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INRODUCTION: The history of education is believed to as old as history of mankind. Available literature suggests the formal education in the form of schooling was started in Egypt between 3000 and 500 BC.The history of mankind because human beings pass knowledge, skills and attitude from one generation to other. The word education is derived from Latin word educare.which means leads out. This derivation connotes growth from the within. The idea of education is not merely to impart knowledge to the pupil in some subjects but to develop in him those habits and attitudes with which he may successfully face the future. In narrow or technical sense, education stands for deliberate instruction or training providing to the child by the society through it various institutions during a particular time in order to modify his behavior. DEFINITIONS OF EDUCATION: According to Pestalozzi, Education is the natural, harmonious and progressive development of mans innate powers According to John Dewey, Education is the development of all those capacities in the individual which will enable him to control his environment and fulfill his possibilities According to Mahatma Gandhi, Education is the all-round drawing out of the best in child and man body, mind and spirit.


Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society. It may refer to the notion of social progress or socio cultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. Accordingly it may also refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements, such as Women's suffrage or the Civil rights movement. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces. More generally, social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors or social relations. EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE. The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and social development is widely recognized today. Social change may take place - when humans need change. When the existing social system or network of social institutions fails to meet the existing human needs and when new materials suggest better ways of meeting human needs. Education can initiate social changes by bringing about a change in outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in the pattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes. Earlier educational institutions and teachers used to show a specific way of life to the students and education was more a means of social control than an instrument of social change. Modern educational institutions do not place much emphasis upon transmitting a way of life to the students. The traditional education was meant for an unchanging static society not marked by any change. But today education aims at imparting knowledge. Education was associated with religion. EDUCATION AND CULTURE Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge good judgment and wisdom. Durkheim sees education as the socialization of the younger generation .It is a continuous effort to impose on the child ways of seeing, feeling and acting which he could not have arrived at spontaneously. Education has as one of its fundamental goals the imparting of culture from generation to generation. Culture is a growing whole. There can be no break in the continuity of culture. The cultural elements are passed on through the agents like family, school and other associations. All societies maintain themselves through their culture. Culture here refers to a set of beliefs, skills, art, literature, philosophy, religion, music etc. which must be learned. This social heritage must be transmitted through social organizations. Education has this function of cultural transmission in all societies. The curriculum of a school, its extra-curricular activities and the informal relationships among students and teachers communicate social skills and values. Through various activities school imparts values such as

co-operation, team spirit, obedience, discipline etc. Education acts an integrative force in the society by communicating values that unites different sections of society. The school teaches skills to the children which help them later to integrate within the culture of the society. Education in its formal or informal pattern has been performing this role since time immemorial. Education can be looked upon as process from this point of view also. Education has brought phenomenal changes in every aspect of man's life. TYPE OF SOCIAL CHANGE Civilization change. It refers to the dress, food habits, production technologies, communication system, etc. Cultural change It is associated with new knowledge. Religion, rituals, arts, literature etc. Change in social relationship. It is the relationship between the father and son, teacher and student, husband and wife, etc. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. Geographical factors like climatic conditions that influence the climatic conditions. Psychological factors like motivation, individualization etc. Sociological factors like social conflicts, social oppressions, modernization etc. Explosion of population The environmental factors like newly built cities, industrialized and urbanized natural environment. The scientific and technological factors like technical advancements, new inventions, modern machineries, tools, etc. The ideological factors like social philosophy, political philosophy and religious philosophy. The legislative factors like legislation on temple entry, banning child marriages etc. The impact of western civilization and cultural diffusion Contact of people with different countries The level of education and literacy attained by the society Modernization of the society New attitudes to wealth, work, saving and risk taking War, natural calamities, revolutions, migration of people, etc

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE According to V.R.Taneja "Education and social change is a two - way traffic. While education preserves, transmits and disseminates the whole culture, social change is the instrument and precondition of educational thought. 1. EDUCATION AS A CONDITON OF SOCIAL CHANGE. It is noted that social change is impossible without education. Education makes the people aware of the inadequacies of the existing system and creates a craze for social reform. Many of the old

