Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 0

-

. .

-
2002

621.396.98(075)
32.95
77
. .
77 : . /.
., 2002. 70 .: .

, , .
, 2007 2013 .

:

;
. .

, 2002

. . , 2002


: ? ...?. ,
. ,
, .* () ( ).

.
. , . , ,
.
. .
, , . . () ,
.
, (). , , . (
* / . . . . . 4- . .: .
, 1986. . 1094.

) , .
. ()
, , . . , ,
.
, .
.

1.

1.1. ,
, ().

, . , (. 1.1).
)
)
Z
Z
)
M
M
Z
M

O
O'

Y
X

O
Y

. 1.1

(. 1, ) , b = 6378,245
a = 6556,863 . -. :
,
H. .
', , , -. H -.
, ' ,
.
(. 1, ) R = 6371,032 . ,
H. , = = .
5


.

. , .
. , (. 1, ).

, .
.

. , .
, .

, .
Z
M

, Y


X
O
.
. 1.2

(. 1.2). .
, ( H) D.
1.2.
:
, - .
.
V . t0 6

r0 , t -
t

r (t ) = r0 (t ) + V (t ) dt.

t0

(1.1)

V(t) ()
().
, , .
, . . , .
:

. .
() .
. . () ,
, ,
. , . . . :
; ; .
- .
- (
, . .) , . 7

, . : ; , ; .
.
1.3.
,
. ,
.
1. .
2. ,
, , .
3. ,
.
.
, n

c
V= ,
n

(1.2)

c = 299796459,2 1,1 / .

c = 3 108 /. , . , V
( ) ( )
8

.
n (,
), , . , .
. , n=n(x,y,z) A B
, (
)
B

L = nds,

(1.3)

s = s(x, y, z) , A B.
, A B. A , B
,

. , , . (, ),
.
.
. ,
, .
, , , .
.

(, ).
9

2.

2.1.
,
P.

2
G f
(, ) 2 ,
(2.1)
4R 2
R ; G
() ; f (, ) () ;
,
.
S,

P = S =

2
2
G f
(, ) ,
4

(2.2)

G f(,) ; .

P = 2

P 2

(4R )

2
2
GG f
(, ) f
(, ).

(2.3)

,
. , Dmax

1Dmax =

f f
4

GG

P
Pmin

(2.4)

= 1

Dmax =
10

f f
4

GG

P
Pmin

(2.5)

Dmax, (2.4)
. Dmax .
2.2.

,
. , , , .
. , . .

,
()
. . 2.1.


.
H
h

,
H ,
'

. 2.1
:
1) e, , h, ;
2) e, , , .
11

e = e + e = e

e ikR1
e ikR2
f1 + ! e
f2 ,
4 R1
4 R2

(2.6)

e ; ! ;
2
R1,2 = D 2 + ( H h )

; D ; f1 = GG

f ( ) f ( ) f 2 = G G f ( ) f ( ) , ; G G ; f() f() .

E = e = E 1 + !

R1 f 2 ik ( R1 R2 )
,
e
R2 f1

(2.7)

4 R1 .
E = f1e
, (2.7)
F = 1 + !

R1 f 2 ik ( R1 R2 )
,
e
R2 f1

(2.8)

. ,
,

R1,2 D +

( H h )2 ,
2D

(2.8)

F = 1 + 2 + 2 cos ,
= f 2 f1 , = 2kHh D , = ! = arg (! ) .
12

(2.9)

,
[,]. . , H h. ,
, . , , , , .
- . . . ,
. ,
. ( ), .
. . : , ( ), 0. .
. :
;
.
,

D.,

.
a
h
H
D.
a
a
,
,
. 2.2
( )
13

. D..
(. 2.2) h H .

D. = AB = AC + CB =

(a + h )2 a 2 + (a + H )2 a 2 ,

a .
, , h, H<<a.

D. 2a

h + H = 3,57

h+ H .

(2.10)

(2.10) , D.
.
D.
, ,
(2.10).
>10 .
.

. () ,
.

,
, . , . ,
. , ,
. .


