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CST Microwave Studio.

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Rr 2 P I m2

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........................................................................................................... 6-11
1. ........................................................................................... 12-26
2. ............................... 27-32
3. CST Microwave
Studio ......................................................................................................... 33-71
3.1. ...................................................... 33-35
3.2. CST Microwave Studio ....... 35-39
3.3. ............................................... 39-62
3.4. ........................... 62-71
4. - .. 72-78
4.1. ............................ 72-76
4.2. ..................................................... 76-78
4.3. ............................................................................ 78
5. .......................................................................... 79-83
6. ............................................................................................. 83-92
6.1.
........................................................................................... 86-88
6.2.
........................................................................................... 88-92
............................................................................................... 93
.464651.

.....................................................................................
94-95

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.464651.
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105

14-81

11

1. ( 3) .................................................. 96-97
2. ( 2) .................................................. 98-99
3. ( 1) .............................................. 100-101
4. ............................ 102
5. , ................................. 103-105

1.

1 2 a ,
3 5
6 7 (. 1.1). 8 9

, 6

7 10 11 1
2. , l ,
z.

. 1.1. .

W 0 r 0 r

3 5 4

u5 (t ) U 5cos(2
f) t

, f c - , - .

6 7 4
1:1, 6 7
f c u6 (t )

u7 (t ) :
u6(t )

U5

cos(2
f t
)
6

U5

u7(t )

cos(2
f t
)
7

6 7 .

(1.1)
10 11
(1.1) 1 2
, ,

()
1 2.
[2] ,
,

, , ,
[5].

.464651.
.

12

, [6],
1 2 (. 1.1),
( a = l , a = )
8 9 ( b = l , b = ),
.

I z z ,

:
I m sin( kz ), z >0;
I m sin( kz ), z 0;

I z ( z)

(1.2)

(1.2) , I z ( z ) z
( :
) I m I l sin(kl ) , I l -
10 11 1 2.

. 1.2. I z ( z )

FE

P ( x, y , z )

-
r
r r
r
r
R
R x0 x y0 y z0 z , , .. ? .

.464651.
.

13

r
E
, [6]

:

r
r WI mQ ()e jkR
r
E ( R,,) 0E ( R,,) 0 j
2 sin()R ,

(1.3)

Q() 1 cos( kl cos()) cos( kl ) sin( kl cos()) cos() sin( kl ) ;

r
H

r
r E ( R, , ) r I mQ()e jkR
H ( R ,,) 0
0 j
W
2 sin()R .

(1.4)

,
, 4 10 11
1 2 (. 1.1), -
r
(1.3), H
. ,
r
o
E
( R,,) , 0

360o XOY (. 1.1) 2


x
y . , (1.3)-(1.4).

r r
E 0E )

,
FE [2].
(1.3) :

r
E ()

FE () r
E ()

max

Q ( ) sin()
Q ( ) sin() max

.464651.
.

(1.5)

14

. 1.3.

(1.5) , [0; 0.65]


1 2

2 ( XOY . 1.1).
E
, 2 0.5

( 1

r
2 E ) l

. 1.3. l

(.. ),
,

I z ( z ) 1 2. ,
l Z ,
[ l (1.3) (1.4)] FE
XOY
. ,

,
, (
1 2).

.464651.
.

16
15

Rr ,
I m ,
Rin .
[2], ,
,
, ,
,
.
[6] P
30I m2

Q2
sin( ) d
0

.
, [6]:

2 P
Q2
Rr 2 60
d
sin
(
)
Im
0

.
(1.6)
(1.6)
. [7], [8]
(1.6) ( kl ),
:
x

sin u
du
u
0

Si ( x)

(1.7)

cos u 1
du
u
0

Ci ( x) ln( x )

0.5772

).

(1.8)

sin(2kl )
Rr 30 3 ln(4(kl )3 ) Ci (4kl ) 4Ci (2kl ) sin 2 (kl )
2
kl

. (1.9)

[9], Rm Z m Rm jX m ,
I m

Rm Rr

, Rin

Il I m sin( kl )

10 11 (.

2
R

R
sin
(kl ) .
in
m
1.1),

, ,
[9],
, W
.
().

. ,

.
,
,


. ,
[9] . ,
[. (1.2)] ;

, .

[6],

Z m Rm jX m ,

,
( )

.464651.
.

17

sin(kl ) e jkR1( z ) ( z l )(1 jkR1( z )) e jkR 2( z ) ( z l )(1 jkR 2( z ))


Z m 30

3
3

k
R
1
(
z
)
R
2
(
z
)

0
l

e jkR1( z ) e jkR 2( z )
e jkR 0( z ) jkz jkz
cos(kl )

2 R0( z ) (e e )dz
R
1(
z
)
R
2(
z
)

(1.10)

2
2
R1( z ) a 2 ( z l ) 2 , R 2( z ) a 2 ( z l )2 .
R0( z ) a z ,

e jx cos( x) j sin( x) ,

e jx e jx
cos( x)
2
.