superstition s, beliefs and outdated customs. Which is retard social progress, can be prevented by education. It is to be noted that many progressive reforms like Hindu Code Bill and Untouchability Removal Act remained ineffective due to the illiteracy of a large number of Indian people. 2. EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIAL CHANGE. Education is considered as a powerful instrument for social change, because it deals mainly with the thought patterns and behavior patterns of younger generation. The axe of education can cut down the thick roots of traditional superstitions, ignorance and the backwardness. Education prepares the people for social change. 3. EDUCATION AS AN EFFECT OF SOCIAL CHANGE. In the wake of social change, people become aware of the need for educational progress. The changes caused by the political upheaval, industrialization, technological progress and religious reform movements naturally demands more education in order to maintain social equilibrium. In India the enrolment in educational institutions has increased enormously since independence. We can summarize the following relationship between education and social change in the following way: Education initiates the social change and gives them direction and purpose. Education creates the social reformers and leaders who consciously make all the efforts to bring about social changes. Education prepares the individual for social changes. It brings a change in the need dispositions and also creates frustrations with the status quo. Education determines the nature of social changes, which ought to be brought about. TWO FOLD PROBLEM OF EDUCATION IN RELATION TO SOCIAL CHANGE: When we take for granted the phenomena of one question arise. Does the change take place in society stand for progress? Is it in the right direction? A change may not always be towards progress. Therefore, can education allow the society to go adrift? The answer is no. Education must be used as an instrument in relation to social progress. This means the problem of education in relation to social change is twofold. 1. Adjustment to the changing situation. 2. Creation of a new order or education for social progress. Education is not only concerned with the perpetuation of society but with its improvement also. Education is both retrospective and prospective. It is both conservative and progressive .Education transmits the culture of one generation to another. The education activates and experiences of the past generation and asked to carry on those activities and experiences to meet the new situations which it will meet. Education must also provide situations at all age levels but

within the maturity and ability of the individual to stimulate a creative ness of mind, which can explore new horizons and bring the vision of the future into a living reality. 1) Conservation of social heritage: Human race by its own action an d interaction on the environment has accumulated through ages a rich heritage which goes by the name of culture. This culture consist of the knowledge and experience and it has molded mans mode of life and is manifested in the ways of life of the people .if culture is not preserved, all human knowledge and experience would be lost to successive generation and each generation would have to being fresh. Culture is becoming more and more complex with the advancement of civilization and this necessitates the conservation of culture. This product of the past culture provides the subject of instruction for the present generation. Conservation of the past culture will take place in the best form only when we need out from the accumulated knowledge of the past what is observe, wrong and misfit in the present. 2) Progress of civilization: The child is to be led towards a better and happier future. The needs of the society are ever changing. Every successive generation aims at making improvement in the existing pattern. Education helps in reconstructing and reorganizing the experiences of needs of the society and thus eliminates the unworthy features of the society and builds up a happier and better world. Dewey says By various agencies, unintentional and designed, a society transforms uninitiated and seemingly alien beings into robust trustees of its own resources and ideals. Education is thus a fostering, adventuring and a cultivating process. All of these words mean that it implies attention to the condition of growth-When we have the outcome of the process in mind we speak of education as shaping ,forming , molding activity that is shaping into the standard form of social activity. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL FUNCTION 1) Simplifying and ordering the environment: A Complex civilization is difficult to assimilated in Toto.it has to broke up into portions, as it were, assimilated piecemeal in a gradual and a graded way. Thus the first duty of the school is to provide simplified environment .it should select is to provide simplified environment.it should select the features which are fairly fundamental and capable of being grasped by the young.in this way it can establish a progressive order using the factor first acquired as means of gaining insight into what is more complicated. 2) Purifying and idealizing environment:

We cannot import into school life all the exits outside. We shall have to eliminate evil features of the existing environment. By selecting the best for its exclusive uses its strives to re enforce the power of this best. 3) Wider and better balanced environment: In the school there are children of diverse races, communities, religions etc. They come from different home back grounds.so we should try to eliminate the tendenc y to justify ones language, speech, community or race but should train children intolerance towards other communities, races and religions. The caste o, creed and color should not be a bar to healthy conjoint living in the school. 4) School as miniature communities: School should be miniature community. The should be a living traffic with world. TEACHER AS AN AGENT OF SOCIAL CHANGE: The MC Nair report on the training of teachers which says, It is a truism to say that every teacher, in how ever humble a capacity he or she may be serving is directly and vocationally involved in molding the shape of things to come, if that truism be true observes prof W.O.Lester Smith of the London university, the unsettled times in which our young citizens are going to live their lives make it necessary that those who aspire to teach should have though and should continue to think about the problems of society with all the intelligence at their work. Prof.Ottaway thinks that teacher in the schools can have the most powerful influence in the community if they choose. Teachers professional organization and unions are among the orthodox pressure groups and they can bring their views before the public opinion and government. EDUCATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN INDIA The constitution with its statements of fundamental rights, Directive principles and preamble can be said to represent one broad consensus on the type of society which Indians wish to create. The goals placed before the people by the constitution are those of a democratic society which recognizes the dignity and the basic rights of the individual and holds the promise of an order in which, political and economic justice and equality will prevail. PRESENT EDUCATIONAL NEEDS The education of the future providing for mans total life span must be oriented to his fulfillment as an individual person, as a creative worker, and as a member of his society at local, national, and global levels. The educational programs and process should be related to the needs outside