,
.
14

1
,
2
O'
, h
M
N
(. 2.3). O
, 1 2, . 2.3
. . , 1,
, , 2. , . ,
</4. MOO'
NOO'. , 2,
(MO+ON) , 1. = k(MO+ON) =
= 2khcos (k , ), , ,
:

=
,
8k cos 16 cos

(2.11)

. , h
, , cos ,
. . , .
(2.11) .
. e=E{e}, E{}
; e
.
e = ee
. e.
15

e
: ,
.

p = 2ks cos ,

(2.12)

k ; s ;
.
:
2

P = P0e p ,

(2.13)

0 .
. 2.4

/
0 .
1
P/P0
/0. ,
P/P0
P
, 0.
0

. 2.4
.

h : (0 h 1012 ),
(1012 h 6080 ) (h > 6080 ).
. :
;
;
;
.
.
.
16

, .
.

, . .
, , . ,
,
, .

:
;
.
)

)
. , . )

n
h. 0
)
. )
n=n(h)
(. 2.5):
. 2.5
n
=0)
) n (
h
; , ,
;
n
< 0 )
) n (
h
;

n
=
h

> a,

(2.14)

a;
17

) = a ; .
) < a .
.
.
(
, ). , z0,

max , = 250 z03 a 1 1 ,


z0, a ;
n
> 0 ) ) n (
h
, , . ,
, , .
, , , , (2.10) D. .
Y
D. .

.
'
B
' A

> a,

X
(. 2.6). A, ,
h, . ', . 2.6
:

cos A =
18

2
2
2
AO 2 + O ' O 2 O ' A2 + ( a ) ( a + h )
ah
=
1
.
( a )
2 AO O ' O
2 ( a )

, , h << a,

A 2sin

1 cos A
A
2ah
.
=2
=
2
2
( a )

, H:

2aH
.
( a )

, D.

2a
( a )

D. = ( A + B )

h+ H .

(2.15)

(2.10) (2.15),
(2.10)

(2.16)

a
a
=
,
a 1 a n
h

(2.17)

D. = 2a

h+ H ,

a =

.
, ,
, .

. n
= 4 108 , 1 . =
,
h
=25106 , = 8500 , (2.16)
D. = 4,12

h+ H ,

(2.18)
19

, D., (2.10),
. (2.10) (2.18)
,
1,18 .
( , , , , . .) .
0
10 P
,
, / = lg
R
P

(2.19)

0
R , , ; P
P
.

0
Dmax = Dmax
100,1Dmax ,

(2.20)

0
D max -

(. (2.5)).
.
, . .
, ,
. ,
= 0,25 = 0,5 ,
= 0,15 = 1,35 .
,
,
: 4.


,
60 400 .
,


. , 20

,
.
hmin hmax.

, . D, E
F. F, , F1 F2. D,
E, F1 F2 .

D
E
F1
F2


, 1/3

103104
2105
3105
1106
2106

h,

7090

100120
160180
300450

250350

,
, .

n = 1 80,8

N
,
f2

(2.21)

N , 3; f , .
, . f = 80,8 N n = 0.
f = 80,8 N .

(2.22)

f < f , . . .
, . , .
21

, n , , . 2.7, . , h,

f (h ) =

f (h )
2

1 cos 1 + a h

(2.23)

f(h) h;
( ); .
h<<

f (h ) = f (h ) cosec .

(2.24)

(2.23) (2.24) , ,
, f (. 2.7, ).
, . h=
=hmax, hmax , (2.24), f() = f(hmax)
. f > f() ,
(n ),
. , , ,
.
)

f4

f1<f2<f3<f4
f2

. 2.7

22

f1

f3

D. :
D = 2h tg,

(2.25)

h , (. 2.8).
h . h
f , , , . .
. , ,
(. 2.9).
h D.
f f(), . D r.
r , , . r, , (),
r . ,
r ( ),
, . r, ,
4000 .

. 2.8

. 2.9

23


, ,
. ,
2 . D . . 25 D.
, .
, ,
, , .

24

3.


.
.
- ( )

s (t ) = a (t ) cos (0t + (t ) + 0 ) ,

(3.1)

a(t) ; 0=2f0 ; (t)


; 0 .
, ,
s (t ) = a (t ) cos (0 (t ) + (t ) + 1 ),

(3.2)

;
1=0+ ,
0 , .
(3.1) (3.2) ,
:
,
;
, ;
() , .
, , ,
.

R = c 2.

(3.3)

,
, .
25

, ( ).

