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Koostas Sulev Nurme

Vene misatripp

Taits Valge paviljon (akvarell XIX saj keskelt)


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................................................................... 18
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Ivan Fomin .................................................................................. 21
Art Nouveau (1899-1903) ....................................................... 21
Neoclassicism (1903-1917)..................................................... 21
Revolutionary years (1918-1926) ........................................... 22
The last ten years (1926-1936)............................................... 22
a....................................................................................... 23
.................................................................................. 23
- I ..................................................... 25
.................................................................................. 46
...................................................................................... 48
................................................................... 50
Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)....................................................... 56

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Estate ...................................................................................... 56
Park ......................................................................................... 57
Chinese Palace ........................................................................ 57
Grand Menchikov Palace ........................................................ 58
Peters III Palace ..................................................................... 58
Antonio Rinaldi ........................................................................... 60
.................................................................................... 61
Andrei Voronihin ........................................................................ 63
Mihailovskoje............................................................................. 64
.......................................................... 64
............................... 65
.............................................................. 66
Aleksandr Pukin ........................................................................ 67
.................................................................................... 68
.......................................................... 68
.................................................................................. 69
a ........................................................................... 70
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839-1881) .............................. 71
............................................................................................ 72
Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff................................................. 73
In Russia ............................................................................... 73
Emigration .............................................................................. 75
Career in the West.................................................................. 75
Illness and death..................................................................... 75
Pavlovsk ..................................................................................... 76
Creation .................................................................................. 76
Park ......................................................................................... 79
Charles Cameron ........................................................................ 81
Architect ................................................................................. 81
Early career............................................................................. 82
Arrival in Russia ...................................................................... 82
Retirement.............................................................................. 82
................................................................................ 83
.......................................................... 83

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. .................................................................. 84
......................................................................................... 85
................................................................................ 89
........................................................... 89
................................................................... 91
................................................................................... 92
Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin ................................................. 93
................................................................................. 95
....................................................................................... 96

Unknown Artist of the 19th Century. Obelisk Commemerating the Foundation of Pavlovsk

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Allikas: 35/2003 ""

http://his.1september.ru/2003/34/14.htm
http://his.1september.ru/article.php?ID=200303508

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misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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Allikas: " " 9'2003


http://testan.narod.ru/article/toponim.htm

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www.opeterburge.ru

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19th-century watercolour representing the


Cross Bridge in Chinese Village of Tsarskoe
Selo

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Peaallee
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Allikad:
http://www.opeterburge.ru/suburb_563_567.html
http://www.tzar.ru/museums/palaces/alexander_park/plans

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Sulev Nurme 2011

Beloje Ustje peahoone.


lal: 1849 . arhitekt Petsholdt ()
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Allikad:
http://belskoe-ustye.ru/
http://www.hist-sights.ru/node/879
http://www.ruschudo.ru/miracles/413/

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Ivan Fomin
Wikipedia
Ivan Aleksandrovich Fomin (3 February 1872, Oryol 12 June 1936, Moscow)
was a Russian architect and educator. He began his career in 1899 in Moscow,
working in the Art Nouveau style. After relocating to Saint Petersburg in 1905,
he became an established master of the Neoclassical Revival movement.
Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 Fomin developed a Soviet adaptation
of Neoclassicism and became one of the key contributors to an early phase of
Stalinist architecture known as postconstructivism.
Born in Oryol, Fomin received a classical education at a high school in Riga, and
studied mathematics at the Moscow University. In 1894, he joined the Imperial
Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg but was expelled in 1896[2] for political
activities. After a year of studies in France, Fomin settled in Moscow and
passed the tests for a contractors license. He worked for Lev Kekushev and
Fyodor Schechtel, two leading masters of Art Nouveau. Schechtel assigned him
to Moscow Art Theatre project, which exposed Fomin to the public and
eventually brought him his first own commissions.

Art Nouveau (1899-1903)


Fomin's early style was related to Schekhtel's and Austrian Jugendstil. His first and most notable work was the Wilhelmina Reck
mansion in Skatertny Lane. The building is loosely modeled after the Elvira Studio by August Endell (1896, destroyed 1944);
instead of Endells marine motifs, Fomin decorated his work with plaster flowers and majolica inserts. The same floral motifs
were used in the iron gates. The building still stands, albeit rebuilt beyond recognition.
Fomin continued working for the Reck family, who sponsored Art Nouveau. In 1902-1903, he organized the "Exhibition of Art and
Architecture of New Style", showcasing his works in interior design. Fomin contracted top-level furniture makers, foundries and
ceramic plants for his own designs, but also displayed works by guests like Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Joseph Maria Olbrich,
Koloman Moser and Russian artists. Fomin established himself as a promoter of Art Nouveau. However, his attempts to forge the
new Architectural Society failed. In 1902, he set up the Construction College in Moscow, with a separate class for women.

Neoclassicism (1903-1917)
Fomin acquired a solid reputation, but did not have an architects license yet. He returned to St.Petersburg in 1905 and
completed Leon Benois' course at the Academy of Arts in 1909, winning a one-year study tour to Greece, Egypt and Italy. At this
time, Neoclassical Revival became the leading style in St. Petersburg, and the most technologically advanced. Banks and
department stores, who favored the style, could afford a steel frame and concrete slab floors. A combination of money and
technology allowed the mix of classical columns and arches with large glass surfaces.
Fomin's turn to Neoclassicism is traced to 1903, when he applied to the contest for Count Volkonsky estate with a neoclassical
draft. In 1904, Fomin published his Revival Manifesto in Mir Iskusstva magazine, pledging to architectural legacy of Catherine and
Alexander I. "These days, everyone wants to be individual, to invent his own, and in the end we cannot see nether a dominant
style, nor a trace of those who can eventually create it". Fomin believed in a universal idea uniting everyone, and in an
architectural style that could serve it. He promoted the Academy's exhibitions in "History of Russian Art" (1909) and "History of
Architecture" (1911), as vigorously as he did his Art Nouveau shows. Fomin was an outspoken advocate for building preservation,
leading a campaign against the conversion of historical mansions into rental apartment buildings.
Fomin completed numerous interior renovations, and two new buildings (Polovtsov mansion, and Abamelek-Lazarev mansion ).
His greatest urban projects of this time, interrupted by the outbreal of World War I, didnt materialize in full.
Novy Peterburg (Goloday Island development) was a huge Palladian fantasy. In 1911, a British investment company launched a
development project on a 1 square kilometer lot in the western Goloday Island, awarding general planning to Fomin. Building

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design was split between Fomin and Feodor Lidwahl. Fomin wanted to recreate the monumental imperial classics in a middle
class community. Only a fraction of his plan materialized before World War I. One building, a school on Kakhovsky Street, stands
today.

Revolutionary years (1918-1926)


In 1918, Lidwahl left for Sweden. Fomin stayed in St. Petersburg. The Russian Civil War stopped all new construction; the few
architectural jobs concentrated in monumental propaganda and city planning. Fomin managed to secure the chair of Petrograd
(St.Petersburg) Zoning commission, and designed the Field of Mars landscape (19201923).
Fomin trained a new generation of architects at VKhUTEMAS/VKhuTEIN, at the same time developing his own concept of
proletarian classicism. He asserted that a universal architecture must borrow essential principles from classicism, but the details
of classicism are not important. As a result, the new architectural order can be simplified to a laconic set of basic elements, not
bound by strict proportions. In practice, like all theories, it worked for good architects (like Fomin himself) but could not help
mediocre imitators.

The last ten years (1926-1936)


In 1929, Fomin relocated to Moscow. There, he completes the Dynamo building, an experiment halfway between modern art and
his own neoclassicism. The building, using steel frame and concrete slab floors, looks like an industrial object, but the paired
columns, Fomin's trademark, give away its classical origin. In 1933, when all Moscow architects were assigned to 20 Mossovet
workshops, Fomin is appointed to lead Design Workshop No.3. Here, he designed his three last projects (two will be completed
after his death).
According to Selim Khan-Magomedov, Fomin was one of the two forerunners of so-called postconstructivism, an early stage of
Stalinist architecture (the other was Ilya Golosov). Postconstructivism is defined as classical shapes without classical details, an
attempt to reinvent new styling to replace classical order. Fomin eventually disposed with it in favor of true neoclassicism (as did
all Stalinist architecture).
Fomin took part in all of the major architectural contests of his time: 1932-34 Kursky Rail Terminal, 1932-33 Palace of Soviets,
1934 Narkomtiazhprom, 1934 Moscow Metro first stage. He did win and completed one of the Metro jobs. Palace of Soviets was
won by Boris Iofan, construction began with enormous publicity but was terminated by German attack of 1941. Other two
contests didn't get beyond concept drafts.
Unlike Ivan Zholtovsky, who abstained from the lowly work on subway stations, Fomin eagerly joined the contest for the Metro.
He competed on the Krasniye Vorota (Red Gates) against former constructivist Ilya Golosov, whose entry appeared to be a true
Doric Greek classic. Unfortunately for Golosov, exremely hard geological conditions required heavy, wide support pylons. His
otherwise fine draft was not feasible for 1935 technology, giving way to Fomin's simple red granite design - a tribute to the old
Red Gates, demolished in 1932. This station opened to public in 1935, while Fomin was alive. He designed one more station,
Teatralnaya (then Ploschad Sverdlova), which was completed two years after his death.
His last project on the ground, Government of Ukraine building in Kiev, was approved for construction in 1934. This 10-story
building, the earliest example of true Stalin's Empire Style, was hailed as the way to build and spawned numerous imitations. A
peculiar feature is the quilt-like ornament on the columns. Fomin knew very well that a 25-meter bare column will look
unnatural; the quilt warms up an otherwise dull shape. Column capitals also differ from their Corynthian prototypes: at this
height, he reasoned, fine Greek details would be lost, so he simplified and enlarged leaves of his ornament.
Legacy
Fomin died of a sudden stroke in 1936 and was interred at Novodevichye Cemetery; Teatralnaya and Government of Ukraine
were completed by other architects. After World War II, the Government of Ukraine building became a staple of Soviet textbooks
on architecture, a model of Stalin's Empire.