of contemporary man, achieved through an appropriate system of education is the most precious asset of individual and his society, and it is the aim which needs now to be translated into curricular content. Such a curricular content of educational program me and experience need to be conserved and planned in the context of educational program me and experience needs to be conceived and planned in the context of life long education and the capacity to adapt and innovate now requires more than ever, an overriding stress on the building of character and the strengthening of the moral and spiritual dimension of personality. FIVE NEW LINKAGES: Education in unfolding future in our country calls for at least five new linkages. Embodying national tasks and objectives of important to our own model of development. Firstly; we should try to link our great and authentic past with the living present of existing realities and the emerging future of goals and aspirations in the search of a national identity. Secondly; a linkage of the urban elite and the rural people through educational opportunities and suitable institutions and programs of formal and non-formal learning is necessary for achieving some real and meaningful national integration. Thirdly; youth need a closer sense of belonging and fuller involvement with the making of the larger society; youth power and people power can together achieve the developmental tasks for a better quality of life. Fourthly; a linkage of science and spirituality implies that living traditions from the past should function along with the appropriate technologies of modern science that we choose consciously for our own way of life and our indigenous model of development. Lastly; The world of formal education should be linked to the world of the work and the world of culture top serve the needs of life long education and the making of the integrated man. This is the most promising direction of educational change. In addition to formal education and culture learning we need education through work, for work and from work to add to the wholeness of life, to the flowering of integrated personality and harmonious society.

ENGLISH OF INSTRUCTION AND SOCIAL CHANGE: The right to vote, the right to participate intelligently in shaping the policies of the state, demands not merely the right of education, but the right to education in the language of people. The major failure of the government of independent India lies in the fact that it has not fulfilled even some of the major democratic promises. It policy of transacting political, administrative and economic functions in a language which is foreign to the people denies them the right to understand and actively help in shaping these policies. The problem of the medium of

instruction, as well as medium of administration and economic exchange, it is vitally bound up with the very development of the human personality and very notion of respect for the individual dignity of the man considered so essential for democracy.it is also vitally linked with augmenting and unfolding the potential creative power of the citizen, who is the ultimate source of power for building and enriching material and spiritual culture. ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS AND SOCIAL CHANGE: The existence of a chain of English medium schools at all levels of education has been an instrument for creating a small privileged group of English knowing elite. The new and expanding job opportunities are thus monopolized by the members of this group who are getting wealthy in emerging economic order.

ECONOMIC FACTORS AND EDUCATION Economic conditions, economic policies and the economic system are important external factors that constitute educational environment in a country. Income of people and their purchasing power influences that demand for education. In countries where investment and income are steadily and rapidly increasing, educational prospects are generally bright. The economic policies of the government influence the education environment in a country. Education the up of collaboration with foreign universities, exchange of students and faculty members from one country to another country also influence of education environment. Economic conditions of a country determine infrastructure educational oriented development activities. Trends in domestic trade, export, inflation, money supply, foreign exchange, reserved growth of industry, agriculture and service sector determine status of education and its prospects. Students pursuing higher studies come forward to get education loan from public sector banks to meet the expenditure on education. Loans also provide for education institution for constructing required infrastructure.

Government also frequently interferes to fix various types of fees to be collected from students of professional education. Modern infrastructure in education increase cost of education to students. Modern teaching methods and technologies increase the cost of diversified courses offered by educational institutions and the need to increase the students competitive skills also increase the cost of education. FUNDING FOR EDUCATION UGC has no funds of its own. It receives both planned and non-planned grand from the central government, through the ministry of human resource development to carry out the

responsibilities assigned to it by law. The UGC also has variety of programs under which financial assistance is available for promoting career advancement and research. Investment in education is of vital significant especially in the developing countries for enriching the quality of human life which in turn can promote economic development. The funding from the government sources is drying up in the context of new economic and industrial policies which call for privatization and a decreased role for government in higher education. The universities and technical institutions have to be prepared to market and offer their strengths to earn the enhanced funding. STRATEGIES FOR RESOURCE MOBILISATION There are essentially two strategies for resource management namely increase in revenues and reduce in cost. Universities can succeed in increasing revenue by offering some of the following services to industries Consultancy Research and development services Short term specialized courses Technology transfer Running continuing education courses on commercial basis Developing workshops as training cum production centers. Corpus fund Utilization of available resources by industries.

Development of appropriate management information system, cost analysis, approaches to budgeting, comparative studies of cost and expenditures, strategic planning and several incentives and structures. However the higher education institutions can think of introducing reforms with regards to Better management of physical resources Equipment of resources Use of new techniques

Education is an economically and socially productive investment.in many developing countries education is financed and providing predominantly by the state.it is widely accepted that the state of higher education is an indicator of future progress and prosperity of the country. Higher technical and professional education has the power to produce change agents for moving the country along the development continuum. POLITICAL ENVIORNMENT:

Political environment consist of the political system (i.e. democracy and autocracy, etc.) The political institutions the national and regional parties, their structure and their style of functioning etc. ,The political ideologies of the parties , power, continuance of same policies pursued by the party. Strength of opposition and political culture of parties ,Along as there is no absolute majority for the ruling party in the parliament , support of the opposition and supporting political parties becomes essential for introducing any new policies or enacting any new laws relating to any matter. Government policies in education are based on the prevailing environment Dual degree courses, job oriented courses ,vocational courses, short term courses relating to information technology, specific courses or studies needed to get employment opportunities abroad are planned based government policies in education Uniform curriculum in all educational institutions and uniformity in conducting examinations and publishing results are also the outcome of government policies in education. Government provides financial support and other infra structural facilities for organizing training programs to improve teaching skills to the teachers.

