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EDUC 3624 Science and Design Technology Curriculum Studies Assignment 2 Part B Interactive Teaching in Science and Technology

Rebecca Blackwell 2084293 blac0229@flinders.edu.au

Introduction:
My Year 4 class has 25 students, 10 boys and 15 girls. The students in my class are diverse in motivation and learning skills and prior school-science experiences. I have to carefully plan my lessons to include hands-on activities as much as possible, as the boys in my class tend to be easily distracted if they are not actively involved in science lessons. I also have to consider the 2 girls in my class who tend to race ahead of everyone else. I need to ensure they are taking everything in and processing the information so they are able to remember what they have learnt in order to reflect on their learning when necessary. I do this by increasing the amount of group tasks I have in my classroom science lessons. I separate these two students and usually get them to help the other students with their learning, which also allows the excelling students to accelerate their learning. The students in my class are more motivated to learn and engage in lessons when they can clearly see how the activities relate to their lives.

1. Topic: Plants Intended year level: Year 4

2. Strands: Biological Sciences, Science Understanding Sub strands: Science as a human endeavour, Science Inquiry skills Achievement standard: ACSSU072, Living things have life cycles, Cross curriculum priorities: Sustainability

3. Before views:
It is important to assess students prior knowledge, skills and attitudes about a topic in order to structure the topic so that it builds on the student s prior knowledge. There are so many ways to elicit students prior knowledge, skills and attitudes towards a topic using a range of

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prior knowledge activities. Some prior knowledge activities I would use if I was to do the four investigations in this assignment would be selected from the following list.

Prior Knowledge Activities: My wonderings - Teacher begins a topic by telling the students what the topic is and then asking them to share their wonderings about that topic. Teacher uses the wonderings the students have to shape the rest of the activities in the unit. There would also be an opportunity for specific childrens questions to be formed from the wonderings discussion.

Pre-test - Powerful indicators of what needs to be addressed in a lesson sequence.

KWL model - Ask the students to write down what they would like to learn, what they dont know and what they do know as a way of building activities around students interest and prior knowledge and skills.

Post box activity - Students write down something they know, dont know, or want to learn on a post it note and put it into the post box and the teacher will address these things later on.

Word stars - Children can do these individually, in pairs or even as a whole class discussion about what they know about a topic. For example a word star for plants would have the word plants in the middle and students would be required to share what they can think of about plants e.g.; plants- needs- water.

4. Childrens Questions and Investigations Question one: What are the parts of a plant called?
This investigation is a modified version of a Label the Plants worksheet (Teaching Ideas 2012) which addresses students Science understanding. The modified investigation requires students to watch a video from the Teacher Tube website about the parts of a plant.

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________________________________________________________________________________ Original Resource:

Label the Plants


1) Label the different parts of the plants:

2) Complete the following table:

Part of Plant Roots Stem Leaves

What does this part do for the plant?

Flowers ________________________________________________________________________________

Modifications to investigation Students will be provided with the above worksheet which requires them to label the parts of a plant. The worksheet will not have the prompts in the part of plant section of the table, instead this will be blank and students will need to label their diagram on the worksheet before completing the table. Instead of giving it to them as an assessment of prior or post understanding
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of plants I will give it to the students as a mini research project to be done in a lesson. I will give the children the worksheet and ask them to find out the answers using specific reference material, the video about the parts of a plant. The students will watch the video and fill out their worksheet they would also be working in pairs instead of individually. By working in pairs the 2 girls in my class can be separated so they are working with another student who does not have as much science understanding of plants.

Students will report findings by: A class discussion facilitated by the teacher will take place. Students will complete the table on the worksheet by filing in the part of a plant column and then what those parts of the plant do for the plant after watching the video about the parts of a plant. By reporting their findings students will develop a detailed document which labels the parts of a plant and describes their functions which they will discuss in future lessons. This will be a resource which they can refer back to during the unit on plants.

Specific ideas that may be developed are: -Students should develop a good understanding of the parts of a plant and each parts function. -Students will develop their Science and Technology understanding during this task and will be researching appropriately. Not only will students learn the parts of a plant they will also learn how each part makes up the whole plant.

