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# : .

. . . .
, . .
.

:
: 14-81
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: . .
: 12.02.13

2013

1.
2.
3. .
4.
5. , .
6.

3-7
7-8
9-10
10-11
11-14
14-17
17

1. .

. , ,
( fi = fi f 0 )
( fi f 0 = k 10 n , k [1...10] ) ,
[1].
[2] , ()
,
(
) :
, , ,
, ..
,

.

.
()
1, 10, 100 1000 1, 10
100 .
, [2].

() ,
: T=1 , T=10 , T=0.1 , T=1 [1].
[3],
10 100 , -
10 100 . ,
,
,
, ,
: , , , 10 [1].
[4], .
,
, ,
,
. ,
,
-.
[5] [6],
,
:
.
:
,
1 , 10 , ,
, ,
.

1
k - : yk =

tk +

tk

y (t )dt =

yk ,

(tk + ) (tk )
,
2 f c

tk +1 = tk + T (k = 0,1,2,...) , ,
( = T ,
), - ( ).
, f c (1 + yk ) [5].
,
yk

2 ( N , T , ) =
2

1 N
1 N
=
y

yk

n
N 1 n =1
N k =1

, X -

, N , [5].
N .
N , 2 ( N , T , ) .
N=2 T = , ..
2
2
. y ( N = 2,T = , ) = ( ) , 2 ( ) -
. :
( yk +1 yk ) 2
y2 ( ) = =
T = [5].
2

N=2 ( yk yk +1 ) ,
.
, ,
. ,
N , [5].
-
,
, .
[7].

: (t ) = 0 + H t + (t ) , H
; 0 ;
, ; (t )
[7].
(t ) ,
: 1) ,
H t ; 2) ,
(t) [7].

.
. 1 [7]:

. 1.

, ,
,
.
CP (t , ) ,
1 t + / 2
(t )dt [7].
: CP (t , ) =
t / 2

CP (t , ) ,
: P (t ) = CP (t , ) (t , ) [7].
.
- () , , ,
,
1 f x [7].

(. . 2) [7]:

. 2. -

, , 3
[7].
.
. 2 n ,
= n FP , FP . :
2
= FP f 2 = FP f 2 [7].
n

FP , n ,
(. . 3), ..
[7].

. 3.

, . 2,
- ( T = 3 103 ).

n
FP

2 [7].
, : KP =

. 4
n [7]:

. 4.

(. . 5) [7]:

. 5.

1 << , 2 << (t ) = 2 (t ) 1 (t )
.

0 [ 3;2 3] .
.

[7].
,
.

.
(
) -
[7].
[1]: 1)
; 2)
( ,
); 3) ,
, , ..; 4)
(, ),
; 5) ,
.

2.
()
() -
1 F .
[1], [2], [8]:
1) S ( F ), [1 /] - ,
;
2
2) S ( F ) = 2 S ( F ), [ / ] - ,
;
2
2
3) S f ( F ) = F S ( F ), [ / ] ;
4) S y ( F ) =

S f (F )
f 02

F2
= 2 S ( F ), [1 /]
f0

## S y ( F ) = 10lg S y ( F ), [/ ] . [5] [6],

S y ( F )
&(t )
, y (t ) =
0 .
(. . 1)
,
2

+1
h F , F < F < F
[1], [8]: S ( F ) = =2

0 , F < F
2 2
( h ), S ( F ) = f 0F S ( F ) .

S ( F ) , 1 S ( F ) , 2

-2

h2 F 2

f 02 F 4h2

-1

h1F 1

f 02 F 3h1

h0 F 0

f 02 F 2h0

h1F 1

f 02 F 1h1

. 1. [1], [8]

,
; ;
: , ;
-; ;
( , );
; ; ;
-; ;

h2 F 2

f 02 F 0h2

; ; ,
;

. 6 [2]. S ( F )

[1], [8]:
1) (): U ( FH , FB ) =

FB

S ( F )dF , [].

FH

F
FH ...FB . U U 0 = m( FH , FB ) ;
FB

2) (): f ( FH , FB ) =

S f ( F )dF , [];

FH

3) (): ( FH , FB ) =

FB

S ( F )dF , [];

FH

4) () 1 : f ( F ) = NF S ( F ) , N .

: E = 4kTR ;
, ( )
0.5E .
2
- () A = U CU : E
= 0.5 kTR

= N
.
: P = kT2 N
( . . )
P [] = 10lg(kT2 N 103 ) , N =
-
( . . )
, : N =

1
N 1
+
N1 + 2
0.1 l
K P1
10
.

N3 1
NK 1
+ ... +
, - , l - .
K P 2 K P1
K P K K P K 1 ...K P1
T0 P [] , :
P [] = 10lg(kT0 ) + 10lg(T T
N 3 + 20lg + 10lg + 10lg = 174 +
0 ) + 10lg10
+

+10lg(T T
+ 10lg .

,
0 ) + 20lgN + 10lg
= 1 = 1 , 0 = 1 , N = 1 , -174 .

3. . .
() -
. :
( )
( ) [1].
.
, , ,
. .
, ,
[9].
.

( )
().
,
[9]. ()
R, T
, [] , k - .
[1]: E = 4kT R
21
,
T0 = 290 K kT0 = 4 10/
2
= 4 T0 T( 0 ) , [] [1].
P
= R
kT
,
,
.
,
. , ( )
R , T -
.

[9].
-
.
.
(

).
,
. ,
, .
, , ,
[9].
[1]:
19
I = 2 I 0q , [A] , q = 1.6 10
- , I0 -

, - .

()

U = { r , r , r } I , [B] .

[1]:

-
, ..
(, , ),
[1]. ,
, , ,
.

