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Sri Chaitanya IIT- JEE Academy


CHEMISTRY ASSIGNMENT
[Dilute Solution & Colligative Properties]

J.IIT
***************************************************************************************
1. An azeotropic mixture of two liquids boils at a lower temperature than either of them when
1) it is saturated 2) it does not deviate from Raoults law
3) it shows negative deviation from Raoults law
4) it shows positive deviation from Raoults law
2. A solution of a substance containing 1.05g per 100ml was found to be isotonic with 3% glucose solution. The
molecular weight of the substance is
1) 63 2) 630 3) 6.3 4) 31.5
3. In cold countries, enthylene glycol is added to water in the radiators of cars during winters. It results in
1) lowering boiling point 2) reducing viscosity
3) reducing specific heat 4) lowering freezing point
4. Beckmann thermometer measures
1) boiling point of the solution 2) freezing point of the solution 3) any temperature
4) elevation in boiling point or depression in freezing point
5. When HgI
2
is mixed with aqueous solution of KI, then
1) freezing point decrease 2) freezing point does not change
3) freezing point increase 4) boiling point remains unchanges
6. The freezing point of 0.05 molal solution of a non-electrolyte in water is ______ . K
f
= 1.86 k kg mol
-1
.
1) 1.86
0
C 2) 0.93
0
C 3) 0.093
0
C 4) 0.93
0
C
7. Which of the following 0.1 M aqueous solutions will have the lowest freezing point
1) potassium sulphate 2) sodium chloride 3) urea 4) glucose
8. The V.P. of a dilute solution of a non-volatile solute is P and the V.P. of pure solvent is P
0
, the lowering of the
V.P. is
1) + Ve 2) Ve 3)
0
P P 4)
0
P P
2
9. The Vant Hoff factor NaCl assuming 100% dissociation is
1) 1 2 2) 2 3) 1 4) 3
10. The solution in which the blood cells retain their normal form are with regard to the another
1) Isotonic 2) Hypertonic 3) Hypotonic 4) none
11. Two solutions A and B are separated through a SPM. A has high O.P then B. The osmosis will occur from
1) A to B 2) B to A 3) Both 4) none
12. When an ideal binary solution is in equilibrium with its vapour, molar ratio of the two components in the
solution and in the vapour phase is
1) same 2) different
3) may or may not be same depending upon volatile nature of the two components
13. The lowering of vapour pressure of 0.1 M aqueous solution of NaCl, CuSO
4
and K
2
SO
4
are
1) all equal 2) in the ratio 1 : 1 : 1.5
3) in the ratio 3 : 2 : 1 4) in the ratio 1.5 : 1 : 2.5
14. The boiling point of C
6
H
6
, C
6
H
5
NH
2
, CH
3
OH and C
6
H
5
NO
2
, are 80
0
C, 184
0
C, 65
0
C and 212
0
C respectively.
Which has higher vapour pressure at room temperature
1) C
6
H
6
2) CH
3
OH 3) C
6
H
5
NH
2
4) C
6
H
5
NO
2

15. The correct relationship between the b.pt of very dilute solution of AlCl
3
( )
1
t and CaCl
2
( )
2
t having same
molar concentration is
1)
1 2
t > t 2)
2 1
t > t 3)
1 2
t = t 4) none
16. The freezing point of equimolal aqueous solutions will be highest for

1) C
6
H
5
NH
3
Cl 2) Ca(NO
3
)
2
3) La(NO
3
)
3
4) C
6
H
12
O
6

17. The relationship between osmotic pressure at 273 K when 10 gm glucose ( )
1
P 10g urea ( )
2
P and 10g
sucrose ( )
3
P are dissolved in 250ml of water is
1) P
1
> P
2
> P
3
2) P
3
> P
1
> P
2
3) P
2
> P
1
> P
3
4) P
2
> P
3
> P
1

18. In dilute solution the depression in f.pt. is directly proportional to
1) normality 2) molality 3) molarity 4) mole fraction
19. A maxima or minima obtained in the temperature composition curve of a mixture of two liquids indicates?
1) An azeotropic mixture 2) a eutectic formation
3) that the liquids are immiscible with one another
3
4) that the liquids are partially miscible at the maximum or minimum
20. Two solvents A and B have
f
K values 1.86 and 2.79 K mole
-1
kg respectively. A given amount of a substance
when dissolved in 500g of A, it completely dimerizes and when same amount of substance is dissolved in
500g of B, the solute undergoes trimerization. What will be the ratio of observed lowering of freezing point
in two cases for A and B.
1) 3 : 2 2) 1 : 1 3) 2 : 3 4) 3 : 4
21. Which inorganic precipitates act as semipermeable membrane
1) calcium phosphate 2) barium oxalate
3) nickel phosphate 4) copper ferrocyanide
22. By adding water to the solution of ionic compound its?
1) Concentration remains same 2) Concentration increases
3) Ionisation may increases 4) Concentration decreases
23. The process of getting fresh water from sea water is known as
1) Osmosis 2) Filtration 3) Desaltation 4) Reverse osmosis
24. Which of the following plots does not represent the behaviour of an ideal binary liquid solution?
1) Plot of P
A
versus X
A
(mole fraction A in liquid phase) is linear
2) Plot of P
B
versus X
B
is linear
3) Plot of P
total
versus X
A
(or X
B
) is linear
4) Plot of P
total
versus X
A
is non linear
25. Which of the following plots correctly represents the behaviour of an ideal binary liquid solution?
1) Plot of X
A
(mole fraction of A in liquid phase) versus Y
A
(mole fraction of A in vapour phase) is linear
2) Plot of X
A
versus Y
B
is linear
3) Plot of
A
1 X versus
A
1 Y is linear 4) Plot of
A
1 X versus
B
1 Y is linear
26. For an ideal binary liquid solution with
0 0
A B
P > P , which of the following relations between X
A
(mole fraction
of A in liquid phase) and Y
A
(mole fraction A in vapour phase) is correctly represented?
1) X
A
= Y
B
2) X
A
> Y
A
3) X
A
< Y
A