Working scientifically and working technologically Considers: Thinks about carefully, taking all facts into account. Students will think about what the parts of the plants are called and use these facts to label their diagram. Discovers: Finds out through study or investigation. Draws: Communicates ideas through pictures, patterns or diagrams. Records: Puts information into a permanent form for reference. Students will gain new knowledge from watching the video about the parts of a plant. Students show their knowledge through the completion of their labelling plant worksheet. Students create their labelled diagram of a plant as a permanent reference.

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Question two: What happens when plants grow?


This investigation is a modified version of a Plant Life Cycles (Teachers Domain 2002 -2012) lesson plan. ________________________________________________________________________________ Original Resource: Overview In this lesson, students learn about the life cycle of plants by watching a time-lapse video. This activity provides students with further evidence that all living things grow and change as they progress through their life cycle. Two optional video segments show students how to set up a germination experiment and how to grow seeds they collect on their socks. Objectives Understand that plants have a life cycle that includes sprouting; developing roots, stems, leaves, and flowers; reproducing; and eventually dying Observe the changes that occur during plant growth and development Understand that the life cycle of plants is different from the life cycle of animals Sequence the stages of plant life Grade Level: K-2, 3-5 Suggested Time Two 30- to 40-minute block

Multimedia Resources: From Seed to Flower Optional Activity: Germinator, Sock Seeds Materials: One flowering potted plant, a variety of fruits, white paper, crayons or markers Optional Activities Germinator activity: plastic bag, bean seeds, paper towel, water Sock Seeds activity: sock, soil, box, water Bean or pea seeds activity: seeds, cups, soil, spoon, water, light source Mystery Garden activity: seeds collected from students' lunches, a terrarium or large pot, soil, water Before the Lesson Cut open the fruits to expose their seeds. Collect materials for the optional activities The Lesson: Part I 1. Show students a flowering potted plant, and ask them to name the parts of the plant: roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Ask: Which part of the plant develops into the fruit? 2. To help students understand that seeds develop inside fruits, have them examine a variety of fruits that have been cut open to expose their seeds. Discuss the different seed shapes they observe. 3. Make a word or picture splash (randomly scattered words or pictures) on the board that includes the following words or pictures: seed, root, stem, leaves, and fruit. Tell students that they are going to watch a video showing a seed sprouting (germinating) and growing. Ask them to predict which part of the plant starts to grow first, which part grows second, and so on. Put the words/pictures in the order they suggest.

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4. Show students the From Seed to Flower video. After watching, have them suggest corrections to the order of the words/pictures on the board. Ask them to describe how plants change as they grow. What happens to their size? Their shape? Their parts? 5. Discuss how the life cycle of plants is similar to and different from the life cycle of animals. 6. Remind students of the stages of human development discussed in the Birth, Growth, and Development lesson: newborn, toddler, child, teenager, young adult, middle-aged adult, elderly adult. Ask students if there are comparable stages in the life cycle of plants. 7. Give each student a piece of paper and have them draw and color pictures of plants that they think correspond to each of the stages of human development. (For example, a seed with newly sprouted roots would represent a newborn plant. A tall tree, with many branches, would illustrate a middle-aged tree.) They may want to watch the video again to help them with this project. 8. If possible, take students on a stages-in-the-life-of-a-tree hunt. Can they find a seedling, sapling, young adult tree, and very mature tree? How about a dead tree? Have them carefully draw examples of the stages they are able to find. Have students conduct the germination experiment demonstrated in the Germinator video. Have students document with drawings the changes they observe in the seeds. Have students conduct the sock-seeds experiment demonstrated in the Sock Seeds video. Have students document their results with drawings. Have students plant bean or pea seeds in soil and observe and measure their growth. Have students observe and record changes in plants (trees, shrubs, flowers, grass) on the playground and around the school during fall, winter, and spring. Create a mystery garden. Every afternoon, have children plant the seeds that they collect from their lunches. ________________________________________________________________________________

Modifications to investigation: This whole investigation task would take longer than one lesson. This sequence of lessons would follow on from the labelling the plants investigation. So students would know the names of the parts of plants therefore they would be able to complete the first part of the lesson easily. Part 2 of the investigation will stay the same, in order to give the students the chance to investigate and discuss the different seeds. Part 3 of the investigation would also remain the same. Part 4 of the lesson would remain the same although the discussions would be simplified with teacher discretion as to what stage of science understanding her students are at. Parts 5, 6 and 7 remain the same. Part 8 might be an activity for later on if any students were finished the other work early, but would not be a compulsory task. Instead of doing the seed germination activity in the same lesson the task would lead onto the fair test the students will do where they will grow their own seeds. Students would not complete the sock-seeds experiment, the mystery garden, nor would they observe the plants in the playground at school, although they may do this at a later stage if they needed further opportunity to learn about the life cycle of a plant.
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Students will report findings by: Recording the information the teacher puts up on the board during the lessons into their books. In part 7 they would use the table below to record what parts of plants development that they think correspond to each of the stages of human development.