R = c .

(3.4)

R
. .
3.1.
( ) . : (
) . (. 3.1).

s(t ) = a cos (0t + 0 ),

(3.5)

.

s (t ) = a cos 0 (t ) + 0 +

(3.6)

s (t ) = b cos (1t + 1 ).

(3.7)

. 3.1

26


= (1t + 1 ) 0 (t ) + 0 + = 0 +
+ (1 0 ) + (1 0 ) t.

1=0 1=0+, =0.


R=

=
.
0
2

(3.8)


. ,
. , ( ) .
, , , .
(3.8)

R =
, .
2
, -

,
2
. , 2 = 1/2q2, q2
/ . R
:

() R =

R =

.
23/ 2 q

(3.9)

, /
( ).
. , 27

, [0,2].

Rmax =

2 = .
2

(3.10)

, Rmax. ,
.
:
;
.
. .
f1<f2<...<f. , Rmax sR.
, Rmax f1, Rmax = 1 = c/f1, . .

f1 = c Rmax .

(3.11)

(3.9)
f:

fM =

c
2 R

(3.12)

.
f1<f2<...<fm1, 1<m<M. fm1

m1 =

c
m1
.
=
2
2 f m1

(3.13)

fm1 fm

Rm = m =
28

c
.
fm

(3.14)

, fm , fm1, Rm, . .
Rm m1.

(3.15)

(3.13) (3.14) (3.15), ,


fm fm1:
fm

2
f m1 = f m1,

(3.16)

= 2/ , >>1. (3.16)
, : f1, f2= f1, f3= f2,...,
fM1= fM2, fM. ,

f m = m1 f1.

(3.17)

M 1 f1 f M .

(3.18)

,
, . , , .
,
.
. , ().
.
3.2.

. . ,
.
29

(. 3.2, )

f (t ) = f0 +

F
sin t,
2

(3.19)

f0 ; F ; =2/T ; .
(. 3.2, )

f (t ) = f0 +

F
sin (t ),
2

(3.20)

= 2H/c ; H .


sin t .
(3.21)
2
2

f(t) . 3.2, .
,
/2. f(t) ,
f (t ) = f (t ) f (t ) = F sin

f =

2
T

T /2

2
f (t )dt = F sin 2 .
0

>>, sin

f =

(3.22)

.
2
2

2 F
.
T

(3.23)

, 1/=F ,

H=

c
c
f =
f .
4 FF
2

(3.24)

, f, . = 2FF
.
30

f(t)
F

f0

f(t)
F

f0

f(t)

F sin
/2


2
t

. 3.2

c/(2) ,

H =

c
f ,
2

(3.25)

f .
(3.25) ,

H =

c
f .
2

(3.26)

f,
, / q2 T

f =

1
2 q 2T2

(3.27)
31

H =

c
.
4qT

(3.28)

,
, / q2.
( ). (3.24)
.

.
,

. 3.3.
,
F, . 3.3

. .
.

e (t ) = KE E cos =


= KE E cos
sin sin t + 0 ,
2
2

K ; , , , ; 0
.
, . (t) F=/2
32

e (t ) = KE E

J k (a ) cos k sin t 2 + 0 ,

k =0

(3.29)

sin ; Jk(), k = 0,1,...


2

.
(t) F.
k- (3.29) Jk(). , (t) f,
(3.24). f (t).
f
[0,F]. H,
,
a =

c
f .
(3.30)
2
, f
[0,F] ,
H :
H =

H =

Fc
Fc
, =
.
4
4 3

(3.31)

(t) . , Hmin,
, F
H min =

Fc
c
=
.
2 4 F

(3.32)

Hmin,
,
.

33

. ,
(t)

N
f
,
2T

(3.33)

f ; N
.
(t) , . .
t f,
f f.
,
, (t) = . f(t),
.
f , N=1:

N
= 0,5F .
(3.34)
2T
H , .
Hmin.
f =

3.3. ()
() ,

. ,
, . 3.4, .
. 3.4, . 1 . 2 , 3 /
. ,
, 34

. 4
. 5 .
6. 7
.
,

R=

c
,
2

(3.35)

, .
)

. 3.4

c
R = .
(3.36)
2
, :
=

1
,
2qF

(3.37)
35

q / ;
F
2
2
f S ( f ) df

F =
2

S ( f ) df

S( f )=

a (t ) e

i 2 ft

1/ 2

(3.38)

dt

.
, / F. F .
. -, ,
/ q2 =2 .
, , . -, (. . 4.1).