The central government is taking strenuous effort to provide education to all by implementing various programs on education. 1) SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYANN: It is a recently introduced in selected schools in India. The primary objective of this program is to provide required infrastructures in school for providing basic education to the children are objective of this program. 2) NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION: National policy on education is a basic document for taking steps and planning programs for uplifting of education sector in India. Stream lining higher secondary education , common entrance test for profession education. Centralized admission for professional education Medium of instruction in educational institutions is also based on the education and language policies of the government. Reservation policy to follow in educational institutions is decided by the government. Some of the programs at elementary education stage are DPEP, Mid day meal scheme and Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana etc 3)District Primary Education Programme

The Centrally-Sponsored Scheme of District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)(External website that opens in a new window) was launched in 1994 as a major initiative to revitalise the primary education system and to achieve the Major Achievements of DPEP: i. DPEP has so far opened more than 1,60,000 new schools, including almost 84,000 alternative schooling (AS) centres. The AS centres cover nearly 3.5 million children, while another two lakh children are covered by Bridge Courses of different types; The school infrastructure created under DPEP has been remarkable. Works either complete or in progress include 52758 school buildings, 58,604 additional classrooms, 16,619 resource centers, 29,307 repair works, 64,592 toilets, and 24,909 drinking water facilities, The Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) for Phase-I states was around 93 to 95 per cent for the last three years. After the adjustment for the Alternative Schools/Education Guarantee Centers enrolment, the GER in the 2001-02 works out above 100 per cent. In the districts covered under subsequent phases of DPEP, the GER including enrolment of AS/EGS was above 85 per cent; The enrolment of girls has shown significant improvement. In DPEP-I districts, the share of girls enrolment in relation to total enrolment has increased from 48 per cent to 49 per cent, while this increase in the subsequent phases of DPEP districts has been from 46 per cent to 47 per cent; The total number of differently bled children enrolled is now more than 4,20,203 which represents almost 76 per cent of the nearly 5,53,844 differently-abled children identified in the DPEP States; Village Education Committees/School Management Committees have been setup in almost all project villages/habitations/schools, About 1,77,000 teachers, including Para-teachers/Shiksha Karmis have been appointed; About 3,380 resource centers at block level and 29,725 centers at cluster level have been set-up for providing academic support and teacher training facilities.





vi. vii. viii.

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY) is a rural development programme launched by the Central government in India in the financial year 200910 for the development of villages having a higher ratio (over 50%) of people belonging to the scheduled castes through convergence of central and state schemes and allocating financial funding on a per village basis.[1]The plan is considered ambitious as it aimed to bring a number of development programs to the villages. Some of these programs are Bharat Nirman, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana(PMGSY) for rural roads, water supply, housing, electrification and other big-ticket schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, ICDS, sanitation. This program would be applicable to around 44,000 villages which had a scheduled castes population above 50% and so qualified for PMAGY. MID-DAY MEAL IN SCHOOLS PROGRAMME

The mid-day meal in schools programme in India that started in 1960 had the main objectives of protecting children against hunger and increasing school-enrolment and/or attendance. Other than these main objectives, mid-day meal programme had also aimed to achieve equality or social harmony among children of various classes and castes, and to provide employment to the unprivileged women. Though the key objectives are still valid in the changed scenario of todays world, the promotion of social harmony or equality is still a myth Objectives The objectives of the mid day meal scheme are:

Improving the nutritional status of children in classs I-V in Government, Local Body and Government aided schools, and EGS and AIE centres. Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities. Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacation.

Entitlement norm per child per day under MDM


Primary (Class I to V) Upper Primary(Class VI to VIII)




Protein (in Grams )



Rice / Wheat (in Grams ) 100


Dal (in Grams )



Vegetables (in Grams )



Oil and Fat (in Grams )


TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES: MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: Educational technology is a system in education in which machines, materials, media, men and methods are interrelated and work together for the fulfillment of specific educational objectives. Technology explosion has yielded several new machines, materials and media which have great potential for use in the educational enterprise. A judicious use of these together with new functions and roles of educational personnel can bring about more efficient and effective teaching learning. A adequate knowledge of theory and practices of educational technology and their proper use would enable the teacher to understand and effectively discharge his or her new roles in the educational system in an age of information explosion, knowledge explosion, population explosion and expectation explosion. DEFINITIONS: B C Mathis Education technology refers to the development of set systemic methods, practical knowledge for the designing, operating and testing in schools.

