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7 2006 . 21
http://www.qsl.net/yo5ofh/projects/prescaler.gif

Preamp and 330 + MHz Prescaler

for A Little More Serious


Frequency Meter
http://cappels.org/dproj/preamprescaler/preampresc.html

A preamp that drives the CMOS counter input and a divide by 10 prescaler to
extend the range of A Little More Serious Frequency Meter (elsehwhere on
www.projects.cappels.org).

(Above) Enclosed in a 16 cm x 16.5 cm plastic box, the preamp


has a 60 cm cable to supply power and take the signal to the
frequency meter/counter. The cable was originally part of a

USB mouse. The labels were printed on a laser printer. Yes,


that's clear plastic tape over the labels so my fingers will
not rub the toner off the paper.

Overview
After finishing Little More Serious Frequency Meter I had planned to make a suitable
preamp and prescaler for it, and set about to gather ideas and parts. I was inspired by one
fellow who had built the meter and the 2 line X16 character LCD display to show the
output, succeeded in designing a preamp based on the BRF96 and modifying the circuit to
get it to work at 99.999999 MHz. My intentions are to use the frequency meter between
100 and 200 MHz, so I found a prescaler, the Motorola, now On Semiconductor,
MCT10280. For the preamp, I was able to buy some 2N3663 transistors. I would have like
to have tried the BRF96, but could not find them stocked at any of my favorite distributors.
What was probably the most difficult part of the design was deciding what I really wanted
the circuit to do and how to go about doing it, given the limitations of the available
components. The resulting preamp can drive the counter from as little as 20 millivolts P-P
input at a few KHz, but needs over 300 millivolts at 20 MHz, and can switch in a divide by
10 prescaler to extend the range to 300 MHz. I have used this at 338 Mhz to date. The data
sheet limit for the 74HC4060 is 30 MHz, so performance over 300 MHz is expected by
beyond specification.
A Counter mode allows a direct coupled signal to drive the frequency meter in the counter
mode.
The resulting preamp/prescaler design intended to operate within these frequency
limitations:
MODE

DESIGN SPECIFICATION

Count
practice, several MHz)

DC to several hundred kHZ (in

F/1 Frequency, no prescaler

10 Hz

to

30 MHz

F/10 Frequency, 10X prescaler 10 MHz to 300 MHz


worked at 338 MHz.)

(Mine

These parameters are expected with an approximately 50% square wave up to frequencies
of seveal MHz, and symmetric sine waves at higher frequencies. The primary limitation is
based on the maximum clocking rate specification for the MM74HC6040 ripple counter in
use in the Slightly More Serious Frequency Meter project. Selection of faster parts and
careful circuit layout can extend the upper limit of the useful frequency range. The lower
frequency imit is the lowest sine wave input frequency for the MCT12080 at which the
input of the MCT10290 does not osccilate.
Circuit

((Above) The cirucit blocks are,from left to right, input


protection circuit, prescaler, FET buffer and bipolar
limiting amplifier, and Schmitt trigger buffers.
Signals applied to the input connector can be switched either through the AC path which
includes the preamp and the prescaler, if switched into the circuit, or the DC path, which
routes the signal to a Schmitt trigger buffer that then sends the signal on to the counter.
Regardless of how the signal is routed, it must first pass through an input protection
network, which includes two schottky diodes and a zener clamp. The 1N5711 schottky
diodes prevent the input signal from going more than a schottky diode drop below ground
or above the power supply. I used Schottky diodes because they have a lower voltage drop
than the PN protection diodes on the CMOS integrated circuit they are intended to protect,
and as such, they will draw much more of the current from excessive input voltages than
the input protection diodes in the integrated circuits.
The two 1N5226 zener diodes in series prevents the power supply from rising above 6.6
volts in case the input is accidentally connected to a low impedance source that is higher
than 5 volts. The 47 Ohm resistor limits the input current in case of excessive voltage being
applied to the inputs.
The input of the frequency meter requires a full 5 volt CMOS logic swing, and the
prescaler's output is less than 1 volt peak-to-peak, so the prescaler, when switched into the
circuit, the signal goes through the prescaler, then the preamp, and the preamp drives the
frequency meter through the Schmidt trigger buffers.
The MCT10280 prescaler can be set to divide by 80, 40, 20, or 10, as a function of which
pins are tied to the power supply. I set this one to divide by 10 since it is adequate for my
needs, and the mental calculation of multiplying the meter reading by 10 is not taxing. One
problem with the MCT10280 is that if it doesn't have an adequate input, the output is very
noisy, which shows up as counts in the couple MHz range on the frequency meter. This
noise shows up if the signal amplitude the signal frequency is too low. For this reason, I
only intend to use the prescaler with inputs between 10 MHz and 300 MHz.
Whether the signal is divided by ten or not, it must pass through the preamp. In the Preamp,
a 2N5485 N-channel FET is connected as a source follower. This provides a high input
impedance to the input signal and drives the next stage, the 2N3663 limiting amplifier with
a nice low impedance signal. This results in high AC gain.

DC buffer
Signals from the 2N3663 are nice, clean square waves with fast rise and fall times, and
when driving the 74HCT02 input on the frequency meter, could result in the input of the
74HCT02 oscillating. To prevent this, the signal is passed through a 74HCT14 Schmitt
trigger. The signal conductor in the cable has an impedance of about 150 ohms, so it is
driven through two 300 ohm resistors in parallel to keep the ringing on the frequency meter
end of the cable to a tolerable level. There is no termination on the frequency meter end of
the cable because terminating it would reduce the amplitude of the signal below the CMOS
thresholds.
Power for all the circuit comes through the cable and is regulated by the 78L05 regulator.

MCT10280 10/20/40/80. 20,


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