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Sulev Nurme 2011

24 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

, ,
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.

Sulev Nurme 2011

Gatina park
lal: ansamblituumik ca 1790
All: Silvia park ca 1790

25 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

1 1881 (
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III,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: .. .
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26 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal:
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27 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: Veenuse paviljon


Keskel: Veenuse paviljoni kavand Gatinas
All: Veenuse paviljoni kavand Chantillys

28 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: .
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29 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

- .
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Gatina sildu (lalt alla): ,


( 1930- ),
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30 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

.
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Sulev Nurme 2011

. .. .
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31 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

.

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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: Kotka paviljon


All: Valge jrve paadisild

32 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

:
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.

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Sulev Nurme 2011

Terrassid .
lal: .. . .
1798
Keskel: Foto1930-st
All: lviskulptuur terrassil

33 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

- ,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: .. .

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All: .
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34 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

-,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal:
All:

35 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Amfiteater
lal: .
All: Vaade amfiteatri nlvale

36 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

..
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Sulev Nurme 2011


All: .
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37 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

: - 3275, - 1421,
5, - 3560, - 34, 11495, - 3 .9 ., 9 ., 13 , 1
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Sulev Nurme 2011


lal: .
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All: .

38 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Lindla

39 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: Silvia vrav


Keskel ja all: .

40 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


, .
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Aiad
lal:

Keskel:
All: Alumine Hollandi aed

41 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

, .
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Skulptuure
lal: Flora
All: Amatsoon

42 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

90-
XVIII . ,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

Mars

43 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

, . ,
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,

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XVIII
,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

44 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

,
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Allikad:
http://history-gatchina.ru/parks/park/park11.htm
http://gatchinapalace.ru/gatchina/history.php
http://history-gatchina.ru/
http://gatchina3000.ru/misc/pages/general_plan_palace_park_jpg.htm

Sulev Nurme 2011

45 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

Sulev Nurme 2011

46 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


13 20
.

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(
. 700) ,
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, 42 . 1825.
,
( 1995. .
).

Sulev Nurme 2011

Peahoone XX sajandi ja XXI sajandi algul

.
-

N 59 44.805' E 29 37.398'

47 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

..
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Allikad:
http://lenobl.h1.ru/main.php?part=3&item=1
http://www.geocaching.su/?pn=101&cid=2456/
http://plantarum.livejournal.com/54633.html
http://iako.livejournal.com/165144.html
http://enclo.lenobl.ru/showObject.do?object=1803677175&language=1

Sulev Nurme 2011

, .. .
XIX .

48 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


, ,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: Peahoone XIX sajandil


All:


,
.
N5908.50' E3153.14'

49 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

:
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.
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Sulev Nurme 2011

50 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


, 1918 .
,
1942-1943 , .

Hiina kiosk (paviljon)


Allikad:
http://novgorod.forest.ru/les/park/grusino.htm
http://irexmedia.ru/pic/151333-xudozhnik-vorobev-m-n.html
http://www.bilarius.ru/istorija-kraja/parki-i-usadby/mir-ruskoi-usadby/usadba-gruzino.html
http://arch-heritage.livejournal.com/236964.html


.. -
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Sulev Nurme 2011

lal: Ljubenski esivljak


-
/
:* 11.00
18.00,
:
(81133)9-4449

51 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

-
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Sulev Nurme 2011

52 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast


, . -,
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Sulev Nurme 2011

53 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

() . .
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Sulev Nurme 2011

54 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

.
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Sulev Nurme 2011

55 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

- -
,
.
-,
1907-1913 ,
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.
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Sulev Nurme 2011

56 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

.
, ,
1.750.000.. .
C
- .
1999 .. ,
, , - .
Allikad:
http://www.russianlaw.net/RK/rus/NARKr.htm

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)

Estate
Still commonly known by its post-war name of Lomonosov, the estate at
Oranienbaum is the oldest of the Imperial Palaces around St. Petersburg, and
also the only one not to be captured by Nazi forces during the Great Patriotic
War. Founded by Prince Menshikov, Peter the Great's closest adviser, the
Grand Palace is one of the most opulent examples of Petrine architecture to
have survived to the present, although until very recently the palace itself has
been greatly neglected. After Menshikov's death, Oranienbaum passed to the
state, and was used as a hospice until, in 1743, it was presented by Empress
Elizabeth to her nephew, the future Peter III. Peter made Oranienbaum his
official summer residence and transformed one corner of the park, ordering
the construction of a "Joke" Castle and a small citadel manned by his Holstein
guards. This peculiar ensemble, called Petershtadt, was mostly demolished
during Pavel's reign. Antonio Rinaldi, the Italian-born architect who also
designed the Grand Palace at Gatchina and the Marble Palace in St. Petersburg,
was commissioned by Peter in 1758 to build a modest stone palace next to the
fortress, and this has survived.
After Peter was deposed, Rinaldi was commissioned by Catherine the Great to
build the Chinese Palace, in the Upper Park, as her official country residence.
However, Catherine spent little time at Oranienbaum, which she had grown to
hate during her marriage to Peter, and by the end of the 18th century the
estate had been turned into a Naval Cadet College. The palace became an
Imperial residence again in the reign of Alexander I, and retained that status
until the Revolution, when it was immediately opened as a museum. Although
never captured by the Germans, Oranienbaum was bombarded during the war
and, while the Grand Menshikov Palace survived intact, its restoration was
given much lower priority than the more famous estates at Peterhof and
Tsarskoe Selo. Today, the small but elegant park has been almost completely
restored, while the full restoration of the palaces has finally gained momentum
over the last decade.

Sulev Nurme 2011

Oranienbaum

St. Petersburg
Opening hours: May to September, daily
from 11am to 5pm. Closed on Tuesdays and
the last Monday of each month. Closed
October to April.

57 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

Park
Like the fabulous buildings at Oranienbaum, the park around them is in need of
a great deal of tender, loving cate to restore it to its former glories. While some
parts of the varied parkland can still give a fair impression of the carefully
planned landscaping carried out in the reign of Catherine the Great, others are
so overgrown as to have become just wilderness.
The Upper Park, to the south-west of the Grand Menshikov Palace, is the most
beautiful section of the estate, with varied woodland interlaced with canals,
bridges and ponds. Laid out in the reign of Catherine the Great by Joseph Bush,
the rolling parkland contains the Chinese Palace and Antonio Rinaldi's equally
fascinating Sliding Hill, a three-storey, blue-and-white baroque pavilion that
was once the starting point for a 500m "rollercoaster" using sledges or
wheeled carts. Other buildings in the Upper Park include the Stone Hall, used in
Catherine's reign for masquerades, the late 19th century Pergola, and the
simple neoclassical Cavaliers' Room, which now houses a cafe. The Upper Park
also boasts a deer enclosure with tame and very friedly inmates.
The Lower Park around the Grand Menshikov Palace was laid out in the early
18th century, when formal gardens were still the fashion, and hence there is
little to see for now among the unkempt flower beds and silty ponds.

Chinese Palace
There is nothing particularly Chinese about this charming building in the
southern corner of the park at Oranienbaum. Built by Antonio Rinaldi between
1762 and 1768, it was the first major building project to be ordered by
Catherine the Great, who planned for the building to serve as her private
dacha. In fact the Empress spent only 48 days there during the 34 years of her
reign. However, the building, which is currently undergoing full-scale
renovation, is considered one of the finest examples of rococo in Russia, with
has superbly ornate interiors featuring a range of late 18th century styles,
including Chinoiserie, a trend imported to St. Petersburg from England rather
than from the East.

