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o Copyright 1999

The Black Books oJElverum by Mary S. Rustad

All rights reserved. Printed in Canada.

No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the publishers except in the
case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.

First Edition
First Printing, 1999
The two Svartebsker from Rustad were first translated from Gothic hand-

writing into modern typescript by Per Sande. The two books were then translated from Old Norwegian into modern Norwegian by Per Holck, M.D., Ph.D. Finally, Mary S. Rustad translated the nvo books from Norwegian to English with the helpful guidance of the late Oskar Garstein, Doctor of Theolory and Philosophy.
Illustrations of ;esus and Lucifer by E. T. Rustad Illustrations by Theodor Kittelsen from Anon. Theodor Kittelsen. Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk F orlag, 19 45. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Svartebsker. English. The black books of Elverum / Mary S. Rustad, editor and translator.



Includes index.

rsBN 1-880090-75-9
1. Magic-Norway-Elverum. 2. Manuscripts, Norwegian II. Title. Facsimiles. I. Rustad, Mary S., 79528F1622.N67583t3 1999 99-30145 133.4'3'O9481-dc2l

Galde Press, Inc.

PO Box 460 Lakeville, Minnesota 55044-0460

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sa^lesuaql r{aql 'arg ,{q pagradu4 s8upgnq 4eIP 'srPeq puP sanlo^\

,(q paueleaJlp {rotsenll rleqt-p^lnrns roJ a133ru1s ,srorureJ aql 8uryar ,{q auo8 arull e ruo4 sn ol rleods s{oog r1celg tunrellg


'r{ems pleq ,(p"t1g p;n1eu;adns eql Jo suollPlsaJluPlu reqlo

pue 'slsoq8 'seqrlp{ lnoqe sJalloq oreq^\ Suqulqt 3o ,,(em ryaqt a43 oslp lnq-rem Sufem '3u11unq '8uqsg '3u1u;e;
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aseql ,(po 1ou IPaAeJ s{ooq aql ,{ervr pJPAAlnO ,slueseod 3up1u1qg.1ucpery


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paqsrranodul Jo plrolv\ eqt otul asdrulS

elprullq ue aprno"rd (araq

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reql ulqll^\ peuletuoJ suoltetuerul

pue 'sro.derd 'ar4pe 'soJm aq1 'a8e Jeqloue olun l\opuwr e 8ut -uado r{q repear uJapou p pJelv\eJ r{aq1 'suracuoc,,{gep Surssarppe

roJ s{ooqpupq lelrtrp.rd aq ot tno urnl ,{lpnsn r{aqt '3u1pue1s -qtlrluou uoltBtndar 8up!pra1 rleql 'uslueles pue Uerltlllllv\ ;o sa8eurr dn sarnfuof, erueu aqr r{epol uala-{oog l]elg aql 'o8elrraq


-e^\roN eqlJo toJeJ u^\ou{ epry e;o Sulpuqsrapun rno o1 uoltnq -lJluor lueilodul pue SurleurJseJ e sleoleJ eqs-tuoql e1ec11dxa o1 (au1clpeu {loJ uo selllJoqlnp lsolueJo; s,.,{ervuoN Jo euo pue ropop lplrpau e) r1c1o11red Jo dloq aqt 8ut1st1uo pue-ruaqt Fur uatlrr!\pupq o1v\l uodn aurec t,{t,e -qqlqnd q 's{oog {Jelg l\ pelsnu trc\rlJ
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Cbe Black

Book of luerum

menaced by snakes and the fearful prospect of going to war. While

finding tremendous consolation in their Christian faith, desperation drove many to seek protection in Black Book incantations
such as those presented here. Just as fishing and hunting augmented the meager food supply these farms could muster, the Black Books offer incantations

to magically increase the yield derived from these activities: what if one could find a bottomless huldrepond teamingwith unlimited fish or bewitch bullets to unfailingly seek their target? On Norway's subsistence farms, butter was one of the few commodities whose production exceeded immediate nutritional
need. It could therefore be used to pay taxes (old documents com-

monly express land values in measures of butter) and to barter for needed goods. Much could go wrong during the churning process, however, and rather than ascribing a poor yield to the cream's deficient butterfatcontent or improper temperature, they blamed it on envious witches or evil spirits, whose existence they did not doubt. Witches could cast a spell over the livestock, too. It therefore behooved one to discover who among the neighbors possessed such powers, and the Black Book provided incantations for this purpose as well. The Elverum Black Books also reveal much about the cleanliness-or lack thereoF-during pre-industrial times, when primitive facilities prevented all but occasional bathing, house cleaning, and clothes washing (all limited to about four times ayear), while necessitating close contact with soil and soot as well as human and animal wastes. No wonder these pages abound with remedies for bedbugs, body lice, and infections. Equally strongly they reflect a fear of drifters and thieverl; the peasants' impoverishment meantthatlost property could likely never be replaced, even as the danger of theft constantly loomed and demanded recourse.

Sqlerus-pr4nd,{1.repu4s ro) sacag u1o[suralt asaqt Jaleq {loJ leuop -euJalul o1 Sulproccy '(asoou s,ueu8ueq e) au4rc ro '(qrrnqc uI uaaq e^Pq plnoqs euo ueq { r(epun5 uo peluroJrad spaep) u1s '(rpool s,ueru peep e'gos prer{ale;8) qleap qlIA\ pelellosse stuell aqucsard r{eqt,{cuanbar;

Suqrts qllm ,{paurer e puu o1uollerad

-sop ,sJosn Jleql Jo lseol lou 'satunlon >1eods osp s{oog {lPIg rurua^Ig aql,{q par{oidrua spoqlau rglcads pue slPueleul Pfire aq;

sueaw lecpeq
'qtlue^\ trzatB;o sadoq 8ullpsq,(q dlqspreq 3u1pn -ard aqt aruepq Jo 'tuslloqocle erm la8ue uler q tq8nos suollel -uerul euos 'pcysdqd se IIa^4. sP qlleeq pofoloqrr{sd ssarppe o1 3u1u4y 'secrnosar petlrul,{1puno;ord Jo ou4t slql q &tunruruor eql pue 'pilqr aqt 'sellesuraqt Buorue dqspreq tq8norq osp lnq
luslJeJlso lerJos esuelul peJeJJns ,{1uo 1ou slaqlou a18uts 'sa1d -noc Surunoc Suoure e8eunut ol roud q4q popualle eur311s ap11

a|!tIA,\ 'uoliloqe uo allApe loJ uIeA ul {ool JepeoJ e soop JoN '{lru tseorq Jo aql e8ernolue pue 'qillqpuql;o upd ^/\oU eql asee 'Joqpl eJnpu 'lueu8a;d Sunuocaq Jo sppo eql aseoJJu! '^{cualod a1eu elueque q Surra;;o suolleluelq pulJ eA/\ 'Ippoq anrpnpordeJ s,uaruo/v\ JoJ uJocuoc letceds pol{oqs s{oog {Jelg xeu eqt uo Surpuadep uJeJ aqlJo errunJ aql qly!\


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oql eroJaq lunrq s,roqel aJoq solpoq esoq^4, sra{ro^4,llPJaq r{1ern -tpu plno^4, suolpluJe qcng 'Suypeelq allsselxa pue 'saun[u1 :o^aJ
'squvro.r8 's1oq JoJ oJaI{ palutrd seJnJ aIIl ol oluelquosal elq? -{JeueJ e reeqpue 'oo1 'te1ler6lrpeq oF qlpeq puosrad Supre8a.t suopelusJur IPuollPuralut r{ueyl's{oog {Jelg unJe^lg aql DIIIUn

lou salpeuer Jo runlpuaduroo e'u,lde1 pcfery aqt u1 s.readde 1r oraq^t '1dd8g luelJue ot {cpq sao3,{1en1lp Jelql e;o ar{a eql lno 8up1od JoJ plnuJoJ ,s{oog {tplg aql 'uoueuouaqd luaf,al oN


Cbe Black

Book ofluerum

substances known as "devil's dreck"), bones, urine, and breast milk in lending extra power to accomplishing the words of the incantation. Evil spirits (thought to have caused the disorder) would find these items repulsive, so the thinking went, and therefore be warded off. Items associated with the Christian religion had a similar effect, so making the sign of the cross, reciting the Lord's Prayer, and singing a hymn also empowered these incan-

tations, as did repeating the prescribed magical act three times and performing it on Thursday.
Though a few incantations do urge renouncing God and swearing allegiance to Lucifer, far more often they invoke Christ, St.
Peter, the Virgin Mary, or the Ttinity. Several of the Elverum Black

Book's incantations employ the well known pattern from other Black Books of portraying one of these Christian figures suffering from, then ultimately prevailing over the same affliction the incantation aims to cure. Folklorists call the kind of wizardry that underlies such formulas "sympathetic magic." Resting on the conceptthat "like influences like," the idea was that the image of
Christ or St. Peter overcoming the afflicfion would help the affliAed person overcome it as well. The concept of like influences like also underlies formulas for curing fever or toothache that begin by writing avery long word,

then repeatedly rewriting it, each time removing one letter, until only one letter remains. The fever or toothache, so the thinking goes, thereby also diminishes. In a largely illiterate society, words in themselves seemed magical, and this way of thinking also surfaces in the Black Books' instructions for making amulets


ing certain words on paper, which would protect their wearer from bullet wounds and other dangers. By no means unique to Norway, the international pedigree of the means employed by these Black Book incantations reminds


a8a1o3 raqln'I
uer8arvr-to1r1 Jo Jos s eJoJd

uevxors NeelHrvuieJIJeIuv uI osp 'sf,llle plo rfisnp ut s^4,ou{ oq a 't'ntqllsnerd rlrnl deul ruls s{oog {Jelg dueu ^4,oq s,a8a1o3 Jeqtn'I Jo tuoor {ooq orer eql u1 punoJ ,{epo1 sr pue .Q1 -.re1ndod snouroue pa,(o[ua '2681q o8ecq3 q paqs[qnd'1oog {Jelg p qrns lsnf'eclraurv ot aIuPJ,{aqt uaqm puqeq erol slql tue.flultul relpo .to) suefam;oN eID plp roN 'suul.{q
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punor8{rPq letlrolsl{

uolsfs ImFoloJe er{I .


:sropeJ eseql uo luopuadap ^(lupuat sl lI 'slxeluol snolrP^ slr q pelprus aq 01 serl rlSew 'uorlelueuo Jo apou p 'aJII e q 1l 'ilp aloqv ' \eln plJol,\ uleilat e ,{ool

-lno urpilor e luasard sarnpacord prpeur aql'sdrqspreqJo sruroJ snolren eAIAJns ol sueeu e selJnluec aql tnoq8noJql ueaq spq cr8eur 'tte4uot oql uO 'esolJnt So wrysodwu tanjxtw e lou sr
rt8eru teql pereqrueruer aq 01 sr 1I 'proua8 u1 cpeul;o ,{pn1s aqt JoJ Srseq luefle]xa ue se a^las 1am, r{eru s{oog {Jelg o/vu eseql 'aalDadsred raplnr. e u1 ^{ueur ol ul\ou{un osJallun pnpafiolur ue qlr^\ palurenbce ta8 ot ,{llungoddo ue uonr8 aq III^{ tuatsop uerFem;o61Jo suetlJeuv 'suospeJ snolJpl JoJ .S.n aql ul oJol -{loJJo fprus eqt ul luale rofeur e eq ol tno urnt IIr1r,\ ruruellg 1 ur pelsnu wory s{oog {relg o^u esoql Jo uorterrlqnd aqJ



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Book of locrum

. Profession (the knowledge of magic varies from one profession to another)


The victim (whether the victim is a human being, an animal, or a supranormal being)

. The literary influence

Of course, not all forms of magic contain all these factors. There

are nevertheless certain constant factors; namely, b,d, and j.