[9].
-

(
),

-

, . .
[9]. - -;
= 2, 1,0
S ( F ) = 1 F , [/ ] ,

( = 1 ) [1].

. 7. -

- ;
.

4. .

s (t ) .
s (t ) : p (t ) = s 2 (t ) .
s (t ) , p (t ) ,
1 . t1, t2

t2

t2

t1

t1

p(t )dt = s

(t )dt .

1 2 2
=
s (t ) dt = s 2 (t ) t1, t2

t2 t1 t2 t1 t
1

[10].

[11], :

(u + v)

dt =

= Eu + Ev + 2 uvdt .

Euv = 2 uvdt ,
(u, v) =

u (t )v(t )dt .

( )
( ) [10], [11].

. . s (t ) (,
)
, ,
, .

. , ,
2

, , : s (t ) =
T 2

n =

cn

i 2 n
1
T dt
cn =
s
(
t
)
e

T T 2

) [10].

: S ( ) =

s(t )e

i t

dt ,

:
1
1 2
2
2
= s (t )dt =
S ( ) d = S ( )d . ,
2

,
2
. S ( ) , ,
1 , [10]
[11].
,
, (
) [10].
u (t ) v(t )
U ( ) V ( ) :
1
(u, v) =
2

U ( )V

( )d .

u (t ) v(t ) Wuv ( ) = U ( )V ( ) ;
1
(u, v) = ReWuv ( )d [11].
0
, ,
.

5. , .
.

, .
,
u0 (t ) = U 0 sin(2 f 0t + 0 ) (t )
(t ) () [2]:
u (t ) = U 0[1 + (t )]sin[2 f 0t + (t ) + 0 ] .
u (t )
u0 (t )
.

[2].
(t ) (t )
,
Su ( f )
, . 3.
()
[2].

. 8 [2].

, ,
Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), ..
(. . 9) [12]:

. 9.

, [13], v (. . 10)
, I
I 0 .

. 10.

[3]

( ).
, Wx () ,
, ,
,
u (t ) .

. 11 [3].

Wx () Wx (0) .
:

=
, cos -
cos d

.

.

u (t ) , ,
(t ) . , (t )

, , ,
, ..
(t ) u (t )
.
,
, [2].

,

[2].
[1],
,
(t + ) (t ) [0 (t + ) + (t + )] [0t + (t )]
=
=
=
:

(t + ) (t )
(t ) (t + )
= 0 +
= 0 +
= 0 + (t , ) , t ,

(), 0 - t
.

. 12.
2

(. 11): S f ( F ) = H ( j) S ( F ) ,
H ( j) = (1 exp( j )) .

( ,

),
.
[2].

6. .
[14]
. . 13
[14],
:

. 13.

[5], [8].

(. 14):

. 14 [5].

-;
. , ,
V.,
. ,
. ,
.

V., ,
[5].
,
: -, , ,
1/f
; , -, ,

[5].
[5] [14],
, . 15:

. 15. ,

S ( f m ) ,
2/;
f m , .
; : f 0
; Q ;
, (1/f) ; f = F
( ),
(. . 15),
1 5 ; F , ; k
; (kT= 174 /
); PS ; B
;
.

. 15 [1]. F

f .
S&( f m ) [5]
2
: S ( f m ) = S&( f m ) f m .
, ,
f 3 . f

, 9
6, 0 / [5].
, 6 /
,
(..
f m > f 0 2Q ).
, , S ( f m )
[5].
[1],
2S ( F ) N
2kT N
= 2
: SU ( F ) =
.
PC
PC
(): SU ( F ) O() =
F
1
R
dR
= 2 O() = 2 (1 + ) 2
k
=
=

U
R (U 0 ) ,
[1/],

..
0
F k .. + 2
dU
R (U 0 )
(,
, ).
, , :
Z
1
1
2F
F 2
=
=
e j , =
QK =
=
Q - R 1 + j
f
Ff
K
1+ 2
, F f = f 2QK - .
(. 14)
:
F
) = 2 1 + ;
1) : S ( F
F

2) ( ):
2

S ( F ) = S ( F ) H ( F
) =

)(

F 1F+

K KC = (1 + j ) 1

H1 F ( ) = H ( F ) = (1 K KC ) 1

H ( F ) = 1 + F f2 F 2

= 2 1 + F F 1 1 + F f2 F 2 = 2 F F f2 F 3 + F f2 F 2 + F F 1 + 1 ,
.

:
2
2
2 1
2 0
1
2
2
S f ( F ) = F S ( F
) = F F F f F +F f F +F F +
, [ / ] .

, F -1 0, , F
1 2 (
).
:
f ( FH , F
B) = F F

2
F
f ln(F B

2
HF) +F f ( FB

F0.5F ( FB2
H)+

2
) + ( FB3
HF

3
H)

3,]
[
.

,
:
1) N ;
2) ( );
3) ;
4) PC N ( PC 1 10 );

5) .

:
1) , 2012 .
2) . . : . . . - .:
, 2005.
3) . ., . . .
.: - , 2005. - 355 .
4) . . / . . , . . . - ., 1981. - 263 .
5) . : / . . . . ;
. . . . - ., 1979.
6) Barnes J. and others. Characterization of frequency stability // Proc. IEEE. - 1971. - Vol. IM-20. - PP.
105120.
7) . - // . - 2009. -
9.- . 64-65.
8) . . / . . , . . . - ., 1991.
9) URL: http://www.femto.com.ua/articles/part_2/4585.html
10) . . : . . . .: , 2006.
11) .. : . - .: ,
1988
13) URL:http://library.tuit.uz/el_ucheb/microvoln_poluprov_pribori/main/Lectures/lecture10-2_2.htm
14) Leeson D. A simple model of feedback oscillator noise spectrum // Proc. IEEE. - 1966. - Vol. 54. PP. 329330.

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