. , ,
= F , .
: .

. , , .
, , - .

F =
36

M
.

(3.39)

= F = >> 1.
, ,
. , , F
. =

1
= .
F
B

(3.40)

, .
, .

37

4.
, . . :
.
4.1.
, , , . 4.1,

e (t ) = a (t ) cos (0t + 0 ),

. 4.1

(4.1)

a(t), 0 0 ,
.
. , ,

2R
2R

e (t ) = a t
cos 0 t
+ 1 ,
c
c

(4.2)

,
; 1 ; R
t.

(t ) = 0

2R
+ 1 0
c

(4.3)

, R.

R (t ) = R (0 ) Vt cos = R (0 ) Vr t,

(4.4)

R(0) t = 0;
; Vr=Vcos .
38

(t) .

(t)
f =

1 d 20 dR 2Vr
=
=
.
0
2 dt 2 c d t

(4.5)

, f, . f
.
, , , .
(4.5), , Vr 0.
Vr: f , , .
, ,
f0=0/2. , (4.5):

f 2Vr
=
<< 1.
f0
c
f .
f . 4.2.
f0, .
.

.
f0
2
1

f0+f
3
f = (f0+ f) f0 = f.


. 4.2
.
39

0
f.
(4.6)
2

,
, .
, , , .
Vr f
Vr =

Vr =

0
f .
2

Vr
V =

0
f ,
2

(4.7)

f f (. (3.27)):

f =

1
2
2 q 2T

(4.8)

q /; :
1/ 2

2
t a ( t ) dt

a ( t ) dt

(4.9)

.
, .
40

4.2.
, V,
(. 4.3). :
1, 2 .
d. V
S, S1 S2 1

2
. t1 e1 1 S, S S1. S
S1
S2
t=d/V
1, 2 . S

(
,
)
d
d
t2=t1+t e2 2 1, . 4.3
t1.
( ,
.) e1(t1)
e2(t2) . ,
R ( ) = e1 (t ) e2 (t + )dt,

(4.10)

R(t) = t = d/V. , R(t),

V=

d
,
max

(4.11)

max , R(t).
41

,

,

. 4.4.
2

2

.
. 4.4

. , 1,
1
, , .

2 2. R(t). . ,
. (4.11) .

Z

3

dz
2
1

,
X
.
4.5.
dz
4
1, 2
Vx=dx/tx, dx
dx
3, 4 Vz=dz/tz, x, z
. 4.5
,
e1,
e2 e3, e4.
, . .
1

42

5.


. , , , , .
:
. ,
, () . ,
.

, .
,
( ) ( ), , ,
: .
, , , .
5.1.
( ) ( ) .

, () ( ) ( ) . .


f(),
43

. 5.1

( ),
N (. 5.1). N ,
. ,
, ,
, ,

e (t ) = Ef ( ) cos (0t + 0 ),

(5.1)

E, 0 0 , .
, = t,
, N. :

e (t ) = Ef (t ) cos (0t + 0 ).

(5.2)

e(t)
(. 5.2).
tmax = /, t
, tmax
0
. 5.2
. , :
e(t)

= tmax .

(5.3)

,
tmax , ,
.
(5.3) (3.37)

=

44

.
2qF

(5.4)

(3.38), ,
f e(t)
1/ 2

f (0 )
F =

,
2 f (0 )
f(0) f ''(0) = 0.

f (0 )
= q2

f (0 )

1/ 2

(5.5)

(5.5) , ,
2 2
2
f ( ) f (0 ) 1 ,
; 2 = 11/ (2 ) .

.
2q

(5.6)

,
. :
, e(t)
.
, , .
, ,
, , .
. ,
.


45

,
. , . (. 5.3 5.4).
, () - .
emin(t)

N
0

. 5.3

. 5.4

tmin

= tmin .

(5.7)

,
1/ 2

2
f ( ) d

2
2

f ( ) d

2
f ( ) d

= q 2

f ( ) d

f'() .
46

1/ 2

(5.8)


f ( ) f max sin , ,
fmax ; = 0.