Draw a picture of the plant at the stage of development

What stage of growth is the plant in

Which stage of human development does this correspond with?

Specific ideas that may be developed are:

Understand that plants have a life cycle that includes sprouting; developing roots, stems, leaves, and flowers; reproducing; and eventually dying

Observe the changes that occur during plant growth and development Understand that the life cycle of plants is different and similar to the life cycle of humans Sequence the stages of plant life

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Working scientifically and working technologically Discovers: Finds out through study or Students investigate more about the life cycle

investigation. Investigation: To observe or study of plants. by using a systematic inquiry approach. Orders: Applies knowledge to sort in a particular sequence (e.g. large to small). Sequences: Applies understanding to place things in correct order. Records: Puts information into a permanent form for reference. Students record into their books. Applies knowledge of plants to a particular sequence of a plant life cycle.

Question three: Do different seeds grow faster than others (Fair test) This fair test is a modified version of the Plant Seeds and Watch them Grow (Science Kids 2012) activity. ________________________________________________________________________________ Original Resource: Plant Seeds & Watch Them Grow What you'll need: Fresh seeds of your choice such as pumpkins seeds, sunflower seeds, lima beans or pinto beans. Good quality soil (loose, aerated, lots of peat moss), if you dont have any you can buy some potting soil at your local garden store. A container to hold the soil and your seeds. Water. Light and heat. Instructions: 1.Fill the container with soil. 2. Plant the seeds inside the soil. 3. Place the container somewhere warm, sunlight is good but try to avoid too much direct sunlight, a window sill is a good spot. 4. Keep the soil moist by watering it every day (be careful not to use too much water). 5. Record your observations as the seeds germinate and seedlings begin to sprout from the seeds. What's happening? Hopefully after a week of looking after them, your seedlings will be on their way. Germination is the process of a plant emerging from a seed and beginning to grow. For seedlings to grow properly from a seed they need the right conditions. Water and oxygen are required for seeds to germinate. Many seeds germinate at a temperature just above normal room temperature but
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others respond better to warmer temperatures, cooler temperatures or even changes in temperature. While light can be an important trigger for germination, some seeds actually need darkness to germinate, if you buy seeds it should mention the requirements for that specific type of seed in the instructions. Continue to look after your seedlings and monitor their growth. For further experiments you could compare the growth rates of different types of seeds or the effect of different conditions on their growth. ________________________________________________________________________________ Modifications to investigation The majority of this investigation will remain the same; although to ensure the investigation is a fair test the only variable that will be changed will be which seeds the students decide to plant. The amount of water, sunlight etc the plants are provided with will all be the same, e.g. the controlled variables will be the same for each students plant. The independent variable: Type of seeds planted The dependant variable: Growth of the plant The controlled variable: Soil, water, sunlight, time between measurements, time of whole experiment, air/ oxygen.

Students will report findings by Class discussions will be continually taking place. Before the students select their type of seed to plant they will make a prediction as to whether or not they think each seed will grow at the same rate or if growth rates will be different. To measure this students will plant their seeds and watch them grow for a 6 week period including weekends. After the 6 weeks students will measure the height of their seedlings and record the height. The height of each seedling will be recorded by the teacher and put together in a graph showing the height of each seedling at the end of the 6 week period including weekends. From these results students will be able to compare their predictions from before the investigation to the actual results of the experiment and learn that different seedlings do in fact grow at different rates. Before and during the experiment the students will each fill complete the Watching Plants Grow worksheet below.