4) X
A
and Y
A
cannot be correlated with each other
27. A binary liquid solution of chloroform and acetone is prepared. Which of the following statements correctly
represents the behaviour of this liquid solution?
1) The solution formed is an ideal solution
4
2) The solution formed is non ideal solution with positive deviations from Raoults law
3) The solution formed is non ideal solution with negative deviations from Raoults law
4) Chloroform exhibits positive deviation whereas acetone exhibits negative deviation from Raoults law
28. A semi permeable membrane used in the measurement of osmotic pressure of a solution allows the passage
of
1) solvent molecules through it 2) solute molecules through it
3) both solvent and solute molecules through it
4) either solvent or solute and not both through it
29. In which mode of expression the concentration of solution remains independent of temperature
1) Molarity 2) Normality 3) Formality 4) Molality
30. If 0.50 mole of BaCl
2
is mixed with 0.20 mole of Na
3
PO
4
, the maximum number of moles of Ba
3
(PO
4
)
2
that can
be formed is
1) 0.1 2) 0.2 3) 0.5 4) 0.7
31. 30 ml of solution is neutralized by 15ml of 0.2N base. The strength of the acid solution is
1) 0.1 N 2) 0.15 N 3) 0.3 N 4) 0.4 N
32. A 500g tooth paste sample has 0.2g fluoride concentration. What is the concentration of F in terms of ppm
level?
1) 250 2) 200 3) 400 4) 1000
33. Increasing the temperature of an aqueous solution will cause
1) decrease in molality 2) decrease in molarity
3) decrease in mole fraction 4) decrease in % W/W
34. Which of the following solutions has the highest normality
1) 1.8g of KOH/1 lit. 2) N-Phosphoric acid 3) 6g of NaOH/100 ml4) 0.5m H
2
SO
4

35. Hydrochloric acid solutions A and B have concentrations of 0.5 N and 0.1 N respectively. The volumes of
solutions A and B required to make 2 litres of 0.2 NHCl are
1) 0.5lit of A+1.5lit of B 2) 1.5lit of A+0.5lit of B
3) 1.0lit of A+1.0lit of B 4) 0.75lit of A+1.25lit of B
36. The molarity of pure water is
1) 55.6 2) 50 3) 100 4) 18
37. The mole fraction of water in 20% aqueous solution of H
2
O
2
is
5
1) 77 68 2) 68 77 3) 20 80 4) 80 20
38. Volume of 0.1M K
2
Cr
2
O
7
required to oxidises 35ml of 0.5M FeSO
4
solution is
1) 29 ml 2) 87 ml 3) 175 ml 4) 145 ml
39. Which one is a colligative property?
1) Boiling point 2) Vapour pressure 3) Osmotic pressure 4) Freezing point
40. Which of the following is not a colligative property?
1) Osmotic pressure 2) Elevation of b.p. 3) Vapour pressure 4) Depression of f.p.
41. 100ml of a liquid A was mixed with 25ml of a liquid B to give a non-ideal solution of A-B mixture. The volume
of this mixture would be
1) 75 ml 2) 125 ml 3) just more than 125 ml
4) close to 125ml but not exceeding 125ml
42. Which of the following pairs shows a positive deviation from Raoults law?
1) Water-hydrochloric acid 2) Water-nitric acid
3) Acetone-Chloroform 4) Benzene-methanol
43. Which one of the following solutions would produce maximum elevation in B.P.
1) 0.1 M glucose 2) 0.2 M sucrose 3) 0.1 M BaCl
2
4) 0.1 M MgSO
4

44. Elevation in boiling point was 0.52
0
C when 6gm of a compound X was dissolved in 100gm of water.
Molecular weight of X is (K
b
of water is 5.2K per 100g of water)
1) 120 2) 60 3) 600 4) 180
45. The latent heat of vapourisation of water is 9700 cal/mole and if the b.p. is 100
0
C the ebullioscopic constant
of water is
1) 0.513K 2) 1.026K 3) 10.26K 4) 1.832K
46. The molal freezing point constant for water is 1.86K Kg/mole. If 342gm of cane sugar (C
12
H
22
O
11
) is dissolved
in 1000g of water, the solution will freeze at
1) 1.86
0
C 2) 1.86
0
C 3) 3.92
0
C 4) 2.42
0
C
47. Which has the minimum freezing point
1) one molal NaCl solution 2) one molal KCl solution
3) one molal CaCl
2
solution 4) one molal urea solution
48. The freezing point of 1 molal NaCl solution assuming NaCl to be 100% dissociated in water is K
f
= 1.86
KHO mol
-1
.
6
1) 1.86
0
C 2) 3.72
0
C 3) +1.86
0
C 4) +3.72
0
C
49. 0.01M solution each of urea, common salt and Na
2
SO
4
are taken, the ratio of depression of freezing point is
1) 1 : 1 : 1 2) 1 : 2 : 1 3) 1 : 2 : 3 4) 2 : 2 : 3
50. What is the molality of a solution of a certain solute in a solvent if there is a freezing point depression of
0.184
0
C and the freezing point constant is 18.4.
1) 0.01 2) 1 3) 0.001 4) 100
51. The vapour pressure of a liquid in a closed container depends upon
1) amount of liquid 2) surface area of the container
3) temperature 4) none of the above
52. The temperature at which the vapour pressure is equal to the external pressure is called the
1) critical temperature 2) boiling point
3) normal point 4) saturation point
53. What would happen if a thin slice of sugar beet is placed in a concentrated solution of NaCl
1) Sugar beet will lose water from its cells
2) Sugar beet will absorb water from solution
3) Sugar beet will neither absorb nor lose water
4) Sugar beet will dissolve in solution
54. The freezing point of the water is depressed by 0.037
0
C in a 0.01 moles NaCl solution. The freezing point of a
0.02 mol solution of sucrose in
0
C is
1) 0.0370 2) 0.0185 3) 0.0740 4) 0.1850
55. The osmotic pressure of solution increases if
1) Temperature is decreased 2) Solution constant is increased
3) Number of solute molecules is increased 4) Volume is increased
56. Osmotic pressure of sugar solution at 24
0
C is 2.5 atmosphere. The concentration of the solution in gm mole
per litre is
1) 10.25 2) 1.025 3) 102.5 4) 0.1025
57. Solutions with same osmotic pressure are called
1) Hypertonic 2) Hypotonic 3) Isotonic 4) Normal
58. Which of the following correctly expresses the Vant Hoff factor?
1) Calculated osmotic pressure / Observed osmotic pressure
7
2) Observed molecular weight / Calculated molecular weight
3) Calculated boiling point / Observed boiling point
4) Observed colligative property / Calculated colligative property
59. Vant Hoff factor for an electrolyte is
1) > 1 2) < 1 3) = 1 4) none of the above
60. Acetic acid dissolved in benzene shows a molecular mass of
1) 30 2) 60 3) 120 4) 180
61. The ratio of the value of any colligative property for KCL solution to that of sugar solution is nearly
1) 1 2) 0.5 3) 2 4) 2.5
62. The Vant Hoff factor for 0.1M Ba(NO
3
)
2
solution is 2.74. The degree of dissociation is
1) 91.3% 2) 87% 3) 100% 4) 74%
63. The molecular weight of benzoic acid in benzene as determined by depression in freezing point method
corresponds to
1) Ionisation of benzoic acid 2) Dimerisation of benzoic acid
3) Trimerization of benzoic acid 4) Solvation of benzoic acid
64. Benzoic acid undergoes dimerisation in benzene solution, the Vant Hoff factor i is related to the degree of
association x of the acid is
1) i = (1- x) 2) i = (1+x) 3) ( ) i = 1 - x 2 4) ( ) i = 1 + x 2
65. Which of the following solution has osmotic pressure nearer to that equimolar solution of | |
4 6
K Fe(CH)
1) Na
2
SO
4
2) BaCl
2
3) Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
4) C
12
H
22
O
11

