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.....

5
1. ..6
2. ..6
2.1. .....7
2.2. .......7
2.3. .................8
3. ....17
3.1. ..17
3.2. .....17
3.3. .........26
3.4. .........30
4. .................31
4.1. .............................................................31
4.2. ,
.....................................................................................................32
4.3. ...........................33
4.4. ..........................................34
4.5. .....36
4.5. ...................................................37
5. 39
5.1. .....39
5.2. .... ...39
5.3. ...40
5.4. .41
5.4.1. .41
5.4.2. ...45
5.4.3. .46
...50
.51



.
: 70 02 01 / , 2009. 51 ., 19 ., 6 ., 7 .
: , , , , , ,
, , , .
:

.

1.

:
; ;
,
; .

18,
( ).
.
,
(, )
.

2.
/
, , ,
. .
: ;
; ;
- =750;
.

18000

18000

.1. .

2.1.
,
7,8 .
. 3.1.
.
H 2 H k+ (h . . + h ) + a2

H=
2.75 + (1.0 + 0.15) + 0.15 = 4.05
2

:
H1 = . .h ( h + a) +

H=
7.8 (1.0 + 0.15) + 0.15 = 6.8
1

H tot = H1 + H
2 = 4.05 + 6.8 = 10.85

:
:

H = H tot a
2 = 10.85 0.15 = 10.7

4.15
H= 10.8 , H=
2
.

= 400
: = 200 ; h
; h
; b
= 380
= 1000
= 400
; = 250 ; h
; h
; b
= 600
= 1100

2.2.

1
.

1.
2.


-. = 20 , = 20 3

0.15
0.5

. f
1.35
1.35

3.
4.

= 220 , = 4 3


36

0.88
0.05

1.35
1.35

1.188
0.067

1.57

1.35

1.806

g,

5.
:

3.15

:
/ 2 =
3.939 6 18 / 2 = 212.71
1. : q l p L

q,

0.203
0.675

3.939

/ 2 = 45 1.35 / 2 = 3038
2. G
c F

:
G1 = q l p L / 2 + G
/ 2 = 212.71 + 30.38 = 243.09
c F
:
G7 = 2 G
243.09 = 486.18 /
1 = 2


10.200:
G2 = gi hi l
= 2.5 3, 6 6 1.35 = 60.75 / 2
k F

hi . 10.200; lk - .
.
6.000
G5 = g i hi lk F + g 0 h0 l
= 2.5 1.8 6 1.35 + 0.4 2.4 6 1.35 = 44.23 / 2
k F
h0 . 6.000
:
G = ( g i hi + g 0 h0 ) l
= (2.5 1.2 + 0.4 4.8) 6 1.35 = 39.85 / 2
k F

:
G4 = (Gn + g k l
= (42 + 1.2 6)1.35 = 66.42 / 2
k ) F
:
G9 = G
= 66.42
/ 2
4 = 66.24
:
, :
G
;
3 = 0.4 0.38 4.15 25 1.35 = 21.29
, :
G
;
8 = 0.4 0.6 4.15 25 1.35 = 33.62
, :
G
1.8 1.4 (1.0 2 0.2)) 25 1.35 = 52.52 ;
6 = 0.4 (1 6.8 2 (1.0 2 0.2)
, :
G
;
10 = 0.4 (1.1 6.8 2 (1.1 2 0.25) 1.8 1.4 (1.1 2 0.25)) 25 1.35 = 61.70

2.3.
. III S o = 1.0 ;
= 1; F = 1.5 :
/F2 ) = 116 ( 18 / 2 ) 1.5 = 81
;
Qsd 1 = So l ( L
;
Qsd, = 2 Q
sd 1 = 2 81 = 162
= 200
. ( ) Q
.
18

0
.
75
=
16
.
5

.


3.1.
F = 1.3 :
n
Fmax = F
max F = 170 1.3 = 221
:
P = 0.05 ( Q + G
n ) F = 0.05 ( 200 + 63 ) 1.3 = 17.10

71.5 1.3 = 92.95


; F=
min

/ 2 = 14.47 / 2 = 7.23
: P1 = P

: =0.85;
4

QsdFmax = Fmax y
i = 221 0.85 ( 0.267 + 1 + 0.8 + 0.067 ) = 400.87

i =1
4

QsdFmin = Fmin y
i = 92.95 0.85 ( 0.267 + 1 + 0.8 + 0.067 ) = 168.60
i =1

: =0.7 ;
4

QsdFmax = Fmax y
i = 221 0.7 ( 0.267 + 1 + 0.8 + 0.067 ) = 330.13

i =1
4

QsdFmin = Fmin y
i = 92.95 0.7 ( 0.267 + 1 + 0.8 + 0.067 ) = 138.85

i =1

y
i =1

.2.