(1.10)

e jx e jx
sin( x)
2j ,

e jkl e jkl
k0 15
k1 15 e jkl e jkl
jk
,
; (1.10) :

e jkR1( z ) ( z l ) 1 jkR1( z )

Z m k0

e jkR 2( z ) ( z l ) 1 jkR 2( z )

R 23 ( z )

R13 ( z )

e jkR1( z ) e jkR 2( z )
e jkR 0( z )
jkz
jkz
k1

60
) dz

(e e

R
1(
z
)
R
2(
z
)
R
0(
z
)

(1.11)

(1.11) :

Z m Z1m Z 2m Z 3m ,

(1.12)

- :
l

Z1m k0

( z l ) 1 jkR1( z ) e

k1

jk R1( z ) z

jk R1( z ) z

jk R1( z ) z

R13 ( z )
jk R1( z ) z

e
R1( z )

dz

.464651.
.

(1.13)

18

Z 2 m k0

( z l ) 1 jkR 2( z ) e

k1

jk R 2( z ) z

jk R 2( z ) z

R 23 ( z )

jk R 2( z ) z

Z 3m 60

jk R 2( z ) z
e
dz
R 2( z )

jk R 0( z ) z
e
dz
R 0( z )

(1.14)

jk R 0( z ) z

(1.15)


:
ER ( z ) e

jk R1( z ) z

jk R1( z ) z
, ER ( z ) e
.

(1.16)

k2 15 e jkl e jkl

(1.16)

, (1.13)

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
Z1m k0
k2

3
2
R
1
(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
l

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
k1
k0 A0 k2

2
R1( z )
R
1
(
z
)

k1

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
dz
R1( z )

(1.17)

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
dz
3
R
1
(
z
)
0

A0

(1.17)

A0 U ( z )dV ( z ) U (l )V (l ) U (0)V (0) V ( z )dU ( z )

(1.18)

U ( z ) , V ( z ) :
U ( z)

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
z l
dV ( z )
dz
2
V ( z ) dV ( z ) R1( z ) dU ( z )
R
1(
z
)
R1 ( z )
,
,
,

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
z l
z l
jk 2
( ER ( z ) ER ( z )) jk 3
2 4 dz
R1 ( z )
R1 ( z )
R1 ( z )

. (1.19)

.464651.
.

19

. ., (1.19) (1.18) A0

e jk ( a l ) e jk ( a l ) e jk
A0

a 2 l 2

e jk

a 2 l 2

a2 l 2

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
R1( z ) jk 2

R
1
(
z
)

z l
z l
( ER ( z ) ER ( z )) jk 3
2 4 dz
R1 ( z )
R1 ( z )

k3

e jka e jkl e jkl


a

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
A0 k3 2
jk

3
2
R
1
(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)
0
l

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
jk
dz

2
A

3
0 jk

2
R1( z )
R
1
(
z
)

jk

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
dz
R1( z )

(1.20)

A0 (1.20) :
l

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
A0 k3 jk
jk
dz
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
.
(1.21) (1.17),

(1.21)

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
Z1m k0 k3 jk

jk

dz
2

R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
k2

k
dz k0k3
1
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
k ER ( z ) ER ( z )

k2 k 2 2
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)
0
l

jk R1( z ) ( z l )
l jk R1( z ) ( z l )
k1 ER ( z ) ER ( z )
e
e

dz
k4 30
R1( z )
R
1(
z
)

.464651.
.

, (1.22)

20

Z1m

k4 15

e jka e jkl e jkl


jka

. , (1.22)

, (1.13).

(1.14), (1.12)
(1.15) (1.22), .
(1.14) ( z z )
, (1.16) R 2( z ) R1(mz ) ,
l

Z 2 m k0

k1

jk R1( z ) z

( z l ) 1 jkR1( z ) e

jk R1( z ) z

e
R1( z )

dz

k0
0

jk R1( z ) z

jk R1( z ) z

R13 ( z )

( z l ) 1 jkR1( z ) ER ( z ) ER ( z )
R13 ( z )

l
( z l ) ER ( z ) ER ( z )
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
k1
dz k0

3
R1( z )
R
1
(
z
)

k2

( z l ) ER ( z ) ER ( z )
R12 ( z )

k1

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
dz k0 A1
R1( z )

( z l ) ER ( z ) ER ( z )
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
k2

k
dz
1
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
.
l

A1

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
dz
R13 ( z )

(1.23)

(1.23)

A1 U ( z )dV ( z ) U (l )V (l ) U (0)V (0) V ( z )dU ( z )

(1.24)

U ( z ) , V ( z ) .
(1.19) (1.24),

A1

jk

a 2 4l 2 l

jk
e

a 2 4l 2

a 2 4l 2 l

e jk

a2 l 2

e jk

a2 l 2

.464651.
.

a 2 l 2

21

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
z l
zl
R1( z ) jk

(
ER
(
z
)

ER
(
z
))
jk

dz

R12 ( z )
R13 ( z )
R14 ( z )

k5

e jk

a 2 4l 2

l
0

jkl

e jkl

a 2 4l 2


A1 k5 2

, :

