17

1 1

A18

Suggests relevant further work

0 10

Total marks for this unit

24

Additional comment This is a testing experiment that will only yield good results if done carefully. The candidate stated that they measured the masses on a top pan balance, but the results of this are not shown. There was little evidence that they understood the main errors in the experiment. It was not clear why a fixed time was used to count oscillation when a very much better approach would have been to record the time of an exact number of oscillations. The order of events is not clear; some comments in the plan were made during the practical work. The plan should not be amended once written.

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

4.5 A2 Exemplar 5 Measuring mass in space (35/40)


A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram Dimensions of springs and number and sizes of masses indicated Mark 1 1

P3 P4 P5

Clear and well labelled diagrams drawn Stop watch described to measure time Estimate of percentage error made to justify precision

1 1 1

P6 P7

Metre rule described to measure extension Estimate of percentage error made to justify precision

1 1

P8

Good understanding of use of timing marker shown and plans to measure 20T Relevant points made Not sufficient to just indicate that repeats are made must say find the mean and explain benefit Sensible safety precautions described What is to be plotted but gradient is incorrectly described Poorly described Some minor spelling errors only Clear structure with subheadings Easy to follow Total marks for this section

P9 P10

1 0

P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16

1 0 0 1 1 1 13

159

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Comment 3 sig figs would be appropriate but it is good practice to write down the reading here from a top pan balance to 0.01 g Uncertainties shown in column headings and by repeat readings of timing Correct units shown for all measurements Reference made to use of timing marker and change of mass 7 or 8 different readings is appropriate in this experiment Good range of 100 to 400 grams which doubles the timing recorded Total marks for this section Mark 1

M2

Readings show appreciation of uncertainty

M3 M4 M5 M6

Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range

1 1 1 1 6

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly Comment Axes labelled correctly Points fill at least half a page in both directions Plots checked were accurately plotted Reasonable line drawn with points on either side Spring constant determined Appropriate graph plotted Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1

A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14

Large triangle shown Correct units given 3 sig figs is appropriate Physics of oscillating mass described Terms used correctly Sources of error not discussed Percentage errors calculated Percentage errors correctly added together

1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1

160

A15

Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment

Suggested use of motion sensor and data logger to measure oscillation time more accurately and eliminate reaction time Relationship of variables and values of k and unknown mass described Reliability of conclusion discussed in terms of aim by mentioning %U & %D None described Total marks for this section

A16 A17

States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work

1 1

A18

0 16

Total marks for this unit

35

Additional comment This candidate carried out the investigation very well but was probably a little too free with their use of significant figures. It should be remembered that a piece of graph paper can only be used to 3 significant figures at best. This is a very good candidate and much of the detail is appropriate at this level.

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172

4.6 A2 Exemplar 6 Damped pendulum (34/40)


A: Planning
Ref P1 P2 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Comment All equipment listed and also shown on diagram Length of string and mass of bob indicated Mark 1 1

P3

Clear and well labelled diagram drawn, ignore approximate dimension for l as this is not an important measurement Metre rule described to measure amplitude Reference made to amplitude to be measured

P4 P5

States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings

1 1

P6 P7

Stopwatch described to measure times Suitability of stopwatch precision not described

1 0

P8

Good understanding of use of timing marker shown, a diagram would improve the description of no-parallax Relevant points made, notably initial amplitude Reason for repeat readings described as reduction of random error but must plan to find mean Sensible safety precautions described What is to be plotted and how graph will be used is well described No description of uncertainty in determining amplitude which is likely to be more than 1 mm stated Very few errors Clear structure with subheadings

P9 P10

1 0

P11 P12 P13

1 1 0

P14 P15

1 1

173

P16

Plan is clear on first reading

Easy to follow even though choice to measure time is going to prove difficult Total marks for this section

13

B: Implementation and measurements


Ref M1 M2 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Comment 3 sig figs is appropriate Uncertainties shown in column headings and by repeat readings of amplitude Correct units shown for all measurements Reference made to changing method of recording time and plan followed 7 readings is appropriate in this experiment Reasonable range of 0 to 12 s which almost halves amplitude Total marks for this section Mark 1 1

M3 M4 M5 M6

Uses correct units throughout measurement Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range

1 1 1 1 6

C: Analysis
Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout calculations Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Comment Axes labelled correctly Points fill at least half a page in both directions Plots checked were accurately plotted Reasonable line drawn with points on either side Damping constant determined Appropriate graph plotted Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1

A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12

Large triangle shown and negative gradient correctly calculated Correct units given 2 sig figs is not appropriate Physics of damped oscillations described Terms used throughout Sources of error mentioned and would be improved with a diagram