Chinese Palace

From the outside, the palace is a relatively simple building, single-storey except
for the small central pavilion, painted in a mellow combination of ochre and
yellow. The seventeen rooms inside, decorated by Rinaldi and other leading
artists and craftsmen of the day, feature pink, blue and green scagliola, painted
silks, and intricate stucco work. Rinaldi's parquet floors are wonderfully ornate,
using several types of rare Russian and imported wood. Among the highlights
of the Chinese Palace interiors are the Glass Beaded Salon, the walls of which
are hung with 12 panels of richly coloured tapestries depicting exotic birds and
fauna. The fine white glass beads that form the backdrop of the tapestries give
the whole room a diaphanous, shimmering quality that was designed to be
particularly effective in the glowing twighlight of the White Nights. The full
influence of Chinoiserie is in evidence in the gaudy Large Chinese Salon, where
the walls are covered with marquetry paneling of wood and walrus ivory
depicting oriental landscapes, and large Chinese lanterns hanging in the
corners. The room also contains an English-made billiard table with superb
wood carving.
The interiors of the Chinese Palace are particularly prized because they have
survived almost completely intact since Catherine's reign. Whereas most of the
interiors of St. Petersburg's imperial palaces had to be completely
reconstructed after the wanton destruction of the Nazi invaders, the
decorations of the Chinese Palace were successfully evacuated, and re-installed

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Grand Menchikov Palace

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in the early fifties. They are, however, in chronic need of restoration, and the
process is finally underway in ernest, with several major Russian and
international conservation agencies involved in the process. As yet, there is no
date set for the completion of works.

Grand Menchikov Palace


The lands on which Oranienbaum and the town of Lomonosov were
established were first presented by Peter the Great to Grand Duke Alexander
Menshikov around 1710. At the time, Menshikov was overseeing the
fortification of the sea fort at Kronshtadt on Kotlin Island, 5km from the site
across the Gulf of Finland.
Menshikov began to build his residence here in 1713, at about the same time
as Peter began work on his own estate at Peterhof. Menshikov seemed intent
on outdoing his master in terms of scale and grandeur, and commissioned
architects Giovanni Mario Fontana and Gottfried Schadel, who were already
building the Menshikov Palace in St. Petersburg, to design his seaside palace.
After over a decade of work, which eventually bankrupted Menshikov, the
palace was completed.
Facing the sea, with a two-level terrace in front of it, this charming yellow and
white building consists of a concave central block with two single-storey
galleries leading to prominent octagonal pavilions, one of which houses the
palace chapel. On the south side of the building, two large ancillary wings, the
Kitchen Wing and the Ladies' Wing, run from the pavilions perpendicular to the
central block.
Menshikov had little time to enjoy his new palace before he was arrested and
exiled in 1727. The estate at Oranienbaum was passed to the state, and
Menshikov's palace became a naval hospital. In 1743, the estate was presented
by Empress Elizabeth to her nephew, the future Peter III, who commissioned
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, the greatest late baroque architect working in
Russia, to renovate the palace. Rastrelli left the exterior of the palace almost
untouched, but created sumptuous interiors that have, sadly, long since been
destroyed. At this time, the western pavilion became known as the Japanese
Pavilion, thanks to the collection of Japanese and Chinese ceramics it housed.
The palace was altered again in 1762 by Antonio Rinaldi, who added a granite
staircase and semi-circular balcony to the northern terraces and redecorated
many of the interiors. After serving as a Naval Cadet College from the end of
the 18th century, the palace was used as a residence by both Alexander I and
his brother Mikhail. During the 19th century, several famous architects,
including Luigi Ruska, Carlo Rossi, and Vasiliy Satsov, reworked the interiors of
the palace.
Today, while the Grand Menshikov Palace is still extremely impressive from the
outside, its interiors are in a parlous state, and major renovation work still
needs to be done to prevent parts of the building collapsing. For visitors, there
is little to see except a collection of portraits of the various owners of
Oranienbaum.

Peters III Palace


Built between 1758 and 1762 by Antonio Rinaldi, the small Palace of Peter III is,
along with the nearby Gate of Honour, all that remains of Petershtadt, the
model fortress that Peter III had built for himself and his Holstein bodyguards.
The bizarre set-up of Petershtadt adds weight to the traditional perception of

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Peters III Palace

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Peter as immature, obsessed with militarism, and decidedly unfit to become


Emperor of Russia. The citadel, of which Peter declared himself
"Commandant", was surrounded by motes and earthen ramparts, and
consisted of a barracks and officers' mess, an arsenal, a parade ground, and a
Lutheran church.
Most of the buildings that comprised Petershtadt were demolished in 1798,
When Peter's son, Paul I, ordered the removal of all wooden structures in the
park. The Gate of Honour, which led onto Petershtadt's parade ground, is an
elegant late Baroque gate tower with a narrow gold spire atop a wide arch and
an octagonal turret that was once used as a look-out post. It now stands alone,
and looks rather out of place among the overgrown shrubbery. However, its
archway does provide a superb view of the Lower Pond and the eastern wing
of the Grand Palace.
Peter's Palace itself is a simple but attractive example of early neoclassicism. A
compact, two-storey mansion, square with a crescent facade cut into one
corner, the palace was clearly designed for Peter to live alone, as evidenced by
the size of the living and sleeping quarters. While there is nothing particularly
impressive for visitors to see inside, the Picture Hall has a reasonable collection
of 18th century art, and the ceiling of Peter's boudoir is painted with scenes of
life in Petershtadt.
Allikad:
http://www.saint-petersburg.com/lomonosov/index.asp
http://mappery.com/map-of/Leningrad-1977-Lomonosov-Oranienbaum-Map

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Antonio Rinaldi
Wikipedia
Antonio Rinaldi (. 1710 - April 10, 1794) was an Italian architect, trained by
Luigi Vanvitelli, who worked mainly in Russia.
In 1751, during a trip to England, he was summoned by hetman Kirill
Razumovsky to decorate his residences in Ukraine. To this early period belong
the Resurrection cathedral in Pochep near Bryansk and the Catherine
Cathedral in Yamburg, now Kingisepp near St Petersburg (illustrated, right),
where Rinaldi successfully expressed the domed, centrally-planned form
required by traditional Russian Orthodox practice in a confident Italian Late
Baroque vocabulary.
His first important secular commission was the Novoznamenka chateau of
Chancellor Woronzow. In 1754, he was appointed chief architect of the young
court, i.e., the future Peter III and Catherine II, who resided at Oranienbaum.
In that town he executed his best-known baroque designs: the Palace of Peter
III (175860), t e sumptuously decorated Chinese Palace (176268), and the
Ice-Sliding Pavilion (176274).
Antonio Rinaldi. Fedot ubinini bareljeef
In the 1770s, Rinaldi served as the main architect of Count Orlov, who was
Catherine's prime favourite and the most powerful man in the country. During this period he built two grandiose Neoclassical
residences, namely the Marble Palace on the Palace Embankment in St Petersburg and the roomy Gatchina Castle, which was
subsequently acquired for Emperor Paul and partly remodeled. He also designed for Orlov several monuments in Tsarskoe Selo,
notably the Orlov Gates, Kagul Obelisk and the Chesma Column. He completed the work started by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la
Mothe on the Catholic Church of St. Catherine.
Rinaldi's last works represent a continuous transition from the dazzling rococo of interiors to the reserved and clear-cut
treatment of facades characteristic of Neoclassicism. These include two St Petersburg cathedrals, one dedicated to St Isaac the
Dalmatian and subsequently demolished to make way for the present Empire-style structure, and the other, dedicated to Prince
Vladimir and still standing.
In 1784, the old master resigned his posts on account of bad health and returned to Italy. He died in Rome in 1794.

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Sulev Nurme 2011

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Allikad:
http://www.usadbamaryino.ru
http://lenobl.h1.ru/main.php?part=3&item=7

Andrei Voronihin
Wikipedia
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Sulev Nurme 2011

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: 10.00 17.00,
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65 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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Allikad:
http://pushkin.ellink.ru/reserv/res1.asp.
http://www.opskove.ru/det/263_det.html

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Aleksandr Pukin
Jaak Tomberg
Pukin (1799-1837) oli vene romantismi suurim geenius. Ta sndis Moskvas
haritud aadliperes, ppis Tsarskoje Selo ltseumis, kus avaldas esimesed
luuletused, mis olid tsitaadilised (nn. lugejaluule) ning stiililiselt ja anriliselt
kirevad. Tema varaseim teadaolev trkitud luuletus oli Sbrale luuletajale
(1814). Pukin judis kiiresti olemasolevaid traditsioone ja intonatsioone
omandades individuaalse ja kpse vljendusrikkuseni. Ltseumiperioodi
vljapaistvam luuletus Mlestused Tsarskoje Selost (1814) sulandab
patriootilisse kodanikuluulesse lrilise kla ja intiimse intonatsiooni.