1
.
q

(5.9)

, . .
, .
.
, .
5.2.

.
( ) ( ) . .


,
. , d (. 5.5). . , q . 1 2
,
. 1 2,
12, dsin. ,
= k dsin, k =2/ .
, .
47

,
, . 5.6. 1 2 , E0. , .

e1 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + 0 );
e2 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + + 0 ),

(5.10)

0 0 .
e1 90,
.
cos; , .

u ( ) = K E02 cos (0 + ) (0 + 2 ) =
2d
= K E02 sin
sin ,

(5.11)

K .

0
d

. 5.5

48

. 5.6

()=u()/K02 ()

2 d
sin .
( ) = sin

(5.12)

,

=

2
,
q

(5.13)

= ' (0) = 0.
(5.12) = 2d .
. , / q2 / . d,
. ,
, . ,
() d>/ 4 (. 5.7): . ,
1 2. d,
/d. ,
()
1

d = /4
d = /2

d=

0
1
2

. 5.7

49

, max=/2d<<1. max 2d = 0

(max ) sin
. , ,
2d
, . , .

, .
, 1 2
. , , .
() , -.

, ,
Y
, .

,
,
A1
A2
,
(. 5.8).
X
1 2 0
, . 5.8
,
e1 (t ) = E0 f1 ( ) cos (0t + 0 );
e2 (t ) = E0 f 2 ( ) cos (0t + 0 ).

(5.14)

f1() f2() ,
/2 () . f1,2()=f( /2), f( ) ,
.
50

E1 = E0 f ( + 2 );
E2 = E0 f ( 2 ).

(5.15)

:
1) 1 2

1 ( ) = 0,5 (log E2 log E1 ) = 0,5log

f ( 2 )
E2
; (5.16)
= 0,5log
E1
f ( + 2 )

2) 1 2

2 () =

E2 E1 f ( 2 ) f ( + 2 )
=
.
E2 + E1 f ( 2 ) + f ( + 2 )

,
= 0 1() 2() (. 5.9),

f ( 2 )
= tg =
.
f ( 2 )

(5.17)

1() 2()

1()

2()

(5.18)

1() 2(),
. 5.9
, .
= 0
1() 2() .
, , (5.13).
,
/ q2 / . , (5.18),
. , .

.
51

, .
.

,
() ,
f1() f2(), .
, ,
, .

: 0,
XOY (. 5.10), 1, r O. , 0 1

e0 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + 0 );
e1 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + 1 ).

(5.19)

1 0 , e 1 e 0
1 0 = k OB = kr cos ( ) . = t:

1 0 = kr cos (t ).
Y

A1
A1

B
X

A0 O

A0

. 5.10

52

(5.20)

/2

. 5.11

, , e1(t). , ,
1.
. e1(t). , , . 5.11.

W, 1:

V (t ) = E sin t.

(5.21)

, 0 1, , 0 1 ,
U (t ) = K E02 sin (1 0 ) = K E02 sin kr cos (t ) ,

(5.22)

K ; 0 ,
.
/2 . (5.22)

U (t ) = 2 K E02 ( 1)
n =1

n 1

J 2n 1 ( kr ) cos (2n 1)(t ),

(5.23)

J2n1() .
U(t)
(1)
U
(t ) = 2 K E02 J1 (kr ) cos (t ).

(5.24)

,
,

U (t ) = KJ1 (kr )sin ,

(5.25)

K , .
53

V = E cost,
U = KJ1(kr)cos. , . 5.11 . , J1(kr), , .

2
,
qJ1 (kr )

(5.26)

q /.
J1(x) , ,
xmax =1,84 J1(xmax) = 0,58. ( = 2,44/q) D/ = 0,576, D=2r
, . , ,
= 2,68 (f0 = 112 ) D = 1,54 .
, .


,

2
,
qm

(5.27)

m = kr e1(t) U(t).
(5.27), m. (5.26) (5.27) ,
U(t) .
, , .
, ,
, , , . . ,
,

54

U(t). , , .
-

2 (. 5.12).
0. 2 r ,
1. , 1 2 . (5.19) (5.20)

e1 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + 1 );
e2 (t ) = E0 cos (0t + 2 ),

(5.28)

1 = kr cos (t ) + 0 ;
2 = kr cos (t ) + 0 ,

(5.29)

0 .
, , . 5.13.

