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Minister Gospodarki RP

2011 6

PWC

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ISSN 1896-4702


:
Instytut Nafty i Gazu
31-503 Krakw, ul. Lubicz 25 a
Tel.: +48(12) 421 00 33
Fax: +48(12) 430 38 85
email: oce@inig.pl
www.inig.pl
REGON: 000023136
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KRS: 0000075478
:
Instytut Nafty i Gazu
31-503 Krakw, ul. Lubicz 25 a
Tel.: +48(12) 421 00 33,
Fax: +48(12) 430 38 85
email: nafta-gaz@inig.pl
www.inig.pl

:
Wojciech yko
e-mail: Wojciech.Lyko@inig.pl

Layout, DTP:
Pawe Noszkiewicz
e-mail: pawel.n@webkreator.com.pl
:
Agnieszka J. Kozak
Wojciech yko

:
Tomasz Baraczyk
Sawomir Huss
Grzegorz Ku
Jacek Ciborski
Micha Krasodomski
Maria Wony
Piotr Kasza
Jerzy Rachwalski
Iweta Gdala
Mateusz Konieczny
Beata Altkorn
Irena Matyasik
Anna Jarosz

Regina Katlabi
Anna Husza
Grzegorz apa
Mariusz Caliski
Joanna Zaleska-Bartosz
Zbigniew Stpie
Stanisaw Oleksiak
Wiesawa Urzdowska
Joanna Brzeszcz
Piotr Kapusta
Anna Turkiewicz

:

:
sxc.hu, isctockphoto, Grupa Lotos S.A.,
Instytut Nafty i Gazu, PNiG Sp. z o.o.
.
:
Drukarnia i Agencja Wydawnicza ARGI
ul. egiestowska 11, Wrocaw
:
1200

WICEPREZES RADY MINISTRW


MINISTER GOSPODARKI
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:
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IIChE-SC Newsletter, Episteme, vol.3, (2009); http://www.iitg.ernet.
in/chemeng/photos/newsletter/newsletter_3.pdf
55) Kistler S.; Coherent expanded aerogels and jellies. Nature, 127(3211),
May 1931. Wedug http://www.sps.aero/Key_ComSpace_Articles/TSA009_White_Paper_Silica_Aerogels.pdf
56) Griffin J.S.; Modeling of Ethanol-Silica Alcogel Drying Using Supercritical
Carbon Dioxide, School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford,
Massachusetts 2010 r. http://repository01.lib.tufts.edu:8080/fedora/get/
tufts:UA005.028.021.00001/bdef:TuftsPDF/getPDF
57) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aerogelflower_filtered.jpg
58) Industrial Nanotech, Inc.; Nanosulate, http://www.nansulate.com/
nansulate_industrial_coatings.htm
59) US Patent 7 144 522:2006; Composition for Thermal Insulating Layer.
60) Ed. Hunt G., Mehta M.; Nanotechnology Risk, Ethics and Law (Science in
Society Series), University of Oxford, Earthscan, 2006 r.

39
2011

: , ,


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OPEC

: OPEC, Monthly oil market report, May 2011

1.
2011 . [USD]

$140

: Energy Information Administration and Bureau of Labor Statistics

$120

$100

$80

$60

$40

$20

2011

2010

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2002

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2011

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2011

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: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011

49
2011

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0
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: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011

1
2011

,
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Grupa LOTOS PERN

Grupa LOTOS
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57
2011

Przedsibiorstwo
Eksploatacji

Przyja
Rurocigw Naftowych

Przyja S.A.

, Podstawowym
zadaniem
Spki jest
eksploatacja sieci


rurocigw
transportujcych
rosyjsk
rop
naftow
dla
.

najwikszych
paliw
producentw

Przyja w Polsce
oraz
w
Niemczech.
Realizacj
tej
usugi
umoliwiaj
(

)
,


dwie
nitki rurocigu
Przyja
biegnce
z Adamowa
.
(pooonego
przy granicy Polski

a nastpnie

z Biaorusi) do Pocka,
Schwedt
w Niemczech.