66. The aqueous solution with the lowest freezing point of the following group is
1) 0.01 M MgSO
4
2) 0.01 M NaCl 3) 0.01 M C
2
H
5
OH 4) 0.008 M MgCl
2

67. When two solutions are separated by a semi permeable membrane and there is no flow of the solvent across
the membrane, the solutions are said to be
1) hypertonic 2) hypotonic 3) isotonic 4) none
68. If P
A
is the vapour pressure of a pure liquid A and the mole fraction of A in the mixture of two liquids A and B
is x the partical vapour pressure of A is
1) (1 x)P
A
2) x P
A
3)
A
x (1- x)P 4) ( )
A
1- x x P
69. The freezing point depression constant K
f
depends on
8
1) properties of pure solvent 2) properties of pure solute
3) properties of solute and solvent 4) always constant for all solutes and solvents
70. The most likely of the following mixtures to be an ideal solution is
1) NaCl H
2
O 2) C
2
H
5
- OH C
6
H
6
3) C
7
H
16
(l) H
2
O 4) C
7
H
16
(l) C
8
H
18
(l)
71. For | |
3 3
CrCl .xNH , elevation in BP of one molal solution is double of one molal urea solution, hence x is
(complex is 100% ionized)
1) 4 2) 5 3) 6 4) none of these
72. Relative lowering in vapour pressure of a solution containing one mol. K
2
SO
4
in 54gm H
2
O is (K
2
SO
4
in 100%
ionized)
1) 1 55 2) 3 58 3) 3 4 4) 1 2
73. Vant Hoffs factor for | |
3 6
K Fe(CN) (ionization 50%) will be
1) 1 2) 5.5 3) 2.5 4) none
74. Osmosis of A into solution B will take place if
1) A is hyper tonic 2) A is hypotonic 3) both 1 and 2 4) none
75. Molal elevation constant has unit
1) mol kg
-1
K 2) kg mol
-1
K 3) K 4) none
76. 1M Glucose solution at TK will have osmotic pressure (S = solution constant)
1) 10ST 4 2) 3 ST 3) 4 ST 4) ST
77. Mixture of volatile component to A and B has total V.P, P = 254 119x
(x = mo. Fraction of B) Hence
0 0
A B
P and P are
1) 135, 254 2) 119, 254 3) 254, 135 4) 135, 119
78. 2.56 gm of sulphur in 100gm of CS
2
has depression in F.P. of 0.010
0
K
f
= 0.1
0
(molal). Hence atomcity of
sulphur in CS
2
is
1) 2 2) 4 3) 6 4) 8
79. An ideal binary liquid solution, the plot of P
total
versus X
A
(mole fraction of liquid A) is linear with slope and
intercept equal to
1)
0 0 0
A B A
P - P , P 2)
0 0 0
A B B
P - P , P 3)
0 0 0
B A A
P - P , P 4)
0 0 0
B A B
P - P , P
80. Mole fraction of A vapours above solution in mix of A and B ( )
A
X = 0.4 will be
9

0 0
A B
P 100mm, P 200mm ( = =


1) 0.4 2) 0.8 3) 0.25 4) none
81. If relative decrease in V.P is 0.4 for a solution containing 1 mol. NaCl in 3 mol. H
2
O, NaCl is .. % ionised
1) 60% 2) 50% 3) 100% 4) 40%
82. 1 mol A+ 3 mol B (volatile liquids)
( )
0 0
A B
P = 300mm, P =100mm , mol fraction of B in vapour state above
solution is
1) 0.75 2) 0.25 3) 0.50 4) 0.66
83. Which is true about ideal solutions
1) the change in volume of mixing is zero 2) the change enthalpy of mixing is zero
3) both 1 and 2 4) none of these
84. Vapour pressure of A is 100mm and that of B is 200mm, mol. fraction of A in vapour state in the mixture of 3
mol of A and 1 mol of B is
1) 0.4 2) 0.6 3) 1.0 4) 0.8
85. Vapour pressure of mixture of above question is
1) 125 mm 2) 50 mm 3) 200 mm 4) 300 mm
86. 25 ml of an aqueous solution of KCl was found to require 20 ml of 1 M AgNO
3
solution when titrated using a
K
2
CrO
4
as indicator.. Depression in freezing point of KCl solution with 100% ionization will be (K
f
= 2 for mol
1
Kg and molarity = molality)
1) 0.4 2) 0.8 3) 1.6 4) 3.2
87. 12.2gm of benzoic acid (M=122) in 100gm H
2
O has elevation of boiling point of 0.27
0
. K
b
= 0.54
0
kg/mol. If
there is 100% polymerization no. of molecules of benzoic acid in associated state is
1) 1 2) 2 3) 3 4) 4
88. Based on the given diagram, which of the following statements regarding the solutions of two miscible
volatile liquids are correct?
(1) Plots AD and BC show that Raoults law is obeyed for the
solution in which B is a solvent and A is the solute and as
well as for that in which A is solvent and B is solute
(2) Plot CD shows that Daltons law of partial pressures is
observed by the binary solutions of components A and B
(3) EF+BG=GH, and AC and BD correspond to the vapour
pressures of the pure solvents A and B respectively. Select
the correct answer using the codes given below
10
1) 1 and 2 2) 2 and 3 3) 1 and 3 4) 1, 2 and 3
89. An ideal liquid solution, the plot of
A A
1 X versus 1 Y (where
A
X and
A
Y are the mole fractions of A in
liquid and vapour phase) is linear with slope and intercept equal to
1)
0 0 0
B A A
0 0
B B
P - P P
,
P P
2)
0 0 0
B A B
0 0
B A
P - P P
,
P P
3)
0 0 0
A B A
0 0
B B
P P - P
,
P P
4)
0 0 0
B B A
0 0
A B
P P - P
,
P P