(1)
U
(t ) = 2 K E02 J1 2kr sin sin t
2
2

(5.30)

A1

A1

A2
X

. 5.12

A2

/2

. 5.13

55

e1(t) e2(t). - /.

1
,
qm

(5.31)

2
= .
2kr D

(5.32)

= kd ; d 1
m = kr sin
2
2.
, . , d = D ( = ), . . 1 2
.
D
.
, .
, . .
. , , . ,
.
, F F=F, F
.
/ , , , F = / . , e1(t) e2(t)
F=2kr/2.

56

,
, max=/D.

N min =

2 2D
=
.

(5.33)

, = 2,68 (f0 = 112 ) D = 13,5 Nmin = 32.


- .

57

6.


() , . , , ,
, .
,
.
, .
, , .
() . . .
1. ,
XYZ, (. 6.1).
R0,
R0 .


x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R02 ;
R = R0 .

2. , ,
, (. 6.2). 0, ,
Z, X 0.

y = x tg 0 ;
= 0 .

3. , . 0 (. 6.3),
58

M
M

R0

. 6.1

. 6.2

. 6.3


0.
x 2 + y 2 = z tg 0 ;
= 0 .

4. 1 2,
(0, d, 0) XYZ,
R = R1R2 (. 6.4). 1 2
R0,
, 1 2.

Z
M
R2

R1
O1
d

O2
O

. 6.4

x2 y2 z2
+

= 1;
a 2 b2 c 2
R 2 d 2 sin 2 sin 2 R02 = 0,25R02 d 2 R02 ,

a 2 = c 2 = 0,25 d 2 R02 ; b 2 = 0,25R02 .


6.1.

, . , . ,
59

, .
-, , - .
- .
, R,
q
(. 6.5).
.
.
( ) (. 6.6) R1, R2, R3.

1, 2, 3 R1, R2, R3 . .
Z

O2
R

X
O1

. 6.5

R2
R1

O3

R3
M

. 6.6

- . , 0, 1, 2, (. 6.7). Rn = RnR0, Rn, n = 0, 1, 2,


n.
. 0 . , 0.
, 0 1,
0 2, . . ().
.
60

N
O1

1
N

O0

N
2

O2

O0

O2

. 6.7

. 6.8

. ,
N (. 6.8).
, , ( ) .
, 0, 1, 2, .
, . .
6.2.
( , , ) . ,
.
,
: 1, 2, 3, .
1, 2, 3.
,
.

, .

P = f ( x, y, z),
.

(6.1)
61

P + P = f ( x, y, z),
P= f(x,y,z)

M1

r
P+r = f(x,y,z)

. 6.9

(6.2)

(. 6.9). 1, 1(x,y,z)
n,
, . f(x,y,z) (x,y,z). 1 = r
,
,
,

f ( x, y, z ) = f ( x , y , z ) + x

f
f
f
+ y + z ,
x
y
z

(6.3)

x, y, z r.
(6.1)(6.3)

P = r grad f ,

(6.4)

grad f f, .
n, , r ,

P = r grad f .

(6.5)

(6.5) ,
2

2P = grad f 2 ,

(6.6)

2P = P 2 ; 2 = r

=
62

P
,
grad f

(6.7)

|grad f| f,
(x,y,z).

() , , .
,
,
. , , , .
Pa, Pb , Pa, Pb
. (6.1)
(6.2)

Pa = f a ( x, y, z )
Pb = f b ( x, y, z ),

Pa + Pa = f a ( x, y, z )
Pb + Pb = f b ( x, y, z ).

(6.8)

, (x,y,z) .
Pb+Pb = fb(x,y,z)
1, 1
M1
Pb= fb(x,y,z)

,
Pa+Pa = fa(x,y,z)
(. . 6.9),
(. 6.10).

Pa= fa(x,y,z)
,
. 6.10
ra = rb = ,
1 .
l = 1. ,
1 p.
, 1. , 1 = /sin(AMB).