This shows that magic is never done in a social vacuum. By reading the charms and the recipes presented here, one understands that behind all these forms of magic there are certain resis-

tant mental structures. With closer scrutiny, we will detect cer[ain permanent patterns. Many charms in this publication are to be found elsewhere in
Europe and even in the U.S., brought there by immigrants. The Black Books contain not only magical procedures, but
medical recipes as well. They have served as medical handbooks

in former times. They have been found not only at the farms in Norway, but at several vicarages as well! The clerrymen used them when the cattle were attacked by more or less mysterious
ailments or when people visited the local clergrrnen to seek advice for their illnesses. In former times, there were very few educated

doctors in Norway. One had recourse to the clerrymen or wise women or men well versed in the esoteric mysteries of magic. To cure illnesses by means of charms was considered legal because

it was white magic, while using magic to hurt people was black magic. This is a distinction dating back to c. 1,400. However, the authorities did not look at itthatway. Many a wise man or woman

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'selllt{ 'sluared lalsrs pue sJarnoJq slq laqtespuer8 lear8 rerl Jo SOJPJ1 aas usJ Oqs uJpJ aql JeAo IIV'sloot laq 01pouJrueJ spq 'uoll -eraua8 rnrnoJ eqlJo ,fteW '6LgI ur eJrJaruv o1pa1er81uur pup trrrpJ arues oql uro4 sp^A reqtpJpuer8 rcat8 roH 'rureJ aqt lpaqu1 ol sel!\ oq1!\ 'ulsnoJ pJlql Jeq perJJru aqs reer( NLIL'LL6I ul aAU -dtuarrl;o a8e eql le 'pelsnu rDJoN uJeJ oqt ot eruef, ,{rew 'ul{ req;o ,fio1qq 3upr11 e eraqrrf,;ang 'elpq pue 'ano1 'adoq 'sso1 's/v1oJyos :1sed saurl luo{ selJoueuJo eJuaprla lerlJo1slq sl?eAOJ suado eqs xoq.ftarrg 'rfinl -uar srql ur olul pa{ool,{1areq ueeq eAPq soxoq erllJo lera^as 'mou SurqoteweJe r{aq1aqdeyq irap -lnoqs Jeq JaAo 3urr1oo1 pup Jeeu ,(aqt arv 'suolleJeua8 lsed 1o 'sJaqteJeJoJ Jar{ 01 acuaso.rd eqt sleeJ lsorup r{rew ueql pue ^roN rpeu os oq pue,fiorqq qSnorql rapue^4, o18ury1rqt q 1I 'qlpep pup sseuTrls 8u1pre8o.r punoJ uaeq eleq sranal plo 'sossouilr snorras JOJ SaJnr ou pue sprurue pllr\4. eJeq 4, eJaql 'ssau{tls Jo esnpJeq pup ueJplrqr iletus pup s1eturup roJ Surrec e8e ,(1.rea ue le lno urol!\ oro1r4. sraqlo 'wrlqpuqJ ul pelp dueyl 'lqnop e lnoqlr^\ 'eJrl preq e peq ueruol|a{eu ol elqp eq 01ppq,(eqt teqm pue'tfttet 01 peq .,{aqt reqm-uaruol\ r(leroedse 'sr{ep plo oql u1 panq a1d -oed moq sploJun 1l pue araqm,(rena q rfio1s111 'turpJ eql uo sruool plo aql a;o1dxa ot selol6n[eqs 1nq 'sdrunq asoo8 slaag freyl lalnb sr lr osrr!\Jar{lo lnq '{eeJf, spJeoqJoou oqJ. 'eroJeq ,{ep aql lsn(tl posn e^pq plnoJ auoeruos y se Sururaes 'ruool plo ue spuels JauJot e ul JaAo 'araqrvrr{rano eJp sexoq plo 'slo{uelq roqtpoJ urot pup 'sqderSoloqd r{gulq plo 'seqlolr plo
arp slle^\ aqt 3uo1y 'sragpr eql wou u^4,op ,{psoq8 Sueq sqa^r -raprds Jo suollereua9 'rrge plo eql ur dn dtsnp pue rlrep q t

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Cbe Black

Book of luerum

and children. It is strange to think that after three generations in the United States, she would return here. It is both her husband's heritage and her own that she is surveying.

In one of the old boxes she finds two strange books. At first she thinks that she has found diaries, but quickly realizes that
something is completely different. One of the books seems empty,

but the middle pages are full of writing. It appears as if this script was meant to be kept a secret and is now long forgotten. She cannot help but notice that the pages in the middle are worn and have been used a good deal. After thumbing through the first blank pages, she comes to some pages that are handwritten in Old Norwegian and Gothic lettering. It is clear that not just anyone

will be able to read what has been written here. The other

book is bigger, with the title written on the cover. The pages are handsewn together. The paper is thick, almost like parchment.

"A little book of skills," it says on the cover. All at once it hits
Mary that she has found Black Books. They are Black Books! And there are two of them! In older times, a person could be punished

for possessing occult literature. People were burned at the stake for the slightest suspicion of black magic or witchcraft. As amatter of fact, one of the last witches burned in Norway was one of Mary's ancestors. Even if it was difficult to read what was written, Mary understood all the same that her discovery was a small historical sensation. This was a find that sent chills up the spine. The fewwords she could decipher revealed magic and incantations from a different time than the present. Nevertheless her curiosity was greater than her fear, and she took the books down from the attic. That first night, Mary dared not read the books while in bed. She walked drrrurld the house going through the incantations again and again rrying to understand what could be written on these old pages.

ovrsnu'H s'rrN(lramod Jel\ol

p pue raq81q e 'aJOr{ qlrm Furpap aJaA,\ nor{ oqm 1sn[ raquraueg)

'salnr eql n\olloJ o1 turod lspl oql uo luBl.rodu! sp1r4, 1I 'tl roJ prcd peq aq lerl \ ueql rolvlol spl!\ leqt arr.rd p {se 01 ppq reu^\o aqt 'plos spll\ {ooq aql Jl '{oog {Jelg e dorlsap tou plnoJ errJ 'Jau^,ro Jrarp qlrl{ pelJnq aq^(eu ro ,{eme u/!\oJr{l ^{1qeqo.rd arom, lsow ,{em-roN ur s{oog {lplg Surureurar l!\eJ aJp oJOqI .lueJeJ -JIp q rlooq,fiana asnetoq anbrun pup s{oog {telg uurSarvr.rop raqto eql q pareduroc poilelep erp pelsng uo4 s{ooq eql 'qqpug o1u1,,{1eug ueql 'uey8a^{roN uropotu otur Jelel 'pJo1r^ JoJ pJoI\ polplsueJl oJaA,\ s{ooq aql pue palJsluol se \ pueqsnq req Jo puel4 plo uV 's{ooq asoql Jo uorlu1aldralur eql qlnt dlaq ol pepeeu are slradxa sepnep ,{reW euparu ilp 1l seop lPqx\ :qnqeslag 'geaq s,A\ollPr!\S e 'Osl1v\{f,olJJalunoJ 'lpllluoJ ISOUqP SJarnO 'rfiUCS arafl\ IuaroJo aruos 'suollelusJul ar{lJo IeJaAes q8norqt pelqurus r{pro1s ^&an aqs pueqsnq rarl qlr^\ reqte8o1




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uaqa 'uolleluJoJou oJeI\ s{ooq qlrnql s,lJlJlslp aql lsou Jo eA/\ arp Jo asnpteq s00gl arfl eroJoq erup eql lnoqe aplll ^\ou{ 'turPJ p4snu aql Sulpnltul 'soogl erD Jo alpptu aql uI pareelt sel!\ puPI Jo Ieap rcera P 'lsa -roJ sll roJ u^\ou{ ,{1upru q qllq^{ '(,{a1en u.ralseg) ualepralso ',{em;o51;o ged rno uI 'ure8e puel eqt 8ulur.re; peuqs aydoad pue 'pareap selt{ pupl 'FruJou ol peuJnlal eJll 'ollry f,qery 'lueprf,ur srql JauP suolle -;aue8,{ueur IIea qcJnqr eql uo Sunq reaq aql luo4 JnJ eql pue Tpads sH qll^\ reeq aql pom{ ralunq aqJ. 'relle Oql puHoq perel -ulr!\ pPq JPaq eql 'JPeq snolJnJ P lalu oq 'JP{P eql pJP1r4,ol dn pue qJrnqr aql q po{lP^{ eq sv'saerl qll^{ pare^oc 1e 'qrrnrlJ uappu s1q teqt aq;funs sH ol punoJ pue 'plo ueJo IIeq eql t1q peq ^\oue punos eqlJo uorporrp aqt q tseroJ aqr q8no;qr pe{p { aH'pepuel spl eror!\{ aslou Sur8uelc pnol e preoq tnq pJIq eqt passru ^\orr 'asno.6 poonl. e 1e 8ulup Jelunq e erun euo '$seJoJ ulrro.frerro;o eppru aql q sureJ pue sSuplnq peuosap ssolre euoJ ol uolu -spootv\ pue srelunq JoJ uoluluoJun lou se^ .1l Jelel sepeJoo 'lsa -.rog ,{q peJaAoJ eJefi\ pue lno palp sa8ulln fielus pue SIUJPC 'ue8eq an8eld erll oroJaq s le^ol otups aqt peule8ar uoltelndod eql aroJoq srea,{ 0gI tnoqe {oot 1l pue 'atse^\ plel
ere^\ suueJ snorounN 'Ippeo 1celg eqlJo osne)eq pap uopepdod eql Jo prrql auo lPql sn sflal ,{.rotrsrH'6vg,l rear( aql ut uaSrag ut

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ado.rng pue ersv q8no.rqt pa8ene;

uorDnqorru[ r)porslg


Cbe Black

Book ofluerum

burned. However, Rustad must have been an area where some Vikings lived, because artifacts were found in a burial mound in one of the fields just north of the present farmhouse. Objects, mostly weapons, can be seen in the National Museum of History in Oslo.
The name Rustad is a derivative of the Old Norwegian word ruthrstadir or clearing place. Many of the farmers who lived on

the farm took the name Rustad. The first farmers, however, from the middle of the 1SOOs, did not live on the Rustad farm, which was at that time not a farm but was used as a forest pasture. Grass was harvested and then transported back to the main farm, in this case thirteen miles away. The first farmer on record is Bottolv Rustad in 1528. Bjorn Grundset started to use the farm in the 1500s. He was one of our forefathers, and died on Rustad in 1664.
Norway was unified with Denmark as far back as 1J80 (Denmark-Norway). This union lasted until 1814. Much of the Norwegian culture during this period shows signs of Danish influence. Most of the governmental posts were filled by elite men from Denmark. They were here to protect the Danish king's interests. These
men were officers of the crown. They were given large pieces of land, usually places where farms were few andfar between. The

Black Books found at Rustad could have been brought here by one of these high officials, or by a minister. Norway, atthattime, did not have its own university. Norwegians had to study in Denmark in order to obtain degrees in higher education.

ln 1709, Denmark-Norway was pulled into a Nordic war with the Swedish king, Karl XII. King Karl had lost large areas in
Poland and Germany and wanted to take Norway as a replacement for what he had lost. The war lasted for twenfy years and

'JaAIJ arp tuou fel!\P leqileJ pa^olu ere^\ sesnoqurrPJ pe$nu aqllPql poolJ slql Jeue se^4,1I 'sesnoq

pup {rolsa^Il se [e \ se 'puel SuIurPJ elqenp^ lsol sreurE aql Jo ,{ueru uaq 6gLI rrl poog 8yq e se \ erel{I 'slq8norp raruruns pue ^ spoou eJea eJarD salull lv'eulualullv\ orD u1r{1p1cadse ,{puep;un eq plnor aleurp aql 'r{sea lou se/v\ pelsnu uo aJII IUJeJ

uer8aru;og1 aql

,{grueg p.{or rlaqt;o pnord ,{ran ueaq sz{emp aneq oldoad tprll ppp ot a^pq I 'r{ervr-rog

-rpH uos

slH't66l ul pa1p rc19 3u1y'sOg6I

go 3u1r1 eqt ,l\ou sl pF ul rolo {ool AelO aID

uos srq plun 3ulr1poo8 u se derra.rog palru pue 'ILA uo{wH eueu eql{oo1 lrey arupd qslupo aq1 '(o1sg pelpl ralel) eruepspy ul eJoqsp aruec fervuoNlgo r{[.nl'reg pr{or nreu aI0 '906I Jeque^oN ul 'acuapuadapq puu rlaqt Supra8 aro;aq srear{ perpunq

euo tsorulp .ro; e133nr1s ol ppq aldoad uet8errLtog aq1. 'uapa^\S qll1v\ UOrun A,leU e O1UI rfilUnOl aql pOsJOJ pUe r(err-loN ol sJolplos puesnoqt flro; lues 3up1 aqt 'brgl Jo IIeJ eID uI 'pelpaJep ueeq peq uoelodpN leql r{ddeq sem '3u11qslpo^\s aqt 'ueqof lruy

,{ueuuag ur 31zd1a1Jo elneq eqt roge 1so1 uoalodeN 'uope^4'S s,uoalodegl uaaq ppq oq^\ '[A {lrparJ ol derr,uogl epoc ol peq ^,{p uolun l\ou e olu! Jeluo or peq rfit

'Surl qsrueo

aq1. 'uepall,S IDIlr\

JO aUO JO Jar.OoJq Oq1 Se

P,{po peq r{eruog -unoJ oql eroJaq acuepuadapqJo sqtuolu ^4,eJ 'LLLI ul uroq 'pelsualg uosslg a31ag 'sJaIDeJaJoJ s,Joqlne oql \ elo 'uorlnlllsuol s,r{ervuo61 raqteSol tnd 'plo^splg te 8ut padleq oqltr ueu ZII Jo euo se^\ pelsua^g -leeru e ur aledlctiled ol uesoqf, eJe/v\ ualu lelluanlJul r(uey1 'r{em
-JoN JoJ etep luvllodrur ^{-ran e selr,l



,{q paraprnu spd\ eq pIPs sJolunu 'glLI'0t JaqIueAoN 'r{ervuoN 'uopleH ur tJoJ uet$lrrparJ le pall{ sp^\ IJe}I3u1y uaqm pepua