1 1 0 1 1 1

174

A13 A14 A15

Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work

Percentage errors calculated Percentage errors correctly added together Suggested use of motion sensor and data logger poorly described and without justification Relationship of variables and value of k described No discussion of reliability of conclusion in terms of aim Investigation of different amounts of damping described Total marks for this section

1 1 0

A16 A17 A18

1 0 1 15

Total marks for this unit

34

Additional comment This experiment was planned and carried out well, but it would be helpful if all candidates had a better idea of the difference between instrument precision and measurement error. This is often poorly understood. Modifications are not always well described and in particular it should not always be assumed that the use of data logging equipment can improve the accuracy of measurements. This would need to be justified by, for instance reference to the difficulty of recording rapidly changing data. Note that the candidate carries out the centre-devised plan since the original is dubious but A17 might not be awarded due to comment (paragraph 7) in plan on comparison of results.

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185

186

5.1 Consultancy Service


Following feedback from centres, the new consultancy service has been designed to help teachers with the application of the assessment criteria. By working through exemplars teachers will be able to have a clear understanding of the application of the assessment criteria. What is the service about? It is an online system where you can view and mark exemplar student work. Why should I use it? It is absolutely free. It provides an opportunity to mark pieces of coursework to gain an understanding of how to apply the assessment criteria. It ensures your interpretation of the assessment criteria is accurate in advance of marking your students work. You receive commentaries from a senior moderator on the exemplar work when you complete the exemplar materials exercise. It is a source of additional support materials for centres in the interpretation and application of the assessment criteria. When will it be available? The consultancy service will be available from 14th November 2011 until 25th March 2012. Centres must register on OSCA to access the exemplar work. Once registered the Lead Assessor (or a group of colleagues) can go online and mark the exemplar work. Where do I access the work? The OSCA system is accessed via www.edexcelonline.co.uk How to use it 3 easy steps STEP 1: Nominate your centres Lead Assessor for the unit. The Lead Assessor is defined as the individual with overall responsibility for the delivery of coursework assessment on a paper. This could be the Head of the department. STEP 2: Ensure the Lead Assessor is registered with Edexcel Online. If you are already a registered centre, contact the Edexcel Online administrator at your centre to set you up with an account. If your centre is not yet registered, please nominate an Edexcel Online administrator and ask them to contact us: by phone: 0844 576 0025 by email: gce.sciences@edexcel.com ask Edexcel: www.edexcel.com/ask STEP 3: Register for the consultancy service by selecting OSCA from the Edexcel Online menu. Will I gain accreditation by marking the exemplar work? No. The consultancy service available through OSCA for GCE Biology and Physics is to provide centres with reference materials, to practise marking and develop an understanding of standards and assessment.

187

5.2 FAQs
Q. Do I have to use the supplied Record sheets? A. All centres should use the supplied Record sheets and should not design their own. Q. Is there any additional training available? A. Yes, there are Training from Edexcel (TfE) courses available to help teachers assess these units. Some of these courses are face-to-face meetings with members of our senior examining team. As many teachers find coming out of school to TfE meetings difficult, there are also some web-based TfE sessions. Details of TfE courses appear on the Edexcel website. Q. Can I submit the work electronically? A. If you are sending work to Edexcel to be moderated, the work can be submitted electronically or as hard copy. Q. Where do I send the coursework? A. You should receive address labels along with the attendance registers/OPTEMS forms for each unit. If there is any doubt, the name and address of your moderator/marker can be found using Edexcel Online. Q. Im not happy with the marks my students got. Can I get a remark? A. If you submitted work for moderation, then you cannot query individual students results you must ask for remoderation of the whole centre (like any other piece of coursework). Q. Do I get any feedback on the marking of the reports? A. If your work was moderated, your centre will receive an E9 moderators report. These are submitted by the moderator online and can be accessed using Edexcel Online. The Principal Examiner for this unit will write a report covering aspects of the work noted across all centres: this will be published on the day results come out. There will also be feedback TfE events.

188

5.3 Administration of internal assessment


Internal standardisation Teachers must show clearly how the marks have been awarded in relation to the assessment criteria. If more than one teacher in a centre is marking students work, there must be a process of internal standardisation to ensure that there is consistent application of the assessment criteria. Authentication All candidates must sign an authentication statement. Statements relating to work not sampled should be held securely in your centre. Those which relate to sampled candidates must be attached to the work and sent to the moderator. In accordance with a revision to the current Code of Practice, any candidate unable to provide an authentication statement will receive zero credit for the component. Where credit has been awarded by a centre-assessor to sampled work without an accompanying authentication statement, the moderator will inform Edexcel and the mark will be adjusted to zero. Further information For more information on annotation, authentication, mark submission and moderation procedures, please refer to the Edexcel AS and GCE in Physics: Instructions and administrative documentation for internally assessed units document, which is available on the Edexcel website. For up-to-date advice on teacher involvement, please refer to the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) Instructions for conducting coursework/portfolio document on the JCQ website: www.jcq.org.uk. For up-to-date advice on malpractice and plagiarism, please refer to the Joint Council for Qualifications Suspected Malpractice in Examinations: Policies and Procedures and the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) Instructions for conducting coursework/portfolio documents on the JCQ website: www.jcq.org.uk.

