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' 
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33
75
() 9 16
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294 382

85
344
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211 219 224 249


380 381
360
119 330
59
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101
247
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225 389
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87

409

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372
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145

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442

344
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7 390
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90 102 108 123 138 142


142

(fenestra crystallina, fenestra
coeli) 145

162 165 168 171 208 211


212 213 222 223 228 229
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322 325 326 327 331 336
337 342 348 349 379 380
395 396 397 405
115
71
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118
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115

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34 75 90 342

Perspectiva naturalis

34
37

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15 89 99

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) 25 372

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248 250
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383
297
304
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400 415

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()

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346 382
33

33
34
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35
360
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322
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85
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392 396 398


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) 8
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141 142
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262 381

263
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363

443

41 61 66 76

(acutezza) 63 66
(conceptus) 92 137
(adjectio) 45
(transmutatio)
45
(inventio) 45
(elocutio) 45

,
(. )
254 325 350


119 333


55 119
223
352 356
112 333


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353

353
80
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8

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93

13 (.)

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31
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315 324 325 330 334 335 336
337 361 362 366 377 379

10

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7 24 27
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369 383
 7 367 368


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59 60 61


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30

88 90
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316

307
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76 77 84 90 97 139 210 266
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12 18 266
 8 16 18 26 32 34

40 53 89 92 164 165 171


180 273 277 286 340 341
342 357 360 382


34 37 39 40 56 60
149 158 165 166 233 333
cassetta 38
tondo 38
264


41 42 43 67 76 130 155
377 379

43 45

() 15 31 284 285

39 65
14 155 206 212 232

242 249 286 380 381


101 165 171

239 306 308 315 321

322 399 405

98 99 101
16 101 102 166



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14
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289
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40

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377
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288

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114 194 199
114



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378
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13
356 357


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(.  )

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75
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) 114

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388

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340 355



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346

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102 132 133 134 203



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337
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342 343 383


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307 309
291 292


286 287

288
289 290 291

305

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249 250 255 259 263


110 123
176 198
173
244
9 111 138 166

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312 321 337 342 345 348
383

150 390

121

122 264

178 198 200 373


(. ,
) 8 25
(. )

132 133 194



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(. ) 131

137 164 166 172 173 242


244 325 396

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) 115
114 137


360
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346 352

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341

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191 193 194
142

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355 361
7 17 181
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186 189

173 174
176 185 188 189 190 191
193 198 199
(
)
199 200
190
324
19 75 80 81 83 96

100 242 379


93 96
92 93
55 57 280
85


280 281


130
145
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) 8 17 44 55 65 77

121 130 131 135 137 150


190 203 236 265 266
342 377

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373 375

287
292 293
115
84 92

81 305
32 205 264 347 396

75 143
210 249 372

Summary

This work presents an attempt at the detailed


investigation of the problem of the frame in
Russian art, which has never been made before.
Its aim is to demonstrate the role and meaning of
the frame both in the organization of artistic
space of a work of art and in the very perception
of a visual image, whether it is a work of architecture, an icon, a painting, an etching, or a photograph. It refers not only to a material frame bordering the image, but also to a conceptual,
semantic frame, a text, for instance, which is to
serve as a commentary to this visual image. What
is the meaning of a frame in our understanding
of what we see? Why in some cases the frame does
seem necessary, while in other cases authors
deliberately get rid of it? And what is frame in a
broad sense, how is it understood in different historical and cultural epochs, in different artistic
and social spaces? This is only the most general
complex of questions determining the object of
this investigation. We have every reason to call it
fitful, elusive, not completely clear, but visible and palpable at the same time. Such a statement of the question lets us describe through the
frame not only the concrete space of such and
such a work of art, but also the space of a culture
as a whole. Frame as a cultural phenomenon lets
us include in our investigation the viewer, the
artist, the collector, the antiquarian, as well as
many other participants who are destined to
draw into the sphere of a scholarly investigation
objects that have never attracted attention
before. All this follows from the introduction,
which gives us a scheme of methodological
approach to the problem of frame and
wideranging historiography. The analyses made
in this book are divided into two groups. On the
one hand, frame is considered as a way of presentation of a visual image, on the other hand as a
threshold of its perception by a viewer. So in
447

almost all chapters of the book the reader will


meet stable forms of framing: house, window, door, staircase. All these are symbols of
European culture, which pass through its historical and cultural layers and are included in many
different contexts. The first part of the book is
dedicated to the framework of the Russian icon.
Here the author marks out historical and cultural meanings of the icons frameshrine, setting,
iconostasis, as well as a variety of other constructions inseparably connected with peculiarities of
artistic space of the Russian sacred structure,
from ancient times up to the early 20th century.
Special attention is paid to the epoch of the
Russian baroque. In the 17th century, when
WesternLatin rhetoric and Renaissance aesthetic theory came to Muscovite Rus there appeared
also the new culture of visual images. The
Russian icons frameshrine gradually acquired
forms of Western European framing of a painting. The second part of the work is dedicated to
the palatial painting frame in a broad sense. Here
special attention is paid to the symbolic links of
the palatial painting frame with the architectural
decoration of a Russian imperial palace and with
the system of palace ritual. The third part of the
book is concerned with the framework of secular
painting. Here we propose a view whereby an
exhibition is bounded by the spatial frame of a
museum, and demonstrate the historical and cultural peculiarities of a museum, an antiqueshop
or an auction in the context of the dissipation of
the semantic frameworks of an object of art. The
example of the exposition of works of the
Russian painter Vasily Vereshchagin (1842
1904) shows not only their close connection with
the epoch of Romanticism and Positivism, but
also their participation in the whole European
context of the development of the visual culture
of the 2nd half of the 19th century. Finally, the
author concludes with a discussion of the great
cultural meaning of the frame in the structure of
a dialogue of humanity with the surrounding
world. Frame is a manysided and interesting cultural phenomenon, with many and varied changing functions.

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