QsdFmax , QsdFmin , T :

1 () .

T
: Qsd = P1 y
i = 8.55 0.85 2.134 = 15.51

i =1

. .
), ( Wo =0.23 ; )
5 k =0.75;
10 k =1.0 ;
20 k =1.25 ;

(I

Wo1 =Wo K = 0.23 0.75 = 0.1725 ;


10: Wo 2 =Wo K = 0.23 1 = 0.23 ;
20: Wo 5 =Wo K = 0.23 1.25 = 0.2875 ;

10 20
:
;
10.8 ( ) W
o 3 = 0.235
;
13.8 ( ) W
o 5 = 0.248
e :
- = +0.8 ;
- . . b / l = 60 / 36 = 1.67 <2 h1 / l = 13.2 / 36 = 0.37 < 0.5; = 0.5;
13.2
b= 60 ; l =36 ; h=
1
( ).
1
f = 1.5 :
- 5 - Wr 1 =Wo1 Ce L f = 0.1725 0.8 6 1.5 = 1.242 / ;
- 10 - Wr 2 = 0.23 0.8 6 1.5 = 1.656 / ;

0.8 6 1.5 = 1.692


/ ;
- 10.80 - W
r 3 = 0.235
0.8 6 1.5 = 1.786
/ ;
- 13.80 - W
r 4 = 0.248
1
f = 1.5 :
0.5
= 0.776 / ;
0.8
0.5
C e = 1.656
= 1.035 / ;
0.8

5 - Wr1 = Wr 1 Ce 3 Ce = 1.242

10 - Wr2 = Wr 2 Ce 3

0.5
= 1.058
/ ;
10.80 - Wr3 = Wr 3 Ce3 C
e = 1.692
0.8
0.5
= 1.116
/ ;
- 13.80 - Wr4 = Wr 4 Ce3 C
e = 1.786
0.8

,
10.80 ( ). ,
( ), , ..
10.95. ,
(10.95).
.
,
.
(. 3.3) :
10.95
2
M r = 1.242 10.95 (0.15 +
) + 0.5(1.656 1.242) ( 10 5 ) (0.15 + 5 + ( 10 5 ) ) +
2
3
+(1.656 1.242) (10.95 10)(0.15 + 10 + 0.5 (10.95 10)) +
2
+0.5(1.692 1.656) (10.95 10)(0.15 + 10 + (10.95 10)) = 89.64 /
3
2
, : M eq1 = Weq 1 H o / 2;
2 M r 2 89.64
=
= 1.495
/ ;
M r M eq 1 , : W1 = M
eq1 = 2
Ho
10.952
:
Ce 3
0.5
W2 = Weq 2 = W
= 1.495 = 0.934
/ ;
1
Ce
0.8
, ,
13,8.
1.789 + 1.692 1.116 + 1.058
W
=
+
;
( 13.2 10.95 ) = 6.362
2
2

. 3. ( W1 ) . ( W2 )

. .

.4.

e
+ 0.175 h0.5 1 = 0 + 0.175 0.5 0.38 = 0.015
;
1 =
e2 = 0.5 ( + h
1 ) = 0.5 ( 0.3 + 0.38 ) = 0.34 ;
e3 = 0.5 ( h2 h
1 ) = 0.5 ( 1 0.38 ) = 0.31 ;
e
+ h0.5
4 =

= 0 + 0.75 0.5 1 = 0.25


;

5 = 0.5( + h2 ) = 0.5(0.3 + 1) = 0.65


6 = = 0.75

,

.
.
, V N
R.

RAMAGB.
2 6.
1-1, 2-2 (
3-3 ) 4-4 .

. 3.