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
dz

jk

2
R13 ( z )
R
1
(
z
)
0

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
jk
dz k5 2 A1 jk

2
R1( z )
R
1
(
z
)

jk

ER ( z ) ER ( z )
dz
R1( z )

(1.25)

A1 (1.25)
l

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
A1 k5 jk

jk
dz
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
.
(1.26) (1.23),

Z 2 m k0 k5

jk
0

(1.26)

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
ER ( z ) ER ( z )

jk

dz

R1( z )
R12 ( z )

( z l ) ER ( z ) ER ( z )
ER ( z ) ER ( z )
k2

k
dz k0k5
1
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)

0
l

( z l )( ER ( z ) ER ( z ))
k2 ER ( z ) ER ( z )
k

2
2
2
R
1(
z
)
R
1
(
z
)
0

jk R1( z ) ( z l )
l jk R1( z ) ( z l )
k1 ER ( z ) ER ( z )
e
e

dz
dz k6 30
R1( z )
R
1(
z
)

k6 15

e jk

a 2 4l 2

e jkl e jkl

jk a 2 4l 2

, (1.27)

(1.22), (1.27) (1.15) (1.12),


l

Z m Z1m Z 2m Z 3m k4 30
0

jk R1( z ) ( z l )

jk R1( z ) ( z l )

e
R1( z )

.464651.
.

dz k6

22

l jk R1( z ) ( z l )

30

jk R1( z ) ( z l )

e
R1( z )

30

jk R1( z ) ( z l )

R1( z )

R1( z )

jk R 0( z ) z

jk R 0( z ) z
e
dz
R 0( z )

dz

jk R1( z ) ( z l )

R1( z )

l jk R1( z ) ( z l )

dz 60

dz 2

jk R 0( z ) z

R0( z )

l jk R1( z ) ( z l )

dz

R1( z )

dz 2

jk R 0( z ) z

R0( z )

dz

dz k7

(1.28)

2
2
e jka e jk a 4l

k7 60sin (kl )

jka
jk a 2 4l 2

(1.28):
1)

x z l,

:
a l l 0,

R 0( x) a 2 x 2

x zl

dx dz ,

b 0 l l ;

a 2 ( z l )2

R1( z )

R1( z ) R0( z ) ;
2)
( z z )

R 2( z ) R1(mz ) .

(1.28)

Z m 30

jk R 0( x ) x

R 0( x )

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

R 2( z )

30

dx

dz 2

jk R 0( z ) z

R 0( z )

R 2( z )

jk R 0( x ) x

R 0( x)

l
l

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

dz
0

dx

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

R 2( z )

dz 2

jk R 0( z ) z

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

R 2( z )

dz

R 0( z )

R 0( x)

.464651.
.

dz k7

l jk R 0( x ) x

dz

dx

23

jk R 0( x ) x

R0( x)

30

l jk R 0( z ) z

dx 2

R0( z )

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

dz

R 2( z )

dz 2

R 2( z )

jk R 0( z ) z

R0( z )

jk R 0( z ) z

R0( z )

jk R 2( z ) ( z l )

dz k7

l jk R 0( z ) z

dz 3
0

R0( z )

dz k7

dz

(1.29)

(1.29) Z m
,
, ..
:
ju

E ( z)

du Ci ( z ) j Si ( z )
u
2

(1.30)

Si( z ) Ci ( z ) (1.7) (1.8) .


(1.30)

a ju

du E (b) E (a )

(1.31)

(1.29):
1) :

u k R 2( z ) ( z l ) ,

a 2 4l 2 2l

z l

R 2( z ) ( z l )
du
dz
dz dz k
dz

R 2( z )
R 2( z )

, u R 2( z ) ;
a1
:

du k

, b1 k

a2 l 2 l

2) :

u k R 2( z ) ( z l ) , du

z l

R 2( z ) ( z l )
du
dz
dz dz k
dz

R 2( z )
R 2( z ) ;
R 2( z )

, u

.464651.
.

24

a 2 4l 2 2l

3) :

u k R0( z ) z ,

a2 k

b2 k

a2 l 2 l

R 0( z ) z
z
du
dz
dz dz k
dz

R 0( z )
u R 0( z ) ;
R 0( z )

,
:
du k

a3 k

a2 l 2 l

b3 ka ;

a4 k

a2 l 2 l

:
, b1 ka .
, (1.29) (1.31):

a 2 u
a 3 u
a 4 u

e
e
e
e
Z m 30
du
du 3
du 3
du k7

u
u
u
b2
b3
b4
b1 u

a1 u

30 E k ( a 2 l 2 l ) E k ( a 2 4l 2 2l ) E k ( a 2 l 2 l )

E k ( a 2 4l 2 2l ) 3 E ka E k ( a 2 l 2 l )

3 E ka E k ( a 2 l 2 l )

.
(1.32)

(1.32)
(1.30), Rm X m Z m
( k , l , a )

sin( kl 4 ( a ) 2 )

sin(ka)
l

Rm (k , l , a) 60 sin (kl )

3Ci (ka )

2
ka
a
kl 4 ( )

2)] 0.5Ci[ kl ( 4 a

1)] 2Ci[ kl ( 1 a l

0.5Ci[kl ( 4 a

2Ci[kl ( 1 a l

1)]

.464651.
.