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Watching Plants Grow


Questions to answer before the seedlings are planted: What is the dependent variable? (To be measured)______________________________________ What is the independent variable? (To be changed)______________________________________ What are the controlled variables? (To remain the same)__________________________________ Make a prediction on whether you think the seeds will grow at different rates. I predict that:____________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Recording results At the end of each week write 2 or 3 sentences about what you observe happening with your seeds. Can you see anything interesting? Is your plant at a specific stage of its life cycle? Week Brief description of the observations I have made about what is happening with my seedling 1 2 3 4 5 6 Explaining results after the seedlings have grown for 6 weeks: Summarise what happened in the experiment in your own words. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Did the results match your prediction? Why / why not? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Can you think of any ways to improve this experiment? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________
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Specific ideas that may be developed are: -Different seedlings do in fact grow at different rates -A plants growing environment can be controlled to increase its rate of survival -Plants go through a life cycle. -Recognising that environmental factors can affect life cycles such as fire and seed germination.

Working scientifically and working technologically Fair test: An experiment whose results can be reasonably trusted for basing conclusions, when one variable is changed or investigated. Hypothesises: Speculates or generates a best guess based on a synthesis of their current knowledge or information. Predicts: Speculates about an event or an outcome before it occurs. Monitors: Regularly checks how something is changing or progressing over a period of time. Records: Puts information into a permanent form for reference. Students regularly check their plants progress during the 6 week period. Students record their findings. Students make predictions about if they think the seedlings will grow at different rates. This activity is a fair test.

Question four: Can we help plants grow? (Design brief)


This design brief task is a modified version of the Design an environment for animals and plants to live in at school (The Board of Studies 1993) task. This design brief is an example of one approach to design and technology education. It fits into the symbiotic technology learning context, focuses on purpose- oriented pedagogy and is community centred which aligns with the constructivist view of learning because it is an opportunity for students to play an active part in their science learning community.

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________________________________________________________________________________ Original investigation (Design brief) Task Design an environment for animals or plants to live in at school. [G] Activities (All designs should cater for all needs, e.g. enough room for animals to run around in.) Identify needs of classroom animals/plants based on the identified characteristics of living things. (These may also include other needs such as shelter, warmth, affection/care, company.) Develop a design proposal to meet these needs. [TS16] For animals consider food/water supply, housing, keeping clear, providing sufficient air, room to move. For plants consider the plants needs for water, sunlight, air etc. Make suggestions as to how these needs may be met. [TS11] Use the student design proposals and select appropriate materials to construct a space inside or outside the classroom to keep plants/animals. If the space is to keep plants or animals it will need to be secure and provide the necessary requirements for the well being of the living things. ________________________________________________________________________________

Modifications to investigation The task was changed to designing a model environment for plants to live in at school. There will only be a focus on plants not animals, therefore everything in the design brief about animals has been removed. (See modified design brief below.) Instead of making the environment in real life students will make a labelled model/ diorama of their environment which supports the growth of a plant. Before students make their diorama/ model they will need to consider the plants need s for water, sunlight, air, space etc. They will need to firstly design their model/ diorama on paper showing that they are thinking about the things plants need to grow. Once the students have designed their dioramas they will be able to make their models/ dioramas with the materials provided. When the students evaluate the strength of their designed environment on how well it caters for the needs of a plant they will need to justify how they have structured their environment in order to cater for these needs of the plant. This investigation will also lead into the next investigation where students will investigate whether different seeds grow faster than others.

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Students will report findings by A class discussion facilitated by the teacher will take place and then students will use the table below to evaluate their environment design to assess how well their design caters for each of the needs of a plant listed in the table. What the plant needs to survive! Food/nutrients Space Water Right temperature Sunlight Air Students will be encouraged after they have completed the task to discuss what they learnt from creating a model environment for a plant to live in. Also once the students have completed their table they will consider questions as a class such as: Can I identify any ways I could have improved the environment which I designed for my plant to grow in? If so how could I have improved? What happens to plants if they do not get what they need to survive? (As well as leading into the activity about which seeds grow faster than others this could be expanded and lead on to another investigation into what the student think would happen if lots of plants did not get what they need to survive, would all the plants die? Would there be any plants left? Can I remember why the plant will need this to survive? Did I remember to design my environment so that my plant had this?

Specific ideas that may be developed are: Plants need a number of specific things in order to survive. Plants will die if they do not get the right amount of the things they need to survive. Humans can plant plants in environments where they will survive better than in other environments. Positive view of their environment and understand that they can make a difference.