,{ery;o LDLI aqJ'sJerplos srq Jo auo


uolpnQouul lvrporslf


Cbe Black

Eook ofluerum

Before 1850 the farming in Norway was more or less nonmonetary. Everything was grown, made, and stored atthe farm. In newer times, sugar and salt were boughtby trading in hides
and dairy products. Hunting was important, and traps (large holes) were made in the mountains, where moose, reindeer, and bears

were caught. In ear$ times, the forest was used basically for firewood. Later there were sawmills along the creeks, and log buildings were replaced by plank buildings. Flax was grown and spun into linen, and clothing was made from cloth woven on looms. Iron ore and blacksmiths played an important role on farms. Most of the time there were fifteen to twenty-five people working on the Rustad farm. Some people were born there and many died there. The farm also served as a nursing home. When people became old, handicapped, or sick, they were taken care of and did not have to starve. The potato was imported to Norway in 1750. Many ministers explained to their congregations on Sunday how to plant and care for potatoes and how to prepare them for eating. Around 1810 Norway had a hunger period, and the potato helped save the population from a major starvation catastrophe. The Rustad farm went out of the family for several generations, but was bought back by Helge Tollefson Kitde in 18J8. He was born in 1796 and was married to Ingebor Helgesdatter Melhagen, born in 1805. Helge bought the farm because his wife did

not get along with his sisters who lived on the farm that he had inherited in Rena. Helge and Ingeborg had six children: Tollef, Helge, Gotmar, Johan, Ola, and Pernille. It is interesting to note that they were all scared of wolves, which were sometimes so hungry that they took farm dogs tied up by the farmhouse. The

ssoJre peq

'snuerJdfJ qslueo oql ol aleq plnoll. oqlv\'{Jeuuoo IuoU aldoed palecnpe 'allla


rIIt\ petuot q eruor 01 seltpr4roddo aqt peq sureJ es0q1 uo pe^ll 'ssan8 e oqm aldoed aql pue sureJ a3;e1 arorvr sureJ osaql Jo IDog dpo sl s1ql rng 'uue; ua8eqlew eql ruo4 eluel Sroqa8ul puu ep[y 'ureJ eql luorJ servr e31ag ,(a1en eql ul lprou dn raque; epu e suJeJ omtJo ouo tuo4 paleuflro e^eq plnoJ s{oog 1rPIg eql 'pJeq ol pPq euorfiala pu lurJ peq ,(aqt 'lse;rleorq reUV
aql punore s{sel eql ul atedtctiled


lV 'uolllpuoc ;ood

aql u1 s3o1 eqt uae^Alaq srets oql eos plnm uerplq] aqt tq8lu tf;ett.e ul sel\ 0tul1 leql le esnoquJeJ pelsnu
uou)nQouu[ lvtuotslQ

unrao12 Jo

qoog >pvlg aq)




li,{o[ug'ladrer aql

rapun tdams ueoq seq 1eqt,fiots1q rno;o uollrod e lnoq suEll -reruv uer8arvuog ualqFlpa ol sl eunlo^ sID reqtaFot Suptnd u1 uopuelul,{1uo,{y1 '{ooq slqr ul suollsluelul aql p due ruroJrad

ot ldruaue slpnp4lpul tpql pueuuolar ro &lgqlsuodsa; "{ue arlet lou op oslp I 'ct8eru {relq aclpe-rd Jo uI eAeIIaq ^(em due u1 1ou op I 'p1p I se lsnf '8u11eupse; ra4oqailDts lnoqP lelJaleu Jellllu rew a'ralaq -eJun sHl puu I[1v\ sue]lJeruy uet8aruoN ^\ollaJ,{ul

I f

alou s,aoltQ:)

unrao12 Jo

qoog >pvlg aq)


'uo ue11rrr!\ se8ed opp1ru aql Jo eruos ,,{1uo qtrm .qooqts ur pasn ad& oql lanoc {ooq punoq '{JIrIl p sr raqlo eql
AetB e qll^\ {ooq 3u11pm e41-talqdrued ,eldruls p sl ouo .uoltlp -uoc poo8 ul eJp pup lualuot m qlrJ qloq aJp s{ooq o^u aql


{Jelg o1r,u Jaqlo eql ssoJJe eruef, pplsnu ,{reyg leql ,{ooq lsJrJ Mqt roJ Surqool osp pue 'rrrp aqt q sluounrop pup $looq plo Jo raqunu e q8norql Sufeururnr olrq^\ se^\ tI .euo8 Buo1,(1qeqo.rd
sr pup poqsrue^ atqs seq lpql re^or {Jlq e qll^A {oog {lelg e ssorle euet eq o8e s;ear{ r{ueru lpql sJequaueJ pulsnu .H sllN

'reqleJ slq tuoq etuqlraqur slq go ged se s{ooq eql ua{31a^eq plnor 0H .p4snu ur u1v\op palnes oq^

rreq lsrlJ pue uos lsaplo s,Jellol se^\ lI .epily JOIIoI u^\ou{ ilo1r,r oql q raqlpJ splvl' pup ZLLI q uroq se^\ eH .s{ooq oqr Jo ef,rnos eql se popadsns aq sdeqrad uer aplry Jellol .aer1 ^{11ulq aulv

uory aJ? $looq eql Jaqleq { uJguoJ

arurs z{yure; elups oql

aql Jo qruprq p sr pue louly q aply ruo{ sr ,{11ue1 eq,L.LggI eroJaq z(guel aqt r{q peul/\o eJaA\ Jo sJeu^,\o snonord s,uJeJ oql pue ,Lggl
o1 alqrssod 1ou


ueaq spq pelsnu qtJoN Jo luleJ eql 'euo prlql e punoJ

eq ol fl eJeql ruJeJ eql uo eJeq^,raruos leql pue ,r{ervr_roN ,lunJa^Ig ur pplsng qiloN te p$eJtns aleq s{oog {telg omt dltuatar 1 tpql uollesuas leJrJolsrq 'leJol .fietus p paJeprsuo] aq tsnru t J

rtvouoq ul QvtsnU ruorJ qoog )[)vlg aq)


Cbe Black

Book of luerum

The two books are difficult to date accurately, but both the handwriting and content indicate that they are around the same
age and from 1790 to 1,820. They also are in agreement with many of the other Black Books that are known from the same time period.

The books do not contain any names, initials, or dates that can help us to identiff them. There are thirry-nvo incantations in one book and sevenfy-elght in the other. They are not numbered

like many other Black Books.

Assistant Professor Per sande of the public archives in Hamar interpreted and typed the books for the owner. It is difficult to estimate how many Black Books there are to be found in Norway. Some of them are publicly owned by muse-

ums, in the public archives, and in teaching and research institutions, while others are privately owned. The number of books is probably between 100 and 150. There are a couple of private owners who own several books, but it is a rarity to find fwo or three books on the same property. Here in Elverum, we previously knew of only fwo other Black Books, one from Stenhammer and one from Findstad.

Many have heard about Svartebska, or the Black Book, but few have held one in their hands. The name alone gives many people chills up the back. I know one owner of such a book who dares not sleep in the room where it is kept. Not everyone can overlook completely that special texts or rituals can free dark powers. One of the myrhs surrounding the Black Book was that it was written in blood, as a link in an agreement with the devil. But after the witch-burning era, this idea was toned down, and the
books we know of from Norway were written with pen and ink'

ro{lg uro;; dlanrtcadse; s{ooq o,lu teql Buruorluaru quo^r JaAO -^\oq sr ll 'lpuelpu eqlJo uollelueserd relndod B ur BurlsaJelurun


d1an1le1a.r q s1qt lnq 'tuaql uae^i$eq uollJauuoJ reep e aas sdeq -.rad prvr laqlleoseJ aug 'ur8r.ro uoturuoJ e ol lurod d1"rea1c leqt sellrJelrurs rlllr\{ s{ooq oslp ere eJaql 'slualuoJ luolaJJrp .,{Fee1c s{ooq pnpwpu! Jo requnu p uaeq spq llnser eqlJr ua^g


'sralard;atul {oog {Jelg s,r{epo1 ualqord e osle q slql '^\arqeH pue urle1 pu {ear9 ul uol

-adsa seq

-lIJl,\ aJeA\ suolleluecul u8raro; eql uaqfi\ srualqord pasnel d1p1c 'sardoc Surleru ur sertlnJIJJIp pue sJoJJe Burlrrrvr o1


'uorlrpprl leqre^ pue lprol qlr^4 1uaql pesl^Or z(pq311s pup -urdo lurol Jo rulpoJ eql uqlll{ lueJlnt uolluau ol lou ,lnJasn lsou 0q1 0q ot paueas leqt suoltptuerur 1no pa1cld f1aa.r; uosrad leqt '{ooq aioq /\ e aqdeur .ro 'leranas Jo 'uolleluef,ur ue Jo ploq 1o3 uos -rad e uor{r!\ ter{t pauaddeq tt 'pro1r,t uanlrd\ eqt qtp{ lalered panrl 8qilrl e1el qtnou-Jo-pro /\ uerld\ porrad e u1 papuplro s{ooq aql Jo lsolu lpql sr seJuaJeJJIp elqpJaprsuo, eql JoJ uoseeJ roleur aug 'lualuol Olues eql a^pq leql punoJ aJe $looq orvr1.,{1ac;ecs pup 'uanlJd\pueq aJp s{ooq eql .esel aql lou q slqt tng 'rer{toue e{ll sr alduexe euo teqt pue slualuoc rgnads ,,fian qtyvr {ooq p lnoqp 3urr1p1 aJe ell\ leql aleleq r{ueur ,alqlg aql sp z(e,l eures oql q 'etueu rado.rd e spq eql osnetog {ooq 'rolplv\ r{tpq eql qll^{ tno ud\orql se,r' ^{qeq aql 'qilru e spll\ Jlasll {ooq aql lprp d\ol^ aql q peel dpsea plnol ;eneur pafqns p q)ns e^pq plnot {ooq ou 1eq1 uorurdo leraue8 aql pup 'selnuJoJ cl8eur w pale11aq ra8uol ou aldoed asnplaq aq plnot srql .aluetsrye ,s{ooq eql porqnop ro peruap teqt aldoed .rap1o dueu are/!\ aroql qlno,,{,(ur u1
trtouoil ul QyFnU uro,{ qoog )t)vlg r(D

pal e^pq sa8en8uel u8garo; pup spro/yr uallp tnoqp a8palmou4 3o {rpl e pue dqderSoquo.roo4 '.raqdrrop ot llnrrrnp uaeq o^eq tpql ${ooq lno-uJo1v\ pue Supr.rmpueq dddols aq upl uoseeJ .reqlouv ,uol



Bleck Books ofluerum

andlelaya have the most in common with the books from Rustad. However, there are only a few parallels with the other Black Books from the district. Ttaditions with magic books are known from as far back as Babylon and Egzpt. The Black Books' roots possibly come from Erypt, where in the first hundred years after the birth of christ a number of books were written that represented mixed compilations of Egrptian and Greek philologz, religion, and mythologr'
together with the Jewish cabala. and Christian superstition' The tradition was further passed down by the scholars of the Middle Ages, who in the name of religion and philosophy were absorbed in classical magic. The study of the secret knowledge culminated in the 1500s and 1600s, the same titne as the witch burnings. The Germans were industrious authors of magic literature, and many of the myths that surround the Black Book are built up around the theological faculry of the LJniversity of Wittenberg. Both magic books and the witch burnings found their way into Norway, where foreign and local traditions were blended
together. The book that has left the most impression on the Norwegian Black Book tradition is recognized as Danish. It is probably from

1608 and was written by a Lutheran minister and spread both in Denmark and Norway by the clergz' It was dedicated to the famous magician Cyprianus, who around the year 500 was the Bishop of

Antioch and a Roman Catholic martyr and saint' Other: known names that are associated with the book are Albertus Magnus, Paracelsus, Agrippa of Nettesheim, the German Dr. Faust, and
.The cabala is a system used by the Jews of the late Middle Ages in an endeavor to interpret and illuminate the Talmud. They were particularly interested in magical words and the numerical values of letters of the alphabet.

'sraqlo Sqdlaq r(q 8urar1e

opeu tfprcd;o


oqm 'aldood osuvr o1r(8.ra1c aqt ruo4 'snl

-Pls lellos luereJJlp ,{1epuw;o aldoed ,(q pesn a.rall.



ur uorlplnlrrJ ur eJaft\ s{ooq peJpunq etuos 'sOOg1 aqt;o Suru parunssp sl 1I 'uortelm;ro ra3;e1 p peq rl o11rl 4 p

-ufeq eqite'leql

raup lng 'aurl leql tp sapuqp Surpea.r Jo {Jel aql Jo asnecaq ,(po JI '^{oJ ,{q pasn servr s8uruul8aq dFea s11 ur '{oog {relg eql
'anylcadsrad ra8rel e ur


petsnu ruor; s{ooq ollr1 oseqt orarllv\ tnoqp eroru lno pulJ uels InJesn p eJp slulelt aeJql eseqJ
oq/v\ esoql JoJ

'sppleq uraquou luer]up Oql ul pszlu

-8ocar eq um slql 'seun Jlloqlpf, ruo4 eJp ,{aqt ued tsoru aql JoJ lnq 'uopuauleaq uorJ 3JP se3Jnos Jreql lpql plo os seullotuos eJp Ioog slJV rpelg ruerrd,.(3 oql ul punoJ aJe lpql suolteluetul oseql

:leql Jeqruerueu

'luaruqcred uo uelllJr\{ 'lsaqJ elqJpur elqlv\ p u1 1691 rcat aql uI allseJ ua8equedo3 le punoJ raupeJeqt pue 6z9l rear{8requa1 'Iooq {tplg Iprute arD Jo ,{doc y


Jo zfirsranrun eql lp uenrr^\


7gg1 rcatpuq8ug ul/proJxg tuo{ IIaS sauueqofidoqsrg,{q uo1lpl!\ lpqtlsnueudfyar4go z{reununs le Jo/sue {Jplg Jo loog eln{ V

:epeu aJe slulelt aaJrll'pPl -snu uo4 s{ooq aql Jo ouo uI 'alqellor ,(pressacau 8ulaq lnoqlrA\ sut8r.ro rraql lnoqe suorleJrpur allF s{oog {telg aqt Jo eruos

s{oog qlue^es

pup qxls eqt tuo4 uo{e1 er suorletuerul tFeur eql Jo suorlrod e8rc1rctp urelurcru osle ilrlllr{uew 'wnlJowug pailet {ooq uorlet -ueJul uP Jo sroqlnp eql aq 01 po^arlaq oJe ,{aq1 'snolrouog ado4

Avouoll ul QqsnU


qoog )pqg aCI



Bhck Books of luerum

Sickness flourished in the paths of undernourishment, unclean-

liness, and unscientific reasoning. Skilled medical help was not to be found. Concerning medical questions, people therefore had to choose between the usual folk remedies that most people knew themselves or take the advice that could be gotten from someone who knew more than just the Lord's Prayer. The following pages contain the complete incantations of the Black Books from Rustad. The contents vary from well meant and innocent folk remedies to the blackest devil conjuring. The contents of the two books, like many other Black Books, is a fine blending of Norwegian and foreign folklore. One book is especially extensive and rich in contents. The most extraordinary feature about these books is the almost total lack of advice concerning sicknesses caused by evil spirits, although Norwegian folklore is usually full of it. The explanation could bethatthe author lived at a time when the belief that sickness was caused by spirits was beginning to lose its hold. Belief in the other evil powers was clearly enough. You are invited on an exciting walk through our forefathers' ways of thinking and living around two hundred years ago, in a domain that very little is written about in the history books.