Du rol w zaopatrzeniu polskich rafinerii w rop naftow


Pomorski, ,
odgrywa rwnie Rurocig Pomorski czcy Pock z

Gdaskiem, ktry umoliwia transport surowca w obu
. kierunkach.
Ropa naftowa
moe
by
w tym wypadku

Naftoport,

toczona
do
gdaskiego
Naftoportu,
skd
tankowcami jest
.
wysyana
na eksport.


Rurocig
ten
daje
take moliwo
zaopatrywania polskich

i niemieckich
rafinerii
w surowiec
pochodzcy
z innych

.


kierunkw
ni rurocig
Przyja.
W konsekwencji
oznacza
, ,
,
to rozpoczcie
tzw. dostaw
z morza,
ich przeadunek
w

Naftoporcie oraz toczenie surowca w kierunku Pocka.


.
Oprcz sieci rurocigw przesyajcych rop naftow, PERN
, ,
Przyja S.A. posiada take sie rurocigw produktowych,
PERN Przyja ,
wykorzystywanych
do
transportu paliw
pynnych

wyprodukowanych
przez
rafinerie.
Sie
ta
rozchodzi
, si
promienicie
z Pocka,
w kierunku Warszawy,
.

Poznania
, oraz
Czstochowy.
, .


Niezwykle
wan - dla
bezpieczestwa
energetycznego
,
PERNjest

kraju
- usug
realizowan
przez
PERN Przyja S.A.
Przyja

magazynowanie ropy naftowej.

trzy

: ,
, Pocku

Spka
posiada
bazy magazynowe:
w Adamowie,
,
oraz
32 . 100 . 3.
w Gdasku, wyposaone w zbiorniki o pojemnoci od
32 tys.
PERN Przyja 3,0 3.
do 100 tys.
m3.
czna
pojemno
zbiornikw ropy
naftowej

PERN
Przyja
S.A.
wynosi
blisko
3,0
mln
m3.
, Cz
tej pojemnoci
cigo operacji
zapewnia

technologicznych
zwizanych
z
transportem
ropy
naftowej
.

do
celw
do rafinerii.
Pozostae,
zbiorniki
Spka wykorzystuje
:


komercyjnych,
wiadczc
usugi magazynowania:
zapasw
,

pastwowych i obowizkowych czy te operacyjnych


. klientw.
poszczeglnych
PERNPrzyja :
W skad Grupy Kapitaowej PERN Przyja wchodz: OLPP Sp.
OLPP, Naftoport, CDRiA, z o.o.,
Naftoport
Sp. z o.o., CDRiA Sp. z o.o., Midzynarodowe
Sarmatia,
Przedsibiorstwo
Rurocigowe
Sp. zPETROMOR.
o.o. SIARKOPOL
SIARKOPOL
, Sarmatia

Gdask S.A. oraz PETROMOR Sp. z o.o.

Przedsibiorstwo Eksploatacji
Rurocigw Naftowych
Przyja
Przyja S.A.
ul. Wyszogrodzka 133
ul. Wyszogrodzka
133,
09-410
Pock09-410 Pock
tel:
(024)
266
23
00,
fax:
(024)
22 03
tel: (024) 266 23 00
e-mail:266
zarzad@pern.com.pl
e-mail:
zarzad@pern.com.pl,
www.pern.com.pl
fax: (024)
266 22 03
www.pern.com.pl

: , ,


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2011


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2011

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2011

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64
2011

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;
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;
;


;
.