Nature &characteristics of educational technology: 1 .It is the application of scientific principles of education. 2. It lays stress on development of methods and techniques for effective teaching. 3. It stresses the organization of learning situations for effective realization of the goals of education. 4. It emphasizes the designing and measuring instruments for testing learning outcomes. 5. Involves input, output and process aspect of education. 6. It is not confined to the use of electronic media in education, it includes system approach also. 7. It is important media of communication. 8. It is not taken a synonym to audio visual aids in education. 9. It is very comprehensive term and is not to be viewed in terms of its parts or processes.it includes Instructional, Teaching technology, Programmed learning, micro teaching and system analysis.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: HILLARD JASON HAS STARTED THE FOLLOWING MAJOR TECHNOLOGY . 1. Transmitting information 2. Serving as role 3. Assisting the practice of specific skills 4. Contributing to the provision of feed back MACKENZIE










1. The need to reach more students. 2. To reach them with an improved range of learning materials. 3. To offer greater opportunities for independent study. 4. To permit at least a limited student response

1. Identification of educational needs and aspirations of the community 2. Determination of the aims of education, broad strategies and structure of education 3. Developing a suitable curriculum with interaction of arts, human values and sciences. 4. Identification of material resources and strategies for the desired aims of education 5. Developing certain models leading to improvement in the process of teaching learning. 6. Identification of major constraints in the environment and the ways and means of tackling them. 7. Assisting in extending vocational opportunities to masses especially neglected sector of society. 8. Managing the entire educational system covering planning, implementation and evaluation phases.

MICRO-LEVEL OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identifying and analyzing the characteristics and educational needs of the students Determining the specific classroom objectives and starting them in behavioral terms Analyzing the contents of instruction and organizing them in proper sequence. Identifying the nature of the interaction of the sub-systems like students performance or change in behavior. 5. Identifying the available teaching-learning materials and resources.

6. Evaluating the effectiveness of the class room teaching in terms of the students performance or change in behavior. 7. Providing appropriate feed back to the students as well as teachers to bring modification in the teaching learning process. SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: Scope of educational technology is wide as education itself.it scope ranges from the concrete educational process to the most abstract and subtle ones. It includes the use of hard ware and software and system analysis in various educational operations. There are major areas in education in which its scope is very wide. These are 1. Technology related to general educational administration and management. 2. Technology related to general educational testing 3. Technology related to the instructional process

Mackenic and others (1980) classify the devices on basic of information resources. 1. Television, language laboratory and other audio-visual resources. 2. Feedback devices including machines. 3. Reprographic equipment like computers and programmed learning material. Percival and Ellington (1984) classify techniques. 1. Mass instructional techniques 2. Individualized instructional techniques. FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY: Identification of educational goals and objectives of the community. Developing appropriate curriculum for the achievement of stipulated goals. Developing suitable teaching learning materials Analyzing the process of teaching learning materials. Selecting and developing proper teaching learning strategies for obtaining optimum results. Developing and selecting appropriate audio-visual aids * Utilizing effectively the hardware and software media. * Providing essential feedback and control through evaluation. * Preparing teachers in the new technology of teaching CONTRIBUTON OF EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY: Education technology has great potential for improving the teaching learning process among the important advantages

1. Individualized instructions: Education technology is very helpful in individualizing instruction by enabling as to make use of self-instruction programs. 2. Improvement in the quality of teaching: Education technology assist in the improvement of teaching learning process by enabling use to use more valid, rich and motivational programs through TV and other media. 3. Meeting the problem of mass education: Education technology helps in programs developed by experts for a large population of students with the use of computer and TV etc 4. Equalizing educational opportunity: Educational technology assist as in making efforts for equalizing educational opportunities irrespective of economic, social and geographical status of learners. 5. Providing continuing education: TV lessons and self-instructional programmed material send to keep themselves abreast of the latest material. Following are the important technologies in education that have combined to make the communication revolution and information age a challenging era for educators. 1. Artificial intelligence: Artificial is the branch of computer science thats deals with the task of making intelligence machines that can perform better than what humans are capable of. AI is a computational technology that involves the symbolic representations and processing of knowledge. 2. CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory ): ROM is semi-conducted memory device which is used to store of a permanent nature. 3. Dial Access: It is round the clock delivery system through which caller can get access to vast library of audio cassettes. 4. E-Mail: It is natural to communicate with our friends and business associates based at distant locations and this is the essence of networking. 5. Teleconferencing or Interactive television: It is two way electronic communications between two or more groups or three or more individuals who are at separate locations. 6. Telelecture: It is primarily a one way information transmission takes by his teacher with a very limited opportunity of questions or comments. 7. Teletutorial: It is a more focused instructional section involving demonstration and explanation by a tutor, practice by the participants and evaluation and corrective feedback by the teacher.