-ard paranorsrp uaaq a^pq 1pql s{oog {Jplg eql ul lpqrvrauos saIJeA elep slql+

-uoq relq


'qJJnqf, JIIoqIPJ ueuou aql uI lulPs pue r,$reur e ff psJo pup doqslq e aupraq snuepdr{3 ,91ue11suq3 o1 Suprarruoc pue

ssoJl eqt go uF'1s aqt Surrleru ,{q prap aq1 pu suouap go sramod oql uo{ JIas -ulq ea{ 01 alq s^r eH :adtqsron ilAOp pue JaJaJros P se/vl snuelJd.,(f, 'rfiruual qunoJ er{l ur farlrql ul pa^ll oq { 'qlopuv 3o snueud,{3 snouals,{ur aql 'sloog Irplg eql go roleufpo pa8alp aqt qlla sleap qllqd\ 'uoudtS lutog paqxlqnd eH'Lggl ul araql doqslq p aIupJOq eH 'pJoJXO ur a8e11o3 qrrnql $lJqf, lP rel -spulppoq ralul pue II salrpqJ roJ rolprnr arepd aql se t IIaJ '(sest-gzsi) flas uqof'ueur.{3relJ pup 'raqqlqnd ']oqtnu qsg8ug aqt,(1enpe se/n [aS doqstg.-

'$looq il-{3Plq roJ eluPu uoluluoJ v*

+zggl ree( puPFug ul

pJoJxo ruorJ ..llos sauuPqo[ doqqg r(q uailrrm sed\ leql

.snuPIJdfJ eql Jo rfieururns

suv {relg





oql uorJ spplleg :speleg uraqtJoN.

'uorlp8or8uot oql ot uorures slq Sulre^ilep lldlnd eql ur sr Jelsruur aql uaqr\ eJIAres rlJrnql aql Suunp depun5 e uo IPIurue aql JeAo uraql peards pue saqse tuJel!\ a)lel plnoqs nof 'slulturen Joqlo Jo errl qlrfi\ polseJur sr FruruP Jllseuop P uor.I/v\ "'alqrsuas aJe nodJI :ollow


,;;f;'5;,;j'ffixTl:n'fi ,11""T, ffi;

:lerll Jaquaueu

-uaqlPeq ruo{ sr af,rnos Jreql lPql plo os sorulleluos eJp {ooq suv {relg luelrdfJ aql ul punoJ ere lpql suolleluetur eseql

'pelJ"ls uollruJoJeU erll eJeqfi\ sI 'furuJet 'StaqualllA Jo dllsranlun eq1-

,,'r{ervr a1q

-rssod rfiazra ul onJl pue ulelJet aq q sHI 'poolq ul!\o fu t{llfi\ pue pueq u^\o flu qll^/\ u8ls 1 uodna;aql puv 'u4q Jo pueuluoJ Jo 'JOpJo '{se I leql\ saop oq;l dlprala [e ]oJ ynos pue ,(poq rllllvr urlq ot eru saJnsq qq1 'a8pa1d e pue aluernsul se poolq umo,{ur a43 pm l e8ueqcxa u1'uUJo {se I leqlv\ op pue etu e^ras lleqs eq pue 'olnr slq q ree^\s I puv 'ssdqe {rep aql Jo JelnJ 'JeJlrnl ol JPaA4,s ,(1a1a1dUroc l puu dep slql laue nor{ altas ro drqsrom leleu lilr\4.I 'otu passelq seq lpql tplds ,{1og aql 'no'{ af,unoueJ 'ew eplu seq leql JarlleJ eql poc 'no.( acunouel L, I :sl{l2{es aslr nor{ uoqA\ Sululoru eql ul plnoqs no,{'1ag ruo{ sleFue eqf aseelal 01luP1v\ no^( uaqfil

'lueurqc.red uo uaupm pue '1saqc elqreu ellq^{ e q 169I rea.{ aql ul allsef, ua8eq -uado3 le punoJ teqeeJeql pue' 6Z9I reaz{ .'8;aquepllA uI ,(trsranrun eqlle ueilrJrv\ '{ooq silV {relg lenpe oql Jo ,{doc y

"'stueruolo aqt [e qtl^ Suole 'tlrlds,{1og aqt pue 'uog JeI{lpJ eqr pot qlm'slt.ttds IIAa 'noz( uodn IIPJ pu qlaaseq 1 '[aureu] ruorJ uelols spq aq Suqiltana paurntoJ seq eq eJoJaq quPe slql uo lsoJ e^eq Ja^eu lul14 aq leql 'tulq uo asJnf, snqr '8uplrp rou Surpp '3u1pue1s .rou 8ur41ervr slqt ^{orqlI '3up{1rou 8urills '3u11em rou Surdaals raqttau '1ser ro fiqltnb -uprl uosJad s1qr Arofie lou op nor{ ter{t 'slllap 'nor{ arnfuoc 1 'ule8e aJuo '[aureu] ruo4 ualols seq oql uosJed reqt dots nor{

lPql 'r{lJPa uo pue uo^eaq ul 'sIAOp 'noz{ arnfuoc faureu] I 'lleH ut se IIaA\ sp qilee uo s;arvrod alq lpql 'slllap 'nor( ro; IIPf, L, uelols ffq eq qrIII '\ eql dn arn[uoc og.

leql urntar ol Jalqt e erroJ ol stglds




erueu s,llloo aql q uaddeq fleqs a{euapun no,{ leqt Sult{t -.&ang 'eueu s,llleo aqt u1 lno oB pue 'JIeLI rnor{ quror 'qseil\ ise,1'arueu s,llleo aql ul passerp la8 'aruBu s,lllao oql ul aslJ pue aseeloJ IIIIV\ nor( dep aql plnoqs nor( 'raycnl J' /ue ^\olloJ
TO aJP \e 0g

't,(eW uo palPJqelal ueaq asuls spq ssoJl aql Jo sselu aqtr 'aulluelsuo:) Joradug er{lJo reqiou ,eualeH ssatdug 3rD .{q,,{rnluar qilnoJ aqt q paralmsrpeJ sp.ry\ ssorc ,(1oq aqt ,pua8el o1 Bulproccy_

"'auop e^eq not :eqe.(1a1e1paurur1'rerlerds,pJo'I eql ellJal uaql .leoJ Jnof JOJ OUO pue 'lseolq lno^,{ loJ euo ,peaq Jnof JoJ euo :JIasJno,,{ uo selull aetql ssoJs aqr Jo uSrs aql uJoJJed nof sp spJpr!\{teq sdols ooJql oB 'slurds ilAa aql dn parnfuot lsJrJ aneq nor( uer{M

Ine aql lorluoJ ol1!\oH

'u31s e nor(


ere pup

pueluluoJ rnor{ lno palJJpJ aneq s11-uds IrAO aqllpql aSPssaur P se slql a{e} 'plog uado ue uo lno are no.,{ ueq1/\ Jre aql ur I toq pue alquru o1 sur8aq 1l aJarlfi\ eJupqJnlsrp e eJrlou nor(;t

x oJeu
x leeJtlo x 3rua6 x qnqeslag x x x


Iellag laqcef

x ueueroN x rproJ x unapolusv

are deql pue 'llaH ul emteqt sl^op lsro^\ aql ruor; dlaq r{tt6 .[arueu] uror; ualols seq eq Surql,ftana qll^{ {teq uosrad sqt peal nor{ teqt 'llaH ul sl^op aqlilp 'noz{ uodn IIpr I .uos req roJ [asroq e rol] llq pue u^4,oJf, p apsu peq aqs ,ssoJJ aql ruo4lleu pup ssoJf, slql tuo4 pue *'eualag ssardurg eql r{q ule8e punoJ servr r{trq,ll

lPql 'pel?u sp^/\ Jnor^es eql qtrql\ uo Jo ulplunou eql uo pools leql ssort,{1oq no1 iqo .nor( dlaq pqs uotuolos pue qocef pup 'rpesl 'rupqe]qv .spoo8 uolols aql ouroq suJnloJ eq eJoJaq lsar ,{ue eAIeJeJ Jalql leql lol la^eu nor( leqt...


'aulslpau u JrFeru luarpalSur p sp pesn eq plnoJ peeq p eprsul sauols eql lpql 1q3noq1 sp.r s,l!ro[u.r\s ]I.. 'raqln'I ulupw dq uallurvr servr uru,{q sq1.


u \o Jno^,{Jo ITUOOdS e pue '{Fu FeeJq s,uetuo^{ pJo Iryuoods e 'pe^Im ,(puacar seq lql e uro{ {nu Jo Iryuoods e a{q[ ^\or
EPruIup s.reqlou perlrllAeq seq oqm 8u1aas Jo
'daa1s touueo



ll q

sell ro^a

-oq { lql os paq e ur tr t\oJrll pue A{ollelrrs

tuo4 a.{a aqt ar1el

sseussaldaels esnJ


'nor{ qtpn sluerpar8ur esaql tfirct pue.{rnrrelu Jo quolr/r s8urgqs o^4l pue ptetfatvt? e
ruoJJ ql.rpe

a{% 'ppeq sll uI Ouols e sr oJeql ...^4.ollp1!\s e e{q[

(3uo4s) prpq Jlasrnou( arleur

*"'po9 Jno sl ssorlJoJ rfiqSlu y,, :urudq qql Fuls toUV

,l.ualuv '{rlds i{1og aql pue ,uos leqleg erllJo orueu oqt q .ruo{ aurec no'( ereld erues eql q uJnlal 01 SJO^{OIIoJ rnor{ 1e qlrrvr leJIJn-I 'no'{ uodn 1ec 1 'uodn puels 1leLqeceld qqt ssalq IIII!\ aq leql po0 01r(erd aro;aroq1 1 'r{e6 prvr srnor{ puu nor( eJeq l pre au^top tues aq eroJeJaql gm no^( ,pnba srq
ss^{qe eql

eq ot p01up1v\ pup pog lsureSe Ieqor plp sraqlorq rnor{ pue no,{ osnereg 'urc8e areqt {Jeq pel eq pqs r{aqt teqt pueruruor arueu s,usles q IIaH ruo4 sll ap asaqt pospeleJ spq elueu osoq.rv\ L, :8ulmoiloJ aql fes'sHt"'


.sr{em1e ,nor(

qlpr srqt


:spJofi\ Surrvroyo; aqt

,,'snuarop c J splseupH ouod,, lenuelug reded;o acord ? uo elrJ^\

peqrllaeq 8ulaq lsule8e uolpelord

'Aeilre ue{el ale qloot pue ar(a aql Ipun daals uaqt IIr^r esnoq teql q aldoad aq; qlool s,uetu peap p pup 'Joop JolJpd aql rano ulaqt Sueq pue slPolJ leql euo eql e{ql 'Jelell/\ ur uoql u{e1 pue

'{uls IIr^\ raqlo aql lnq 'leolJ IIr^{ euo I/!\o up Jo ppeq aql luoJJ sa,,{a eq1 aqql

daals 11qs asnoq e u1 auofrela


'srnor{ rno;-,(luarq ro3 daals ueql IIr^{ aH qullp 01 rooq Jo sselF e u1 'daa1s ot qsr^\ nod uos;ed eql q t1 a43 uaql .raprvrod p 01 ulseJ eql qsnJJ pue ,fip 'aa.Il auld e tuo{ ursoJ eql e{ql sJnoq rno;-u$uerrrl daals ol euoaruos JoJ qsl4t noz(


'e^eel ol ulq luem nor{ uar{M 1no z(ervr aql :rurq ot tl o^l3 tou op lng '{uFp ol Surqlauros ulrl ^,{1uo ^4,oqs Jo pooJ &1es raqlra JoJ {sp pup qill^d. e Jo Jete)tos e ouoJ III/V\ erarll rnorl euo raUV 'elqul er{t uo sse13 aqt eceld pue roped

eql olul {lel!\ ueql ,,'plJolv\ slq q qnqasleg JeAo salnJ oq r ^.ou og, :serull oeJr{l slql des 'arn1xltu eql Sunaular JeUV
eq ueql
,,'PFng elserq el?soH,,

:uaop Sullrs a;e nod alq a 'serull aeJrll spJolr,l asoql z{es uaql 'lqSrurano deaq arnueu e q u^\op ll rfinq pue sse13 p ur arnlxllu eql1n4 :aqla8ot ueql puolg...