PART A
1. The vapour pressure of liquids A and B at 100
0
C are 300
0
mm and 100 mm of Hg respectively. A mixture of
two liquids forming ideal solution at 100
0
C exerts a vapour pressure in gaseous phase in which A and B are
one mole each in vapour phase. Calculate the vapour pressure of mixture and the mole fraction of liquid
mixture in which two liquids are mixed.
| | Ans: 1 4, 3 4, 150 mm
2. A mixture of ethyl alcohol and propyl alcohol has a V.P of 290 mm at 27
0
C. If mole fraction of ethyl alcohol is
0.65. Calculate the vapour pressure of ethyl alcohol, if vapour pressure of propyl alcohol is 210 mm.
Ans: 333 mm
3. Calculate vapour pressure of a solution at 100
0
C having 3.42g of cane sugar in 180g water.
| | Ans: 759.2 mm
4. What weight of non volatile solute (urea) NH
2
CONH
2
needs to be dissolved in 100g of water in order to
decrease the vapour pressure of water by 25%. What will be the molality of solution?
| | Ans: 18.52 m
5. An aqueous solution of glucose containing 12g in 100g of water was found to boil at 100.34
0
C. Calculate K
b

for water in K mole
-1
Kg.
| | Ans: 0.51
6. At 0
0
C, 23.54 ml of N
2
at a partial pressure of 1 atm will dissolve per litre of water. Under the same
conditions, 48.89ml of O
2
will dissolve. Calculate the amount by which the freezing point of air free water is
lowered by being saturated with air. (composition of air is 79 vol % of N
2
and 21 vol % of O
2
)
K
f
= 1.86K kg mol
-1


0
Ans: 0.0024 C (


7. How much ice will separate if a solution containing 10g of ethylene glycol in 100g of water is cooled to
10
0
C? K
f
for H
2
O=1.86 K mole
-1
kg.
| | Ans: 70.00 g
11
8. At 0
0
C vapour pressure of H
2
O and its solution of 8.49g NaNO
3
in 100g water are 4.62 and 4.483mm
respectively. Calculate degree of ionization of NaNO
3
.
| | Ans: 69.8%
9. A solution of 0.643g of an organic compound in 50ml of benzene (density 0.879 g/ml) lowered its freezing
point from 5.51
0
C to 5.03
0
C. Calculate the molecular weight of solid. K
f
for benzene is 5.12 K mole
-1
kg..
| | Ans: 156.06
10. Calculate the freezing point of an aqueous solution of a non electrolyte having an osmotic pressure 2.0 atm
at 300 K. K
f
= 1.86 K mole
-1
kg and R = 0.0821 litre atm K
-1
mol
-1
.

0
Ans: - 0.151 C (


11. A 1% KCl solution is ionized to the extent of 82%. What would be its osmotic pressure 18
0
C.
| | Ans: 5.836 atm
12. A 5% solution of glucose is isotonic with 1.1% solution of KCl at 30
0
C. Calculate degree of ionization of KCl.
Ans: 88.29%
13. The vapour pressure of a solution containing 2g of an electrolyte BA in 100g water which dissociates in one B
+

and one A

ion in water is 751 mm at 100
0
C. Calculate degree of ionization of BA if its mol.wt. is 56.
| | Ans: 86.41
14. A solution containing 28g phosphorous in 315g CS
2
(b.p. 46.3
0
C) boils at 47.98
0
C.K
1
b for CS
2
is 2.34 K mole
-1

kg. Calculate m.wt. of phosphorous and deduce its molecular formula. Assume its complete association
| |
4
Ans: P
15. The freezing point of a solution containing 0.2g of acetic acid in 20.0g benzene is lowered by 0.45
0
C.
Calculate the degree of association of acetic acid in benzene. Assume acetic acid dimerizes in benzene. K
f
for
benzene = 5.12 K mole
-1
kg
| | Ans: 94.5
16. Calculate the molal lowering of vapour pressure for H
2
O at 100
0
C.
| | Ans: 13.68 mm
17. Calculate the amount of urea in 100ml of a solution at 25
0
C, whose osmotic pressure is 20.4 atm
| | Ans: 5.0029
18. Dry air was successively passed through a solution of 5g solute in 80g water and then through pure water.
The loss in weight of solution was 2.5g and that of pure water was 0.04g. What is mol.wt. of solute?
12
| | Ans: 70.31
19. Calculate the (a) molar concentration and (b) molality of a sulphuric acid solution of density 1.1g cm
-3
,
containing 27 mass percent of sulphuric acid. For what volume should 100ml of this acid be diluted to
prepared 1.5N solution
| | Ans: V = 404.9 ml
20. A current of dry air was passed through a series of bulbs containing 1.25g of a solute A
2
B in 50g of water and
then through pure water. The loss in weight of the former series of bulbs was 0.98g and in the later series
0.01g. If the molecular weight of A
2
B is 80, calculate degree of dissociation of A
2
B.
[Ans:40.7 %]
21. Two elements A and B form compounds having molecular formula AB
2
and AB
4
. When dissolved in 20g of
benzene. 1.0g of AB
2
lowers of freezing point by 2.3
0
C. Where as 1.0gm of AB
4
lowers the freezing point by
1.3
0
C. Calculate the molar masses of A and B. Given : K
f
(benzene) = 5.1 kg mol
-1
.
| | Ans: 25.6, 42.65
22. 8.057510
-2
kg of Glaubers salt is dissolved in water to obtain 1 dm
3
of a solution of density 1077.2 kgm
-3
.
Calculate the molarity, molality and mole fraction of Na
2
SO
4
in the solution.
| | Ans: 0.25m, 0.24m, 0.0043
23. Determine the volume of dilute nitric acid (density 1.11g cm
-1
19 mass % HNO
3
). That can be prepared by
diluting 50.0 cm
3
of concentrated acid (density 1.42g cm g cm
-3
, 69.8 mass % HNO
3
). Calculate the molarities
and molalities of concentrated and dilute acids.
| | Ans: 15.73m, 36.67m, 3.35m, 3.72m, v=234.8m
24. The freezing point of 0.02 mole fraction solution of acetic acid in benzene is 277.4K. Assuming molality equal
to molarity, calculate K
c
for the equilibrium reaction

( )
-1
f f
T = 278.4 K, K 5K kg mole =
| | Ans: 3.2159
25. An aqueous solution containing 5% by weight of urea and 10% by weight of glucose. What will be its freezing
point? K
f
for H
2
O is 1.86 K mole
-1
kg.