8. Teleseminar It is characterized by intensive participants involvement owning to a small number of groups it leads to much focused, in-depth discussion on a topic where previous experience is shared. 9. Internet 10. Wireless class room microphones 11. Interactive white boards 12. Video conferencing CURRENT TRENDS IN EDUCATION The changes that are occurring in the social and culture life of the society as a result of the impact of advancements in the science based technology are broadly describes as modernization. Since education is a multipolar process, it is infused by modernization in different ways. Due to globalization and liberalization changes occurring in other parts of the world will also influence the education pattern of the country. Even though certain aspects in the new trend are painful to those who viewed education as a noble process, they are irresistible in the current contests.

1. PAEDOCENTRIC: Student is the focus of present day education system. The interest is shifted from subject matter to the student and the teaching learning process is largely directed by the nature and needs of learner The basic shift in emphasis from the subject of instruction to nature &needs of learner is based on math etic principle. Math tics is the science of behavior of pupil undergoing the process of learning. Educationist like Rousseay, Pestalozzi, John Dewey and others have contributed to the development of child centered education. As a result, education has become more interested in the whole child, all the thoughts, feeling and actions of the individual pupil, in his mental and social development rather than presenting some information to him in a readymade form. In accordance with this trend, student is motivated to participate actively in the teaching learning process. This way of teaching by eliciting maximum student participation is called Participatory approach in teaching.

2. TEACHERS ROLE The shift is emphasis from teacher to people in the process of education and carrying out of Instructional activities with the realization of specific and clear cut the learning outcomes has inevitably to a reassessment of teachers role in the classroom. The model of teacher as the pivotal and dominate figure in education, presenting a variety of information to pupils has practically disappeared. Modern education transformed the teacher role from a Dictator to friend of students. To prepare student for learning by enabling them to actively participate in teaching learning process rather than simply spoon feeding. Creation of environment. The future of education directly depends upon the quality of the intermediary inventive minds of teacher and their ability to invent and innovative.

3. ACTIVITY CENTERED Modern education is activity centered. We are currently giving more emphasis to learning by doing. Curriculum of today is organized in terms of the task to be performed and goal to be reached rather than in terms of lessons to learned. This will provide knowledge and skills essential for leading a good life. Teachers have to motivate the children to do experiment, search out fact for themselves and undertake projects.

4. CREATIVE EDUCATION One of the most significant trends in todays school is the encouragement of creativity. Human advances come through original thought and intervention. Creative education is a good medium to develop original thought and intervention. 5. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Considering the resipoactive relationship between education and society, this is a expected trend. Education is seeking more community participation for solving its problems. E.g.: Parent teacher association

Funding of various projects in the technical institute by the industrial sector 6. MORE RELIANCE ON TECHNOLOGY Technology exceeds great influence on education as a tool for teaching and learning. Judicious use of educational psychology in the development and practice of educational technology has increased its use friendly nature considerably. Cost effectiveness of technology is based educational programme is a good when compared to cost of traditional programme. Education system prefers technology not because it signifies the teaching learning process, but because technology empowers new solutions. Technology will help the teachers to solve the emerging educational problems created by factors like growing school population, heterogeneity of pupil in schools, divergent and even confusing needs of learner, rapid development of new information, expanding curriculum and the social changes arising from modernization. The facility for online education through informational technology enabled services has defined and concepts of non-formal education. The wide spread use of computers in education, computer assisted learning and computer assisted instruction are becoming common even in the lower level of education. 7. INCREASED ACCEPTANCE OF NON FORMAL TYPE OF EDUCATION Universities and other elite educational organization has come out from glass towers for providing non-formal education through study centers and regional centers. E.g.: Correspondence education and distance education 8. RESTRUCTURING TRADITIONAL PROGRAMME In order to meet the challenges of globalization, education system is restructuring the traditional programme by integrating and co-relating various subjects. E.g.: BSC Botany programme has converted to applied botany. 9. INCREASED OPPORTUNITY FOR HIGHER STUDIES In the present situation a talented student can do the higher studies irrespective of the economic status. Door of all elite universities in the world are kept open for the talented young people and flexible educational loan are available for meeting the expense of education. 10. METHODS OF APPRAISAL Because of the multiple education goals, a comprehensive system of evaluation is being evolved. The childs progress judged by the comparison of his on work and achievement. Latest methods of evaluation are based on a vision of learning and well defined performance indicator. In addition to cognitive abilities, other abilities are also evaluated in a more objective manner.

11. INNOVATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING Lot of innovation are taking place in teaching and learning on a regular basis. These innovations will help in the intellectual development, personal development and career development of the youth. 12. EDUCATIONAL QUALITY ASSURANCE Present day education systems are more concerned about quality, cost effectiveness and accountability. It is a process of monitoring and evaluating efficiency and effectiveness of educational provision and to institute remedial measures as and when needed 13. EMERGENCE OF INDUVIDUAL AS A TEACHING UNIT Class as a unit of teaching is disappearing. As a result of the advancement in instructional planning and evaluation of learning, teachers realize the existence of widely different backgrounds, differences in student abilities and interests. Hence the teacher of today realized the made for presenting learning experience to suite individual difference existing among pupils by using the media and methods generated by educational technology. 14. COMMERSIALIZATION OF EDUCATION AND PRESENCE OF FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES Due to the misappropriation of funds and scarcity of resources, government is finding it difficult to meet the educational demand of society, there by denying opportunity for education to a vast majority of people. This has motivated the government to concentrate more on the basic education. Now, government is withdrawing slowly from providing higher education and allowing private sector to play a major role, subjected to certain social control measures. If the government implements the social control measures properly, this approach would bring spectacular changes in an otherwise gloomy education scenario. Foreign universities are now attracting Indian students by offering job oriented programme and very much reluctant to change according to the new trends in the international level, India has become a gold mine for the foreign university. CURRENT ISSUES IN EDUCATION: A number of issues and controversies now face educators and communities. Among them are discipline and security; race, ethnicity, and equality; mainstreaming; and public versus private education. Discipline and security Expressions of violence have increased in the culture, and so has violence in the schools. In the past, only urban or poor innercity schools worried about serious violence. With recent school

shootings in small towns from Kentucky to Oregon, all U.S. schools and districts, however small, must now directly address the increased incidence of school violence. Teachers have found children as young as kindergarten coming to school armed. Schools have reacted decisively. To reduce the threat from strangers or unauthorized persons, many have closed campuses. Others require all persons on campus to wear identification at all times. When the students themselves come to school armed, however, the schools have been forced to take more drastic measures. Many have installed metal detectors or conduct random searches. Although some people question whether the searches constitute illegal search and seizure, most parents, students, administrators, and teachers feel that, given the risk involved, the infringement on civil liberties is slight. Educators recognize that metal detectors alone will not solve the problem. Society must address the underlying issues that make children carry weapons. Many schools include anger management and conflict resolution as part of the regular curriculum. They also make counseling more available, and hold open forums to air differences and resolve conflicts. Bilingual education, Which means offering instruction in a language other than English, constitutes another attempt to equalize education for minority students. Federally mandated in 1968, bilingual education has generated considerable debate. Supporters argue that students whose first language is not English deserve an equal educational opportunity unavailable to them unless they can receive instruction in their first language. Opponents counter that students not taught in English will lack the fluency needed to function in daily life. Numerous studies support conclusions on both sides of the issue, and, as funding becomes scarce, the debate will intensify. Mainstreaming The practice of placing physically, emotionally, or mentally challenged students in a regular classroom instead of a special education classroom. Educators continue to debate the merits and problems of mainstreaming. In general, the practice seems to work best for students who can still keep pace with their peers in the classroom, and less well for students with more severe challenges. Experts note that exceptions do occur on both accounts and recommend careful consideration on a casebycase basis. Public versus private Most of the publicversusprivate discussion centers on public education. One cannot ignore the effect of private education and home schooling on American education, however. Many parents who are dissatisfied with the quality of public education, who are afraid of rising violence in the schools, or who want specific personal or religious values integrated into the curriculum, turn to private and parochial schools. The majority of private schools are religious, with the majority of those being Catholic.

Studies have found that private schools maintain higher expectations and that students in these schools generally outperform their public school peers. These findings support the Rist and RosenthalJacobson studies. Because of the success of private schools in educating atrisk students, more parents are seeking ways to afford these institutions, which have been largely available only to affluent white families who can pay the tuition costs. One proposed solution is a voucher system. The government would issue parents credit worth a dollar amount to take to the school of their choice, public or private. Advocates argue that this program would make private schooling more available to poorer families and create more equal opportunities. Critics charge that such a policy would drain public schools of needed funding and further erode public schools. The vouchers would not cover the entire cost of private school, and therefore still would not put private schooling within the reach of poorer families. The program would result, opponents argue, in further segregation of schooling. Other public school solutions include magnet schools that provide a selective academically demanding education and superior facilities for qualified students, charter schools that offer flexible and innovative education independent of the traditional rules and regulations governing public schools, and interdistrict and intradistrict enrollments that permit any eligible student in one school district to apply for enrollment in any district school or program.

Unemployment. Some of our educators think that now this problem is an issue for education system but when a youth looks his or her brother or sister unemployed even after getting bachelor or post graduate degree , they are unemployed, this give the birth to a revolt. Poverty The cost of getting education is very high so poor of our society find themselves lost in getting education. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN INDIAN EDUCATION: ELEMENTARY EDUCATION: The national policy of education envisages that free and compulsory education of satisfactory quality should be provided to all school age childrens up to the age of 14 years before the commencement of 21st century. The target of universalizing elementary education has been divided into three broad parameters i.e. 1) Universal access 2) Universal retention 3) Universal achievement