'pepetord oq ot Sop orll roJ rapro ul Sop eqt ol lseJ punoq aq lsnru spJo1r4, aues oql :Jequouer lng 'lsJU 8op e uo lr r{.rl '8ur -{ro^{ slql lnoqe slqnop aneq nor{;I 'no.{ qlvrt Surlrrvr qql da4l

sule IauV,, :SpJo^/vt Fuprollo; aql JOdPd;o

acald e uo aIIJA\

;oord1a11nq aq


Suop as;nd tnor{ ur

'nor{ anlacap 01 alqe eq ruAl auo oN ,(auour rnor( qllm tnd pue (p.r1fl tlmaad p Jo peer{ eql qI

Sulperl ueq r ulllr oI

'uaql nod M 'lteq ro ilee\ eql raqlla [,xe)

uec 8op oN 'nor{ qtl^/\ JIol!\ e go ada ar{t

not fe {req t.uo1n sFop rcqt os

'nor( qlrll' spJolv\ esaql ftrcX

,,'snuPalseJ lotuPlqoJ PIodL

uaour ta uapn rwn) IpJIIp Ieuo eqerv,, :raded go arard e uo spJon,\ eseql atlJ A
s1v\oJJe ruory


'p0ls4lla.r\ ueeq sPq lerll ernl -4tu e q s1ql 'un8 aqt ur ;apmodun8 Jo puelq srql esn .;apmod tl puelq pue 'rop^4,od ot ll qsnrt 'auoq upunq p e{q[


ueqa sslru l.uolv\ nof og

noz{ qlvr,r, sderrle qqt rfiref, '":JJJ serle :J :n :q :q e1eile pge,{J olp-I gg,, :oded 3o ecold e uo spro^\ asaql ellr6 re.&r

q parnlder 3u1aq lsule8e uolpelord

'a{pus p


ua^rF aruPu{rp plo up

q uuerulaSully uol.-

lloqteJ uorJ uallel

'uollstupJul aqt Fullep ol alnqlruol dlaq ueo qrrqrr,r'f8rnlq oq 01 suees ..tlJIdS r(1og pue 'uos :oqlpJ,, pauolsrp srql*

,,(lalegparuul tno tnd oq IIIr\{ ezelqeq1. ,gluUl


eql q sHl oO 'oru oI{1 rano s33e lelJads oseql Jo eerql morl{I '1or ro^eu z(epsrnql,{puney11p uo plel eletetp,ua{rlql p uorJ s33a aq;

eql Jo erueu

llueplJlp ue Jo erusu


lno lnd oI

pPOp e

'sotull eoJr.Il JOdeJd s,ptoT eql elltou ,,'r{qu1tr1 dlog aql Jo erueu oql q , ,{puelsur papeq aq leqs no,{ pue dn puets, 'pps snsa['ueu ppap aqt palldar ,'oru paqqels seq **uueru1a8u1ry uo[, 'pps snsa[ ,ino,l. peru{ seq leq6, 'uetu lau r{aqt arar{I 'peore u^\op pe{lP1r,\ ralad 'ls pue snsa[,,



ruor; uoslod aql ua{ee,r.


'8up;oru r(epsrnq; e uo elner aqt ot pelps s1qt o^l9 'sacard [plus olul lueql qsnr] 'rPeq pue JIo^4 3 Jo souoq aql a{q[ enleJ ilnq louuf, sJsaq pue saalollr leql os

'not N aJIJ louueJ sun8 'fem sqt se[ pos aql se 3uo1 sV 'u^/rop aprs uaar8 aqt Aelpup 1r urr[ toog tq8p rno,( rapun pos eql dn lnd 'a;gun8 reaq nor{ ueq6
slafinq pIoA

'qsluP^ ilrl!\ epPru r(lasrrvrun an,noz{

sospuord palupl\4,un asoql

uaql 'nor( qlrrr.raded qqt rfireJ

*,,'alf,ups 'snltrds 'snl1g 'slrd 'xeurn 'xpqd 'xe141,, :spJolr esaqt Sop r1ce1q p Jo poolq oql qll^\.raded 3o acard p uo ellr A apetu

flaqmun an,nor( saqruord ruor; JlasJnof aar; o;


'sIIri{J aql qll^A ue8aq 1ql sossou{3rs re^al IIp 01 ue^r8 olupu splr{ le^eJ-plol ro llof,.

snJod snxe ISeN

'la{Jod oprs rnod ur sfppuns eerql qJrnqr


nof qtl^r tl e{e1 pup

elSee up Jo an8uol eqt


s8ulpaacord 1e1r1pn[ u1 upr o1

,,'snJod snxe IsN, tale spJoa aql 'ur^\ ueql ruA{ no 'pueq;nor( u1 spJPl


e{el 'poolq ulro ;nor{ qlF{ pupq;nor{ uo spJoM

esaql ollJ

sarueF eJIp pue pmJ le ulllr oJ. 'auo8 eq ill^{ ra^al ar{t 'srqt Burop reUV



'x eloJ 'x ueloJ 'x atueloJ 'x raruelo3 'x lJeruploJ 'x slJetuelo3 'x 3 sl rlJlq 'acald lspl aql ^ urnq fep qlulu eql uo pue .,{ep qcea arard e,(1ec1g1cads 's,(ep luaned eql q 11 a43 pup peerq go acard e uo slql etlr {

-(e11or) raleJ erno




01 pel eql sp erues aqt sqFlam leql auols e qll^r tsrlJ f{t :aloN ,,'ueleN 'uPauPlug 'ule3ouy,, :eJe sptolv\ eql 'oJIJ aql uo ppel aq1 pup ppol;o acerd e uo sprolta Surmolo; aql ellJM ^\orr{t

ur glas;noz( pu1; feur nof 'arg oql uo peel aql ^rr';tir'lr?J nor{;r esneJeq 'arrJ oql uo 11 1v\oJql 01 olqp a;e nor( Jr eos

etJe lno lnd ol tleueqtouv


'qsu Jo sepltupnb a8rel dlrelnrrlred are.ry\ aJeqt eiaq.,rr ruonoq elqnop p qll^/\ puod e peq Japlnq e teql rq8noqt e1d -oad 'llPl P pPq aqs lnq 'lnJllneoq ,fian sem aq5 ,{4e3 poIJI^\ P se,/!t raplnq v*

'Je,,(eJd s,pJo'I oID fes uoql ,,'ltllul.l1 flog aqt Jo eueu aql uI ,'[a^{ safo raq op?u nof lreqtou poo8 Jnod sP ilaft\ se sefa r{ru arleyg, :pIPs uelu eql 'uelu

pu[q e laur r(aqt aJaql 'peoJ e ufi\op po{lP^/\ relad ls pue


uollJeJul afa ue laq 'selllluenb lpql reuv 'ralel!\ eql

qslJ qtlPr



punore p.redone.rS P ruo4 rrlp aql apupdS

.puod s.replnq


uI qsu


,,'uatuv eue8os {oJpeH uorlpJglilow pue uoll -ys8eg rlceq elsn8nv Jo orueu eqt uI 'oSeluenpe oql e^eq ileqs I pue a8quenpesrp oqt a^pq ileqs no1'qlnoru pue spueq rno.,{ pulq Wqs sureqr s,reJlrn1 'rleeds rcqs I 'tue1s eq fieqs no1

s,llleq eql pue

'orr,rl.rnoz( 'odq




qlrrvr no.,( ees [,,

glas.rnod 01 spJoll osaql r{es 'druaua ;nod le ,{lsnoalq8yr 3uyr1oo1 e11tl A 'prp^\ur tueq qunql rnor{ qtpu pueq ploq 'unof, orll oroJeq puels nod uaq44
1q31r.rno,{ ur 8er eql

,,'lqoePlsv aluoN,, :fes pue 'setult aeJr{t 1l uo tlds '8er gerus e qlF/\ roop s,.{rueuo rnof, ot oF 'sasp uns eqt eJoJaq '8uluoru aql ul SuHr lsrg eql



'dsdapda sl sseu{rls 3u11eg.. 'eJeq


0q lou


,,lou,, pro,ry\


'r(ervr r{rane ut nod elol JaLI e{plu III^4, '143 e ss!{ nof ueq/v\ qlnou rnof q ouots poJ eq1 Suyreq dq puV 's1soq8,{q patuneq Suraq ruo4 pales are no,( pue euo poJ eql 1.J.rcx **'ssou{Jls 8uryeJ oql lo uPIuol\ , r{ue r(q panrerep 3u1aq .lou luor; aer; oq Jeleu pm nor{ pue {oPIq eql d;.rec lsmoJJos eleq JOAau g,nor{ pue nod qllll\ auots ellgd\ aql fl.rc1'por p4qr oql pue '{lelq reqlo er1t 'elII!\{ $ auo 'urv\op

auo8 seq uns eqt rage 1q31u ^,{epsrnql e uo pepelloJ aq ppotls


aql 'lsau sll w sauols ealql seq /!\olle^4,s e leql ples sl lI

seuols /rroilefi\s ulor; cl8eul aqg

'ro^pJ rnor{ u1 oB prt


aLII 'an8uol rnor{ rapun an8uol

s,.ry\ollel\s e areld 's8ulpeecord p1c1pn[8ulpua11e are nor( uotllA

ilnoJ uI uyvl oI

pm ra8ue


'tul{ ol rleads pue an8uol rnor( Japun

an8uol s,pJlq aqt aceld uoql 'ileaq s,rv\o[e,r\s aql r(eldsrp 'nor{ le At8ue sl euoeuos uoq \ 'ilaq s,A/lolle,l\s aqt r(e1dqp uaql 'an8uol rno,( rapun r1 eceld pup .olprr\s erll Jo an8uol oqt a{el ^ e uorJ ueoq aqt a{q[ uaqtr '{rlts p uo 1l reads pue


raFue rulpJ



'derr,uo61 pesn.{paruro; ur ulor raddoc y.. e sr Bugprls 'rnos .,(psee plnot pup panrasard dpeq se.t{ raeq palsea,{-Je^o eql s.,(ep pyo u1_


Jeue JoJ {Jpl Je^eu III/1. no1\ ,,.xlleo sseppoS eql '{ouour noz{ 'nof oAIS I g!3 s1q1,, :.,{es pue qlJou eql pJe4{ol ..3ur1r1s lsnru nof '(depunS lso]alued pue .Jelspg ,seulsrJqJ
P 1[OJql

.ure8e eloql 'sI Suruaaa,(ep1oq lpql) ^(razra oJoJaq JoUpeJeH .JepuoM Jo lno 1l e{el Je^eu pue asrnd rnor{ u1 uroJ eql etpld e ees [r/\4 no,( pue ure8p osJnd oql elalJleg .s8uruala,,(epsrnql


aarql aroql aI ll lal pue ale.r8 e uo esrnd eql fl r(1taDa5 'esrnd eql lsurp8e peqqnr eq tsnu raueeJarlt la8 nof uro3 aql 'apq aql uro;; asrnd e e{ew .lerres w tm {tplq e ul{S
z(auoru qrlllr


Suyreq pue Suplaf,erJo IIHS aq;.

s1q ul pa;nod sl oJnlx1u loeq rnos eql Ulun ro s.,(ep aulu ;og daals uoqt ru^{ uos;ad leql 'peoq s,uosrod aql rapun Bunl s,eJeq aqr de'I .'Jaaq Jnos pup Ioqotlp rlll,l\ Jeqlo8oi tl elles pue 'll qsnrr 'polrp uoeq seq lP-rlt erer4e woJJ la^rl eql o{ql

sfep aulu ro; daals o1

'sJnoq euru JoJ alqrsr^ur
aq g,nor{ 'slqt Fur{urJp pup 8ur1ea JOUV .{Uu tea^\s uI lr {oof, 'ler {relq e ;o a,(a oql o{e1 ueqJ 'poolq s,lpq qtrnr;1asrno.,{ reerus 'loqcod rnor{ ur uaqt tnd pue leq e go sor{a aql lno o{od

elqlsnul ;lasrnoz( e{eu oI


.uorlPluElul srql
8ur1ep ol alnqlJtuol

upl pue salrlJas r{JJnqJ trloqlpf, uor;,{1sno4qo sr srqJ.


z{epstnq; e uo 00:6lp ernxlru slqt qryvl.(1a1a1druoc ssel8 eill reeus pue JorJnu e a{e1 uoql .sluo1par8u1 eseql Jo lno q8nop e a{ew 'pllqr Koqe pere^rlop seq oq^\ ueruo^\ p ruo4

{Iru lseeJq pue .'Jalpd\ z{Ioq 'rue;ofreu ;o selpup] Jalspg pue esuof,ur ar1e1 'noz{ uoq uelols seq oqd\ A4ou{ 01 luel\A nor( 3t
Jelqr P lno tulod


:a.,(er4 s,plo'I oql.(ps uaql ,,.,,fi1ugt r{loH oql Jo arupu oql uI 'pog Jo erupu passelq pue z{1oq eql q ,pueq,{ul qrpr spooS asaqt e{el.ry\ou I 'po9 Jo etueu pessolq pue dloq oqt ul spoo8 eseql e{el ol a8e;noc r{ur uaqfueJls I 'uos s,r(reyq pue s,poc sr orl^\ lsnse[ '1oo;,(ru druets I ,slql3u1,{es JaUV .spueq upunq olul euoJ spoo8 aseql lo1 rnor{ ile qllra aJeq uor; '{ueduroc pt4'lellag'sne{eJg,snuelDFJO,saqnuy,seuuleg


no t(.