0
Ans: - 3.04 C (


26. Concentrated HNO
3
has a specific gravity of 1.42 and is 69 mass % in HNO
3
, what mass of HNO
3
is contained
in 300 mL of this rengent? What volume of this concentrated HNO
3
be diluted to obtain 800 mL of 0.20 M
HNO
3
?
| | Ans: 293.94gm
13
27. If boiling point of an aqueous solution is 100.1
0
C. What is its freezing point? Given latent heat of fusion and
vaporization of water are 80 cal g
-1
and 540 cal g
-1
respectively.

0
Ans: - 0.361 C (


28. A certain mass of a substance when dissolved in 100g C
6
H
6
lowers the freezing point by 1.28
0
C. The same
mass of solute dissolved in 100g of water lowers the freezing point by 1.40
0
C. If the substance has normal
molecular weight in benzene and is completely dissociated in water, into how many ions does it dissociate in
water? K
f
for H
2
O and C
6
H
6
are 1.86 and 5.12 K mole
-1
kg respectively.
| | Ans: 3
29. 1g of mono basic acid in 100g of water lowers the freezing point by 0.168
0
. If 0.2g of same acid requires
15.1ml of N/10 alkali for complete neutralization, calculate degree of dissociation of acid. K
f
for H
2
O is 1.86 K
mole
-1
kg.
| | Ans: = 19.6%
30. To 500 cm
3
of water, 310
-3
kg of acetic acid is added. If 23% of acetic acid is dissociated. What will be the
expression in freezing point? K=1.86 K kg
+1
mole
-1
and d=0.997 g/cm
3
.
| | Ans: 0.229
31. A tube of uniform cross-sectional area 1 cm
2
is closed at one end with semi permeable membrane. A solution
of 5gm glucose per 100ml is placed inside the tube and is dipped in pure water at 27
0
C. When equilibrium is
established calculated
1) osmotic pressure of solution
2) height developed in vertical column. Assume density of glucose solution 1 gm/ml.
| | Ans: 6.841 atms, 70.43 m
32. The molar volume of liquid benzene (d=0.877 g/ml) increases by a factor of 2750 as it vaporizes at 20
0
C and
that of liquid toluene (d=0.867 g/ml) increases by a factor of 7720 at 20
0
C. A solution of benzene and toluene
at 20
0
C has a vapour pressure of 46, Torr. Find the mole fraction of benzene with vapour above the solution.
| | Ans: 0.73
33. A 1.2% solution (wt/volume) of NaCl is isotonic with 7.2% solution (wt/volume) of glucose. Calculate degree
of ionization and Vant Hoff factor of NaCl.
| | Ans: = 0.95, i = 1.95
34. What is the ratio by weight of NaF and NaI which when dissolved in water produces the same osmotic effects
as 0.1 molar solution of urea in water? The weight of residue obtained on evaporation of the salt solution is
0.48 gm per 100 ml of solution evaporated. Assume complete dissociation of the salts [Ans:0.28]
14
35. 100gm of sucrose solution in water is cooled to 0.5
0
C. What weight of ice would be separated out at this
temperature of solution started to freezes at 0.38
0
C? K
f
for H
2
O = 1.86 K mole
-1
kg.
| | Ans: 22.42 gm
36. Vapour pressure of C
6
H
6
and C
7
H
8
mixture at 50
0
C is given by P(mm Hg)=180 X
B
+90, where X
b
is the mole
fraction of C
6
H
6
. A solution is prepared by mixing 936g benzene and 786g toluene and if the vapours over this
solution is removed and cooled. Calculate the mole fraction in vapour state above the solution
| | Ans: 0.93
37. A solution comprising 0.1mol of naphthalene and 0.9mol of benzene is cooled until some benzene freezes out.
The solution is then decanted off from the solid and warmed to 353 K. Where its vapour pressure is found to
be 670 torr. The freezing and normal boiling point of benzene are 278.5 K and 353 K, respectively and its
enthalpy of fusion is 10.67 kJ mol
-1
. Calculate the temperature to which the solution was cooled originally
and the amount of benzene that must have freezen out. Assume conditions of ideal solution.
| | Ans: 270.39 K
38. The vapour pressures of two pure liquids A and B that form an ideal solution are 300 and 800 torr,
respectively, at temperature T. A mixture of the vapours of A and B for which the mole-fraction of A is 0.25 is
slowly compressed at temperature T. Calculate
(a) the composition of the first drop of the condensate
(b) the total pressure when this drop is formed
(c) the composition of the solution whose normal boiling point is T.
(d) the pressure when only the last bubble of vapour remains
(e) composition of the last bubble
| |
A A A
Ans: (a) X 0.47 (b) 565 Torr (c) X 0.08 (d) 675 Torr (e) X 0.11 = = =
39. The density of a 3 molal sodium thiosulphate solution is 1.25g cm
-3
. Calculate the percentage by mass of
sodium thiosulphate, (ii) the mole fraction of sodium thiosulphate, and (iii) molarities of Na
+
and
2 -
2 3
S O ions
1) 42.71 2) 0.051 3) 4.3 4) 2.15
40. The freezing point of an aqueous solution of KCN containing 0.1892 mol kg
-1
was 0.704
0
C. On adding 0.095
mol. of Hg (CN)
2
, the freezing point of the solution was 0.538
0
C. Assuming that the complex is formed
according to the equation.
- m -
2 m+2
Hg(CN) +mCN Hg(CN) . Find the formula of the complex. (K
f
=
1.86 K kg mol
-1
)
| |
2
4
Ans: Hg(CN)


PART B

15
1. At 27
0
C two solutions of glucose in water of concentration 0.01M and 0.001M are separated by
semipermeable membrane with respect to water. On what solution, pressure need be applied to prevent
osmosis? Calculate magnitude of this applied pressure.
| | Ans: 0.2217 atm
2. An aqueous solution of glucose boils at 100.01
0
C. The molal elevation constant for water is 0.5 K kg mole
-1
.
What is the number of glucose molecule in the solution containing 100g water.

21
Ans: 1.2 10 (


3. 0.48g of a substance was dissolved in 10.6g C
6
H
6
. The freezing point of benzene was lowered by 1.8
0
C.
Calculate m.Wt. of substance. Molecular depression constant for benzene is 50 K mole
-1
100g.
| | Ans: 125.79
4. A 5% by weight solution of cane sugar in water has freezing point of 2
0
C calculate the f.pt. of 5% by weight
solution of glucose in water if freezing point of pure water is 0
0
C.