Portrait by Orest Kiprensky 1827

Sulev Nurme 2011

Prast ltseumit asus Pukin elama Peterburi, kus tutvus dekabristidega, osales
erinevates kirjanduslikes ringides ja hingutes. Sel ajal kirjutas ta
vabadusvitluslikku luulet (nt 1817 aastal kirjutatud Priiusele, mis kneleb
valitsevast poliitilisest ja vaimsest rhumisest, samuti ka Kla, 1819). Pukin
ksitles korduvalt ja erineva suhtumisega Napoleoni-teemat. Tema maailmavaate
ja isiksuse kujunemisele oli thtis tutvus Pjotr Taadajeviga (luuletus
Taadajevile, 1818). Pukini jaoks ei thendanud vabaduseideaali teenimine

68 | V e n e

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isiksuse piiramist ega kirest, armastusest ja isiklikust nnest loobumist. 1820. aastal valmis tal muinasjutulis-romantiline poeem
Ruslan ja Ludmilla (e. k. 1969), mis on kantud romantismile omasest huvist rahvaloomingu vastu. Teos on mnguline,
muinasjutuliselt fantaasiakllane ning varjutatud autoripoolse irooniaga.
Pukini vabameelsed vaated phjustasid tema vljasaatmise Luna-Venemaale, need pagendusaastad kujunesid romantismi
itseajaks Pukini loomingus, valdavaks sai eleegiline lrism, enese biograafiline mtestamine. Ta kirjutas luuletusi Ovidiusele
(1821, peamotiiviks poeet kui pagendatu), Ju peva viimne valgus suri... (1820, vabatahtlik pagendus nurjumiste ja vastamata
armastuse eest), Vang (1822, sjast ja tulevase vitluse ootusest), Must sall (1820), Sda, Kindall, Napoleon, Truu
kreeklanna, sa ra nuta, ta langes kangelasena (kik 1821). Eredaimalt vljendus Pukini romantism Luna-poeemides:
Kaukasuse vang (18201821; e. k. 1972), Bahtisarai purskkaev (1821-1823; e. k. 1972), Mustlased (1824; e. k. 1972). Pukin
li Byronist inspireerituna vene romantilis-lrilise poeemi, mida eristab eleegia printsiipide lekandmine eepilisse anri. Ta
alustas ka vrssromaani Jevgeni Onegin (avaldati peatkkide kaupa 18251832; e. k. 1964, 1982).
Pagendusaastad Mihhailovskojes kujunesid Pukini jaoks prdeliseks, temast oli saanud Venemaa esiluuletaja, keda huvitasid
nd isiksuse ja rahva roll ajaloos, ajalooprotsessi seadusprasused. Ta kirjutas tragdia Boriss Godunov (1825), poeemid
Poltaava (18281829) ja Vaskratsanik (1833), jutustus Kapteni ttar (1833). Erilise thtsuse tema loomingulises biograafias
sai nn. 1830 a. Boldino sgis, mille jooksul kirjutas ta Belkini jutustused, nn vikesed tragdiad (Ihnus rtel, Mozart ja
Salieri, Kivist klaline, Pidu katku ajal) ja luulet. Need teosed thistavad realismi svenemist Pukini loomingus, selle
tulemusena hakkas ta hiljem proosavormi eelistama (Dubrovski, Kapteni ttar, Padaemand).
Pukini sravaandelise loometee katkestas julmalt duell, kus ta pdis end laimu ja ukonnaintriigide eest kaitsta. Pras surma sai
Pukinist vene kultuuri thtsaim mt.
Allikad:
. Prli, Romantiline luule. J. Talvet (koost.), Maailmakirjandus, 2. osa. Romantismist postmodernismini. Tallinn, 1999, lk 3745.
http://kreutzwald.kirmus.ee/et/lisamaterjalid/ajatelje_materjalid?item_id=74&table=Persons


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69 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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70 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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Allikad:
http://www.opskove.ru/det/150_det.html
http://culture.pskov.ru/ru/objects/object/156
http://www.classicalarchives.com/composer/3058.html#tvf=tracks&tv=about

Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839-1881)


His musical education was erratic, he toiled as a civil servant and wrote
music only part-time, influenced few if any of his contemporaries, died early
from alcoholism, and left a small body of work. Yet Modest Mussorgsky was
a towering figure in nineteenth century Russian music. His works exhibit a
daring, raw individuality, a unique sound that well-meaning associates tried
to conventionalize and smooth over. He is best known for Night on Bald
Mountain (bowdlerized by Rimsky-Korsakov), Pictures at an Exhibition (a
difficult piano suite orchestrated by Ravel), and the dark, declamatory opera
Boris Godunov (polished by Rimsky-Korsakov)bastardized works all, yet
each one full of arresting harmonies, disturbing colors, and grim
celebrations of Russian nationalism.
Mussorgsky died in poverty, but he was born to a wealthy landowning
family. Under his mother's tutelage, he developed a facility at the piano, but
entered a cadet school in preparation for a military career. He joined a choir
and discovered Russian church music, which would profoundly influence his
later work.
Upon graduation in 1856, Mussorgsky entered the Russian Imperial Guard.
Iliya Yefimovich Repin. Portrait of the
That year he started to socialize with the composers Dargomizhsky and Cui,
Composer Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky
and through them Balakirev, with whom he began composition lessons.
1881
During this period he wrote small piano pieces and songs, and after an
emotional crisis in 1858 resigned his commission with the intention of composing full-time. He began to go his own way as a
composer in 1861, but was preoccupied helping to manage his family's estate. The decline in his family's fortunes led him to
accept low-level civil service positions. He joined a commune with other intellectuals and became a proponent of musical
Realism, applying the style to his songs. He had difficulty finishing works in larger formats, but his music circulated widely enough
that by the late 1860s he was cast with Balakirev, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Borodin as part of Russia's "Mighty Handful."
Mussorgsky toiled many years at his masterpiece, Boris Godunov, which reflected in music the inflections of Russian speech and
met with great success in 1874. That year he also produced his innovative piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition. Yet his heavy

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drinking led to his dismissal from government service in 1880. Friends offered some financial help and Mussorgsky occasionally
accompanied singers at the piano, but his finances and mental state quickly deteriorated. He died in 1881, leaving it to posterity
to sort through and complete his unfinished works of unruly genius.

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Sulev Nurme 2011

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Allikad:
http://novgorod.forest.ru/les/park/oneg.htm

Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff


Wikipedia
In Russia
Rachmaninoff (Russian: ) was born on 1 April
[O.S. 20 March] 1873 in Semyonovo, near Veliky Novgorod, in north-western
Russia. He was born into a family of the Russian aristocracy, originally of partly
Tatar descent, who had been in the service of the Russian tsars since the 16th
century. His parents were both amateur pianists. When he was four, his mother
gave him casual piano lessons,[5] but it was his paternal grandfather, Arkady
Alexandrovich Rachmaninoff, who brought Anna Ornatskaya, a teacher from
Saint Petersburg, to teach Sergei in 1882. Ornatskaya remained for "two or three
years", until the family home had to be sold to settle debts and the
Rachmaninoffs moved to Saint Petersburg.
Sergei studied at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory before moving alone to
Moscow to study piano under Nikolai Zverev and Alexander Siloti (who was his
cousin and a former student of Franz Liszt). He also studied harmony under
Anton Arensky and counterpoint under Sergei Taneyev. Rachmaninoff was found to be quite lazy, failing most of his classes, and
it was the strict regime of the Zverev home that instilled discipline in the boy.[6]