2)]

(1.33)

25

X m (k , l , a ) 60

cos(kl 4 ( a ) 2 )

cos(
ka
)
l
3Si (ka )
sin 2 (kl )

2
ka

kl 4 ( a )
l

0.5Si[kl ( 4 a

2Si[kl ( 1 a

2)] 0.5Si[kl ( 4 a

1)] 2Si[kl ( 1 a

2)]

1)]

(1.34)

a 0
l
, (1.33),

(1.9),

.

.
: . 1.4

Rm ( k , l , a)

Rin (k , l , a)

Rm (k , l , a) sin 2 (kl ) (
); . 1.5
2
: X m (k , l , a) X in (k , l , a) X m (k , l , a ) sin ( kl ) .

. 1.4. Rm ( k , l , a) Rin ( k , l , a )
a l .

. 1.5. X m ( k , l , a ) X in (k , l , a)
kl a l .

.464651.
.

26

2.
,

-4.
(,
),

. ,
:
1) 1,
, , .
2)

(
) .
, ,
; . 2.1 .

.464651.
.

27

. 2.1. ()
( 0 d w ): ;

(, w , ,
w 0 )
-4 s .
-4 h . .., (. 2.1, ) b 2h s .

, [10]. ,
,
.
(
),

0.5

r , r

,
.
.
:

( f0 r ) 3 108 (2 10
9 2.5) 94.87
.

(. 2.1, ) : l 4 23.72 .
h 2 .
. 2.2 k 0.7 :

w b 0.44 , s b 0.1 .

.464651.
.

28

. 2.2. [10]

, s b s (2h s ) 0.1 . , s 0.2h 0.1s

0.2h 0.2 2

0.44
0.9
0.9
.

b 2h s 2 2 0.44 4.44 , ,
w 0.44b 0.44 2 1.96 .
( )
1.
3 (. 1.1)
50 ,
:

Rin 100

;
(1.33):

Rin (k , lr , a0 )

Rm (2 , lr , a0 )
2

sin (2 lr )

Rm (2 0.09487, lr , a0 )
100

sin 2 (2 lr 0.09487)

. (2.1)

lr ,
: a0 1 .
(, MathCAD Given-Find),

.464651.
.

29

: lr 27.4 .
, a0 lr
(1.34), :
X in (k , lr , a0 )

X m (2 , lr , a0 )
sin 2 (2 lr )

X m (2 0.09487,0.0274,103 )
746.6

sin 2 (2 0.0274 0.09487 )

. (2.2)

,
4, z
1 2 (. 1.1) S R ,
.
S R ,

(2.2). X in
,
[2, . 117]. , 10 11 1 2 (. 1.1)

.

*
l l ,

*
r * R a0 , , [12,

. 426-428], 1 2,
. 2.3.

.464651.
.

30

. 2.3.

( ) ,
, .
,
, . 2.4.

. 2.4.

,
,
,
, ,
.
( -),
,
. . 2.5 ,

.464651.
.

31

. 2.5. -
: ( );

[11],
:

wr 4a0
4 1 4 . w c w 0 w r .

) S R (. 1.1), l , lr

, w 0 , w c , w r (. 2.5, ),

X in (2.2), (2.1)
.
, (
)
-4 s .
,
, 1- 2- .
(3- )
,

. -
(
).

4

,
() -50-751-,
- ,
. 2.6.
( t 0.035

),

() b 2(h s )
.

. 2.6.

3. CST Microwave Studio


, , .

.


.

.464651.
.

33
32

.
3.1. [13]
, ,
, ,

(3D),

(2.5D) (2D).
3D-
,
,
.

(Finite Difference in Time Domain FDTD). 3D-
: (Method of Lines ML),
(Transmission Line Matrix TLM),
(Finite Elements Method FEM) (ModeMatching

MM).

(. 3.1)
.

, ,
;
.
3.1.
-

3D

2.5D
2D

.464651.
.

34

Agilent Eesoft EDA


(www.tm.agilent.com)
Ansoft Corp. (www.ansoft.com)
Zeland Software, Inc.
(www.zeland.com)
CST, Inc. (www.cst.de;
www.cst-america.com)
Vector Fields, Inc.
(www.vectorfields.com;
www.vectorfields.co.uk)
Applied Wave Research
(www.mwoffice.com)
QWED Sp. z.o.o.
(www.qwed.com.pl)
Eagleware (www.eagleware.com)
IMST (www.imst.de)
Sonnet Software, Inc.
(www.sonnetusa.com)
FEKO (www.feko.co.za)

Agilent HFSS Designer


ADS
Ansoft HFSS
IE3D
Fidelity

FEM
FDTD
FEM
MoM
FDTD
FDTD,
MM

MoM

MoM

MoM

MoM

Concerto

FDTD

FEM

Microwave Office

MoM

MoM

Quick Wave

FDTD

Genesis
Empire

FDTD

ML

MoM

Sonnet Suite

MoM

FEKO Suite

FDM,
FDTD

MoM

Silvaco Int. (www.silvaco.com)

ATLAS

FDM

Flomerics Electromagnetics Div.