'lqoJplsv 'qnqeslag Ia;rcn1 :eJp oqnr 'sacupd lqfira s,1ag 'nor{ goqxe pue leduroc I .pog Jo pJolv\ oql qlllr{ "ronod aql a^pq I isal'lrrrdg dlog aqt pup ,uos JeqlpC eql :seueu earql a^pq teqt spueq eerqt qtl^{ ueqt turelt 1 ,a1doad,{q uapprq are lqt pue peleaJuol eloq orl teqt spoo8 eseqJ iarupu ,snsof u1,,
spoo8 uapplq palord





"'qtnos eqt ro qlrou eql fq 'sauoq qsrJ ro p4q 3u1sn 'saqclm fq peuro;rad uaeq seq Surqclr^\eq JaAaJaq^/\ ol turod I 'ra8 -ulJ s,lsrJqS snsa[ qlrlr/\ pue t{31ur pue rarvrod s,po9 qlr^t spJol\ 0s0q1 peoJ I 'ruopuelsrJqf, IIe rano z{ep .'N'N'o sl qJlql\ z(epo1,, :Suluala ,(epsrnql
e uo uolleluelq slql uJoJJad 'peqJlllv\aq uaeq sPq oq^{ lo '1sef, I^e uoql\ uodn uos.rad e o1 uanr8 eq ol sr ol sUI uaaq spq

relelll8u1uuru pup llps relo peeJ eq ol lads

ure8e {Jeq euoJ IIrl!\Jelql


eoJrlt spJo.{A asaqt

'lq8nec eq uet pue allJ6

v-nv_-rnv -eJnv-le







aql qrlqM asnoq eqt Jo roop aql re^o splolv\


'pa18rnq seq Jolql aql ollrl^

Jelql e uo gads e lnd oI

'punoJ aq uel aq Olaq { pue auPu sJelql eql pulJ uoqr ru^/\ noz( pue urc8e lorr[u eqt q o3 uaq; 'slq8ru eeJql JoJ ruooJ {rep e ul JolJItu eql epq 'euop slqJ
'reads e qlll/r



pocrald e;am


ile0q pue aprs s,lslrqJ snsa{

:slt oqs arn8rJ 3urmo1103 eql s 'l! punote spro^\ aseql ellrlK pue rorrltrr eql Jo OlppIIu aql q ileaq p ^\pJo



[^e eq1 ,{q toqs s^roJJp 01 anp araa suolpaJur cmraprda tq8noqt a1doa4.('c1e 'sqearq 'surcrds) saunfur auoq pue tulo[go spul{ 11u sueeu araq ,,'fin[u1,,-

qslJ ? sP role^A aql Jo lno dn eluPr lPql 3u1oq olqrrr4 P lau ,{aqt e.raq; 'JaArJ aIIl Suole ul/rop pue dn pe{lefi\ 'soldllslp raqto 'ls pue ralad 'ls pue snsef pro'I rno, eql qrld\ Suop ^\erpuv

..suollJeJul Jlruaplda auJoqJIP JoJ

'pue eql ol Jafpld s,pro'I aql allJeJ uaq;

,,'filuul eql


Jo alueu eql ul pauroJred 8ulaq qq1 'u1e3u tulof lelu 1u1o[pue 'ulp8 leru seuoq looJ pue 3a1aq1 ,{rn[u1 ue pepeq pu u1v\op tlaurl pue sluds I^o aqt fq parlpm snsof 'sturds {rep II^a eql qled aql uo 3u11qerr aJeql 'a8puq daals e lalo apoJ snsa[,,

.r{rn[u1ue I"eq


'saull aarql rar{e;d s,pJo'I oql ueql ,,'uotuv 'Jelelv\ 8u1uuru aqt JoJ lles se sprol\ asaql o1;1es.rnor( l1uoJ [eqs no1 {ttut.tt oqt Jo erueu oql ul l{31ru pue ;amod 1saq31q aqlq1l4/\ slqt des 1 'uos;ad,'{ue ol uJeq eJoru op Je^eu Ipqs no 'slooJ s,ileeq pasJnl ;nod pue laeJ pue spupq rnor( 'an8uol pue ilpeq rno,{ 's8unl pup re^ll.lnor{ r(epol ploq I '3u41tp .ro 3u1p1r '3u{1ro Surnrs '{ulJp ur Jo pooJ ul 'eplslno.ro ur 'luoplcce r{q ;o esodrnd uo 'algrds ralel\ Jo ulu1unoru ^,{q ro gos ,,{q 'pul1!\"'

'euo Ina eql-epe'I-

''JO SISTSUOf, 'pesn UaUO Sr qrrql\A

'{3lrl SIqI

sleulue Jo
sprlq pl1,t\ tp fleletntte 3u11ooqs alqnort Fu4eq are noz(gI

>? ,,'ratleJduolDalo.rd,, e pelpr q slqJ rer{er4 s,pJo'I eql seull eeJql ueql puv ,,'r{lluul aql Jo otuPu eql uI ,'laal pesJnc rno,( uI pup ileeq rnor(go sloo.r rfian aql
leqs no,{, 'ples snse{ ,'oN, ,'uoltereue8 qlqu eql q alDeJ pue sesJoq 'daaqs pue sleo8 'aldoad a.rn[u1 pue rutpJ e o1 3ulo8 ru,1, 'pe{se snsaf ,iSuro8 nor( are aJaqlA, .'apaT 'q]llr!,r. aqt tau daql erer.{I 'e8ppq opLv\ p.ro^o pa{lprvr rfiew up.r6 eqt pup snse[,,
seqJ4/v\ tsule8e ur lsrnq [eqs


'{oo]q slql

JaAo '8eq elqtrroq no,'( ,{erre oB

uollrelord ro; raz(erd y

'selurl aarql rar{erd s,pJoT ellJOJ ueqJ. lsalear8 aql


,,'eorql aql Jo elueu aql uI ,'sl eJaql {ldap pue 'ure8e JeArJ eql ur ulv\op 'lno nor{ lal alpq

oq^/\ ueql ol {Jeq uJu IIPqs no , 'pps snsaf ,'1ou leqs nor( ioN, ,'{ulJp ol poolq pue 'lPe ollPatu '{eaJq 01 seuoq eJeI{I 'daaqs pue 's1eo8 'aul&\s 'sas:oq tuJpq ol uJeJ leuruu] of oB Ilpqs L :paJal{sue 1p1ds ilAa oql ,io8 nor{ [eqs oJeq6, :po{se pup uer oql r{q rl paqqe;8 snse[ 'dn uaqt 01perJl"' ^\o[P1v\s


'uollarsas Jleql puE re^eaq aql uorJ


lPeulJed pstJp Jo slslsuoJ

leql aJuqsqns u.roJq-a8uJo ,{rueaJr '8q11aus-8uors :e1rq e sI uneJolsp3*

""ran\sue lou op 'dnor8 Jeqloup Iuo]J euo,(ue Jo dnoJ8 euo ruo4 Jeqlle 'nod ot s{lel auofuu JI 'peqsl -urJ uaaq seq sserord aqt gtun 8up eqt ur puets 'lq8gupru 71 raUV ,,'uoruv 'llJIdS z(1og aqt pup 'uos :aqtpJ aql Jo auu eql ul 'a;aq puels I arueu ,snsaf uL, :r{es 'punote dyvtols 8up aqf .r,rerp nor{ aull elues eqlrc pue '{rlls P qll^/\ nod punore Fuu e e{pw'{ooq qlrnqJ plo ue uror; a8ed e pue 'lpru pue ure;8 ..'lalps1ar(p *'runeJolsec nor{ qlln{ enpq pup qtJnqt p eprslno
elqrssod sl

puels '8uluana aql ul qoJnrlr e ul punore {le,l seqrllv\ ees ol lI 'tq8lu s,Jetutunsplw eql uo pue 'lsoJelued lalseg

'sPrulslJq] 1e ,{larueu :r{rJnqr eql q -readde o1;amod aql enpq saqllmr fear{ e s1q31u JnoJ 'ele1s 1?q1 solsl plo eJp aJOqI
saqJll/r4, eas

ol qspr



e{el osp upr

prurup aqllp looqs uaql 'un8 eqt q uaqt tnd pue 'araqrvr,{ue acelda.rg e uo;; ro 'uoqrtl{ eql ul acelda.rr; aql ruo4 sauols loq 'un8 aqt uo Jo le[nq eql uo sso]f, e Sur1nc"'




uroql UIs pup sroqlua


SupvtolS er1q1

frelSrnq e tno
palrrPf, sq eq reue



pru slq se^?el Jelqr P JI

'pua aql o1.rar{erd s,pJoT aql ,{es uaqJ. ,, ,'dtlul,trI, olp Jo eueu aqt uI 'lq8tut s,po9 qllM
Jarvrod s,pog

lo dlaq eql qtp\ luas qsg 1o dtuald qttet ru^{ pue

qrlpr I 'ozrs ilerus pue 31q Jol4ue) ileqs no,,{ qs1; q8noug, ^\ou :prcs snsaf 'JOleA{ eql uo lno spl/r leoq aq1. 'pe{sp sell aq teql\ plp reted 'teoq p pulJ or reted perlse 'pupl uo Surpuels 'snse[,, rcdetdFulqsg aq1
'luoJ P qJns seq qrrnr.lJ ar1l JI 'r{JrnqJ orp ur uolnalo.rd tsaq eql q tuoJ lplusll -deqe r{q Sulpuas tng '8urr aqt ur puets 01 paeu 1,uop no,{ pue 'nor{ qlr^\ uorpalord.raqlo ou aAPq paau no 'qJJnqs al{l eprslno Jo aprsq pupts uer no1 'peaq rnod uo paceld sr dunlc pos eql Jl rlslr nor( a;eq.vr Puels 01 alqe aq [,no 'uoseas 1q3lr eql q sl tl Jl ,,(1uo 1nq 'prer{ qcrnqr e IuoU pos Jo durnlc e trr)

saqrtllv\ Suluasqo agq r uollcatord ro; dem reqlouv 'qlael rleql qll^\ s[eq oql uo mBuS or a{[ r{aql asneraq aJeql pe^Jesqo oq ueJ sor{Jlr/!\ teqt r{1ar1q ,fion sr 1l eJurs 's[eq q]JnqJ aql fq pupls osl upr no1 :aloN"'



'OroJaq pesn uoaq JaAOu O^eq leql sOAIu{ fi\eu qlw\ sr{ervrle 'sSulurour ,{epun5 olvu uo Alaue lnJ oq lsnlu {JI$ aq;. 'dn souroc uns oql aJoJeq s^{emp pue ,{ep s,Jetutuns -PIW uo pue ,{epunsllq^/\'deq uotsuacsy ,{epun5 ralseg ,(ep poo9 uo tnr eq lsnlu por 3u1uyr1p aqt :{tlls peuoltueu eql

por Suluplp e{etu


(,,'alu ruo{ uelols aneq nor{ asnpleq 'nor( ol pues I IIAO0 aqJ.,) 'ued lslu aql uI pelels ale leq), spJolv\ eues eql ,{es 'a;g eql q adld aql ,{e1 nor{

uarl A 'aJII slq rele^\oq a;eds lnq 'slleJ Jelql eql p1, ,{po 'eroql all adld eqt tol uec nor{.ra8uo1 aqt :eqt eql orurol o1 qsmt nod orolu aql 'so 'erlJ eql ul adrd 1a1snu oql Jo pua auo aceld uaql 'srtep euos sluouJal pue seslJ eJruxlru aql os luouuoJlAue ue u! prru eql aceld pue q8noprnos ro lsear{ ar1el 'ad1d tarl

-snu plo up ul 1l JJrus 'pulqeq ual ueeq seq lPql prru aqr e{ql
euo Jaqlouv




,,'eru ruo{ uelols eneq nor{ osneloq 'nod ol pues I esaql8u1r(eS e[q^r\'epelu SP 4 qJIq \ pJru Oql"'


;it ffi



r,ll ',";







re'-l .l rlS

'saBV applw aqi ruo{.,{lsnonqo sl uopetuprur aqJ.

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puP salrspJed Dasul Jo !8ury

'uluust Jo aJJnos FuluJoJ

anp d[ensn anssrt

lwldJo Suqe^rs p-lnu II?g.

