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!ennlfer k. Powell & !ennlfer lLL-Lalnsbury for www.Achemresources2014.weebly.

com, 2013 page 1 of 2 page



SpecLroscopy ln A ChemlsLry

A general undersLandlng of specLroscopy Lechnlques ls requlred for Lhe 2014 A ChemlsLry exam. 1he
Lypes menLloned ln Lhe A ChemlsLry Course and Lxam uescrlpLlon are hoLoelecLron (LS),
ulLravloleL-vlslble (uv-vls) and lnfrared (l8) specLroscoples.

"#$%&'()%(#* +,)-%).
SpecLroscopy refers Lo a broad range of laboraLory Lechnlques LhaL use radlaLlon Lo lnLeracL wlLh a
sample, how Lhls lnLeracLlon occurs deLermlnes lnformaLlon abouL Lhe sLrucLure of lLs aLoms and/or
molecules. SpecLroscopy ls classlfled based on Lhe energy of Lhe radlaLlon source used - dlfferenL
energles of llghL probe for dlfferenL klnds of lnformaLlon abouL a sample (blndlng energy, exclLaLlon
energy, bond vlbraLlons, eLc.).

/$%01-23$
41$'5* (6 "(3'%$
7,8-,&-(1
9'(:$) ;0* *(3 <(3=8 %0(()$ -&>?@
!"#$#%&%'$(#)
+,%'$(#-'#,.
x-ray Lo uv
xS: 1 - 20 kev
uS: 10 - 100 ev
elecLron
blndlng
energy
- wanL Lo know mosLly abouL lndlvldual aLoms
- sample ls a solld or ln Lhe gas phase
- looklng aL Lhe energy levels of lndlvldual orblLals
(1s vs. 3p)
/0102-
+,%'$(#-'#,.
uv Lo vlslble:
200 - 800 nm
elecLron
exclLaLlon
energy
- wanL Lo know abouL molecules or meLal lons
- sample ls ln an aqueous soluLlon
- problng purlLy or concenLraLlon of sample LhaL
absorbs uv llghL (pl-bonds or meLal caLlons)
- deLermlne concenLraLlons uslng 8eer's Law
34
+,%'$(#-'#,.
lnfrared radlaLlon:
200 - 4000 cm
-1

bond
vlbraLlonal
energy
- wanL Lo know abouL molecules, mosLly Lhose wlLh
covalenL bonds
- sample ls ln soluLlon or a solld
- lnLeresLed ln whaL funcLlonal groups are ln a molecule
*based on mosL common usage of specLroscoplc meLhod

A(< -& <('B).
ln hoLoelecLron SpecLroscopy (someLlmes called xS when uslng x-ray lncldenL radlaLlon, and uS
when uslng uv lncldenL radlaLlon), monochromaLlc radlaLlon lnLeracLs wlLh Lhe sample. 1he energy ls
absorbed, and e[ecLs elecLrons from Lhe sample. 1he klneLlc energy of Lhe elecLrons ls measured, and
can be relaLed back Lo Lhe blndlng energy of elecLrons ln Lhe sample.

SAMPLE
monochromatic
RADIATION
ejected
electrons
absorbed
radiation

llgure 1: hoLoelecLron SpecLroscopy SchemaLlc ulagram
5#)#'"(#67$2' (7827$2#) 2- 79-#(9%8 9. -76,&% 7)8 %:%'$- %&%'$(#)- ;2$" 7 6%7-<(79&% =2)%$2' %)%(>.?
!ennlfer k. Powell & !ennlfer lLL-Lalnsbury for www.Achemresources2014.weebly.com, 2013 page 2 of 2 page

ln Lhe case of l8 and uv-vls SpecLroscopy, mulLl-chromaLlc radlaLlon lnLeracLs wlLh Lhe sample: some of
lL wlll be LransmlLLed Lhrough Lhe sample and some wlll be absorbed by Lhe sample. 1he radlaLlon LhaL
ls absorbed corresponds wlLh parLlcular bond vlbraLlon of characLerlsLlc funcLlonal groups ln l8 spec,
and wlLh Lhe elecLron exclLaLlon energy of con[ugaLed sysLems or meLal caLlons ln uv-vls specLroscopy.
SAMPLE
multi-chromatic
RADIATION
transmitted
radiation
absorbed
radiation

llgure 2: l8 and uv-vls SpecLroscopy SchemaLlc ulagram
5<&$21'"(#67$2' (7827$2#) 2- ,(#9%- $"% -76,&%@ 7)8 -#6% 2- 79-#(9%8? A"% 79-#(9%8 (7827$2#)
'#((%-,#)8- $# ,7($2'<&7( 9#)8 B29(7$2#)7& %)%(>2%- #( %&%'$(#) %C'2$7$2#) %)%(>2%- #D $"% -76,&%?

A(< -) "#$%&'()%(#* -1%('#(',&$8 -1&( &0$ C9 D0$E-)&'* %3''-%3=3EF
Whlle Lhe fundamenLals of hoLoelecLron SpecLroscopy are emphaslzed ln Lhe A ChemlsLry
currlculum (see !"# %& '! ()*+%,-./), oLher specLroscopy Lechnlques are encompassed by LC1.13.
!"#$%&%' )*+",-&." /0/1 "#$ %&'($)& *+) ,'%&-./ &#$ %$0$*&-1) 1. + 2+3&-*'0+3 &/2$ 1. %2$*&31%*12/ &1 4$+%'3$ 2312$3&-$%
+%%1*-+&$( 5-&# 6-73+&-1)+0 13 $0$*&31)-* 41&-1)% 1. 410$*'0$%8


4G,E#=$ /01B2- -,%'$(#-'#,. ;#<&8 9% 28%7& $# 8%$%(62)% $"% '#)'%)$(7$2#) #D 7E<%#<- -#&<$2#)- #D
;"2'" #D $"% D#&&#;2)>F
l.

O
O OH
OH
Alizarin

ll.

N
H
H
N
O
O
Indigo

lll.

O
OH
HO
OH
OH
OH
galactose

lv.
beta-carotene
a. ll only
b. l and lll only
c. l, ll and lv
d. l, ll, lll, and lv

",E#=$ H3$)&-(1. A ChemlsLry racLlce Lxam and noLes, lall 2013 #41

7$)(3'%$).
Ll, ?., SpecLroscopy 1echnlques" owerolnL Slldes for CPLM268, unlverslLy of Callfornla.
hLLp://research.pbscl.ucsc.edu/chemlsLry/ll/Leachlng/chem268/SpecLroscoplc20Lechnlques.pdf
A"2- 8#'<6%)$ '#)$72)- 7 9(2%D #B%(B2%; #D G $.,%- #D -,%'$(#-'#,. 7$ $"% -%'#)81.%7(
<)8%(>(78<7$% &%B%&? 3$ 2- 7,,(#,(27$% D#( 97'=>(#<)8 2)D#(67$2#) D#( 7 $%7'"%(?