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Protistas General Concepts

1. What is the relationship between the different protists you studied in this lab? The relationship between the different protists is that they are made up of the simplest known eukaryotes, and most protists are single-celled creatures, although several have enormous multicellular forms. They share some qualities: _mostly unicellular _mostly microscopic _found in marine or freshwater aquatic environments

2.

Which protists are the most abundant marine photosynthetic producers?

The Diatoms are the most abundant marine photosynthetic producers.

Experiment-Specific Questions
Topic 1: Excavata
Part 1: Euglena 1. Explain each way Euglena obtain nutrition. All euglena have chloroplasts and can make their own food by photosynthesis. They are not completely autotrophic though, euglena can also absorb food from their environment. Renata: They are photosynthetic organisms with chloroplasts that enable them to make their own food. While euglenids make their own food by photosynthesis, they are also capable of engulfing prey, or phagocytosis, if they choose to.

2.

Euglena in motion a. How does the slight stiffness of the pellicle effect euglena locomotion? Compare what occurs within the cell of the Euglena as it moves. What are the similarties and differences between this activity in Euglena versus the amoeba? Euglena have Flagellum that beats like a whip to provide driving force for the movement. The amoeba moves with the help of its pseudopodia, that are temporary protrusions of cytoplasm, giving leg like appearance. In paramecium, there are small outgrowths that are called as Cilia. These cilia are thousands in number and are present all over the cells' surface. They act like an oar. 3. a.

How many flagella are involved in locomotion?

Euglena move by a flagellum, which is a long whip-like structure that acts like a little motor. The flagellum is located on the anterior end, and rotates in such a way as to pull the cell through the water.

Topic 2: Rhizaria
1. Did you observe any particles being carried through the holes in the Foram's shell? What type of particles would the Foram want to ingest? The pseudopods are used for locomotion, anchoring, and in capturing food, which consists of small organisms such as diatoms or bacteria.

2.

Compare the shells of the Radiolarians and Forams. What are their similarities and/or differences?

The relationship between the Foraminifera and Radiolaria are their molecular trees that supports their close relationship a gro termed Retaria. But whether they are sister lineages or if the Foraminifera should be included within the Radiolaria is not known

Topic 3: Chromalveolata
Part 1: Diatoms
1. Compare the Diatom's chloroplasts and the Stentor's chloroplasts. What is the difference?

Diatoms Chloroplasts Kingdom: Chromalveolata Class: Bacillariophyceae Phylum: Heterokontophyta There are more than 200 genera of living diatoms, and it is estimated that there are approximately 100,000 extant species. Stentors Chloroplasts Kingdom: Chromalveolata Class: Heterotrichea Phylum: Ciliophora The genus contains over twenty described species.

2.

Compare the Diatom colony and the more advanced Spirogyra. What are the differences? Diatom cells are contained within a unique silica cell wall comprising two separate valves (or shells). The biogenic silica that the cell wall is composed of is synthesized intracellular by the polymerization of silicic acid monomers. This material is then extruded to the cell exterior and added to the wall. Diatom cell walls are also called frustules or tests, and their two valves typically overlap one over the other like the two halves of a petri dish. Spirogyra is unbranched with cells connected end to end in long male reproductive system filaments. This genus of green algae undergoes a haploid-dominant life cycle. The cell wall has two layers: the outer wall is composed of pectin that dissolves in water to make the filament slimy to touch while the inner wall is of cellulose.

3.

How does the stiffness of the shell affect Diatom locomotion? How do the Diatoms move without flagella?

They move by secreting mucilage through specialized pores at the end of their cells. The mucilage absorbs water causing it to swell and, as it gets bigger, it pushes the diatoms forward.

Part 2: Paramecium
1. What is unique about Paramecium digestion?
Paramecia generally feed on bacteria, other small cells, yeast or small algae. The cilia help catch the food which is then forced down a little tube called a gullet, that leads to the protoplasm or stuffing of the cell. The food is held in little vacuoles. XXX

2.

Based on your observations in this lab, is the Paramecium predator or prey, both, or neither? Explain. Paramecium are both predator-prey because of their relationship with Didinium. Paramecium are known for their avoidance behavior. If an encounters a negative stimiulus, it is capable of rotating up to 360 degrees to find an escape route. Didinium are heterotrophic organisms. They only have one type of prey; the much larger cilate Paramecium. When a Didinium finds a Paramecium, it ejects poison darts and attachment lines. The Didinium then proceeds to engulf its prey. Although Paramecium are larger than they are, Didinium are voracious eaters and will be ready to hunt for another meal after only a few hours.