(www.flomerics.com;
www.micro-stripes.com)

Micro-Stripes

TLM

CST Microwave Studio

2.5D-

,
.
,
, ,
.
(Electric Field Integral Equation EFIE)
(Mixed Potential
Integral Equation MPIE).
(Method of Moments MoM),
,


. 2.5D-
.

.464651.
.

35

2D-

.

.
(. 3.1)
:
,
, .

.
,
.
3.2. CST Microwave Studio [14]
CST MS ,

.

.
, CST MS,
: ;
, ; ,
; -
; ;
- - ;
, , .
CST MS

.464651.
.

36

()
() .
: *.sat, *.iges
*.stl (
*.drc *.pov); *.dxf, *.gdsII *.gerber. ,
,
, ,
.
, CST MS
Time Domain Solver (TDS),

( ,
). TDS
:
- ;
- S-
, ;
- E, H- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ;
- TEM ;
-

;
- S- ;
- ;
- /,
,

.464651.
.

37

- (, ,
, ..);
- ;
- (RCS);
-

, , ,
, , , ,
;
- (R,L,C, );
- .
;
- SPICE (R, L, C, G);
-
( )
.
:
- , , , S , ;
- ( ,
, ,
);
- (, , , )
;
- , ,
;
- ;
- ;
- S- Touchstone;
- (, ..) ASCII;

.464651.
.

38

- .
,
-
-.
CST MS Eigenmode.

TDS

, .

. ,
.
CST MS
(FIT) ,
().

(FDTD) FIT.

. ,
FDTD
.
CST MS
( ),

.

CST

MS

. CST
-
, ,
, ,
.

.464651.
.

39

3.3.

.
, , . 3.1,
,
. Create a New Project (
), Antenna (Planar)
( ) ,
. 3.1.
,
.

. 3.1. (Create a New Project)

File
Save As (. 3.2),
, Printed EFDR
.

.464651.
.

40

. 3.2.

(Set units ,

. . 3.1) Units, . 3.3,


( ).
, Solve => Units.

. 3.3.

(Frequency range , . .

3.1) , . 3.4, ( 1 3
) OK.
, Solve => Frequency.

. 3.4.

Open (add space)


( ).

(Specify boundary conditions , .


. 3.1) Boundary Conditions, . 3.5, ;

, .
Open Boundary, Settings for
PML Boundary (. 3.5, )
At frequency Center and monitors.
, Solve => Boundary Conditions
=> Open Boundary => Settings for PML Boundary.

. 3.5. : Boundary Conditions;


Settings for PML Boundary

.
2, , :
t 0.035 ;
s 0.25 ;
h 2 ;
1 , : ,
-50751. ,
. 1.1-3.1, (.
, . 3.1), .
, XOY,
() , 2- ; ,

.464651.
.

41

, [(2+0.25+1.5t); 2+0.25+1.5t] , ( )
Z [-(1+2+0.25+1.5t); 1+2+0.25+1.5t] .
ZOY ,
X [0; 92] , ( ) [-1;
93] . XOZ ,
Y [0; 54] , () [-1; 54]
.
.
, Hide,
.
:
1)

(Create Brick

) Esc
(
, Objects => Basic Shapes => Brick).
Brick , .
3.6, .

. 3.6. : - ; - cv

cv . Preview

.464651.
.

42

New Parameter (. 3.6, ), (37 )


OK. Brick (. 3.6, ).
,
Material: [Load from
Material Library]. , . 3.7,
Copper (pure) ( ),
Load. Brick (. 3.8, ).

. 3.7. Load from Material Library ( )

OK,
Brick ,
(. 3.8, ).

. 3.8. : ;

.464651.
.

43

2)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.9, ( ).

. 3.9. : ;

OK,
Brick ;
. 3.9, .
3)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.10, ( ).

. 3.10. : ;

.464651.
.

44

OK,
Brick ;
. 3.10, .
( ) .
, Ctrl,
(. 3.11, ); ,
Ctrl,

(Boolean Add

), , , Objects => Boolean =>


Add.
(. 3.11, ), , , .
left_skoba
Hide,
, . 3.11, .
.

. 3.11. : - ; -

:
1)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.12, ( ).

.464651.
.

45

. 3.12. : ;

OK,
Brick ,
(. 3.12, ).
2)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.13, ( ).

. 3.13. : ;

OK,
Brick ;

.464651.
.

46

. 3.13, .
3)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.14, ( ).