2-2

3-3

4-4


Mmax

I
Mmin

18.16

II
Mmin
1+(4+8)+1
5
-29.96

Nmax

Mmax

1+3+13

1+(5+9)+15

1+3

1+2+13

Msd

18.82

-20.68

16.78

16.11

Nsd

381.83

325.13

381.83

357.36

276.36

357.36

Nmax
1+2

Vsd

12.47

-3.31

10.11

11.52

-7.19

9.16

Msdlt

14.94

-4.55

14.94

16.11

-24.70

16.11

Nsdlt

349.43

325.13

349.43

357.36

276.36

357.36

Msd

1+(5+9)
+13
7.30

-90.24

1+3+(5
+9)
-9.12

1+(4+8)
+13
36.86

Nsd

712.25

448.25

768.95

Vsd

13.49

7.67

12.10

1+3+15

-78.50

1+3+(4
+8)
-10.40

733.69

413.82

790.39

12.61

11.52

11.23

1+2+13

Msdlt

-23.20

-76.77

-29.35

34.81

-80.55

28.65

Nsdlt

415.85
1+3+15

733.69
1+(4+8)
+13
88.08

1+3+14

-79.91

616.29
1+3+(5
+9)
-37.21

413.82

Msd

591.99
1+(5+9)
+13
66.31

-97.56

757.99
1+3+(4
+8)
41.44

Nsd

809.00

545.00

865.70

815.93

471.76

872.63

Vsd

19.61

3.84

12.10

18.73

-1.71

11.23

Msdlt

-32.42

-40.61

-35.73

88.08

-93.15

45.85

Nsdlt

688.74

512.60

713.04

735.75

439.36

840.23

3.
3.1. .
20 25 ,
.
f ck 20, 0
=
= 13,33
, f
cd =
c
1,5

f
ck = 20, 0

0, 21 f ck 2 / 3 0, 21 20, 02 / 3
f
=
=
= 1, 032
ctd
c
1,5

(. 6.2 [1]), = 1, 0 cu 2 = 3,5 ,

E
103 0,9=28,8 103
cm = 32, 0

c = 0,81, k2 = 0, 416.
S400:
f
yd = 367

lim =

, cy =

5
, E
s = 2 10

cu 2
cu 2 + sy

f yd
Es

367
= 1,835 ,
2 105

3,5
= 0, 656,
3,5 + 1,835

m.lim = c lim ( 1 k2 lim ) = 0,81 0, 626 ( 1 0, 416 0, 626 ) = 0, 375.


3.2. .
:
b = 400 ; h = 380 ; = 40 .
: d = h c = 380 40 = 340 .

2 - 2 (. 3):
max

M sd : M
sd = 18,82

N
sd .lt = 349, 43
min
29,96
M sd : M
sd =

N
sd .lt = 276,36

, N
sd = 381,83

14,94
, M
sd .lt =

(1+3+13) .
, N
sd = 276,36

, M
sd .lt =24, 70

(1+(4+8)+15) .

. 7.4 [1]:
l0 = 2,5 H 2 = 2,5 4,15 = 10,38 ;
l0 = 2, 0 H 2 = 2, 0 4,15 = 8,3 .
:

i=

I
h2
0, 62
=
=
= 0,11 .
A
12
12

( 4,50 ) = 36,9
l0 10,38
M
=
= 94, 6 > min = 34 12 min = 34 12
,
i
0,11
M max
18,82

=

M
max = 3, 65 1, 22 0.7 = 4,50

(1 + 3 + 13); 1-1.

M max M min ,
,
.

,
:
M sd = ns Cm M
4870, 4 18,82
= 11, 2
< sd = 18.82
sd = 1,
Cm = 0, 6 0, 4

M min
4,5
= 0, 6 0, 4
= 0,504 0, 4
M max
18,82

ns
1
1
ns =
=
= 1, 487
N sd
381,83
:
1
1
1165, 09
N crit
N crit :

6, 4 Ecm I c
=

klt
l02

0,11

N crit

+ 0,1 + e I s =

0,1 + e

3
6
3

6, 4 28,8 10 10 1,829 10
0,11
5

= 1165, 09 H ,
=

+
0,1
+
6,944

1,
71

10

10,382
1,885

0,1 + 0,13

1,
0

: I c
.
b h3 0, 4 0,383
I
=
=
= 1,83 103 4 ;
c
12
12
klt , .