1 2
r + rb2 2ra rb cos , , 2 a
sin
. (6.5) Pa
Pb,
l 2 =

2
1 a
=

sin grad f a

b2
grad f b

1/ 2

2a b cos

grad f a grad f b

(6.9)
63

, a, b .
Pa, Pb ,

2
1 a
=

sin grad f a

1/ 2

2
grad f b
b2

(6.10)

, , ( = /2). , .
a = b = P (, , - ). (6.10)

= P .

(6.11)

1
1
=

sin grad f a

1/ 2

2
grad f b
1

(6.12)

. ,
, ,
.

. 1, 2,3 1, 2, 3. r1, r2, r3 .


P= f(x,y,z)

n1, n2, n3 , n
M1

(x ,y ,z ) (. 6.11).
M
r
, ,
s, P+r = f(x,y,z)
, . 6.11
1. 64

, rm, m=1, 2, 3 gradfm, m=1, 2, 3.


:
rm = rm

grad f m Pm grad f m
=
, m = 1, 2, 3,
2
grad f m
grad f m

(6.13)

rm = |rm| .
, rm ,

rm (r rm ) = 0, m = 1, 2, 3,

(6.14)

r = r(x, y, z) - , .
1 , ,
:
2

rm s = rm , m = 1, 2, 3.

(6.15)

(6.13) (6.15),

grad f1s = P1;


grad f 2s = P2 ;
grad f 3s = P3.

(6.16)

(6.16)
Gs = P,

(6.17)

G ( gradfm, m=1, 2, 3 )

f1

x
f
G= 2
x
f
3
x

f1
y
f 2
y
f 3
y

f1
z
f 2
,
z
f 3

(6.18)

P = (1, 2, 3) .
65

, 1, 2, 3, , gradfm, m=1, 2, 3
. G , G .
(6.17)
s = G 1P,

(6.19)

G .

( ) },

s 2 = tr ssT = tr G1PPT G1

(6.20)

tr{} ; .
(6.20) 1, 2, 3,

( ) }

= tr G 1K G 1

1/ 2

1/ 2

= tr {K}

(6.21)

K= PPT ;
=G1(G1) .

= P ,

(6.22)

P ;
1/ 2

= tr {}

(6.23)

, , :
,
.
6.3. -

- .
66

, - R,
. , , . ,

xx + yy + zz

grad R =
grad =
grad =

x2 + y2 + z2

grad R = 1;

zxx + zyy x 2 + y 2 z
2

x +y

(x

+y +z
yx + xy
,
x2 + y2

grad =

grad =

1
;
R

(6.24)

1
.
R sin

= diag 1, R 2 , R 2 sin 2 .

(6.25)

,
1/ 2

= 2R + 2 R 2 + 2 R 2 sin 2

(6.26)

() ,
.
max, ,
max. . , -

1/ 2

Rmax

2 2
2 max 2 R2
+ sin

(6.27)

Rmax
.
67


1. . ., . ., . . : . .: , 1982. 288 .
2. . ., . ., . .
: . .:
, 1983. 320 .
3. . ., . . : . .: , 1996. 344 .
4. . ., . . : . . .: , 1994.
296 .
5. . ., . . : . .: , 1987. 256 .
6. : / . . ,
. . , . . , . . ; . . . . .: , 1990. 264 .
7. . . . .: . , 1967. 471 .
8. . ., . . . .: , 1977. 216 .
9. / . . , . . , . . .; . . . . 2- ., . . .: , 1993. 408 .
10. . . : . ./ .
., 1987. 35 .
11. . ., . . : . ./ . ., 1988. 48 .
12. . ., . . :
. ./ . ., 1988. 48 .

68


.................................................................................................
1.
...............................................................................
1.1. , ..........
1.2. .........................................
1.3. .................................
2. ..............
2.1. ..........................................................
2.2.
.............................................................................
3. ......................
3.1. ......................................
3.2. ..................................
3.3. () .........
4. .............................................
4.1. .......
4.2. ..........................
5. ..................................
5.1. ........................................
5.2. ......................................
6.
.....................................................................
6.1. ................................
6.2. ........................................
6.3. - ........
..................................................................

3
5
5
6
8
10
10
11
25
26
29
34
38
38
41
43
43
47
58
59
61
66
68

69

. .
. .
14.10.02. 17.12.02. 6084 1/16. . . . . . 4,06. . .-. 4,5. .-. . 3,67. 150 .
-

190000, -, . . , 67