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Rachmaninoff, 1892
In his early years, he showed great skill in composition. While still a student, he wrote the one-act opera, Aleko, for which he was
awarded a gold medal in composition, his First Piano Concerto, and a set of piano pieces, Morceaux de fantaisie (Op. 3, 1892),
which includes the famous Prelude in C sharp minor. The composer later became annoyed by the public's fascination with this
piece, composed when he was 19 years old. He would often tease an expectant audience in the days when it was traditional for
the audience to request particular compositions, by asking, "Oh, must I?" or claiming inability to remember anything else.[7]
In Moscow, he met the composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who became an important mentor and commissioned the teenage
Rachmaninoff to arrange a piano transcription of the suite from his ballet The Sleeping Beauty. This commission was first offered
to Siloti, who declined, but instead suggested Rachmaninoff would be more than capable. This alternative was accepted; Siloti
supervised the arrangement.[8] Rachmaninoff confided in Zverev his desire to compose more, requesting a private room where
he could compose in silence. Zverev saw him only as a pianist and severed his links with the boy, refusing even to speak to him for
three years. Rachmaninoff moved out and continued to compose.[6] The failure of Symphony No. 1 (1896) long bothered
Rachmaninoff.
The sudden death of Tchaikovsky in 1893 made a strong impression on Rachmaninoff; he immediately began writing a second
Trio lgiaque to his memory, clearly revealing the depth and sincerity of his grief in the music's overwhelming aura of gloom.[9]
His First Symphony (Op. 13, 1896) premiered on 28 March 1897 in one of a long-running series of "Russian Symphony Concerts",
but was likened by nationalist composer and critic Csar Cui to a depiction of the ten plagues of Egypt, suggesting it would be
admired by the "inmates" of a music conservatory in hell.[10] The deficiencies of the performance, conducted by Alexander
Glazunov, were not commented on.[9] Alexander Ossovsky in his memoir about Rachmaninoff[11] tells, first hand, a story about
this event.[12] In Ossovsky's opinion, Glazunov made poor use of rehearsal time, and the concert program, which contained two
other first performances, was also a factor. Rachmaninoff's wife and other witnesses later suggested that Glazunov may have
been drunk and, although this was never intimated by Rachmaninoff, it would not seem out of character.[13][14] (Remarkably,
Csar Cui is the only member of the group of Russian nationalist composers known as The Five whose music is hardly ever
performed now.)
After the horrific reception to the First Symphony came a period of severe depression that lasted three years, during which he
wrote virtually no music. One stroke of good fortune came from Savva Mamontov, a famous Russian industrialist and patron of
the arts, who two years earlier had founded the Moscow Private Russian Opera Company. He offered Rachmaninoff the post of
assistant conductor for the 18978 season, which the cash-strapped composer accepted. He also met the bass Feodor Chaliapin
through Mamontov's opera company, starting what would become a long, deep friendship.[15]
In early January 1900, Rachmaninoff and Chaliapin were invited to Yasnaya Polyana, the home of Leo Tolstoy, whom
Rachmaninoff had greatly respected. That evening, Rachmaninoff played one of his compositions, then accompanied Chaliapin in
his song "Fate", one of the pieces Rachmaninoff had written after his First Symphony. After they had finished, Tolstoy took the
composer aside and started, "Tell me, is such music needed by anyone? I must tell you how I dislike it all. Beethoven is nonsense,
Pushkin and Lermontov also." (The song "Fate" is based on the two opening measures of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.) And when
they were leaving, Tolstoy said, "Forgive me if I've hurt you by my comments," and Rachmaninoff replied, "How could I be hurt on
my own account, if I was not hurt on Beethoven's?"
During this whole time, the Russian Orthodox Church maintained its objection to Rachmaninoff marrying his cousin, Natalia
Satina, which only deepened his depression.[16]
In 1900, Rachmaninoff began a course of autosuggestive therapy with psychologist Nikolai Dahl, himself an amateur musician.
Rachmaninoff quickly recovered confidence and overcame his writer's block. A result of these sessions was the composition of
Piano Concerto No. 2 (Op. 18, 190001), dedicated to Dr. Dahl. The piece was very well received at its premiere, at which
Rachmaninoff was soloist. Rachmaninoff's spirits were further bolstered when, after years of engagement, he was finally allowed
to marry Natalia. They were married in a suburb of Moscow by an army priest on 29 April 1902, using the family's military
background to circumvent the church. Although he had an affair with the 22-year-old singer Nina Koshetz in 1916,[17] his and
Natalia's union lasted until the composer's death. A lesser-known fact is that Rachmaninoff had another outstanding singer
protge. In 1911, at the request of Alexander Ossovsky, Rachmaninoff auditioned, in Kiev, Ossovsky's cousin, young Ksenia
Derzhinskaia (18891951)[18] and helped to launch her operatic career.[19] She became an eminent singer and prima donna of
the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.[20]

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After several successful appearances as a conductor, Rachmaninoff was offered a job as conductor at the Bolshoi Theatre in 1904,
although political reasons led to his resignation in March 1906, after which he stayed in Italy until July. He spent the following
three winters in Dresden, Germany, intensively composing, and returning to the family estate of Ivanovka every summer.[21]
Rachmaninoff made his first tour of the United States as a pianist in 1909, an event for which he composed the Piano Concerto
No. 3 (Op. 30, 1909) as a calling card. This successful tour made him a popular figure in America. Nevertheless, he loathed the
tour and declined offers of future American concerts.[21]
The death in 1915 of Alexander Scriabin, who had studied with him under Zverev, affected Rachmaninoff so deeply that he went
on a tour giving concerts exclusively devoted to Scriabin's music. When asked to play some of his own music, he would reply,

Emigration
The 1917 Russian Revolution meant the end of Russia as the composer had known it. With this change followed the loss of his
estate, his way of life, his livelihood and essentially his world. On 22 December 1917, he left St. Petersburg for Helsinki with his
wife and two daughters on an open sled, having only a few notebooks with sketches of his own compositions and two orchestral
scores, his unfinished opera Monna Vanna and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel. He spent a year giving
concerts in Scandinavia while also laboring to widen his concert repertoire. Near the end of 1918, he received three offers of
lucrative American contracts. Although he declined all three, he decided the United States might offer a solution to his financial
concerns. He departed Kristiania (Oslo) for New York on 1 November 1918. Once there, Rachmaninoff quickly chose an agent,
Charles Ellis, and accepted the gift of a piano from Steinway before playing 40 concerts in a four-month period. At the end of the
191920 season, he also signed a contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company. In 1921, the Rachmaninoffs bought a house
in the United States, where they consciously recreated the atmosphere of Ivanovka, entertaining Russian guests, employing
Russian servants, and observing Russian customs.[22]

Career in the West


Due to his busy concert career, Rachmaninoff's output as composer slowed tremendously. Between 1918 and his death in 1943,
while living in the U.S. and Europe, he completed only six compositions. This was partly due to spending much of his time
performing in order to support himself and his family, but the main cause was homesickness. It was during these years that he
traveled the United States as a touring pianist.[26] When he left Russia, it was as if he had left behind his inspiration. His revival
as a composer became possible only after he had built himself a new home, Villa Senar on Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, where he
spent summers from 1932 to 1939. There, in the comfort of his own villa which reminded him of his old family estate,
Rachmaninoff composed the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, one of his best known works, in 1934. He went on to compose his
Symphony No. 3 (Op. 44, 193536) and the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45, 1940), his last completed work. Eugene Ormandy and the
Philadelphia Orchestra premiered the Symphonic Dances in 1941 in the Academy of Music.
In late 1940 or 1941 he was approached by the makers of the British film Dangerous Moonlight to write a short concerto-like
piece for use in the film, but he declined. The job went to Richard Addinsell and the orchestrator Roy Douglas, who came up with
the Warsaw Concerto.[27]

Illness and death


Rachmaninoff fell ill during a concert tour in late 1942 and was subsequently diagnosed with advanced melanoma. The family was
informed but the composer was not. On 1 February 1943 he and his wife became American citizens.[28] His last recital, given on
February 14th 1943 at the Alumni Gymnasium of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, included Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 2,
which contains the famous Marche funbre (Funeral March). A statue called "Rachmaninoff: The Last Concert", designed and
sculpted by Victor Bokarev, now stands in World Fair Park in Knoxville as a permanent tribute to Rachmaninoff. He became so ill
after this recital that he had to return to his home in Los Angeles.[29]
Rachmaninoff died of melanoma on March 28th 1943, in Beverly Hills, California, just four days before his 70th birthday. A choir
sang his All Night Vigil at his funeral. He had wanted to be buried at the Villa Senar, his estate in Switzerland, but the conditions of
World War II made fulfilling this request impossible.[30] He was therefore interred on 1 June in Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla,
New York.

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Pavlovsk
Creation
In 1777 The Empress Catherine II of Russia gave a parcel of a thousand
hectares of forest along the winding Slavyanka River, four kilometers from her
residence at Tsarskoye Selo, to her son and heir Paul I and his wife Maria
Feodorovna, to celebrate the birth of their first son, the future Alexander I of
Russia.
At the time the land was given to Paul and Maria Feodorovna, there were two
rustic log lodges in the called 'Krik' and 'Krak.' Paul and his wife spent the
summers of 1777 to 1780 in Krik, while their new homes and the garden were
being built.[1] They began by building two wooden buildings, one kilometer
apart. Paul's house, a two-story house in the Dutch style, with small gardens,
was called "Marienthal", or the "Valley of Maria." Maria's house was a small
wooden house with a cupola, flower beds, named "Paullust", or "Paul's Joy."
Paul and Maria Feodorovna began to create picturesque "ruins", a Chinese
kiosk, Chinese bridges and classical temples in the English landscape garden
style which had spread rapidly across Europe in the second half of the 18th
century.[2]
In 1780, Catherine the Great loaned her official architect, the Scotsman Charles
Cameron (architect), to design a palace on a hillside overlooking the Slavyanka
River, near the site of Marienthal.
Cameron had studied under English architect Isaac Ware, who was close to the
architect of Chiswick House, the villa of Lord Burlington one of the earliest and
finest Palladian houses in England. Through this connection Cameron became
familiar with the original plans of Palladio, which were in the personal
collection of Lord Burlington. This style was the major influence on Cameron
when he designed Pavlovsk.[3]
Cameron began his project not with the palace itself but with two classical
pavilions. The first was the Temple of Friendship, a circular Dorian temple with
sixteen columns supporting a low dome, containing a statute of Catherine the
Great. It was placed at a bend of the Slavyanka River, below the future palace,
and was surrounded by silver poplars and transplanted Siberian pines. The
second was the Apollo Colonnade, a double row of columns with an
entablature, forming a setting for a reproduction of a reproduction of the
Belvedere Apollo. It was placed at the entrance of the park, and it was made of
porous limestone with a coarse finish the surfaces to suggest that they had
been aged by centuries of weather. At the same time the Slavyanka River was
dammed, to create a lake which would mirror the facade of the palace
above.[4]
Maria Feodorovna also insisted in having several rustic structures which
recalled the palace where she grew up at tupes, forty miles from Basel, in
what was then the Duchy of Wrttemberg and today is in Alsace. Cameron
constructed a small Swiss chalet with a library; a dairy of rough stones with a
thatched roof, where milk products were kept and prepared, and an aviary in
the form of a small classical temple with metal netting between the Dorian
columns, which was filled with nightingale, goldfinch, starling and quail.