'otult sJnoq JnoJ-/gualu Jeue Jeded luou sJead -deqp tpql {q ue se{ptu erruxlru srrll'pruouwe pup lrqpre uln8 aln[ qll^\ reqlaSol oteJlns uorr ppe uaqt toloc ul {rep sl uorlnlos eql llun prlp trJlru qlll\ JoqlaSol looc .1nu 1eF e 1e1

srnoq rnoJ-z(1uaml roJ s1se1z(po qtlq^\ {u! e{plu


'qooq Sursn uar{A slaS;q lp looqs lalau lng .spJlq Jo slptu -lue le r{pce;roc Surlooqs sruelqo.rd a^eq Je^au plnoqs nor{ ,s1ql 3ulop raUV 'loqs eql pue rep^\od aql uearueq ro ,uodeervr aql
Jo reppol-elzznw eql Jo iled lsourralno oql uo {ooq aql eteld ,lseq 'pesn uoeq lou e^eq lpql s{ooq esn [eA{ uec nor{ lnq are r{eq1 'saqlolJ s,uetuor\ p tuo4 {ooq Iaels e laJles ul a{ql

z(lparrotul looqs IUr!\ Jaaeu nof leqt os

:JeFlaJ,, :nor( qlprr

,:H :C :g .[ .erqurocqef prqoJ urJllg ueql filpJ pue spJorr{ 8uyvro11o; oql elp4\

furoq ;1asrno,r( e{eu oI 'uetuv &Utff

aql Jo Orupu Oql ul polrJeJ 0q lsntu sul IIP puv ,,.paluEu e^pq I sernspoll aql otu 1v\oqs ileqs pup '{JIls eugnue8 ,aup.rp nor{ leql onJl pue urelJac os ,(lenbo 'sr!\olloJ lueurSpnf e lpql pu? 'erlJ rl1l1r4 qq;ad fleqs qlrea pue ue^eor{ e{[ rpqt sHl sl enrl pu uleuet os puv '\lrce eql uo ueaq e^eq lpql soJrueaJJ...

isnoJeSupp dran-a1eg1ns raddo3.^(r1su se


q sqtuolu aeJql legp uollJoqp

ue ,(epol uang_

'erlml ro eJuo Ioqorlp qlr^\ tseelq lreppn eql qse


P Jo 1tloJ e Jo

Jeppn eql ruo{ {uur acJoJ


'seullsalu! eul^rs qseu llaus Orelu aql le-I

IsoJ sll ol qulq

anf leqs

eteut e teql os

,{puo4s serroJ Ior{orle qluory Jo {ulJp p ur paxrru uoUJeS

auo Jerllouv

'elne) pue oldoad


srueJ e lodxa osle

uet tuneJolspJ 8uorls

auo Jerllouv

**Jolof, ouols onlq e uloJeq^\ dnos

'uoqe u0q1 ill^,t aqs 'selurl IpJeAes lr 8ur{urJo .lspt sr Jo srql;o sdnc {ulJp plnoqs eqs

.sqluou e^g lsru eql uI sl rI JI ,uaprnq raq

Jo plr aq ueJ eqs



pp p ol e^lF ol ro snleJ ladxe oI


"'luarlPd eql la'I .si{ep uaol -rnoJ loJ lor{olp Jo luld e JIeq ur weql ,{e1 :a3[u ,(qeq aa.rqr a4q1

Ioqorle tuplupp dn anp


re{ulrp p tpql os

,,:nlsJaf,oJo3 'uoled 'ileg,, :{urJp Jo puH z{ue .raq e^Jes pup dnc e uo spJol!\ eseql ellJ /\



pue noz( e^ol ilqs 143 e leql os

'lsealq oql q spJo/v\ eseql pqg :aloN ,,'uaruv :e{ps s8ulJeJJns s,tslrq3 snsaf pue luaur8pnlslq fg :p1rom errlue eqt pue quea puP ue^Par{ peleaJJ lpqi aH JoJ 'e{es slH JoJ IIIIS puels ,1a[n9,,

reilnq e aJnpua



(:a1e1arec rraql 011oeq z{em rleql puu mou plnorls s^,rol '{gsea erll 'ueql Jo arpJ soqel oqd\ ueuo^\ Oql Jo luels eql spq tles tpql ereq pools.rapun sr u) 'tea ot

lps eql

uanr8 ere s^AoJ oql

,,'uotuv snpues snlurd5 p e\tled sneq lultuoq uul, :spro^\ esaql8up(es ellq^{,(poq parleu eql pue tuaure8rapun eslueqr erlt ueemtaq saurl aorqt ll sse4 .8er p ur lles o{q[

lq4u 13 saales -ueql fq rauruns eql Sugnp auoq auoc g/vr sfiroJ leql os


roadug uerrrog dyog aqt rog sr(ep q)ns petlnJler oq^\ ' jOSt-gVSt) aqerg
oqc^,fi rauouoJlse qslupq aql dq parueu s^,(ep snora8uep ro.'{1cn1un dletcadsg.

'en8Prd Jo II JIopnE

.'si{ep oqerg oqr4[ uo euoq eql o{el l,uop lnq 'saqlolr rnof olul111v\os puP pJPfa^e.r8 e uro.r; auoq uerunq P o{q[

nof uo e^lrql lou fleqs erll lql os

,{ervre seo8


SuIIaeJ peqrlyv\eq

'lernleuun aqJ 'elull e JoJ 1l uo {le^ . pue eoqs uel lnof ur rrpq aql lnd 'peeq roq ro slq uro4 rleq d1p ro e{el 'lelf,as ul e^ol olul perlrllaeq tulaq reue uIeSP lPuuou IaaJ q uosrad e rod

'{ulrp ol loqorp q lnd'{ulrp IIAep 'unarolsE]

sueJ req ledxa ur IrlS leql os
'auo8 aq uoos

s8nq eq1. 'orp s8nq aqt oroql!\ {reJJ IIe^\


q ll les pue (luaurnrlsur orrurol)



JeAIIs e


stnqpaq delrre a^Up

'dn lt


'.,{lngssoccns parJl uaeq seq

lads aqt tpql supow 'ualoJd-tunlpqoJd-

"''urJo^/vr eqlluo4 snJnu pefeJop ees ,{po no.,( JI 'luoroqof,ur Jo {Jls f1ureJ Jnod q euoeuos sr eJoql leql sueeu 1l 'ssalJel od s1 urorr eql JI 'lle^\ eJP se^llelal rnof

leql suPeu ll fqlpeq puu,{1e41 sl 1l JI 'rurolv\ e aas prvr no'{ auols eql rapun 'sr euols raqlo ou aJeq^\ quee aql uI sa[ lPql auols e111[ e dn 319 'reuuns eql q paruro;.rad eq dpo uer srr.Il

rnor{;1 /!\ou{


psap ere {IoJsuI{ pue sa^Ileler luulv\ nod pup z{rlunoc eql Jo lno eJe noz( I

ueaq sPq uJo1r4 e qlulv\ qll^\ ouPJ Jo {Jrls e 8ulsn



ur{s eql


Jo {lpq eqt uo satull aarql req 11q r(13u11o[pue r(puepq]uou Jaq l!\ollp nor{ pue lueuSard aq ol ueruorvr ;nod luem nor(;I
z(11ensn oqrvr pI.6 p

pIIqJ qll^r lou q pup esrnorrelul seq




.'tunlpqord 'qJpruols ,{tdula p uo {urJp ot luarled eql ol pue r(1a1e1peuul ueql {oor pup saureq.radpnfreqlC
ueruo.o\ e wor1 snleJ e ladxa og.

'IJeq s,ueu aql
qtl^4 panulno sJepllos Jo

/!\olq euo pelro[P sP.t\ uPlu q3eg 'sdlq,t\

olvq uee^Alaq

fudulol aloq^r 3 Jo seull



pq upru e


luauqsrund ,tralgu p sp,r lapun8 aql unr ol-lepunpC-

'un8 rnof uo xeq oqt lnd seq oqlv\ urq alulol ol qsr^\ nor( se 3uo1se un8 aql FulddlqA anulluoJ 's8lry raplp rlllr\ un8 aqt dgqm pue erlJ e,{q un8 aqt dn ture^\

ule8e Agtauoc urro;rad un5 paxul[ e aqeul o1

'reu(er6 s,pJo'I aqt ollJOJ


,,'eeJqt eqlJo alueu eql

q Jelqtspr

s,ll^eo eql plp pJo^4s slq qll^{ Jelod ,'uelu Jou uPluo^4. Jeqlleu 'a;n[ul touupJ daql os 'a8pa pue lurod uraql ruo4 e{el L 'ples 0q ,'Splolv\s u1\{eJp IIV, 'spJo^rs u.ry\PJp aql IIE pallnp aH 'uoll -lpadxa s,ueurapuo8 e uo 1ua.44. eH 'pJo'I Jno,, :spJo.ry\ esaql peeu

uI druaua rnod;o pJolrls aql ilnp


('sdrqm aqt ruo4 s1v\olq aql tsule8u uolnolo.rd

8u1ppe '{ruq eqt ot z{purg {3lls ueql ilI1v\ lens aqfl 'seu1t oarql ro orq oJrJ aql prPlvrol ur dals ulq e^eq puP 1l qllA\ {cPq s,uelu aql rpeus pue raqtaSor slqt llew 'lens pue sallq.ry\ 33a .tre"r aqel

.laltune8 eql uru o13u1o8 sl


uIu JoJ



,,'alueu S,IIAOO aql ul sselpeeH,, :SpJOlv\ asaql r(es pue aql ueq^4, Jer.llo qrea lsure8P qnJ seeJl odu eJeI{M

arllarr lrlSlt e ur tr uelspJ pup peeq slq urorJ 4erl ouos tec
erlJepeq luplsuoc e uosrad asnef,


'pep sl ileoq rnof ut lnoqp lsoru {urql no,,{,,{pue; ;nor( u1 uos;ad eql leql supatu



irNo voog Jo oNlI

'elpJlns uoJr IDLV\ sqIroJS lo sloq eqllPof, lseJ tno {erq aldoad uo sq1rtror8 pue sgoq lq1.
'ute8B luneq l,uo^rv\ uosrad teql pernssp oq 01 eJP no^ 'pesealop 0q1 qlIA{ uI.JJOl eql ul spaes -url peards asIA{e{II uel no1 ''(ervre oF uaqt gm lsoq8 s111 'pel[ aluo poseoJop eql eleq^/\ uJeJ eql punoJe speosull peardg

qleep reqe stunq uosrad

u 3I

rr^rrr'il;l P seq re^lls :e^lesqo '8ury,qs Surpulq Surqtou s,ll'uo.tls JI uola 'uJnqf, Jornq oql olul JaAIIS 3o alerd e ^\oJqJ


JeDnq a{elu l.uo1v\

'rer{er6 s,pJo'I aqt des

Suprnqr rnor( uaq^A

uaql ,,'&lul11 aql Jo atuu

eql uI lernfur louueJ no,\ iezee{ 'puq s,lned pue s,lslJqf, qllAA 'ure8B nor( asealar I lllun aru roJ pazflemd a11 ileqs no,( teqt 'lnJrarvrod os spJolv\ S,Po9 {ll^rr 'nOf dOtS I 'O{PuS IpUPTUTUOJ I 'lleJ lllun uI peas aql elPus 'paJql ileqs pees eql uPluoM,,

eleus e dols oI

ol lueetu sellr uollelueJul sqlleqn,t Aululelep o111nc1331p S111) 'earl ueor t11ds ,(1qso4 e q8norqt pre^\{req setull oerql req IInd
euo Jeqlouv

unrao12 Jo

qoog >pvlg aq)


eql 01 {Jeq selep flqEqord arr^pe l"rrpau eqJ .f8Jnlu urle'I eql uro{ sluau -Fer; pagoislp sureluoJ uorlqueJur ssal8uruzaur pup alqrsuaqardurorur srql._ 'aurJlpeu pue luarpar8ur

'sa8v epprw

rr8eu e se pasn eq ppol peoq s,A\ollp^ls p eprsur seuols aqt tq8noqr sp^r 1*


qlr/v\ uorlpluplq ueDIJ^r qql deell **'ueruv snluds slners slJlew eu -luroN ur solnlol IqeJ eleJnes oIP solsPJes eJPas snuqap lunJle eruaJJ sedes asresPuPJ ounJoulnd selurp enps^b

reues PSPI eluaqql lPqPq eroJ srseds eJqes Plnlrseo opuelu alos,,

'uolleluPtul uv

.'peerl ruo4 uoJI

'sJnoq tnoJ-/qualu JoJ FuoJls aq m/vt no 'lrdlurp ual rnod Jopun s8u1xg aql lnd .,fincraru Jo quo^\ s,z(uuad;pq euo pue prcAeLeJB p uro{ Uos olrq 4, e{el uaql s,.ry\o[e1v\s p ruo{ auols aql a{el ISJIJ .eJru{ JO exe ue JIOsurIl o{elu ol ueu p JoJ JapJo uI


'1001s sp pJpq

'slps IeJauru Jo uorlnlos v.. 'ua^oJd s! ll-lsa lunleqord.