189

GCE Physics 2008 marking grids AS


A: Summary of case study or physics-based visit Criterion Mark Criterion Carries out a visit OR uses library, consulting a minimum of three different sources of information (eg books/websites/journals/magazines/case study provided by Edexcel/manufacturers data sheets) States details of visit venue OR provides full details of sources of information Provides a brief description of the visit OR case study Makes correct statement on relevant physics principles Uses relevant specialist terminology correctly Provides one piece of relevant information (eg data, graph, diagram) that is not mentioned in the briefing papers for the visit or case study Briefly discusses context (eg social/environmental/historical) Comments on implication of physics (eg benefits/risks) Explains how the practical relates to the visit or case study Total marks for this section (9) B: Planning Ref P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 Criterion Lists all materials required States how to measure one relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second relevant quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques States which is the independent and which is the dependent variable Identifies and states how to control all other relevant variables to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate in this case Comments on safety Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used Plan is well organised and methodical, using an appropriately sequenced step-by-step procedure Total marks for this section (14) C: Implementation and Measurements Ref M1 M2 M3 M4 Criterion Records all measurements using the correct number of significant figures, tabulating measurements where appropriate Uses correct units throughout Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Total marks for this section (4) Mark Mark

Ref S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9

Mark

D: Analysis Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriately labelled axes and with correct units Produces a graph with sensible scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Comments on the trend/pattern obtained Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Discusses/uses related physics principles Attempts to qualitatively consider sources of error Suggests realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment Calculates uncertainties Provides a final conclusion Total marks for this section (11) E: Report Ref R1 R2 Criterion Summary contains few grammatical or spelling errors Summary is structured using appropriate subheadings Total marks for this section (2) Mark Mark

Total marks for this unit (40)

GCE Physics 2008 marking grids A2


A: Planning Ref P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 Criterion Identifies the most appropriate apparatus required for the practical in advance Provides clear details of apparatus required including approximate dimensions and/or component values (for example, dimensions of items such as card or string, value of resistor) Draws an appropriately labelled diagram of the apparatus to be used States how to measure one quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken States how to measure a second quantity using the most appropriate instrument Explains the choice of the second measuring instrument with reference to the scale of the instrument as appropriate and/or the number of measurements to be taken Demonstrates knowledge of correct measuring techniques Identifies and states how to control all other relevant quantities to make it a fair test Comments on whether repeat readings are appropriate for this experiment Comments on all relevant safety aspects of the experiment Discusses how the data collected will be used Identifies the main sources of uncertainty and/or systematic error Plan contains few grammatical or spelling errors Plan is structured using appropriate subheadings Plan is clear on first reading Total marks for this section (16) Mark

B: Implementation and measurements Ref M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 Criterion Records all measurements with appropriate precision, using a table where appropriate Readings show appreciation of uncertainty Uses correct units throughout Refers to initial plan while working and modifies if appropriate Obtains an appropriate number of measurements Obtains measurements over an appropriate range Total marks for this section (6) Mark

C: Analysis Ref A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 A17 A18 Criterion Produces a graph with appropriate axes (including units) Produces a graph using appropriate scales Plots points accurately Draws line of best fit (either a straight line or a smooth curve) Derives relation between two variables or determines constant Processes and displays data appropriately to obtain a straight line where possible, for example, using a log/log graph Determines gradient using large triangle Uses gradient with correct units Uses appropriate number of significant figures throughout Uses relevant physics principles correctly Uses the terms precision and either accuracy or sensitivity appropriately Discusses more than one source of error qualitatively Calculates errors quantitatively Compounds errors correctly Discusses realistic modifications to reduce error/improve experiment States a valid conclusion clearly Discusses final conclusion in relation to original aim of experiment Suggests relevant further work Total marks for this section (18) Mark

Total marks for this unit (40)

Further copies of this publication are available from: Edexcel Publications Adamsway Mansfield Nottingham NG18 4FN Tel: 01623 467467 Fax: 01623 450481 Email: Publication.orders@edexcel.com Intpublication.orders@edexcel.com

For more information on Edexcel and BTEC qualifications please visit our website: www.edexcel.com Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: Edinburgh Gate, Harlow, Essex CM20 2JE VAT Reg No GB 278 537121

Publication code UA030932

GCE_PHY_FULL COVER.indd 1