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View of the Pavlovsk Palace park in 1808.


Watercolour by Gabriel Lory
A. Bugreyev
View of the Palace from the Marienthal Pond

Leningradskaya oblast
Pavlovsk
Tel. 470-65-36

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For the palace itself, Cameron conceived a country house which seems to have
been based on a design of Palladio shown in a woodcut in his book Quattro libri
dell'architectura, for the Villa Tressino at Meledo in Italy. This same drawing
was later used by Thomas Jefferson in his design for the University of Virginia.
The palace he designed had a cube-shaped central block three stories high with
a low dome supported by sixty-four columns. On either side of the building
were two single story colonnades of curved open winged galleries connected
to service buildings one and a half stories high. Each facade of the palace was
decorated with molded friezes and reliefs.[5]
In September 1781, as construction of the Pavlovsk Palace began, Paul and
Maria set off on a journey to Austria, Italy, France and Germany. They traveled
under the incognito of "The Count and Countess of the North". During their
travels they saw the palaces and French gardens of Versailles and Chantilly,
which strongly influenced the future appearance of Pavlovsk Park. King Louis
XVI presented them with four Gobelins tapestries, Marie Antoinette presented
Maria Feodorovna with a sixty-piece toilet set of Svres porcelain, and they
ordered more sets of porcelain and purchased statues, busts, paintings,
furniture and paintings, all for Pavlovsk. While they traveled, they kept in
contact almost daily with Kuchelbecker, the supervisor of construction at
Pavlovsk, sending back and forth drawings, plans and notes on the smallest
details.[6]
Paul and Maria Feodorovna returned in November 1782, and they continued to
fill Pavlovsk with art objects. A shipment of antique marbles, statues, busts,
urns, and pottery discovered and purchased at Pompei, arrived in 1783.
Sixteen sets of furniture, over two hundred pieces, were ordered from Paris
between 1783 and 1785 for the State Rooms. In 1784, twelve Hubert Robert
landscapes were commissioned for Pavlovsk. The couple purchased ninety-six
clocks from Europe. The Imperial Glass factory, made special chandeliers for
each room.
In the midst of the construction, and tensions grew between her and Cameron;
Cameron was used to the unlimited budget for materials given him by
Catherine the Great, while Catherine gave very little money to Paul; and
Cameron was annoyed by the furniture, tapestries and fireplaces brought back
from Europe by Maria Feodorovna without consulting him. Maria Feodorovna
in turn was annoyed by the bright polychrome decoration and Pompeian
arabesques used by Cameron, and wanted more delicate colors, and Paul did
not like anything that resembled the style of his mother's house, the Catherine
Palace at Tsarskoye Selo.
The tensions led to a parting in 1786. Cameron left to build a new palace for
Catherine in the Crimea. He had finished entry vestibule and the five rooms of
the private apartments. The work of decorating the interior was taken over by
an Italian architect, Vincenzio Brenna, from Florence, who had come to Russia
in 1783. Brenna designed interiors which reflected Paul's taste for Roman
classicism. He created the white and gold Halls of War and Peace, on either
side of the Greek Hall by Cameron, which had a colonnade of green false
marble columns, resembling a Greek temple. He made the Italian hall into a
replica of a Roman temple, and he built the State Bedroom for Maria
Feodorovna as an imitation of the state bedroom of the King of France, with a
huge gilded bed, and cream silk wallpaper painted in tempura with colorful
flowers, fruit, musical instruments and gardening tools.[6]

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Valley of the river Slavyanka. Friendship


temple

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Catherine the Great died in 1796, and Paul became Emperor. He decided to
enlarge Pavlovsk into a palace suitable for a royal residence, adding two new
wings on either side of the main building, and a church attached to the south
wing. Between 1797 and 1799, he lavished money and the finest materials on
Brenna's interiors.
The reign of Emperor Paul did not last long. He alienated the nobles, and
became increasingly fearful of conspiracies. His fears were justified; the
Emperor Paul was murdered by members of his court in 1801, and his son
Alexander became Emperor. Pavlovsk Palace became the residence of the
Empress Maria Feodorovna (17591828), the mother of both Emperor
Alexander I of Russia and Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. She turned the house
into a memorial to her murdered husband, filled with his furniture and
portraits, and made the house a showcase for finest 18th century French
furnishings, paintings, sculpture and porcelain.

The Pavilion of the Three Graces

Another disaster struck Pavlovsk in 1803; a fire caused by a defective chimney


destroyed a major part of the interior of the palace, including all the decor of
the State Apartments and living rooms. Most of the furniture was saved, along
with some door panels, fireplaces and mirrors, but most of the Palace had to
be rebuilt.
Maria Feodorovna brought Cameron and Brenna's young assistant, the Italian
architect Carlo Rossi, to help restore the Palace. She also employed a Russian
architect, Andrei Voronykhin, who had been born a serf, and was trained in
decoration and design, who rose to become the architect of Kazan Cathedral in
St. Petersburg. Voronykhin was named chief architect of Pavlovsk by Maria
Feodorovna. He brought back the architect Quarenghi, who had redecorated
five rooms on the main floor, to recreate his work. He remade some of the
rooms, such as the Tapestry Room and the State Bedroom, exactly as they had
been, but for other rooms he added decoration inspired by Roman models
discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum; Roman-style lamps, furniture, Roman
couches, and chairs copied after those of Roman senators. Following the
French taste of the time for Egyptian art, he added black Egyptian statues in
the entry vestibule of the Palace, He also redesigned the Greek and Italian
halls, replacing the molding on the walls with false marble, and he added a
Russian touch; fireplaces faced with Russian lapis-lazuli and jasper, which had
originally been in the Mikhailovsky Palace that Paul had built in St. Petersburg.
Voronykhin also made plans for a semi-circular library in one of the wings,
which was later built by Carlo Rossi, and he redesigned the private apartments
of Maria Feodorovna on the ground floor, which included a library, boudoir
and bedroom. He installed French doors and large windows in the apartment,
so the flower garden outside seemed to be part of the interior.[7]
In 1805 Voronykhin built the Centaur bridge in the park, and the Visconti
bridge, which crossed the Slavyanka at a point it was filled with water lilies. His
last construction in the park was the Rose Pavilion, built in 1811, a simple
structure surrounded entirely by rosebushes. The Rose Pavilion was the site of
a grand fete on July 12, 1814, celebrating the return of Alexander I to St.
Petersburg after the defeat of Napoleon. For the occasion the architect Pietro
de Gottardo Gonzaga built a ballroom the size of the Rose Pavilion itself in just
seventeen days, and surrounded it with huge canvases of Russian villagers
celebrating the victory. The ball inside the pavilion opened with a Polonaise led
by Alexander and his mother, and ended with a huge display of fireworks.

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Rossi Pavilion

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In her later years Maria Feodorovna had a literary salon at Pavlovsk, which was
frequented by the poet Vasily Zhukovsky, the fable writer Ivan Krylov, and the
historian Nikolai Karamzin.
The last great St. Petersburg architect to work at Pavlovsk was Carlo Rossi, who
in 1824 designed the library, which contained more than twenty thousand
books as well as collections of rare coins and butterflies. He also designed the
Corner Salon, where Maria Feodorovna received guests such as the first
American Ambassador to Russia, John Quincy Adams,, and the Lavender Room,
whose walls were made of lilac-colored false marble, matching the lilac flowers
outside the windows. These rooms were furnished with furniture made of
native Russian woods, including Karelian birch, poplar and walnut.[8]
Maria Feodorovna died on October 24, 1828, fourteen days after her sixtyseventh birthday. She left the house to her younger son, Michael, and specified
that none of the furniture should be taken away. After Michael's death, it went
to the second son of Nicholas I, Constantine Nikolayevich. It then passed to his
widow and then their eldest son, Constantine Constantinovich. Her
descendants respected the will, and turned the house into a family museum,
just as it was when she died.