""asaeqr eql 1e0 J0lq1 eql 0q 01 a^e{oq no.,{ leql uosJod eql aAeH 'uetuv Surr{es Jenau '8ur1se; ellq^\ esoeqt eql JeAo s.,{epung eerql rar{e;d s,pJo'I eql peaJ

ueql 'rele,l\ **runle qlr/v\ eseeqc;o acard p uo spJon4, eseql ellJ

Jelql le^er


'dals.roop oql repun Jpal eqt ,{e1 uaql ,,'rueluerg ruepeg rueollg olg, :ll uo spJon4,8urrro11o; aql etrJl\{ pue Jpel uedse up o{ql

aJup esnoq e u1 euodreAe a{etu


*'lsa luruPqord

Suraq lsureFe uolDelotd rog pelDeJ eq uer uorlPluPlul



'JI8Pu Jo lrP aql ut aldrourrd luelrodrur ue s,t. aJnleu lsurc8e enotu oi-esr.,rt{JolJrelunof,..
-Ferg pagolsrp surcluor
'XFrn111 ulle'I ruo4 sluoru uolleluelul ssalSulueaur pup elqlsueqardruorut stql*

"'Je8uol o{el l,uor!\


"'laJeH'rollaSv'leJeH, 'salull eArJ spro^/\ osoql.{es pue pueq ual rnod qli^{ **eslA\{solrrolunol repurJS erll uJnl puP JapuuS paas-p.relsnur
e ur

ueql r{e1pue sJaqua loq a{ef '8uluoru

uelols seq Jalql e leqfi\ {J?q 1e3 q

^(epuoyg e



ersql lueql Iue alulc oJerie eper^Sxg 'eqn3e51,, :eseeqJ eql uo sp.ro^/v\ eseql ellJl\ . Jo ,,'xuJlg 'xe4 'xP141,, :0s0ql eJP spJo^{ aql 'dn morql ^,(1a1e1paurul ill1r/\ oq ',{.rona1qt Jo,fiUn5 sl eq JI"'


"'ileeq rnod [eqs reqlua slql e{l'L, :fes pue 'looJ 1I{3IJ Jnof qlII\ Iueql uo dels pue sraqua Sururnq eql a{et uor{I 'ualols seq aq teql spoo8 aqr urc8e lceq s8ugq aI{ eroJeq Sutu;nq dots ;enau pue urnq ueeq s,uosrad tpql lll,l\ os 'uJnq sJaqlua aql se puy 'nor{ 01{leq spoo8 aq1 aru8 prvr nod tuor; uelols seq oIUv\ Jolql aql eroJeq asr^\{oolrJalunor sJaque oqt qll^\ ;epup8 aql Sururnl ueqt"'

&#u tr'y






srqr uo aurqs lou op no.,{ leqr 'uoour pu, uns


-tuof, [,, :sIIt fes pue '1q3lu depsrnq; e uo 'qlJou ol qlnos ruo4 8u1uun; sr JOIe,t\ e.rar{A{ o1 oF pue pueq rnor{ ur uroJ e a{q[

{r"q eruor Jalqr " a{"u

ot dern reqlouv

'selurl eaJql uollelueJul slql peeu ,,'1p1dg r(1og aqt pue 'uog aql pue 'JaqleJ aql Jo arupu oql uL, '1oo; ,(ru Jopun Jeque sHl a{I 6n[ 'aq"'



oq ro^au

ver ter4l

Jequa Sulurnq e aTI uJnq ueaq sU lel 'Furuarra ;o Suyuour 'tq31u ro ,$q11nbue;l ro lser ,(ue aleq Jelql slql lel tou '{ep op pog 'eru ruo4 uolols seq aq qrlrl\{ teqt oru ot {req s8upq aq eJoJeq f,trqrnbue.rl :o 'uol1exe1ar '1sar Joqlre JOIr{1 sl{l azn8 lou tuo4 IIAO0 eql oq,, ('ralervr aql olur uloJ eql^\oJqt uoqr) "'llaH arnluor I puv 'sJe.ry\olloJ .rnoz( 1e pue JaJr?n'I 'nof uodn fipc I"'


'aral{ peppe
aq ueJ selulJd uel s,llaH Jo selueu aqJ. ,,'ssfqe s,lleH ul saAII

lpql arueu pepeerp s,llleo aqt ul uoddeq r{11n9 pqs


'ruo{ ua{el sem

1t aceld

ro lods eqt ol 'eur ruog ualols spq oq spoo8 eql pouJrueJ seq oq e se ssallseJ se eq uu lel puv"'

[lun 'q]eoq plllv\ e uo e^e/v\




f,epung e uo pa8.ro; ueaq seq tpqt


.raddoc e

"'Sururou a{el uaql

:sAolloJ se '11 punoJe spJolv\ eseql qll^A elqel p uo arnl4lu slql qll^\ ar{a ue ueql.qFnop p e{ptu ^4prp ol.raqlaSot pualg 'ell^ros qJrnqt aqt Supnp Suyuour z{epung p uo 'poolq s.uptu pue.{rncraw pup ue{lrqJ ruo{ lpJ aql o{ql

Jelql e;o afe aql lno tnd



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gagl u] lv!.r)



Cbe Black

Book dluerum

the thinking of the enlightened few atthattime-the clergz serv-

ing as royal officials, bailiffs, and sheriffs-did not differ from that of the general public. Incredible as it might seem, all witches were judged according to the old Norwegian laws, royal decrees, and often by "God's own law," the law of Moses. The maximum punishment under the official law was given to individuals who had magic skills. Bishops, ministers, bailiffs and others had a special responsibility to perform these duties.
This law came into effect only eight years before the case against Ingeborg 6kset.In order to getsome insight into her case, we will take alook at the most important "evidence" that was submitted against her.

In the first place, it has been documented that Ingeborg was turned in by her own sister, Gulluf Krogsti of Lsten. Gulluf was
executed some time before Ingeborg was accused and pronounced

guilty of practicing witchcraft. It was assumed that witches were in league with one another. In such cases, the accused had to
inform on others whom they knew to be witches. We must remember here that the accused were tortured in the most beastly ways.

This was all,legalized by statute in 1.677. Something that proved to be much more serious for Ingeborg
was being "exposed" by her oldest son, Peder Lassesen. He was
condemned to burn at the stake on January 72, 1625. The charges against him must have been especially grave in the eyes of the

authorities because it was not very usual to condemn a man in this way. A man's life was viewed as being worth more than a woman's. And should a man be punished in such a manner, he
was often handled in a more "humane" way. He would often be

beheaded before being burned at the stake, just like Peder Lassesen. The thought behind burning at the stake was that the

'sill{s rloql Surorperd lnoqe pue tno aro^l saqolllvr 'seulslrql eroJeQ le8tu aqt pup ang sprulslrqJ uo ^(gulradsa 'fetql penerleq spl\ lI 'uorssassod raq ut peq Sroqa8ul leql luau -lulo rlSBru p qll^{ u/!\op paqqru ueeq lsru peq slplulup eqr '31d u 3u1pp repad pue rpo8 e Supp Sroqa8ul Talseg eroJeq tq31u aqt elourg 01 raqlaSol uepplr peq ,(aqt r.ll reqtouv 'ru1q ol lenrJ ueeq s^{emp peq reqlou sH teql peluauuor aH 'rennq Sulurnqr eng selulslJtlJ uo reqlou slq ssorJe euoJ ppq aq leqt palets
Japad 'seull lpJenes peJnlJol dltuaredde sBrvr aH 'lprrl s,Jeqlou slq ul paleadar sp/vr roJ pelrl uaeq ppq reped tprlla Jo ued 'ruop8urrl r{panueq eql
JoJ penps eq

ueql plnol,r Inos


'peJJa SursueelJ e ppq seuU

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t\ l\ .1


SaqLu;! 1v1.r2




Bhck Book of lperum

GMola was the local version of Brocken, the highest peak of theHarz Mountains in Germany, where it was said that witches would meet with the devil and hold their revels. Furthermore, Peder stated that he had used witchcraft atthe BAnerud farm, after taking advice from his mother on how to destroy Peder BAnerud's beer in the process of brewing. Ingeborg had supposedly once interfered in what seems to have been a small disagreement befween her two daughters-inlaw. Gunnor Ingulsdatter (Peder's wife) came to her mother-inlaw concerning a half pound of goat cheese that was owed her by Sigrid Rolfsdatter. Ingeborg was so offended that she threatened that it would be lean in the future with goat cheese. That very same year Gunnor had lost all of her goats, an accident that was supposedly due to Ingeborg's witchcraft. Another charge that was disclosed against Ingeborg involved a previous minister, Lawrits Kristensen. The clergyman had accused her of having bewitched his son, Morten. The minister died around 1610. The rumors surrounding Ingeborg must have circulated some time before a public case was put into motion against her. The minister's son had probably suffered from one or another physical ailment-or more likely from some mental defect. It was believed that such problems were due to witchcraft being used on the afflicted individual. It appears that Ingeborg's husband, Lasse Gudmundsen, tried to free his wife from these false charges of witchcraft when the rumors began circulating. He had sent the Swedish-born Oluf VAI from Amot to Sweden to get truthful evidence from a wise woman. She was supposed to clarify Ingeborg's innocence. But Oluf came back with the message that Ingeborg not only knew about the Black Arts but was in factthe shrewdest of them all. Lasse @xset was so furious that he took back a brass kettle with copper handles

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C}'eblack Book of luerum

En Rddslagning i Kvinne-Foreningen by Theodor Kittelsen

Her last chance for being acquitted was for twelve appointed "honest, respectable, well-bred" women to take an oath together

with Ingeborg statin g that she was innocent. This was to have
taken place ten weeks later, when the case was scheduled to come before the court.
The court assembled again on May 19, 1625. None of the named

women (Marit Strand, Sigurd Strand, Gjertrud Strand, Anne Grundset, Ase GArder, Anne Skulstad, Anne Hovin, Gro Opsal, Gro Lille-

hov, Oulo Loken, Tiora @sterhaug, and Bodil Skjefstad) were willing

to take the oath with Ingeborg. On the contrary, they emphasized

that they had always heard thatlngeborg was known for her witch-

craft, and this was also well known in Elverum's congregation.

II Yoqap&(g wruaLlg'usNsrs nNrvw'o8e srear{ 0/t sa^lasruaql punoJ sreqleJoroJ Jno rlJlrl 4, ur sseu{Jep pnlrnds aql Jo uorlplaner Ipursp e sl tunomp eloq \ slql 'asec due ul lng ',,(epot auruJalep o1 alqlssodur sr repod uos Jeq pue lrrs\O Sroqa8ul;o Sunualuas pue slplr1 eqt puqaq arro;8up1rp or{I 'euu e se 3u1r1

oqt ot palleJroJ aq plno^{ seylredo.rd aseql 'eupu s,3u11 aql ul s,rurpJ e Supracuoc rne8req p a{UN ol dlunuoddo aqr -ele1se [sa] a4os plnol {aqt uaq1v\ ssaura8ea leer8 qlrrvr seseJ qcns a8eueur o1 eql JoJ Insn rfia,r se.n 1l 'puPq reqlo eql uo
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Black Book ofluerum

29.To calm anger 50. To win in court 31. The magic from swallow stones 32. Make yourself invisible 33. To sleep for nine days 34. The skill of receiving and having luck with 35. To protect hidden goods 36. To point out a thief 37 . To put a spell on a thief 38. Help for someone who is bewitched 39.To heal an injury 40. Infections
41. Protection against

23 23 25 25 25


25 27

27 , 29




witches 42. To shoot accurately 43. To see witches 44.Protection while observing witches 45. A fishing prayer 46. To get even with a thief 47. To get even with a thief 48. To make a divining rod 49. Casting a spell over a divining rod 50. To be horny 51. Help to not shoot incorrectly 52. An ink that only lasts twenty-four hours 53. Abortion 54. Abortion 55. Abortion 56. For a mare to give birfh 57 . To start milk production after giving birth 58. For the cows to come home at night 59. To survive a bullet

33, 35 35

37 , 39

39 39
41, 43

43 43 43 45 45 45 45 45

47 47

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Cbe Black

Book of luerum

bleeding 92.Toothache 93. Toothache 94. Toothache


gs g5
gT gT

dice 89 dice I 89 dice 97 dice 9I,95 dice 95 dice 95 gS, gT, gg, 101 101. To make birds or animals stand still 702. To stop a drifter 10J, 105 103. For a girl to love you IOT, lO9 104. Protection for your cows this summer l7l, 1,1J 105. For an alcoholic I1S 106. To drive away bedbugs l1,s 707 . So lice will never thrive on you I1S, 717 108. For growths and boils llT 109. Abortion I1T
95. To win when playing cards or 96. To win when playing cards or 97 . To win when playing cards or 98. To win when playing cards or 99.To win when playing cards or 100. To win when playing cards or 110. Help for a woman who is having a difficult

childbirth 1lg



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Cbe Black

Book ofloerum

Fire, 17, 19, B1 Fishing, 21,37

Gauntlet, running the, 55

Headaches, 53

Hulder,2l Hunting, 13
Incomplete text,79

Infection, 21, 31, 33

Injuries,3l Invisible, tobe,25 Invisible ink,43

Jinxed gun, 53

|udicial proceedings, 19, 21, 25

Lice and other varmints, 3,


ll5, llZ

Love, 47,


, 79, 107, 109

Milk, in connection with nursing, 45 Money,25

Poison, 17 Pregnanry, help to achieve, 51 Promises, to free yourself from,


Relatives, to know their state of health, Sl, Ss Sexual arcusal,43

Shooting, 15,33,35,45 Sleep, 11, 13,25

69 'gI 'I


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