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Working scientifically and working technologically Collects, records, interprets data: Collects and analyses information, using skills such as comparing, to make accurate assessments about investigations and to hypothesise or make predictions about particular phenomena. Applies: Uses ideas, processes or skills in new situations. Students use their ideas and knowledge of plants and what they need to survive in a new situation when they create the model environment for a plant to survive in. Cares: Provides what a living thing needs to Aims to provide their model plant with what it Students collect and analyse information about plants and make accurate assessments to create their dioramas.

keep it healthy, and ensures it does not come to needs to stay healthy and to ensure it does not any harm. Creates: Reorganises elements into a new structure. Makes. Makes: Applies knowledge to build, create, construct or produce. Designs: Creates a picture or procedure (mentally or by drawing) from which a model or an outcome can be produced. Plans: Decides in detail what they are going to do and how they are going to do it. Explains: Interprets and gives reason for. Makes Students justify why they have put certain meaning plain or clear (e.g. explain how usually asks for the sequence, explain why usually asks for the cause). Technology: The scientific application of knowledge to solve practical problems and to make new inventions. Students make their dioramas (new invention) using their scientific knowledge to solve the problem of creating a perfect place for a plant to grow. things into their model environment for their plants. Students plan and design their dioramas. come to any harm. Students make their dioramas.

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Modified Task

Designing an environment for a plant to grow in


Your task/ what to do: (individual task) The Plant Doctor needs your help to design an environment where a plant will grow best.

Critique: Refer to your books and notes on what you already know helps plants survive. Research more about how plants live and what they need to survive. Consider what happens if a plant does not get what it needs to survive. Refer to anywhere you can find relevant information including: books we collected about plants from the library, CD ROMs, and the internet. Design: Draw a picture of the environment where your plant can grow well which you will make into a model. Write down suggestions for how you will meet the needs of your plant and what your environment will have to ensure that your plant gets what it needs to survive. Make: Using your picture as a guide make an appropriate model of the place where you think your plant would grow at it best. Remember to include things like what the plant will need to grow, survive and travel through its life cycle such as: sunlight, water, food, space. Ensure you are working safely. Use the computer to type your descriptions of why you have included specific parts into your diorama and put these on little cards in your diorama or hand them up with your diorama. Evaluate: Evaluate your environment design using the table (collect this from the teacher) to assess how well your design caters for each of the needs of a plant listed in the table. Seek a peer review on your design. We will display your models in Science week next term.

What you need Art smocks Shoe boxes or cardboard boxes Tissue paper, pipe cleaners, straws etc from the craft boxes Pencils, pens, textas Paint Glue sticks/sticky tape Scissors Paper /cardboard Computers

Safety issues to consider Ensure you are using the computers safely, ethically and responsibly. Adult/teacher supervision is required when students are using the scissors and paint
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Ensure you are wearing your hat when you are outside Ensure you are using all equipment safely and responsibly. Ensure you are wearing your art smock when painting.

5. Trying out a fair test investigation:


I could not have actually undertaken my fair test investigation so therefore I have identified the variables and talked about what might happen if the fair test was to be undertaken. I have also included the modified version of the fair test in this section. In this fair test students learn about what makes a fair test. I believe that by only changing the type of seeds planted this will help the students learn that different seeds do grow at different rates. Students will also gain an understanding of the time it takes to grow a plant from a seed. If this fair test was to be tried it would involve the process of growing a plant from a seed by helping to monitor its needs and allowing it to grow in the right conditions.

The independent variable: Type of seeds planted The dependant variable: Growth of the plant The controlled variable: Soil, water, sunlight, time between measurements, time of whole experiment, air/ oxygen.