Park
Pavlovsk Park was conceived by Cameron as a classic English landscape garden,
an idealized landscape filled with picturesque pieces of classical architecture,
designed to surprise and please the viewer. Like the English landscape garden,
it took much its inspiration from the romanticized landscape paintings of
Claude Lorraine and Hubert Robert. The gallery of Pavlovsk has twelve
landscape paintings by Hubert Robert that were commissioned by Maria
Feodorovna.
Cameron laid out a triple alley of five straight rows of linden trees, imported
from Lbeck, in a long axis from the courtyard of the Palace, leading to a small
semi-circular place in the forest. This served as a parade ground for Emperor
Pavel's Imperial guards. In the forest to the left of this axis he placed a
romantic thatch-roofed dairy with stalls for two cows modeled after the one in
the park of Wrttemberg where Maria Feodorovna had grown up; and on the
other side of the parade route, an aviary, filled with parakeets, nightingales,
starlings, and quail. This part of the garden also included a labyrinth, and
picturesque tombstones imported from Italy. An early French visitor described
the effect of this part of the garden: "Melancholy consumes the soul when you
arrive...then the pain is followed by pleasure." [15]
Marie Feodorovna was deeply interested in botany. In 1801, Cameron
constructed an elegant flower garden behind the Palace, just outside of the
windows of the private apartment of Marie Feodorovna. Next to the garden
was a Greek temple containing a statue of the Three Graces, looking down at
the river. She imported flowers from Holland for her garden, including
hyacinth, tulips, daffodils and narcissus. She also constructed an orangery and
several greenhouses where she grew apricots, cherries, peaches, grapes and
pineapples.
The River Slavyanovka was the picturesque axis of the composition, with
winding paths along the river providing changing views to the visitor. A dam
turned the river into a picturesque pond in the valley below the Palace. In
1780, Cameron constructed a large Roman temple at a turn in the river in the

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The Apollo Colonnade

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bottom of the valley. The classical temple, similar to the Temple of Pan in the
gardens at Stowe House in England. It was originally called the Temple of
Gratitude, dedicated to Catherine the Great, who had donated the land for the
Park, but in 1780 it was renamed the Temple of Friendship, in honor of the visit
to Pavlovsk of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor.[16]
Between 1780 and 1783, at the top of the hill which descended to the lake,
Cameron constructed a colonnade with a copy of the Apollo Belvedere in
Rome.[17]
By the early 19th century, the Park at Pavlovsk had gardens representing many
different styles. A formal and geometric garden la franaise was planted near
the Palace. An Italian garden, with parterres, classical statues and a grand
staircase was created by Brenna on the hillside overlooking the lake. Cameron
used the intimate Dutch style for the little private garden outside Maria
Feodorovna's private apartments, and the huge park was in the style of the
English and French landscape garden.
An English visitor, John Lowden, who saw Pavlovsk during the war against
Napoleon in 1812, wrote that Pavlovsk Park was the most beautiful example of
the English landscape garden in all of the Russian Empire.[18]
Beginning in 1792, the chief architect of the Pavlovsk Park was the Italian
landscape architect and painter, Pietro Gonzaga, who had begun his career as a
set designer at the La Scala Theater in Milan. Gonzaga always remained a
theater designer; he designed the funeral procession of Catherine the Great,
Paul I, and Alexander I. as well as the Coronations of Paul I, Alexander I and
Nicholas I. For Cameron he painted landscape scenes of the Pavlovsk Park on
the walls and ceilings of rooms of the Palace, and he designed spectacular sets
for the 1814 ceremony at Pavlovsk welcoming Alexander I home after his
victory over Napoleon.[12]
Gonzaga planned the landscape of Pavlovsk Park with meticulous care, marking
the trees to be saved or cut down. He laid out paths and changed contours to
create the effects he wanted, using open and closed spaces and different
colors and shapes of trees to make theatrical scenes. He made dramatic use of
the contrast between the white bark and light leaves of birch trees and the
dark needles of red-brown trunks of pine trees, setting groups of birch trees in
front of dark backgrounds of pines. He also made decorative use of the
different seasons in the Park, painting scenes with brilliant colors of the
autumn leaves. Gonzaga was the architect of Pavlovsk Park until his death in
1831 at the age of eighty.

Allikad:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pavlovsk_Palace
http://www.art-gid.com/places/suburb/99/
http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/RussiaDiversity/maps/pavlov800.gif

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The cast iron bridge

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Charles Cameron
Wikipedia
Architect
Charles Cameron (17451812) was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the
court of Catherine II of Russia. Cameron, practitioner of early neoclassical architecture, was
the chief architect of T sarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk palaces and the adjacent new town of
Sophia from his arrival in Russia in 1779 to Catherine's death in 1796. All his indisputable
tangible works "can be encompassed in a day's tour";[1] Cameron concentrated exclusively on
country palaces and landscape gardens. Twice dismissed by Paul of Russia during the Battle of
the palaces, Cameron enjoyed a brief revival of his career under Alexander I in 18031805.
Apart from the well-researched Catherinian period (17791796), Cameron's life story remains
poorly documented, not in the least due to Cameron's own efforts to shake off the bad
reputation he had earned in the 1770s in London.
Cameron's British neoclassicism was an isolated episode in Russian architecture, then
dominated by Italian artists (Antonio Rinaldi, Giacomo Quarenghi, Vincenzo Brenna).[2]
According to his first biographer Georgy Lukomsky, "Cameron remains one of the greatest
exponents of British taste and British Art abroad, and if he has been so completely forgotten in his own country, it would seem
only right to rectify this omission".[2] Howard Colvin ranked Cameron "one of the major urban architects of the eighteenth

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century ... an accomplished designer and decorator in a neoclassical style that has affinities with that of Robert Adam. His style is
sufficiently individual to exonerate him from the imputation of being merely an imitator...[3] Although still a Palladian, Cameron
was a pioneer of Greek Revival in Russia."[4]

Early career
Charles Cameron was the son of Walter Cameron, a London carpenter, speculative builder[5] and a member of London
Carpenter's Company.[6] He claimed descent from the Camerons of Lochiel, a Scottish clan deeply involved in the Jacobite rising
of 1745.[3] Cameron used the Lochiel coat of arms for his personal bookplate, although modern researchers since David Talbot
Rice question or deny his claims for Lochiel lineage.[7][8][9] Researchers also disagree on the exact year of Cameron's birth,
which may be either 1743, 1745 or 1746.[8]
Cameron trained in London with his father and with architect Isaac Ware. After Ware's death in 1766 Cameron settled on
continuing his late master's work on a new edition of Lord Burlington's Fabbriche Antiche, a project that required personal
studies and surveys of ancient Roman architecture.[6] He spent 1767 in London, preparing prints of works by Andrea Palladio,
and arrived in Rome in 1768.[6] There, he surveyed the Baths of Titus and Nero's Domus Aurea, digging into subterranean
remains that were rediscovered only in the 20th century.[6] According to Dmitry Shvidkovsky, Cameron met in Rome with
another Charles Cameron, a Jacobite and a true member of the Lochiel clan, and "borrowed" the life story of the latter to
embellish his own.[5] Cameron returned from Italy around 1769 and published the results of his studies in 1772 (reissues 1774,
1775) under the title The Baths of the Romans explained and illustrated... with proper scientific commentaries in English and
French.[6]
Cameron's life between 1769 and his departure to Russia in 1779 remains barely known.[6] Archives attest to his involvement in
only one construction contract in London, for an Adam style building in Hanover Square[6] (17701775).[5] Walter Cameron, the
main contractor, was ruined by litigation with the property owner and had to sell his son's art collection to raise funds. Charles
sued his father, who was jailed in Fleet Prison for debt.[3][5] In 1791, when Cameron applied for a membership in the Architect's
Club of London, he was barred admission due to this and other episodes that had stained his reputation in England.[3][5]