Part 3: Stentor
1. Compare the Stentor in motion to the other protists that you observed. What are their similarities and/or differences? A stentor moves by beating the cilia that cover its body. A stentor waves the cilia around its mouth and sweeps in food. When a stentor gets too large, it splits in half.

Part 4: Dinoflagellates
1. Compare the moving Dinoflagellate to the still images of Dinoflagellate that you observed. What are their similarities and/or differences? Could you observe the motion of both flagella? Dinoflagellate have two flagellum one longer than the other. The larger moves in a whip like manner and propels the organism forward and the other flagellum acts as a rudder to steer the organism in the direction it wishes to travel.

Topic 4: Plantae
Part 1: Volvox

1.

Compare Volvox locomotion to the other protists you observed. What are their similarities and/or differences? The cells have eyespots, more developed near the anterior, which enable the colony to swim towards light. The individual algae in some species are interconnected by thin strands of cytoplasm, called protoplasmates.

2.

What are any similarities or differences you observed between the different Volvox colonies? The differences are between Volvox colonies are: _Volvox grows well in eutrophic water bodies. Such eutrophic lakes that are rich in nutrients allow a prolific and healthy growth of volvox. Every single ovoid or spherical cell in the volvox colonies possess two flagella. A pair of contractile vacuoles along with single, cup-shaped chloroplasts are present at the base of these flagella. _The cells of volvox can be single or biflagellate. Individual algal cells of volvox are attached with each other by means of cytoplasmic strands. These individual cells of algae are characterized by the presence of red eye spots on their surface. _Flagellar movement of cells present in volvox colonies are used for swimming (rolling motion) and also in changing the direction. The muscilage produced by every individual cell in the colony can be distinct or inconspicuous. In a particular colony of volvox, cells at the anterior possess phototactic abilities; the phototactic abilities of these anterior cells are attributed to larger eyespots. Posterior cells of the volvox colonies are more into functions like reproduction. The volvox is a polyphyletic organism; which means that it has multiple ancestral lineages. Different species of volvox have evolved basically from ancestral lineages that are four in number. The size of volvox colonies ranges from 100-6000 microns. Most of the volvox species are microscopic organisms and therefore, we cannot see them with naked eyes. However, few colonies are as big as 1 mm in diameter. In the different stages of development of volvox, one can get to see their daughter cells and in few cases, even grand-daughter cells. One can find parasites feeding on cells of volvox in some colonies. A rotifer called Proales parasita thrives by feeding on cells of volvox.

Part 2: Algae
1. Why are seaweed not plants, even though they are multicellular? Seaweeds are algae not plants. They are not plants because they have a different cellular arrangement without a cellulose cell wall and do not have differentiated tissues. They belong in the Kingdom Protista.

2.

Red algae (rhodophytes) absorb blue and violet portions of the visible spectrum. How does this absorption allow the red algae to live in water at greater depths?

The absorption allows the red algae to live in water at greater depths because of its multicellular seaweeds that can grow very deep in the ocean because their pigments are able to absorb the small amounts of light that can reach them.

Part 5: Unikonta
Part 1: Amoebozoa
1. Compare Amoeba locomotion to the other protists you observed. a. What happens to the cytoplasm and organelles as the Amoeba moves?

2. a.

How do the pseudopods of the Amoeba compare to those of the Foram? Is the structure of the pseudopods similar? Which organism has more pseudopods? Pseudopods are flowing extensions of the amoeba's cytoplasm, which the amoeba use to move around. They do this by stick a part of their cytoplasm outward to an open area, then the part will pull the rest of the amoeba toward it. XXX

3. a.

Compare the motion of the Amoeba to the other protists you observed. What are their similarities and/or differences? Amoeba move by using pseudopodia or "false feet". Pseudopodia are formed by the amoeba, by throwing out the ectoplasm, followed by endoplasm flowing inward. Some protists move by the pressure of the cell altering the shape and direction of flow of cytoplasm in the various volumes of an amoebic cell. Inside all protist cells, whether amoebic or not, materials are in motion as well. So these organisms have cyclosis just as all other living cells. The movements are directed in chemotaxis for food.