0
Ans: - 3.8 C (


5. The vapour pressure of an aqueous solution of glucose is 750mm of Hg at 373 K. Calculate molality and mole
fraction of solute.
| | Ans: 0.741
6. Calculate the relative lowering in V.P. of 10g of a solute (m.wt.100) is dissolved in 180g water
7. What will be boiling point of bromine when 174.5mg of octa atomic sulphur is added to 78g of Bromine. K
b

for Br
2
is 5.2 K mole
-1
kg and b.pt of Br
2
= 332.15 K

0
Ans: 332.195 K (


8. A mixture which contains 0.55g of camphor and 0.090g of an organic solute melts at 161
0
C. The solute
contains 93.75%C and 6.25%H by weight. What is the molecular formula of compound
1
f
K for camphor is
37.5
0
mole
-1
kg? The m.pt. of camphor is 209
0
C.
| |
10 8
Ans: C H
9. Calculate the osmotic pressure of 20% anhydrous CaCl
2
solution at 0
0
C assuming 100% ionization.
| | Ans: 121.15 atm
10. When 11.7g of NaCl are dissolved in 200g of water the depression in freezing point is doubled than the
depression caused by 342g of cane sugar in 1000g of water. From this information what do you infer about
the nature of solute particles of NaCl in solution.
| | Ans: 100%
16
11. 2g of benzoic acid dissolved in 25g of C
6
H
6
shows a depression in freezing point equal to 1.62 K.Molal
depression constant of C
6
H
6
is 4.9 K kg mole
-1
. What is the percentage association of acid if it forms double
molecules in solution?
| | Ans: 99.2%
12. A sugar syrup of mass 214.2g contains 34.2g of sugar ( )
12 22 11
C H O . Calculate molality, and (ii) mole fraction
of sugar in the syrup.
| | Ans: 0.556
13. The vapour pressure of pure benzene at a certain temperature is 640mm Hg. A non volatile solid weighing
2.175g is added to 39.0g of benzene. The vapour pressure of the solution is 600mm Hg. What is the molar
mass of the solid substance?
| | Ans: 69.6
14. A 0.1 molar solution of NaCl is found to be isotonic with 1% urea solution. Calculate (a) Vant Hoff factor, and
(b) degree of dissociation of sodium chloride. Assume density of 1% urea equal to 1g cm
-3
.
| | Ans: 1.667
15. A solution is prepared from 26.7g of an unknown compound and 116.0g of acetone at 313K. The vapour
pressure of pure acetone at this temperature is 0.526 atm and that of the acetone above the solution is 0.501
atm. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown compound.
| | Ans: 267.7
16. When 2g of a nonvolatile hydrocarbon containing 94.4 percent carbon is dissolved in 100g benzene, the
vapour pressure of benzene is lowered from 74.66 Torr to 74.01 Torr. Determine the molecular formula of
the hydrocarbon.
| |
14 10
Ans: C H
17. The density of a 3 molal sodium thiosulphate solution is 1.25g cm
-3
. Calculate the percentage by mass of
sodium thiosulphate, (ii) the mole fraction of sodium thiosulphate, and (iii) molarities of Na
+
and
2 -
2 3
S O ions
1) 42.71 2) 0.051 3) 4.3 4) 2.15
18. What volume of 1.0 MHCl must be added to 50.0 mL of 0.50M HCl to give a solution whose concentration is
0.6 M?
| | Ans: 12.5
19. At 100
0
C, benzene and toluene have vapour pressures of 1357 and 558 Torr, respectively. Assuming these
two form an ideal binary solution. Calculate the composition of the solution that boils at 1 atm and 100
0
C.
What is the composition of vapour issuing at these conditions?
17
1) X
B
= 0.247 2)
1
B
X 0.447 = 3)
T
X 0.753 = 4) X
T
= 0.553
20. Calculate osmotic pressure of a solution containing 100ml of 3.4% solution (by volume) of urea (m.wt.60) and
50 ml of 1.6% solution (by volume) of cane sugar (m.wt.342) at 27
0
C.
| | Ans: 9.704
21. The molarity of NH
3
in an aqueous solution is 11.8 mol dm
-3
. The density of the solution is 0.916g cm
-3
.
Determine 1) molality 2) mass percent and 3) mole fraction of NH
3
| | Ans: 16.5 mol/kg
22. What is the mole fraction of benzene in a benzene-toluene solution that is in-equilibrium with a vapour phase
containing 60.0 mol % C
6
H
6
? Given P (benzene)=95.1 mm Hg and P(toluene)=28.4 mm Hg.
| | Ans: 0.31
23. The density of a 3.742M solution of glycerol ( )
3 8 3
C H O in water at 298 K is 1.077g cm
-3
. The vapour
pressure of pure water at this temperature is 23.76 Torr. Calculate the vapour pressure of water above the
solution.
| | Ans: 21 Torr
24. Chloro acetic acid has K=1.9310
-3
M. Calculate the freezing point of 0.1M solution of this acid. Assume that
molarity and molality have identical values. K
f
(water)=1.86 K kg mol
-1
.

