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# .

10 11

1.
, : F = 2T sin ,

q2
F=
, T = k l
4 0 x 2
x2
l +
l ,
4

1
2
.
= kx 1
2
2

x
x
l2 +
1+ 2

4
4l

, l . : l =

x
2

2 x2

q2
=
2
k
l
+

x2
4 0 x 2
4
2

l +
4
, x << l , ,
sin =

q2
x 2 kx 3
2q 2l 2
= kx 1 1 2 = 2 . x = 5
.
4 0 x 2
0 k
8l 8l
2.

, , ,
, .

0 =

q
q
+ , R ,
4 0l 4 0 R

q ,

0 =

q
.
4 0l

q ,

3.
1 2 ,
3. q 3
, 3,
1, q31 , ,
E31 . 3,
2, q32
, E32 . E31 , E32

q31 , q32 . 1 2
dx
dx
E31 ( d x ) + E32 x = 0 , E32 = E31
, , q32 = q31
.
x
x

x
, , 3
d
x+l
x
l
q = q ,
q = q
d
d
d

## q31 + q32 = q , q31 = q

l q31

, 1 2.
4.
,
R , q1 ,

q2
q
1 ,
8 0 R 4 0 r
q
q
R r 2 R . R , 2 q1 = 0 , q1 = 2 .
2
2
q2
q2
q2

=
, =
,
8 0 R 16 0 R 16 0 R
: q2 = 16 0 R , q1 = 8 0 R
2R ,

q 2 :

( r) =

5.
1. q ,

S , =

E1 =

q
,
S

E2 =
. ,
01
0 2

q d1 d 2
+ .
0 S 1 2
q
q
0S
S
C= =
=
= 0 1 2
U
q d1 d 2 d1 + d 2 2 d1 + 1d 2 .
+
0 S 1 2
1 2

U = E1d1 + E2 d 2 =

2.
(, , ,

).
,

01S
0 2 S
, C2 =
.
d1
d2
C1C2
021 2 S 2
S
C=
=
= 0 1 2
C1 + C2
S S d + 2 d1 .
d1d 2 0 1 + 0 1 1 2
d2
d1

C1 =

6.

r . R

.
P= I R=
R
r
+
R

2
1

R
R .
R P = I
=

2 r + R/2 2
R
R
R
r + R =
, r + =
.
P
2
2P
R
R
R
,
,
=

2
P
2P
R
R 2P
PR
=
=
=
R
R 2 2 1 R 2 2 .
2

2P
P
2
2

7.
U ab " a " "b " , I1 , I 2 , I 3
,

1 , 2 , 3 , r1 , r2 , r3 ; I

, R . I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 ,

I=

1 U ab 2 U ab 3 U ab
+
+
, U ab = IR .
r1
r2
r3

1 2 3
+ +
IR IR IR 1 2 3
r1 r2 r3
I+
+
+
= + + . I =
.
R R R
r1
r2
r3 r1 r2 r3
1+ + +
r1 r2 r3

, ,

3 / r

=
. ,
1 + 3R / r R + r / 3
/r

I 3R + r
I =
=
=
, ,
.
1 + 3R / r r + 3R
I R + r / 3
I
( r = 0 ),
= 3.
I
I =

8.

R( R + r)
.
2R + r
r , R ( 2 R + r ) + R ( R + r ) r ( 2 R + r ) = 0 ,

3R 2 r 2 = 0 , r = R 3 .

R = R +

9.
, . " c " " d "
, , , .

2R 2R + R
3 8 .

= R
2
2R + 2R + R 7
3
10.
B, C , D, E
. C D ,
.
,

ROA =

1
1
2
1 6 11R
= +
= +
=
,
ROA R R + 2 R / 3 R 5 R
5

5
R.
11

, ,
11.

I
, , j = v , v
hd
. e
U
Fm = evB , Fe = eE , E =

d
. Fm = Fe , U = vBd
I
IB
, , , v =
. , U =
.
hd
h
j =

12.
l = r ,
F = BI l = BIr ,
. T ,
.
F :

F = 2T sin
, , ,
2
F = T , BIr = T , T = BIr

13.
m ,
mg =

qQ
.
4 0 R 2

x ,

mg + F =
F=

qQ
4 0 ( R + x )
qQ

4 0 ( R + x )

F:

qQ
R2
1
mg =

mg
=
mg
mg
2
.
4 0 R 2 ( R + x ) 2
x

1
+

2x
2mg
2x
F = mg 1
1 = mg
= kx , k =
.
R
R
R

k
2mg / R
2g
=
.
=
=
m
m
R
14.

E1 = 2

mv 2
kx 2
+2
= mv 2 + kx 2 , m , v , k
2
2

. .
x ,
y . CO2
, 2mx My = 0 , y =

2mx
, M .
M

mv 2 MV 2
( x + y) ,
(1)
E2 = 2
+
+ 2k
2
2
2
2mv
V . V =
, E2
M
2

2
2
M 2m
2m

2m v
2m x . (2)
E2 = mv +
v + k x +
x = 2m 1 +
+ 2k 1 +

2M
M
M 2
M 2

(1) (2)

mv 2 kx 2
, ,
E=
+
2
2
2k
k
,
1 =
=
2m
m
2

2m
2k 1 +

k
2m ,
M

2 =
=
1+
2m
m
M
2m 1 +

2
2m
= 1+
. : m = 16 ..., M = 12 ...,
1
M
2
2 *16
44
11
= 1+
=
=
.
1
12
12
3
15.
E1 E2 ,

( ( t z / v ) ) 1 2
Ox .
Ox Oy Ex = E1 cos 1 + E2 cos 2 , E y = E1 sin 1 + E2 sin 2 .

( E1 cos 1 + E2 cos2 )
E12 + E22 + 2 E1E2 cos ( 1 2 ) .
E = Ex2 + E y2 =

E=

+ ( E1 sin 1 + E2 sin 2 ) ,

E
arctg y
Ex

E1 sin 1 + E2 sin 2
= arctg
.
E1 cos 1 + E2 cos 2

( t z / v ) .

16.

1 ,

1 , 2
0
2 . , 1 = 2 = 90 ,
1 = 2 = 450 , n = 2 = 1,414... .

17.

a1 , a2 , b1 b2 . a1 + b1 = a2 + b2 = L ,

a2 a1 = b1 b2 = l . ,

1 1 1 1 1 1
a +b a +b
= + ,
= + . 1 1 = 2 2 , a1b1 = a2b2 .
F a1 b1 F a2 b2
a1b1
a2b2
a1 , a2 , b2 , b1 ( L b1 ) = ( b1 l ) ( L + l b1 ) ,
L+l
Ll
. , a1 = L b1 =
,
b1 =
2
2
a1b1
L2 l 2
F=
=
.
a1 + b1
4L
18.

. ,
n

## = 900 + , = 1800 900 = 900 , , = + ,

n
n
n
n
= n = + n .
= = + n = ( n 1) .

19.
, ,
.

1
1
1
= ( n 1) + , n
F
R1 R2

, R1 , R2 ,
, 2 .
20.
h 0 = A , h
, 0
, A . ,

eq
. ,
4 0 R
eq
= 1 0 =
.
4 0 Rh
, , 1 > 0 , 1 0
: h 1 = A + e = A +

,
. q ,
<<

A
.
h