Bacteria Experiment-Specific Questions Experiment 1: Gram Stain


Part I: Heat-Fixation of the Bacterial Slide 1. Why is it necessary to stain bacteria before viewing them under the microscope? Bacteria are colorless and invisible to light microscopy. In order to observe bacteria under the microscope, we must stain them.

2.

What does heat-fixation do to the viability of samples? Heat fixation is to denature the bacteria and stick it to the slide. XXXX

Part 2: Staining 1. Which bacteria is affected by the decolorizer, ethanol? Explain why.

2.

Which bacteria absorbs the counterstain? Explain why.

Parts 3 and 4: Identifying the Bacteria Under the Microscope 1. How would you classify the S. aureus bacteria? Include shape and arrangement, as well as gram result. S. aureus appears as grape-like clusters when viewed through a microscope, and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies. S. aureus belongs the Eubacteria Kingdom, and the Firmicutes phylum. Also, belongs the bacillis class, bacillaless order, and Staphylococcaceaes family. S. aureus bacteria was positive gram result.

2.

How would you classify the E. Coli bacteria? Include shape and arrangement, as well as gram result. Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. E. Coli bacteria was negative on the gram result.

3.

A scientist is trying to identify an unknown bacterial species. She performs a gram staining test. The bacteria is purple. Is it Gram-positive or Gram-negative? The purple bacteria is Gram-positive because they have cell walls that will retain the stain. While staining you use crystal violet and then iodine to set the stain...if the bacteria are gram positive (or have cell walls), it will retain the stain.

4.

A student is performing a Gram stain of a mixed culture of both E. Coli and S. aureus and he forgets to decolorize with ethanol. What should his slide look like? Without decolorization, the Gram-positive cell remains purple and the Gram-negative cell will not loses its purple color.

5.

A student is performing a Gram stain of a mixed culture of both E. Coli and S. aureus and he forgets to counterstain with safranin. What should his slide look like? Counterstain, which is usually positively charged safranin or basic fuchsin should be applied last to give decolorized Gram-negative bacteria a pink or red color. But if the student forgot, the gram stain will continue purple.

6.

A student is performing a Gram stain of a mixed culture of both E. Coli and S. aureus and he stains with iodine before he stains with crystal violet. What should his his slide look like?

With the Iodine interacting with CV+ and forms large complexes of crystal violet and iodine within the inner and outer layers of the cell. Iodine is often referred to as a mordant, but is a trapping agent that prevents the removal of the CVI complex and, therefore, color the cell XXXXX

Experiment II: Bacteria Susceptibility to Antibiotics


1. Why is it important to sterilize your inoculating rod after obtaining it from the shelf, and in-between inoculating the two strains of bacteria? The inoculating loop must be sterilized immediately before and immediately after use because it prevent cultures, sterile media stocks, and other solutions from contamination by unwanted microorganisms.

2.

Recall that the L-shaped spreader moves over the surface of the agar in both the north-south and east-west directions. What is the purpose of this method?

3.

Fill in the table below with the results of the disk diffusion test. Highlight the row(s) of the table to indicate which antibiotics you identified as potent.
Results: Disk Diffusion Test Antibiotic Ampicillin Erythromycin Neomycin Penicillin E. Coli S. aureus

4.

What pattern, if any, did you observe when comparing the antibiotics efficacy against the two species of bacteria?

5.

Why is it important to know which species of bacteria are susceptible to which antibiotics?

Ecology Experiment-Specific Questions


Part 1: Mark
1. Based on the assumptions described in the Background, why might the mark and recapture method of population estimation be more accurate in the lake setting that we are studying, than in a stream or river?

2.

In the Background, we discussed the importance of selecting appropriate collecting locations. Now consider each of the collecting locations of this lab, mapped below. What is one characteristic of each location that makes samples collected there distinct?

3.

What was the range of the bluegills length? It is the difference between the greatest and least value. For example, if the greatest mass was 100 g and the least mass was 75 g, than the range of the mass would be 25 g.

4.

What was the range of the bluegills mass?

5.

Which of the following could account for the differences between the range of length and the range of mass that you observed? a. As they mature, there is no connection between the length the bluegills grow and the mass they gain. Therefore, there is no way to compare the ranges of the length and mass. b. The length the bluegills grow is proportional to the mass they gain as they mature. Therefore, the ratio of mass to length stays the same. c. The bluegills gain much more mass as they mature, compared to their gain in length. The ratio of mass to length increases.

d.