0
Ans: - 0.21 C (


25. Two liquids A and B form ideal solution at 300K. The vapour pressure of a solution containing one mole of A
and four moles of B is 560mm of Hg. At the same temperature. If one mole of B is taken out from the
solution, the vapour pressure of solution decreases by 10mm of Hg. Calculate vapour pressures of A and B in
pure state.
| | Ans: 400, 600 mm
26. How much ice will separate if a solution containing 25g of ethylene glycol in 100g of water is cooled to
10
0
C? K
f
for H
2
O = 1.86 K mole
-1
kg.
| | Ans: 25.00 g
27. At 0
0
C vapour pressure of H
2
O and its solution of 8.49g NaNO
3
in 100g water are 4.62 and 4.483 mm
respectively. Calculate degree of ionisation of NaNO
3
.
| | Ans: 69.8%
28. How much of concentrated H
2
SO
4
of density 1.84g cm
-3
and containing 98 mass percent of H
2
SO
4
must be
diluted to prepare 100 cm
3
of the 20 mass percent H
2
SO
4
of density 1.14g cm
-3
?
18
| | Ans: 12.64m
29. A solution containing 30g of nonvolatile solute in exactly 90g water has a vapour pressure of 21.85 mm Hg at
25
0
C. Further 18g of water is then added to the solution. The resulting solution has vapour pressure of 22.18
mm Hg at 25
0
C. Calculate (a) molar mass of the solute and (b) vapour pressure of water at 25
0
C.
| | Ans: 23.99mm Hg
30. A solution contains 3.22g of HclO
2
in 47.0g of water. The freezing point of the solution is 271.10 K. Calculate
the fraction of HclO
2
that undergoes dissociation to H
+
and
-
2
ClO . Given: K
f
(water) = 1.86 K kg mol
-1
.
| | Ans: = 0.02
31. The addition of 3g of a substance to 100g CCl
4
(M = 154g mol
-1
) raises the boiling point of CCl
4
by 0.60
0
C. If
K
b
(CCl
4
) is 5.03 K.mol
-1
kg, calculate (a) the freezing point depression, (b) the relative lowering of vapour
pressure, (c) the osmotic pressure at 298K and (d) the molar mass of the substance. Give: K
f
(CCl
4
)=31.8 K kg
mol
-1
and P(solution)=1.64g cm
-3
.
| | Ans: 4.669 atm, mw 251
| | Ans: 112.7
PASSAGES
I. Consider following law for the solution of a gas in a solvent and answer the questions at the end of it.
The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas.
1. Select correct statement:
1) NH
3
is soluble in water due to hydrogen bonding as well as due to formation of ions
2) Gases which can be liquefied easily are more soluble in water than the gases which cannot be liquefied
3) Both of the above are incorrect 4) Both of the above are correct
2. An ionic compound that attracts atmospheric water so strongly that a hydrate is formed is said to be
1) dilute 2) hygroscopic 3) immiscible 4) miscible
3. The solubility of gases in liquids
1) increase with increase in pressure and temperature
2) decreases with increase in pressure and temperature
3) increases with increase in pressure and decrease in temperature
4) decreases with increase in pressure and increase in temperature
4. The solubility of N
2
(g) in water exposed to the atmosphere, when the partial pressure is 593 mm is 5.310
- 4

M. It solubility at 760mm and at the same temperature is
19
1) 4.110
- 4
M 2) 6.810
- 4
M 3) 1500 M 4) 2400 M
II. Following statement is considered to define colligative properties: Answer the questions at the end of it.

Properties whose values depend only on the concentration of solute particles in solution and not on the
identity of the solute are called colligative properties.
1. Acetic acid in benzene solution forms dimmer due to intermolecular H-bonding. For this case vant Hoff
factor is
1) i = 1 2) i > 1 3) i < 1 4) inclusive
2. If pK
a
= - log K
a
= 4, and Ka = Cx
2
then vants Hoff factor for weak monobasic acid when C=0.01 M is
1) 1.01 2) 1.02 3) 1.10 4) 1.20
3. An aqueous solution of 0.01M CH
3
COOH has vant Hoff factor of 1.01. If pH = -log
+
H (

, pH of 0.01M
CH
3
COOH solution would be
1) 2 2) 3 3) 4 4) 5
4. In which case vant Hoff factor is maximum?
1) KCl, 50% ionized 2) K
2
SO
4
40% ionized
3) SnCl
4
, 20% ionized 4) FeCl
3
, 30% ionized
5. A complex containing K
+
, Pt (IV) and Cl

is 100% ionized giving i = 3. Thus, complex is
1) | |
2 4
K PtCl 2) | |
2 6
K PtCl 3) | |
3 5
K PtCl 4) | |
3
K PtCl

III. Consider following figure and answer the questions at the end of it.
Figure explains elevation in boiling point when a non-volatile solute is
added to a solvent.

Variation of vapour pressure with temperature and showing elevation
in boiling point


1. Given that AT
b
is the elevation in boiling point of the solvent in a solution of molality m then
b
T
m
A | |
|
\ .
is
equal to
1) K
b
(molal elevation constant) 2) L
v
(latent heat of vaporization)
20
3) AS (entropy change) 4) x (mole fraction of solute)
2. Elevation in b.p. of an aqueous urea solution is 0.52
0
.
( )
0 -1
b
K 0.52 mol kg = . Hence mole fraction of urea
in this solution is
1) 0.982 2) 0.0567 3) 0.943 4) 0.018
3. A complex of iron and cyanide ions is 100% ionized at 1m (molal). If its elevation in b.p. is 2.08
0

( )
0 -1
b
K = 0.52 mol kg then the complex is
1) | |
3 6
K Fe(CN) 2)
2
Fe(CN) 3) | |
4 6
K Fe(CN) 4)
4
Fe(CN)
4. Select correct statement:
1) Heats of vaporization for a pure solvent and for a solution are similar because similar intermolecular
forces between solvent molecules must be overcome in both cases.
2) Entropy change between solution and vapour is smaller than the entropy change between pure solvent
and vapour
3) Boiling point of the solution is larger than that of the pure solvent
4) All are correct statements
5. Consider following terms:
(I) mK
b
(II) mK
b
i (III)
b
T
i
A
(IV) K
b

Terms which can be expressed in degree (temperature) are
1) III, IV 2) I, II 3) I, II, III 4) I, III
6. Ratio of
b b
T K A of 6% AB
2
and 9% A
2
B (AB
2
and A
2
B both are non-electrolytes) is 1 mol/kg in both cases.
Hence atomic masses of A and B are respectively.
1) 60, 90 2) 40, 40 3) 44.5, 9.5 4) 10, 40

IV. Questions at the end are based on following phase diagram for pure solvent and solution for depression in
freezing point.
Freezing point of a liquid is defined as that temperature at which it
is in equilibrium with its solid state.

Phase diagram for a pure solvent and solution for depression in
freezing point
21


1. Freezing point of the following system is:
liquid solvent

solid solvent
1)
H - G
S
A A
A
2)
H
S
A
A
3)
G
S
A
A
4)
S
H
A
A

2. Freezing point of a solution is smaller than that point of a solvent. It is due to
1) AH of solution and solvent is almost identical since intermolecular forces between solvent molecules are
involved
2) AS of the solution is larger than that for the solvent
3) AS of the solution is smaller than that of the solvent
4) AH of solution is much higher than of solvent but AS of solution is smaller than that of the solvent
3. Select correct statement:
1) Solution has more molecular randomness than a pure solvent has, the entropy change between solution
and solid is larger than the entropy change between pure solvent and solid
2) Heats of fusion of solution and solvent are similar since similar forces of intermolecular forces are
involved
3) Sugar containing solution freezes at a lower temperature than pure water
4) All are correct statements
4. 60g of urea is dissolved in 1100g solution. To keep
f
T K A as 1 mol/kg, water separated in the form of ice is
1) 40g 2) 60g 3) 100g 4) 200g