/

1) Contreras J.D., Dust D.G., Harris T., Watson D.R. High impact techniques
and technology increase ultimate recovery in tight formation SPE 115081;
2008.
2) Cramer D.D. Stimulating unconventional reservoirs: lesson learned,
successful practices, areas for improvement SPE 114172, 2008
3) McLennan J.D., Green S.J., Bai M., Proppant placement during tight shale
stimulation literature revive and speculation, ARMA 08-355, 2008
4) Paktinat J., Pinkhouse J.A., Johanson N., Williams C., Lash G.G., Penny G.S.,
Goff D.A. Case study: optimizing hydraulic fracturing performance in
northeastern United States fractured shale formation, SPE 104306, 2006
5) Palish T.T., Vincent M.C., Handren P.J. Slickwater fracturing food for
thought, SPE 115766, 2008
6) Warpinsky N.R., Mayerhofer M.J., Vincent M.C., Ciopolla C.L., Lolon E.P.
Stimulating Unconvencional Reservoirs: Matrix network growth while
optimazing fracture conductivity, SPE 114173, 2008

65
2011

: , ,

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.


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66
2011

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(
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Background Papers. IPCC
Expert Meetings on Good Practice Guidance and
Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas
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67
2011

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Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines


for National Greenhouse Gas
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IPCC/OECD/IEA Programme
on National Greenhouse Gas
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2011



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Report of Study Group 8.1 Methane


Emissions Caused by the Gas Industry World
Wide 21st World Gas Conference June 6-9,
2000, Nice, France

Report of Study Group 8.1 Methane


Emissions Caused by the Gas Industry World
Wide 21st World Gas Conference June 6-9,
2000, Nice, France

Kanada

12 000 3/

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2011

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:
1) King G.E., Apache Corporation, Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What
Have We Learned?, prepared for the SPE Annual Technical Conference
and Exhibition (SPE 133456), Florence, Italy, (September 2010); and U.S.
Department of Energy, DOEs Early Investment in Shale Gas Technology
Producing Results Today, (February 2011), web site http://www.netl.
doe.gov/publications/press/2011/11008-DOE_Shale_Gas_Research_
Producing_R.html.
2) Hill R. J., Jarvie D.M., Pollastro R.,M., Mitchel H., King J.D., 2007. Oil and gas
geochemistry and petroleum systems of the Fort Worth Basin. AAPG Bull,
Vol. 91, No.4, pp. 437- 444.
3) Jarvie D.M., 2008. Unconventional shale resource plays:shale-gas and
shale-oil opportunites. Fort Worth Buisness Press Meeting, June19. Marble
W., 2006, Attributes of a successful unconventional gas project: 8th Annual
Unconventional Gas Conference, Calgary, 2006.
4) Poprawa. P., 2010. Shale gas potential of the Lower Paleozoic Complex in
the Baltic Basin and Lublin-Podlasie Basin (Poland). Geological Review, 58,
226-249.
5) Rodriguez Maiz N.D.; Paul Philp R., 2009. Geochemical characterization of
gases from the Barnett Shale, fort worth basin, Texas. AAPG Bulletin.
6) Schmoker J.W., 2002. Resource assessment perspectives for unconventional
gas system: AAPG Bulletin vol. 86, p.1993-1999.
7) www.energy.gov.ab.ca ... About Natural Gas, September 2009.
8) www.barnettshalenews.comm/documents/dan_jarvie.pdf.

95
2011

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97
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98
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metod chromatografii gazowej.
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Metody oznaczania zawartoci tetrahydrotiofenu (THT).
3) K. Grybowicz, W Stefanowicz: Automatyzacja procesu nawaniania
gazu ziemnego w OZG Biaystok, Przegld Gazowniczy nr 1(29),
s. 40-41, 2011.

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113
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Canada
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: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011

117
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[ ] 2010

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: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011

118
2011

: , ,

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2010
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: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011

119
2011

OZE

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, 20%

-

122
2011

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,
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. -

123
2011

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124
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.

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biogas barometr, 2009 . 28 ,
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. 2010 .
67 , 33
, 2010 .
-

[7].
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.
.

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2006 .
.
,
,
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.
2009/28/WE ( 5 2010 .)
. ,
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, ,
.

2020 . 15%
OZE .