As the bluegills grow, they gain more in length compared to their gain in mass. Therefore, the ratio of mass to length decreases.

Part 2: Recapture
1. Consider the average mass and the average length for each Part I and Part II. Is there a significant difference (more than the range you calculated) between the two Parts? If there was a difference, what might that reflect about accuracy in your population estimate?

2.

Calculate your population estimate (N) using the equation:

N = M (n r)
where n = total number of fish in the sample (100) r = number of marked fish in the sample M = total number of marked fish in population (100)

3.

Part 3: Effect of Predator Introduction


1. Why was it important that we waited a year to perform our second population estimate?

Mark 1. What was the range of the bluegills length ? Remember it is the difference between the greatest and least value.

2.

What was the range of the bluegills mass?

3.

Was there a change in range value from the previous year? What can you conclude from the change or lack of change in the ranges?

Recapture 1. Calculate your population estimate (N) using the equation.

N = M (n r)
where n = total number of fish in the sample (100) r = number of marked fish in the sample M = total number of marked fish in population (100)

2.

3.

How does your population estimate compare to your estimate from Part 2? Does the change fit in with our expectations discussed in the Background? If not, why do you think the bass effected the bluegill population in this way?

4.

We used new tags for this population estimate. a. Assume that the tags stay on the fish well over the year. What, besides the loss of the tags, could change the proportion of the old marked tags in the population making it more accurate to use new ones? Hint: look back at the assumptions made by the mark and recapture method.

5. a.

Despite the factors you identified above, give one example of a population study where you would want the tags to stay on for more than one year.

6.

List two other environmental factors that could affect the bluegill population. How would they affect it and why would they affect it in that way?

Enzymes General Concepts

1.

What are the enzyme, substrate, and product in this experiment?

Experiment-Specific Questions
Experiment 1: Calibrating the Spectrophotometer
1. Determine the new concentration, in mg/mL, of the starch solution you diluted in the Erlenmeyer Flask. As you may remember from the Procedures, there are 20 mg of starch per mL of solution. Use that to determine the milligrams of starch in the solution. Then, divide the milligrams of starch by the total volume of the solution (the volume of water plus the volume of starch solution).

2.

Fill in the table below. Hint: To calculate the concentration of starch in the three cuvettes you prepared: o Multiply the concentration of the starch solution in the flask (your answer for #1) by the volume of the diluted starch solution you added to the first cuvette. o Divide that number by the total volume in the cuvette (which is always 5 mL). For example, if the concentration of the starch solution in the flask was 0.5 mg/mL and you added 3 mL of it to the cuvette. 0.5 mg/mL 3 mL = 1.5 mg of starch 1.5 mg 5 mL = 0.3 mg/mL of starch
Starch Concentration Cuvette 1 Cuvette: 4 mL starch and 1 mL iodine 2nd Cuvette: 2 mL starch and 3 mL iodine 3rd Cuvette: 1 mL starch and 4 mL iodine
st

Starch Concentration (mg/mL)

Absorbance

3.

Using the table above in #2, create and save a graph of your results by clicking on the graph button at the bottom of this window page. The Starch Concentration should be your x value and the Absorbance, your y value. For a review of how to make a graph, please scroll to the bottom of this assignment.

4.

Record the slope of the best fit line. Note: Our graphing The utility is able to fit a best-fit straight line to your data for you. In the lower left of the graphing utility, select the Data Points with Linear Fit graph type. Now your data will be displayed as points together with the best-fit line. You will now see values for the slope and intercept for this best-fit line. The slope describes the relationship between absorbace and concentration.

5.

Determine the inverse slope using your answer above in #4. In questions for the susequent experiments, you will determine the concentration of starch using the absorbance.

Hint: Divide the number 1 by the slope to determine the inverse slope.

Experiment 2: The Effect of pH on Amylase Enzyme Activity


1. What is the concentration of the initial starch solution? Hint: To find the answer, multiply the absorbance you measured by the inverse slope you calculated in Experiment 1, #5. This will convert the absorbance into the concentration. For example, if your inverse slope is 0.2 and your absorbance is 2, 0.2 X 2 = 0.4 mg/mL

2.

Fill in the table below. Remember: o Find the final concentration by multiplying the absorbance by the inverse slope.

Determine the change in strach concentration by subtracting the final concentration from the intial concentration calculated in #1.