M sd1 .lt
67.355
klt = 1, 0 + 1 1 = 1, 0 + 1, 0
= 1,89 < 1, 0 + 1 = 1, 0 + 1, 0 = 2, 0, klt = 1,89
M sd
76.09
1 , ,
1 = 1, 0.
1
M sd1 .lt M sd

( ) .
h

0,38

1
M sd
= M sd + N sd c
0, 04 = 76.09
,
= 18.82 + 381.83
2

0,38

M sd1 .lt = M sd .lt + N sd .lt c


+ 349.43
0, 04 = 67.355
,
= 14.94
2

e
0, 049
= 0,13 ,
e , e = 0 N =
h
0,38
l
10, 38
e.min = 0,5 0, 01 0 0, 01 f cd = 0,5 0, 01
0, 01 13.33 = 0, 0936
h
0,38

e
oN =

M sd 18.82
=
= 0, 049 ,
N sd 381.83

p ,
; p = 1, 0;

e
Es
2 105
e =
=
= 6,94
Ecm 28,8 103
I s .

5 N sd
5 381,83 103
min =
= 367
= 0, 038%
f yd b d
417 106 0, 4 0,34
27 + 27 + 94,579
min > =
=
= 0, 276% < 0, 25
440
440
min > 0,1%
2

h
0, 4

I s = 2 min b h c
0,04 = 1, 7110 5 4
= 2 0,0025 0,38 0, 4
2
2

M
=
11,

2
M

<

=
18,82

sd
,
sd
M

.
sd = 18,82
, ,

:
eo = eoN + ea ,
e
oN =

M sd 18.82
=
= 0, 049 ,
N sd 381.83

ea - , :
10,38
l0
600 = 600 = 0, 017 ,

ea = max 0, 02 ,
1
0, 6
h =
= 0, 02 ,
30
30
ea = 0, 02 , eo = 0, 049 + 0, 02 = 0,069 .

:
M sd 1 = N sd e

0, 219 = 83.73
,
tot = 381.83
h
etot = e + c= 0,069 + 0,5 0,38 0, 04 = 0, 219
2

N sd
381.83 103
=
= 0, 26 < lim = 0, 656 ,
c f cd b d 1, 0 0,81 13,33 400 340

.
min :
Asc.min = min b d = 0, 0025 40 34 = 3, 4 c2 .

216 ( A
sc = 4, 02

).

Asc k S 2 = 1, 0
m :
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 1, 0 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 064.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 2
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 064 = 0,127
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,127 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0.099

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0.099
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.099 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0,04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0,129.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,129 = 0,193.
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,193 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0,866

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0,866
M sd .1 k S 2 f yd Asc (d d ) 83.73 0.866 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m =
=
= 0, 0736.
f cd b d 2
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 0736 = 0,148.
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,148 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0,338

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0,338
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.338 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0,04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0,1115.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,1115 = 0,174
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,174 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0, 641

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0, 641
M sd .1 kS 2 f yd Asc (d d ) 83.73 0.641367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m =
=
= 0, 0898.
f cd b d 2
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 2
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 0898 = 0,151
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,151 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0,373

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0,373

M sd .1 kS 2 f yd Asc (d d )

83.73 0.373 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0, 04)


m =
=
= 0,109.
f cd b d 2
1,0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,109 = 0,172
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,172 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0, 616

d 0,34
m kS 2 = 0, 616
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.616 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 0916.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 0916 = 0,153
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,153 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0,395

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0,395
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.395 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0,04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0,1075.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,1075 = 0,165
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,165 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0,537

d 0,34
m kS 2 = 0,537
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.537 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 0973.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,0973 = 0,159
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,159 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0, 462

d 0,34
m kS 2 = 0, 462
M k f A (d d ) 83.73 0.462 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0,04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0,1026.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,1026 = 0,166
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,159 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0,550

d 0,34
m kS 2 = 0, 462
M sd .1 k S 2 f yd Asc (d d ) 83.73 0.550 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m =
=
= 0, 0963.
f cd b d 2
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,0963 = 0,158
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,158 . 6.8 [2] k S 2 = 0, 451

d 0,34
m k S 2 = 0, 451
M k f A ( d d ) 83.73 0.451 367 103 4, 02 10 4 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0,1034.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 2
. 6.7 [2] m = 0,1034 = 0,166

d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,166 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0,550
d 0,34
kS 2 = 0, 292 :
f cd b d + k S 2 f yd Asc N sd
Ast =
=
f yd

0,81 1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 0,170 + 0,550 367 103 4, 02 104 381.83
=
= 1,389 2 < 0
3
367 10
2
Ast < 0, 216( Ast = 4, 02 c ).

4
A + Ast ( 4, 02 + 4, 02 ) 10
l = sc
=
= 0, 0059 ,
b d
0, 4 0,34
l = 0, 005 .
.
( 4,32 ) = 32, 27
l
8,3
M
= 75,66 > min = 34 12 min = 34 12
= 0 =
,
i 0,109
M max
(29,96)

M
min = 3, 65 0,85 1, 22 = 4,32

(1 + ( 4 + 8 ) + 15); 1-1.