The central government and state government have over a period of time, evolved strategies to check dropout rates and improve level of achievements in the school, the key elements of which include 1.Creating parental awareness and community mobilization 2.Involvement of communities 3.Economic incentives 4.Improvement in the content and process of schooling(minimum level of learning) 5.District primary educations program. 6.National program of nutritional support. The central government plays important roles in funding expenditure on elementary education. NON FORMAL EDUCATION The government of India, department of education has running since 1979-80,a programme of non-formal education for children of 6-14 age group remain outside the formal system due to various reasons. These include drop outs of formal schools, childrens from habitations without schools, working children who assist performing domestic chores like fetching fuel, fodder, water, attending to siblings, grazing cattles, etc and girls who are unable to attend formal schools. Though the focus of the scheme is only educationally back ward status, it also covers urban slums, hilly, tribal and desert areas. UNIVERSIVERSALISATION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION: DPEP is a special thrust and a new initiative to achieve universalization of elementary education .the programme takes a holistic view of primary education development and seeks to operationalize the strategy of UEE through district specific planning with emphasis on decentralized management, participatory process empowerment and capacity building at all levels. The programme is implemented through the state level registered societies. MAHILA SAMAKHYA: Mahila Samakhya programme is a womens empowerment project which aims at creating an environment for women to seek knowledge and information with a view to bringing about change in their perception about themselves and that of society. Mahila Samakhya launched in 1989is being implemented in about 5,500 villages spread over 38 districts of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh. The programme has been able to lay the foundation for womens empowerment at the grass root level and make strategic interventions to support education of adolescent girls and adult women. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION: The national policy on education, 1986 accords high priority to vocationalisation of education at the secondary stage. The NPE as revised in1992 set of target of achieving diversion of 10 percent

of students at the plus two level to the vocational stream I 1995 and 25% by 2000 AD. Accordingly, a centrally sponsored scheme of vocationalisation of secondary was launched in February 1998. Under the scheme of vocational courses in classes xi and xii of the schools system. About 150 vocational courses have been introduced in six major areas. 1. Agriculture 2. Business and commerce 3. Engineering and technology 4. Health and paramedical 5. Home science 6. Humanities INTEGREATED EDUCATION FOR DISABLED CHILDREN: The scheme of integrated education for disabled children was launched in 1974 to provide educational opportunities for disable children in the general school system so as to facilities their and integration in the system. Under the scheme 100 percent financial assistance towards books and stationary, uniform, transport allowance, readers allowance for blind children, escort allowance for severally handicapped childrens, boarding and loading charges for disabled childrens residing in hostel. NAVODAYA VIDAYALAYA The government of India in 1985-86 a scheme to establish navodaya vidyalayas on and average of one in each district to provide good quality modern education to the talented children predominately from the rural areas. The addition to navodaya vidyalayas at the level of class vi based on an admission test conducted by NCERT. The medium of test is mother tongue or regional language of the children. KENDRIYA VIDAYALAYA: The scheme for the establishment of the central school was approved by the government of India in 1962 and its implementation was started by the ministry of education in1963, when 20 regimental school run by the ministry of defense where taken over and converted into central school or kendriya vidyalayas. UNIVERSITY GRANTS COMMISSION:

Coordination and determination of standards in higher education is a subject of the union list and in hence a special responsibility of the central government. This responsibility is discharged mainly through UGC.Which was established in 1956 under an act of parliament to take measures for promotion and coordination of university education and determination and maintenance of standards in teaching examination and research in universities. To fulfill its objectives, the commission can enquire among other things into financial needs of universities; allocate and disperse grants to them; establish and maintain common service and facilities recommend measures for improvement of university education and give advice on allocation of the grants and establishments of new universities. INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY: Indira Gandhi national Open University (IGNOU) was established act of parliament in September 1985 for the introduction and promotion of Open University and distance education system in the education pattern of the country and for the coordination and determination of standards in such systems. The major objectives of the university include widening access to higher education and initiating special programme of higher education for specific target groups like women, people living in backing regions, hilly areas etc. SUMMARY: Education is a purposeful process aimed at the development of humanbeigns.it is concerned with directing the child in the matter of bringing out of his hidden talents. Educative process is best considered as a multipolar process. Components of educative process are knowledge application of skills, understanding, comprehension, expression, appreciation, and teaching, learning initiation, instruction, training and indoctrination. Education is a planned activity and based on objectives. Educative process is influenced by society, social changes and technological changes. BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1) B.Sankaranarayan, B Sindhu, Learning and Teaching Nursing, Third edition Brain fill publications page no: 1-21, 195-225 2) J C Aggarwal, Essentials of Educational Technology, second edition vikas publications page no: 387-408. 3)B K Mishra, R K Mohanty, Trends and Issues in Indian Education, edition 2009, published by Vinay Rakhja C/O R Lall book depot, page no:347-368. 4) Sudha, Nursing Communication and Educational Technology, Jaypee publications, first edition, page no 20-26.

5) Pramilaa.R, Nursing communication and educational technology, Jaypee publications, first edition, page no: 218-222 6) J C Aggarwal, Theory and Principles of Education 13th edition, vikas publishing house page no: 137-142.