. 3.14. : ;

OK,
Brick ;
. 3.14, .

right_skoba,

right_skoba_up

right_skoba_down, Ctrl,
; ,
Ctrl,

(Boolean Add).

right_skoba
Hide,
,
.
:
1)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.15 ( ).

.464651.
.

47

. 3.15.

(Create cylinder ), Esc,


Cylinder ,
. 3.16, .
Material: Vacuum. OK
Cylinder , Shape Intersection ( ),
. 3.16, . Cut away
highlighted shape OK,
.

. 3.16. :
;

.464651.
.

48

:
(Create cylinder), Esc, Cylinder
, . 3.17, (
Vacuum ). Shape Intersection,
. 3.17, , Cut away
highlighted shape OK,
.

. 3.17. : ;

2)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.18, ( Material:
Vacuum Copper (pure)).

. 3.18. : - ; - cn

.464651.
.

49

cn . Preview
New Parameter (. 3.18, ), (9 )
OK. Brick (. 3.18, ),
OK .
3)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.19 ( ).

. 3.19.

OK,
Brick .

dwn_skoba_dwn,

down_skoba,

down_skoba_up

Ctrl,

; ,
Ctrl,

(Boolean Add).

down_skoba
Hide,
,
. ,
( ) .

.464651.
.

50

:
(Create Brick),

Esc, Brick ,
. 3.20.

. 3.20.

,
Material: [New Material].
General New Material Parameters:,
. 3.21, . FAF4D Material Name:,
(2.5) Epsilon:.
Conductivity (. 3.21, ) 0.0005
Tangent delta el.:. , .
Brick (. 3.20, ).

.464651.
.

51

. 3.21. New Material Parameters: - General; - Conductivity


OK, Brick .

(Create Brick),

Esc, Brick ,
. 3.22 ( FAF4D ).

. 3.22.


OK, Brick .

.464651.
.

52

(Create Brick),

Esc, Brick ,
. 3.23 ( FAF4D ).

. 3.23.


, (
), Create Brick.
,

, .

(Create Brick), Esc,

Brick , . 3.24, (
FAF4D Vacuum). OK
New Parameter (. 3.24, ), wc (1.8
) OK.
(Create Brick), Esc,
Brick , .
3.24, ( - Vacuum - ),
OK.

. 3.24. : ;
wc;

(Create Brick), Esc,

Brick , .
3.25, ( Vacuum ).
OK New Parameter (. 3.25, ),
s (1) OK.

.464651.
.

53
54

(Create Brick), Esc,

Brick

, . 3.25, ( Vacuum
), OK.

. 3.25. :
; s;

Shape
Intersection ( ), . 3.16, .
Cut away highlighted shape
OK,
.
:
1)

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick ,
. 3.26 ( Material:
Vacuum FAF4D).

.464651.
.

55

. 3.26.

(Create Brick), Esc,

Brick , . 3.27, (
FAF4D Vacuum), OK.

(Create Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.27, ( Vacuum
). OK New Parameter
(. 3.27, ), w0 (2 )

OK.

(Create Brick), Esc, Brick


, . 3.27, (
Vacuum ), OK.

.464651.
.

56

. 3.27. : ;
; w0;

(Create Brick), Esc,

Brick , .
3.28, ( Vacuum ),
OK.

(Create Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.28, (
Vacuum ), OK.

. 3.28. :
;

.464651.
.

57

Shape
Intersection ( ), . 3.16, .
Cut away highlighted shape
OK,
.
,
( . 1.1-3.1). 3- (. 1)
:
1) (Create Brick),
Esc, Brick
, . 3.29, ( Material:
Vacuum Copper (pure)), OK.

, . 3.29, , OK.

. 3.29. 3- : ;

2- (. 2) :
1)

(Extrude )

Objects => Extrude, Esc;

Extrude

Profile

Points (X, Y) 14-

.464651.
.

58

, . 3.30,
( Material: Copper (pure) ).
OK New Parameter (. 3.30, ),

wr (1.6 )

OK.
(Extrude), Esc;

Extrude

Profile

Points (X, Y) 21-


, .
3.30, ( Copper (pure) ).
OK New Parameter (. 3.30, ),
w (1.2 ) OK.

. 3.30. 2- : ;
wr; ; w

.464651.
.

59

1- ,
. 3 Y. =|7 . 3.1|.
1- :
1)

(Extrude),

Esc; Extrude Profile


Points (X, Y) 11-
, .
3.31, ( Copper (pure) ),
OK.

(Create

Brick),

Esc, Brick
, . 3.31, (
Copper (pure) ), OK.
, ,
. 3.31, , OK.

. 3.31. 1- : ;
;

(
) . Create Brick,

.464651.
.

60

(. 3.32) (.
3.33).

. 3.32.

. 3.33.

.. .
(Discrete ports) Solve => Discrete ports.
1, . 3.34, .
, 4, .
3.34, . ,
.

.464651.
.

61

. 3.34. : 1; 2

,
.
3.4.

( )
f 0 2 .
Solve => Field Monitors; Monitor,
Type Farfield/RCS, Frequency
2, . 3.35, OK.