:
1) Dyrektywa Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady 2009/28/WE z dnia
23 kwietnia 2009 r. w sprawie promowania stosowania energii
ze rde odnawialnych zmieniajca i w nastpstwie uchylajca
dyrektywy 2001/77/WE oraz 2003/30/WE, Dziennik Urzdowy Unii
Europejskiej.
2) Energia ze rde odnawialnych w 2009 r., Gwny Urzd Statystyczny,
Warszawa 2010 r.
3) Ustawa z 10 kwietnia 1997 r. - Prawo energetyczne (Dz.U. z 1997 r.
Nr 54, poz. 348).
4) Winiewski G., portal www.wnp.pl
5) Rejestr przedsibiorstw energetycznych zajmujcych si
wytwarzaniem biogazu rolniczego, Agencja Rynku Rolnego,
www.arr.gov.pl
6) Przewodnik dla inwestorw zainteresowanych budow biogazowni
rolniczych, Instytut Energetyki Odnawialnej, Warszawa 2011 r.
7) www.eurobsrev-er.org

127
2011

FAME

- .

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FAME), .
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common rail (CR)
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. . ,
, , ,
DPF,
.
-

128
2011

,
,
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.

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.

CR [6-8].


, .
.
. , . FAME ( . Fatty Acid Methyl
Esters), -

. 1. : ) , b) . : Lubrizol Corporation

130
2011

FORD 2.0i 16V Duratorq TDCi

DOHC/4VPC

1998 cm3

96 kW/3800 /

. : 330 Nm/1800 /
:

common rail

EURO IV

6,0 dm3

. 2. - FORD 2.0i 16V Duratorq TDCi

FAME,

. , ,
.

,

BIODEG , EOG.

,
, ,
.

University of
Applied Sciences Laboratory of IC-Engines and Exhaust
Gas Control (AFHB) , Western
Norway Research Institute (WNRI) .
, ,
.

BIODEG


INiG

BIODEG



.

, , . .

FAME
,
HSDI FORD, 2.0i 16V Duratorq TDCi [5, 7]
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CR.
400 . , 50, 100, 150, 200,

131
2011

. 1.

PN-EN ISO 3104

ASTM D 2270

HTHS

CEC L-36-90

ASTM D 664

ASTM D 4739

ASTM D 3524

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ASTM D 4951

ASTM D 5185

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( FT-IR)

INiG ASTM D 2412

250, 300, 350 400


.
, , ,
.
.
,
, FAME . ,
,
,
( ASTM D 7545
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132
2011

1.
, ,
- , ,
. 10 ( CR,
) .

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,
;
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;
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;

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SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction
) NOx. -

133
2011

(DPF),
.

Iveco F1C Euro 3 SCR RME B7, B20, B30
B100.
VERTdePN,
DPF + SCR.


,
, NO2,
N2O, NH3 [10].

:
RME

134



RYNEK POLSKIEJ
NAFTY
I GAZU 2011
2011


NOx
HC;
B100 NOx;
SCR NOx
NOx RME
; HC;
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( 10-20%,
).
;
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;

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16% B100 (RME).


,

1. FAME
.
2. ,
,

, ,
.
3.