Watching Plants Grow (modified)


What you'll need: Fresh seeds of your choice (students choose one of the following to plant individually) such as pumpkins seeds, sunflower seeds, lima beans or pinto beans. Good quality soil (loose, aerated, lots of peat moss) A plastic cup to hold the soil and the seeds. Water. Light and heat. Instructions: 1. Fill the container with soil. 2. Plant the seeds inside the soil. 3. Place the containers somewhere warm, sunlight is good but try to avoid too much direct sunlight; a window sill is a good spot. (Students put their cups in the same area in the window sill) 4. Keep the soil moist by watering it every day with the amount specified by the teacher. 5. Record your observations as the seeds germinate and seedlings begin to sprout from the seeds. (Record these observations on the recording sheet provided to you by the teacher.)
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6. Justification and Discussion


To teach within a constructivist view of learning it is important that the teacher acknowledges how the students are perceived to learn in this view of learning. Constructivist learning argues that students construct rather than absorb new ideas. (Skamp 2012.) Teachers need to facilitate a childs learning by creating an environment where children can generate meaning from new experiences which build on their prior knowledge, skills and attitudes. Teachers must also: recognise and value the voices/ views of their students. (Skamp 2012.) With this in mind I structured my four investigations to support all students in the constructivist view of learning. Within a constructivist view of learning it is important: that students develop understandings about how their world works, but the learning of these concepts needs to be in contexts that are relevant to the learner. (Skamp 2012.) In my four investigations students are given the opportunity to learn about how plants grow and develop through their life cycles through participating in investigations where they are able to work together to construct their new knowledge based on their prior knowledge. I would do a range of prior knowledge activities with the students to work out what prior knowledge, skills and attitudes they have in order to ensure the activities build on this prior learning. I have also ensured that my classroom activities will be set up so the students have time to work in groups, pairs and as a class with me as the teacher as a community of learners. This is because: in schools students will come to understand the ideas of science through their interactions with the community of learners in their class who are also thinking about scientific ideas. As well as providing an opportunity for my students to gain a better understanding of scientific ideas: there is now evidence that collaborative learning appears to be related to conceptual growth and improvements in scientific inquiry. (Skamp 2012.) Therefore having my students work in groups and pairs to discuss together as a community of learners makes my role as the teacher a facilitator for learning and the person who structures the lessons and classroom to allow for this collaboration. Group discussions and team work are especially important for my class. I have found that the boys especially in my class are more engaged when they have an opportunity to share their ideas with the rest of the class or in small groups and participate in a scientific community in the classroom. The group tasks and collaboration are also a good way to engage and still challenge the two girls who are excelling in my class. This is an opportunity for them to help the other students learn by sharing their ideas collaboratively. While arranging time
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for hands- on group tasks is important I also value the importance of and recognise that: a handson activity is useless if *students+ hands are on, but their heads are out. Therefore my role as the teacher is to be thinking about ways to ensure my students are working hands-on, minds-on and hearts-on in my science classroom. I have tried to work with the 5E instructional model in mind therefore my role as a teacher is also to ensure that I begin by gaining the students interest in the topic and finding out students ideas, prior knowledge activities are a great way of doing this. It is important that I then select strategies that would help students develop their prior knowledge, form and modify their ideas and then I can ensure that students reflect on their ideas and their learning processes. My four investigations allow for this learning sequence to occur. My four investigations are consistent with the constructivist view of learning because they allow for group collaboration, follow a learning sequence, and allow students to make improvements in their design technology and scientific knowledge, skills and understandings through collaboration with their peers and the teacher.

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7. References:

ACARA, Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). The Australian curriculum: Science. Accessed from: <www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/Science/Curriculum/F-10>

Fleer M. & Jane B., (2011) Design and Technology for Children, Pearson Australia, pg.193

SACSA South Australian Curriculum and Accountability Framework (n.d.). The South Australian curriculum: Design and technology. Accessed from: <http://www.sacsa.sa.edu.au/index_fsrc.asp?t=CB>

Science and Technology K 6 Teachers Kit, Board of Studies, 1993, North Sydney, Australia, viewed on 10 November 2012, <http://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/files/science-andtechnology/k6_scitechsyll.pdf>

Science Kids, Fun Science and Technology for Kids, 2012, Plant Seeds and Watch them Grow, viewed 9 November 2012, <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/experiments/seedgermination.html>

Skamp, K. (2012). Teaching primary science constructively, Australia: Cengage Learning. pg. 13, 20, 21, 247.

Teacher Tube, Teach the World, Parts of a Plant Video, viewed on 10 November 2012, <http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=151518>

Teachers Domain, 2002-2012, Digital Media for the classroom and professional development, Plant Life Cycles, WGBH Educational Foundation, viewed 9 November 2012 <http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.colt.lp_plantcycle/>

Teaching Ideas, Label the Plants, Mark, RM Education, viewed on 10 November 2012, <http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/science/plants.htm>

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