V. Read the following fact and answer the questions at the end of it.
Osmosis, like all colligative properties, results from an increase in entropy as pure solvent passes through
the membrane and mixes with the solution.
1. Desalinating of sea water is now done using
1) reverse osmosis 2) osmosis 3) filtration 4) evaporation
2. Red blood cells are placed in a solution and neither hemolysis nor crenation occurs. Therefore the solution is

1) hypertonic 2) hypotonic 3) isotonic 4) isotropic
22
3. The passage of a solvent across a semipermeable membrane because of concentration differences is called
1) dialysis 2) hemolysis 3) hydration 4) osmosis

5. Match the terms with definitions
Term Definition
I : Hemolysis A : the shrinking of a red blood cell when placed in a solution of greater
osmolarity than the cell itself
II : Crenation B : refers to two solutions of same osmolarity
III : Hygroscopic C : refers to a solution having a greater osmolarity than 0.30 osmol, the
osmolarity of normal red blood cells
IV : Hypertonic D : an ionic compound which attracts water molecules from the atmosphere
V : Isotonic E : the swelling and bursting of a red blood cell when placed in a solution
of lower osmolarity than the cell itself

Matching codes are :

I II III IV V I II III IV V
1) A B C D E 2) E D C B A
3) E D B C A 4) E A D C B

VI. Read the following statement and answer the questions at the end of it.
The partial vapour pressure of any volatile component of an ideal solution is equal to the vapour pressure
of the pure component multiplied by the mole fraction of that component in the solution.
1. At a given temperature, total vapour pressure in Torr of a mixture of volatile components A and B is given by
P=120-75 X
B
hence vapour pressure of pure A and B respectively in Torr.
1) 120, 75 2) 120, 195 3) 120, 45 4) 75, 45
2. A mixture contains 1 mol. volatile liquid A (
0
A
p = 100 mm Hg) and 3 mol volatile liquid B (
0
B
p = 80 mm Hg).
If solution behave ideally, total vapour pressure of the distillate is approximately:
1) 85mm Hg 2) 86mm Hg 3) 90mm Hg 4) 92mm Hg
3. Moles of K
2
SO
4
to be dissolved in 12 mol. water to lower its vapour pressure by 10mm Hg at a temperature at
which vapour pressure of pure water is 50mm Hg is
1) 3 mol 2) 2 mol 3) 1 mol 4) 0.5 mol
23

VII. Answer the questions (given below) which are based on the following
diagram.
Vapour pressure plots of benzene-toluene mixtures at 20
0
C. Solutions
of benzene and toluene are ideal. Raoults law is valied for both
components over the entire range of concentration.
1. An ideal solution consisting of two components A and B (such as benzene and toluene) is one in what
1) the intermolecular attractions A, . A, B, .. B and A . B are equal
2)
mix mix
H = 0, V = 0 A A
3) both of the above conditions are followed
4) none of the above conditions is followed
2. There is deviation from ideal behaviour if mixture contains:
1) n-hexane and n-heptane 2) chlorobenzene and bromobenzene
3) o-xylene and p-xylene 4) acetone and chloroform

VIII. Answer the questions (given below) which are based on the following diagram.





Vapour pressure diagram for real solutions of two liquids A and B that exhibit a negative deviation from
Raoults law. The vapour pressure of both A and B are less than predicted by Raoults law. The dashed
lines represent the plots for ideal solutions
1. Solution containing components A and B shows this type of deviation from ideal behaviour when
Attraction A B AH
mix
AV
mix
b.p.
1) larger than average of A .. A, B B +ve +ve larger than expected
attraction
2) as in (a) - ve - ve as in (a)
3) smaller than average of A A, B B +ve +ve smaller than expected
24
attraction
4) as in (c) +ve +ve as in (c)
2. This type of deviation is also expected in the following mixture
1) ethanol and cyclohexane 2) ethyl bromide and ethyl chloride
3) benzonitrile and ethyl cyanide 4) diethyl ether and chloroform
IX. Answer the questions (given below) which are based on the following
diagram.
Vapour pressure diagram for real solution of two liquids A and B that exhibit
a positive deviation from Raoults law. The vapour pressure of both A and B
are greater than predicted by Raoults law. The dashed lines represented the
plots for ideal solutions.

1. Consider some facts about the above phase diagram
(A) This is observed when A B attractions are greater than average of A A and B B attraction
(B)
mix mix
AH = +ve, V +ve A =
(C) Boiling point is smaller than expected such that vaporization is increased
(D) It forms azeotropic mixture
Select correct facts :
1) A, B, C 2) B, C, D 3) A, C, D 4) A, B, C, D
2. Total vapour pressure of mixture of 1 mol. of volatile component
( )
0
A
A p = 100 mm Hg and 3 mol. volatile
component B
( )
0
B
p = 60 mm Hg is 75mm. For such case
1) there is positive deviation from Raoults law
2) boiling point has been lowered
3) force of attraction between A and B is smaller than that between A and A or between B and B
4) all the above statements are correct
X. Read the following sentence and answer the question at the end of it.
In case of positive and negative deviations shown by mixture of two solvents the boiling point composition
curves have minima or maxima.

1. Select correct statement(s) about this mixture of solvents
25
1) Separation of such mixture into their components cant be obtained by simple or fractional distillation
2) Mixture is called azeotropic mixture
3) Mixture boils at a constant temperature and distills over without undergoing any change in the
composition
4) Ethanol-water system shows positive deviation.

XI. Read the following sentence and answer the questions at the end of it.
Benzoic acid dimerises in benzene but ionizes in aqueous solution



1. Equimolal solutions of (A) benzoic acid in benzene and (B) in aqueous solution are taken. Thus
1) vant Hoff factor of (A) > (B) 2) vant Hoff factor of (A) < (B)
3) vant Hoff factor of (A) = (B) 4) dimmer formation or ionisation is not possible
2. In the following equilibrium

2 4 2
N O (g) 2NO


NO
2
is 50% of the total volume. Hence, degree of dissociation (x) and vant Hoff factor (i) respectively are
1) 0.5, 1.5 2) 0.25, 1.25 3) 0.33, 1.33 4) 0.66, 1.66
3. Which has maximum freezing point?
1) 6g urea solution in 100g H
2
O 2) 6g acetic acid solution in 100g H
2
O
3) 6g sodium chloride in 100g H
2
O 4) all have equal freezing point
4. Aluminium phosphate is 100% ionized in 0.01 mol. aqueous solution. Hence
b b
T K A is
1) 0.01 2) 0.015 3) 0.0175 4) 0.02