Arrival in Russia
Catherine's tastes in architecture evolved from Rococo and Gothic Revival architecture in the first decade of her reign to
emerging Neoclassicism in the 1780s. She leaned to French variety of neoclassicism (Clerisseau, Ledoux) mixed with ancient
Roman motifs. Catherine, perhaps the first of European monarchs, realized that the emerging style had the potential to become a
definitive form of imperial art. She spared no expense in hiring foreign architects and craftsmen trained in the neoclassical
manner. She instructed Baron Melchior Grimm, her European agent in matters of art and antiques, to hire Italian architects
because "the Frenchmen we have here know too much and build dreadful houses - because they know too much."[10][11] These
Italians, Giacomo Quarenghi and relatively unknown Giacomo Trombara, arrived in Russia after Cameron.[2]
Cameron arrived in Russia in 1779, also invited by Catherine's agents.[3] Exact details of Cameron's hire remain vague,[5] but on
August 23, 1779 an enthusiastic Catherine wrote to Grimm that "At present I am very taken with Mr. Cameron, a Scot by
nationality and a Jacobite, great draughtsman, well versed in antique monuments and well known for his book on the Baths of
Rome. At the moment we are making a garden with him on a terrace..."[12] Catherine also wrote that Cameron was raised at the
Roman court of the Pretender and that he was a nephew of Jenny Campbell,[8] reflecting a new "romanticized" persona that
Cameron assumed in Russia.[5] Cameron settled first in Chernyshev House in Saint Petersburg but soon moved to his own house
in Tsarskoye Selo; it was later taken from him by emperor Paul.[2]
Cameron, a Londoner, had no practical experience in landscaping prior to 1779.[13] Peter Hayden suggested that Cameron
learned the trade from his father-in-law, John Bush (or Busch)[14] who worked in Tsarskoye Selo since 1771.[15]

Retirement
Upon ascension to power in 1796, Paul fired Cameron from all his contracts and deprived him of his house in Tsarskoye.[2][3]
Cameron experienced financial difficulties and had to sell his collection of books to Pavel Argunov.[2]
His activities during Paul's reign are largely unknown. Georgy Lukomsky wrote than in 1799 Cameron redesigned the Baturyn
Palace of count Kirill Razumovsky;[2] according to contemporary researchers, Baturyn was a collaborative effort led by Nikolay
Lvov and Cameron's involvement cannot be reliably measured.[3] Lukomsky also wrote that in 18001801 Cameron temporarily

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left Russia for England;[2] according to Colvin, this opinion is unsubstantiated:[3] in 18001801 Cameron worked in Pavlovsk,
then owned by Maria Fyodorovna, where he built the Ionic Pavilion of Three Graces.[3]
Alexander, who succeeded Paul in March 1801, appointed Cameron the chief architect of the Russian Admiralty[3] During this
brief (18021805) employment Cameron designed the Naval Hospital in Oranienbaum and two[33] unrealized drafts for the
Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt.[3] He also worked in Pavlovsk, restoring the palace after a fire.[2] In 1805 Cameron finally retired;
his tenure at the Admiralty passed to Andreyan Zakharov.[2][3] Lukomsky noted that Cameron, who once executed Catherine's
soaring dreams, was hardly interested in building barracks and repairing gateways.[2]
[edit] Private life
Cameron's personality remains a "shadowy figure":[33] being "proud, aloof and difficult",[33] he had a talent for alienating
people. He did not participate in the social life of the English diaspora in Saint Petersburg; he had few Russian friends,[33] did not
speak Russian and was disliked for his attitude of "English superiority".[34]
In 1784 Cameron married Catherine Bush, daughter of imperial gardener John Bush.[35] They had a daughter, Mary, however,
her birth has not been evidenced by church records.[33] Mary Cameron, engaged to James Grange, left Russia in 1798.[1] Grange
returned to Russia in 1803, and, according to Anthony Cross, could have helped Cameron's career revival in 18031805.[1] By
1839 the Granges had seven surviving children.[1]
Ironically, during retirement Cameron and his wife lived in Paul's favorite palace, Saint Michael's Castle.[33] The redundant and
still incomplete castle was converted to living quarters and housed up to 900 residents, including the Camerons and future field
marshal Diebitsh.[36] Cameron died in 1812, before Napoleon's invasion of Russia; his widow secured a pension from the Russian
Government,[3] sold out Cameron's library[2] and either returned to England[3] or died in Saint Petersburg.[33]


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Vasily Vasilyevich Vereshchagin


Wikipedia
,
October 26, 1842 April 13, 1904) was one of the most famous Russian battle
painters and one of the first Russian artists to be widely recognized abroad. The
graphic nature of his realist scenes led many of them to never be printed or
exhibited.
Vereshchagin was born at Cherepovets, Novgorod Governorate, Russia in 1842 as
the middle of three brothers. His father was a landowner of noble birth. When he
was eight years old he was sent to Tsarskoe Selo to enter the Alexander Cadet
Corps, and three years later he entered the Sea Cadet Corps at St Petersburg,
making his first voyage in 1858. He served on the frigate Kamchatka, which sailed
to Denmark, France and Egypt.
Vereshchagin graduated first in the list at the naval school, but left the service
immediately to begin the study of drawing in earnest. He won a medal two years
later, in 1863, from the St Petersburg Academy for his Ulysses Slaying the Suitors.

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In 1864 he proceeded to Paris, where he studied under Jean-Lon Grme, though he dissented widely from his master's
methods.
In the Paris Salon of 1866 he exhibited a drawing of Dukhobors chanting their Psalms. In the next year he was invited to
accompany General Konstantin Kaufman's expedition to Turkestan. He was granted the rank of ensign. His heroism at the siege of
Samarkand from June 2-8, 1868 resulted an award of the Cross of St George (4th class). He was an indefatigable traveler,
returning to St. Petersburg in late 1868, to Paris in 1869, back to St. Petersburg later in the year, and then back to Turkestan at
the end 1869 via Siberia. In 1871, he established an atelier in Munich, and made a sole exhibition of his works at the Crystal
Palace in London in 1873. He made another exhibition of his works in St. Petersburg in 1874, where two of his painting, namely
The Apotheosis of War, dedicated "to all conquerors, past, present and to come," and Left Behind, the picture of a dying soldier
deserted by his fellows, were denied a showing on the grounds that they portrayed the Russian military in a poor light. In late
1874, he departed for an extensive tour of the Himalayas, India and Tibet, spending over two years in travel. He returned to Paris
in late 1876.
With the start of the Russo-Turkish War (18771878), Vereshchagin left Paris and returned to active service with the Imperial
Russian Army. He was with the Russian army during the he was present at the crossing of the Shipka Pass and at the Siege of
Plevna, where his brother was killed; and he was dangerously wounded during the preparations for the crossing of the Danube
near Rustchuk. At the conclusion of the war he acted as secretary to General Skobelev at San Stefano.
After the war he settled at Munich, where Vereshchagin produced his war pictures so rapidly that he was freely accused of
employing assistants. The sensational subjects of his pictures, and their didactic aim the promotion of peace by a representation
of the horrors of war attracted a large section of the public not usually interested in art to the series of exhibitions of his pictures
in Paris in 1881 and subsequently in London, Berlin, Dresden, Vienna and other cities.
Vereshchagin painted several scenes of imperial rule in British India. His epic portrayal of The State Procession of the Prince of
Wales into Jaipur in 1876 is claimed to be the third largest painting in the world.[1] In 1882-1883, he again traveled to India. He
aroused much controversy by his series of three pictures of a Roman execution (the Crucifixion); of sepoys blown from the guns
in India; and of the execution of Nihilists in St Petersburg. His picture Blowing from Guns in British India depicted executions
carried out by tying victims to the barrels of guns. Vereshchagin's detractors argued that such executions had only occurred in the
Indian Rebellion of 1857, but the painting depicted modern soldiers of the 1880s, implying that the practice was normal. Because
of its photographic style, the painting appeared to present itself as impartial record of a real event. In the Magazine of Art in
December 1887 Vereshchagin defended himself, rather evasively, by saying that this mode of execution was "the most humane in
existence" and that if there were another rebellion then the British would use it again. A journey in Syria and Palestine in 1884
furnished him with an equally discussed set of
subjects from the New Testament.
Vereshchagin's paintings caused controversy
over portraying the figure of Christ with what
was thought at the time to be an unseemly
realism. His depiction of Jesus's features was
thought of as excessively vulgar and overemphatically Semitic in ethnicity.
The "1812" series on Napoleon's Russian
campaign, on which Vereshchagin also wrote a
book, seem to have been inspired by Tolstoi's
War and Peace, and were painted in 1893 at
Moscow, where the artist eventually settled.
Last years
The Apotheosis of War. 1871
Vereshchagin was in the Far East during the
First Sino-Japanese War, with the American troops in the Philippines, and with the Russian troops in Manchuria. During the
Russo-Japanese War, he was invited by Admiral Stepan Makarov to join him aboard Makarov's flagship, Petropavlovsk. On April
13, 1904, Petropavlovsk struck two mines while returning to Port Arthur and sank, taking down with it most of the crew, including
both Admiral Makarov and Vereshchagin. Vereshchagin's last work, a picture of a council of war presided over by Admiral
Makarov, was recovered almost undamaged

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Sulev Nurme 2011

Peahoone XIX sajandi lpul ja 1986.a.

Pskovskaja oblast

96 | V e n e

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97 | V e n e

misatripp 2011: Pihkva, Novgorodi ja Leningradi oblast

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Allikad:
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http://110km.ru/autotravel/60434.html
http://www.nasledie-rus.ru/podshivka/pics/9403-pictures.php?picture=940322
http://www.solstream.ru/history/history36.html

Sulev Nurme 2011