Determine the percent change of the starch concentration by dividing the change in concentration by the initial concentration. Multiply the decimal value you get by 100% for the percent decrease. For example, if the starch concentration at pH 3 was 0.08 mg/mL and the initial starch concentration was 0.2 mg/mL, 0.08 mg/mL - 0.2 mg/mL = 0.12 mg/mL 0.12 mg/mL 0.2 mg/mL = 0.6 mg/mL. 0.6 mg/mL 100% = 60%.
Starch Concentration

Reaction Test Tube 1 2 3 4 5

pH Absorbance

Final Starch Concentration

Change in Starch Concentration

% Change in Starch Concentration

3.

Create and save a graph of the percent change in starch concentration (y-axis) versus the pH of the solutions (x-axis). A review of our graphing utility is at the bottom of this assignment.

4.

What is the value, or range, of pH at which amylase enzyme functions best?

5.

What are the values, or ranges, of pH at which the amylase enzyme ceases to function effectively?

6.

Why does the enzyme only function in a limited range of pH values?

Experiment 3: The Effect of Temperature on Amylase Enzyme Activity


1. Fill in the table below. Remember:

Convert the absorbance you measured to the final concentration by multiplying the absorbance by the inverse slope

Determine the change in strach concentration by subtracting the final concentration from the intial concentration.

Determine the percent change of the starch concentration by dividing the change in concentration by the initial concentration and multiplying it by 100% to get the percent decrease.

The Effect of Temperature on Amylase Activity Reaction Test Tube 1 2 3 Temperature (C) 10 40 60 Absorbance Final Starch Concentration Change in Starch Concentration % Change in Starch Concentration

2.

Create and save a graph of the percent change in starch concentration (y-axis) versus the temperature of the solutions (x-axis). Use the data from pH 7.2 for a temperature of 21.5C while constructing your graph.

3.

What is the temperature value, or range, at which amylase enzyme functions best?

4.

5.

In which temperature ranges will amylase cease to function effectively?

6.

7.

Why does the enzyme only function in a limited range of temperatures?

8.

9.

Why does the enzyme only function in a limited range of temperatures?

10.

How to make a graph:


To make a graph, open the graphing utility by clicking the graph button at the bottom of this window. See the list of options below - this graphing tool can do a lot! a. Labeling Graph:

In the data area on the left, enter:

a title for your graph next to the phrase Graph Title

the x-axis units at the top of the X column

the y-axis units at the top of the Y column

b.

Entering Data

Click the + button for each set of data pairs that you want to graph. The - button will delete a selected row of data pairs.

Click on the row to fill in the pair of x and y values.

To change any data, simply click on a value in the table and change its value.

c.

Creating Graph

When all the data points have been entered, click the Draw Graph button to view the graph.

If you update data after this point,click the Draw Graph button again to see your changes.

d.

Saving Graph

To save your graph, click the Save as New button. The graph is saved with your work with the title you gave it.

Use the My Saved Graphs dropdown menu at the top to view this or any other graph you have saved for this lab.

Note: If you are editing a saved graph, click the Update button to overwrite the original graph. If you click the Save as New button, the original graph will stay intact and the updated graph will save as a separate graph.

e.

Submitting Graph

When you are satisfied with the graph, click Save Image to Portfolio. Your instructor will only see graphs that you save to the portfolio. You may save as many graphs as you like.

Fungi General Concepts


1. How do fungi get nutrients?

2.

What is fungis ecological role and why is it important?

3.

What are the ways we use fungi in our daily lives?

4.

Fill in the table with a brief description of each fungal structure.


Fungi Structure Structure hyphae septa mycelium Description

5.

Every spring mushrooms grow in a certain spot on a lawn. The homeowner removes them from the lawn, but what remains underground, under the lawn, from year to year?

6.

Compare and contrast spores versus seeds in regards to nutirional requirements and dispersial methods.

Experiment-Specific Questions
Topic 1: Phylum Basidiomycota
Part 1: Whole Agaricus Mushroom Specimen 1. Fill in the table below with the fuctions of the major structures of the mushroom.
Agaricus Mushroom

Structure cap gills stem

Description

Topic 2: Phylum Ascomycota


1. What is the difference between spore production in basidiomycota and ascomycota?

Topic 3: Phylum Zygomycota


Part 1: Rhizopus stolonifer
1. Fill in the table below with the fuctions of the major structures of the mushroom.
Zygomycota hyphae Hyphae rhizoids sporangiophores stolons Function