.464651.
.

62

. 3.35.

TDS, ,
() S- ( S11
S41) - .

, , Z- Y-, ,
(, E- H, ), ,
.. -
, - ,

Template

Based

Postprocessing (TBP).
, CST MS 2012
, - (,
S41, TDS,
TBP).
,
-. Results
=> Template Based Postprocessing; , . 3.36, .

.464651.
.

63

, Add new postprocessing


step .
S-Parameters. :
S-Parameter ,
. 3.36, , |S41|
Input Port 1, Output Port 4, Result Type Mag. (dB),
; VSWR ,
. 3.36, , 1
Port 1, Mode 1, OK.
TBP.

. 3.36. -: SParameters; |S41|; 1

TBP, Farfield
and Antenna Properties, . 3.37, .
Farfield Result ,
. 3.37, ,
Evaluation Range single direction,
Thete 90, Phi 90, .
TBP, . 3.38, . Close.

.464651.
.

64

. 3.37. -:
Farfield and Antenna Properties;

. 3.38. TBP

TDS,

Solve => Time Domain Solver.

TDS Parameters, . 3.39,


Accuracy: -50 dB, Source type: Port 1.
Start.

.464651.
.

65

. 3.39. TDS Parameters


+ 1D Results
(. 3.40).
, . 3.40 , .. |S41| (S-Parameters),
1 (VSWR), 2 (farfield (f=2) [1]).

. 3.40.

. 3.41 |S41| , .. ,
1 4, 1.82.2 .

. 3.41. |S41|

. 3.42 1
, . 3.43 , 1.6.

. 3.42. 1

. 3.43

f f
2.135 1.855

0.14 14%
0.5( f f ) 0.5 (2.135 1.855)
.

.464651.
.

66

. 3.43. 1 ()

. 3.44 , . 3.45 -.
Angular width (3 dB)
. . 4.1 (. 4).

uu
r
. 3.44. H

.464651.
.

67

ur
. 3.45. E

( ) (.
3.41-3.45) . 3.2.
. 3.2.


(1.6)
-
-
|S41|, ( )

4%

7%

110
40

112
42.25
-23

. 3.2, ,

.
CST MS .
:
1) TDS (. ), TDS
Parameters, . 3.46, Accuracy: -30 dB,
Optimize.

.464651.
.

68

. 3.46. TDS

2) Optimizer (. 3.47) Settings


7 , ,
. 3.47, Algoritm:
CMA Evolution Strategy, Goals.

. 3.47. Settings Optimizer

3) , . 3.48,
Add New Goal. Define TBP Goal, . 3.49, ,

.464651.
.

69

Result Name:
; |S41|
(S4,1dB), , . 3.49, .
OK.

. 3.48. Goals Optimizer

1 (VSWR1(1)),
. 3.49, ,
(Directivity,Theta=90,Phi=90), . 3.49, (
OK).

.464651.
.

70

. 3.49. : |S41|;
1;

4) Optimizer, .
3.50. Start.

. 3.50. Goals


- ,
, .

4. -
4.1.

, ,
:

() ,
, ,
.
().
,

.464651.
.

71

()

().

,
( )
( ). ,

,
, (
) ( ).
:
) . :
,
;
.
) .
.
) .
; : ,

.
) .
;
,
,
.
)
. ,
. :

.464651.
.

72

. :
;
,

;
,
.
,
,
,

.
:

:
( ) ;
;
. ,
:
,
; :

.464651.
.

73
74



,
.
:

.
:

,
;


;
;

(
1..5 );
( ,

); ;

.

(, ).
,
:

.464651.
.

75

1)

()

;
2)
, ..
, ;
3) () .

( ):
1.1) .

. :

.
1.2) ( ,
. 1.1). :
(
, ,
).
2) :
,
. (
) , , , ,
.
3)
,
.
4) .

.464651.
.

76

5) .
(prepreg).
,
.
, .
6)
.

, .
7)

.
4.2.
:
,
; ,
;
()
. , ,
, , ,
..
, .
1 . ,

-50-751

(.

4.1).

50
.

. 4.1. -50-751-
,
. (. 4.2):
1 , 2 , 3 .

. 4.2.

1 2 13 37 ,
3 25 96 . 1 2
(, ) , . 4.3, . 3
9 3 ( ),
. 4.3, ; 6
, . 4.3, .

.464651.
.

77

. 4.3.


( 3).
5.3.
1) ( 3);
, ,
3. ,
.
2) (1, 2),
,
(3) , . 4.2 . 4.4.
3) (3) ,

. (3) .
4) . 134.
,
, . 4.4.

. 4.4. .

.464651.
.

78

5.



,
.

.
, , ..
.
:
, ,
.
5.1.
,
11800 ., 26000 .
, 336 ,

..

336 26000

740

11800
.

5.1.
.
.

(500)


., .

180

180

0.1

100

200

10

50

(4 )

220

220

150

140

.464651.
.