-
,
.
.
4. -

1) Caprotti R., Breakspear A., Klaua T., Weiland P., Graupner O., Bittner M.;
RME Behaviour in Current and Future Diesel Fuel FIEs - SAE Technical
Paper No 2007-01-3982.
2) Chausalkar A., Mathai R., Sehgal A.K., Majumdar S.K., Koganti R.B.,
Malhotra R.K., Kannan R.K., Prakash C., Performance Evaluation of B5
Bio-Diesel Effect On Euro II Diesel Engine & Engine Lubricant- SAE
Number 2008-28-0122.
3) Simon A.G., Watson and Victor W. Wong; The Efect of Fuel Dilution
with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion a
Study with CJ-4 and CI-4 PLUS Lubricants - 2008 Diesel EngineEfficiency and Enissions Research (DEER) Conference August 7th
2008.
4) Thornton M.J., Alleman T.L., Luecke J., McCormic R.L.; Impacts
of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine
Operation - 2009 SAE International Powertrains, Fuels, and
Lubricants Meeting, June 15-17, 2009 Florence, Italy.
5) Urzdowska W., Stpie Z.; Porwnawcze badania degradacji
oleju smarowego w silniku wysokoprnym z bezporednim,
wysokocinieniowym wtryskiem paliwa, zasilanym standardowym
olejem napdowym lub olejem napdowym zawierajcym FAME
Dokumentacja INiG nr 0085/TE/08.
6) Stpie Z., Urzdowska W.; Badanie wpywu oleju smarujcego silnik
o zaponie samoczynnym na emisj czstek staych w spalinach przy
zasilaniu silnika paliwem z biokomponentami - Dokumentacja ITN
nr 4085/2007.
7) Stpie Z., Urzdowska W., Roniatowski K.; Badanie form zuycia
ukadw wtrysku paliwa w czasie eksploatacji silnikw z zaponem
samoczynnym Dokumentacja INiG nr 0938/TE/08.
8) Caprotti R., Breakspear A., Graupner O., Klaua T., Kohnen O.; Diesel

,


.
5.
( )
,
.
6. , ,
,

( ).
, ,

.

Injector Deposits Potential in Future Fueling Systems - SAE Technical


Paper No 2006-01-3359.
9) Philip J.G, Dingle and Ming-Chia D.Lai.; Diesel Common Rail and
Advanced Fuel Injection Systems - 2005 SAE International.
10) Combinations of Measures for Reduction of NOx & Nanoparticles
of a Diesel Engine Czerwiski J., Stpie Z., Oleksiak S., Andersen
O. International Congress on Combustion Engines, Radom Poland
1617.06.2011.
11) Research on Emissions and Engine Lube Oil Deterioration of Diesel
Engines with Biofuels (RME); Stpie Z., Czerwiski J., Urzdowska W.,
Oleksiak S. SAE World Congress, Detroit April 12th 14th 2011, SAE
Paper nr 2011-01-1302.
12) Influences of Biocomponents (RME) on Emissions of a Diesel
Engine with SCR Czerwiski J.; Stpie Z.; Oleksiak S.; Andersen O.
- International Conference EURO OIL&FUEL 2010 BIO-COMPONENTS
IN DIESEL FUELS - Impact on emission and ageing of engine oil,
Krakw, 24-26.11.2010, publikacja NAFTA-GAZ Nr 3/2011 s. 198-208.
13) Influence of Diesel fuels containing FAME on engine lube oil
degradation and particulate matter (PM) emission, Stpie Z.,
Urzdowska W, Oleksiak S, Czerwiski J., Andersen O., International
Conference EURO OIL&FUEL 2010 BIO-COMPONENTS IN DIESEL
FUELS - Impact on emission and ageing of engine oil, Krakw, 2426.11.2010, publikacja NAFTA-GAZ Nr 4/2011 s. 272-281.
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Engines with Biofuels (RME); Stpie Z., Czerwiski J., Urzdowska W.,
Oleksiak S. SAE World Congress, Detroit April 12th 14th 2011, SAE
Paper nr 2011-01-1302.

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, ,

- 1/2 .
. . (. . EOR . Enhanced Oil Recovery).


(. . MEOR . Microbial Enhanced Oil
Recovery). , . -,
,
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.


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.

136
2011


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137
2011



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138
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139
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140
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.
,

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, , , () (). , ,
, , .
,

.
, , :
, ,
, ,

,

.
,
, ,
. , ,
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.
Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium,
Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus Sphingomonas,
Coniothyrium, Fusarium Phenerochaete
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.

( ) .

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, ,
.
:
Ex-situ ,
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141
2011



TECHNOLOGY

OUTLOOK 2020 PUBLIKACJA DNV 5


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142
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143
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144
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