79

1.8

300

540

740

2220

:
()
,

,
, ,
() .
.. 20500 .,
12300 . 22 ,

.. .. 20500 22 931.8 ./ ,
. . 12300 22 559.1 ./ .
. 5.2.
5.2.
,

, .

.
.

1863.6

931.8

931.8

1677.3

18

15

18636

8386.5

931.8

1863.6

1118.2

931.8

559.1

3727.2

1118.2

3913.7

931.8

559.1

.464651.
.

, .

80

931.8

30

30

27954

16773

44727

:
,
( ): ,
.
, , 12%

0.12 0.12 44727 5367.2

):

()
: 34% (),
, , :

3 44727 5367.2 50094.2

. . .,

: 0.34 0.34 50094.2 17032 .


:
.

, ,
, .

60%

0.6 0.6 44727 26836.2 .


5.3.
5.3.

, .
2220
44727
5367.2
17032

.464651.
.

81

26836.2
96182.4

, ,
. 5.4.

5.4.

. .

-4, h 2
-4, s 0.25

-50-751-

0.6 2
0.6 2

.
2


., .
4230
1890
810
600
500

2
0.25

() :
a 92 , b 54 . 0.6 2 ,

10 , :

600
600
600


600
ent
0.5ent
ent

22.5
92 10
54
a 10 b 10

10
.

N 0.5ent

.., 22 :
1) -4 h 2 0.6 2 ( .);
2) -4 s 0.25 0.6 2 ( .);
2) -50-751- 44 .;
3) - 0.074 2. ,

2 0.25
4230 1890
2 0.003
810
N
22

2 600 0.003 500 2289.7 .

5-

.464651.
.

82

1- : 1 / 175 9030 / 175 51.6


.
, 5- 5 1.76 ,
5- :

5 1 5 51.6 1.76 90.8 .


5.5.

5.5.


, . , . , .

6
544.8

1
90.8
90.8

1
90.8
:
8
726.4

: 12%
:

0.12 0.12 726.4 87.2

34% , :

3 726.4 87.2 813.6

. . .,

: 0.34 0.34 813.6 276.6 .

, 22 ,


N
, ,

, N :

96182.4
2289.7 813.6 276.6 7751.8
22
.

.464651.
.

83

. ., 22 . 7751.8
. ( , ).
, (
2),
.
.

6.

.
, (
).
-
:
1) .
,
, .
,
.
,
.
:
;
;
.

.464651.
.

84

,
, .
,
.
, , .
,
,
, ,
.

: .

,
:
,
;
( 1.5-2 ,
);
( 3-4 ,
);
.

.
,

(),

.464651.
.

85

2) .
220 (, )


, 4.
3)

, ,
.
.

, 5 .
-
.

, , .. ,
.
, ..

)
.
4) .
-
,
.
,
.

() ,

, .
5) ( - );
6) .
5.1.

.
,
, ,
. ,
. ,

; ,
, .
.
,

.
, , ,
,
, ,
().

.

.464651.
.

86
87

,
.
, ,

,
; ,

.
(,
, , , ).
(),
,
300 300.
.

( )

- .
,
, , - ,
. : ,

,
[16].
5.2.

, ,
:

W S

[],

[/2]; S
[2].
[17],
[18].
, .
[18]:
1) (8 .) 0.25 /2 = -6.02 /2;
2) 2 1 /2 = 0 /2.
()
[16]
, . ,
CST MS
1 ( TDS),
.

, .
:
1) Farfield (f=2) [1] ,
. 6.1, , (.
4.1). ,
, . 6.1, .
Farfield Plot Properties.

. 6.1. : ;

.464651.
.

88
89

2) Farfield Plot,
Plot Mode, . 6.2,
Directivity Power pattern.

. 6.2. Plot Mode Farfield Plot

, Reference distance: (. 6.2)


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r1 0.851 , Pmax= -0.005681 /2
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1) . ., . . . : ,
1982. 278 .

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2) . ., . . . .: , 1975.
3) . . . .: -
, 1957.
4) . . - .
, - -, 1960.
5) . . (
). -2012:
. : - , 2012. . 23
6) . 2 472 261 , 01 Q 9/28. / . .
, . . , . . . 2011133738/07; .
10.08.2011; . 10.01.2013; . 1.
7) . ., . . A novel ends-fed dipole radiator //

XI

. 1. : - , 2012.
. 21-28.
8) . . .
, 2-
,
( . , 2012): . URL: http://snto.bmstu.ru/index.php?
id=36
9) Balanis C. A. Antenna Theory. Analysis and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley
& Sons, 2005.
10) . . : . . : - , 1996.
11) . . : .
/ . . . : - , 2004. 72 .
12) Kraus J. D. Antennas. Mc. Graw-Hill Book Co., Inc., N.-Y., Toronto, London,
1950.

13) ., ., .
//
. 2005. 6. . 210-216.
14) . ., . .
CST Microwave Studio. . , 2010. - 160 .
15) . . :
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16) .. . .: . , 1974.
17)

12.1.006-84.

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