6, 4 Ecm I c 0,11

N crit =

+ 0,1 + e I s =
e
klt

l02

0,1 +

6, 4 28,8 10 10 1,83 10
0,11
6

= 972,51 H ,
=

+
0,1
+
6,94

1,573

10

8,32
2

0,1 + 0, 285

1,
0

klt , .
3

M sd1 .lt
16, 754
klt = 1, 0 + 1 1 = 1, 0 + 1, 0
= 2, 46 > 1, 0 + 1 = 1, 0 + 1, 0 = 2, 0, klt = 2, 0
M sd
11, 49
h

0,38

1
0, 04 = 11, 49
,
M sd = M sd + N sd c
= 29,96 + 276,36
2

0,38

1
M sd
c
0, 04 = 16, 754
,
.lt = M sd .lt + N sd .lt
= 24, 7 + 276,36
2

e
0,108
e = 0N =
= 0, 285 ,
h
0,38
l
8,3
e.min = 0,5 0, 01 0 0, 01f cd = 0,5 0, 01
0, 01 13,33 = 0,148
h
0,38

5 N sd
5 276,36 103
min =
=
= 0, 028%
f yd b d 367 106 0, 4 0,34

min > =
min > 0,1%

27 + 27 + 75, 663
=
= 0, 23%
440
440
2

h
0,38

I s = 2 min b h c
0,04 = 1,573 10 6 4
= 2 0, 0023 0, 4 0,38
2
2

, :
1
1
=
=
= 1,397
N sd
276,36
1
1
972,51
N crit
M sd = Cm M

0, 4 (29,96) = 16, 74
,
sd = 1,397

( 4,32 ) = 0,542
Cm = 0, 6 0, 4
(29,96)
74M <
29,96 ,
M
sd = 16,
sd =
M

.
sd = 29,96
, ,

:
eo = eoN + ea ,
e
oN =

M sd
29,96
=
= 0,108 ,
N sd 276,36

ea - , :
8,3
l0
600 = 600 = 0, 014 ,

ea = max 0, 02 ,
1
0,38
h=
= 0, 013 ,
30
30
ea = 0, 02 , eo = 0,108 + 0, 02 = 0,128 .

:
h
0, 38

M sd 1 = N sd e + c
36 0,128 +
0, 04 = 76,94
,
= 276,
2
2

N sd
276,36 103
=
=
= 0,188 < lim = 0, 656 ,
c f cd b d 1, 0 0,8113,33 400 340

.
min :
Asc.min = min b d = 0, 0023 40 34 = 0,313 c 2 .
2
216 ( Asc = 4, 02 ).
Asc k S 2 = 1, 0
m :
M k f A (d d ) 76,94 1, 0 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 053.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 2

. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 053 = 0,111


:
= 0,156 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0, 429
m kS 2 = 0, 078
M k f A (d d ) 76,94 0, 429 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 094.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 094 = 0,156
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,156 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0, 429

d 0,34
m kS 2 = 0, 429
M k f A (d d ) 76,94 0, 429 367 103 4, 02 104 (0,34 0, 04)
m = sd .1 S 2 yd sc 2
=
= 0, 094.
f cd b d
1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,342
. 6.7 [2] m = 0, 094 = 0,156
d 0, 04
=
= 0,118 = 0,156 . 6.8 [2] kS 2 = 0, 429

d 0,34
kS 2 = 0, 429 :
f cd b d + k S 2 f yd Asc N sd
Ast =
=
f yd
0,81 1, 0 13,33 103 0, 4 0,34 0,156 + 0, 429 367 103 4,02 104 276,36
=
= 0, 438 2 > 0
3
367 10
2
Ast > 0, 216 ( A
).
st = 4, 02

4
A + Ast ( 4, 02 + 4, 02 ) 10
l = sc
=
= 0, 0074 ,
b d
0, 4 0,34
l = 0, 0046 .
:
2
A st = 4, 02 (216 S500);
2
A st = 4, 02 (216 S500).
.

l
6.225
= o =
= 15,56 ,
l0 = 1,5 H
2 = 1,5 4,15 = 6, 225 .
b
0, 4
l0 8,3
= 20, 75.
= =
h 0, 4
.
.


Vsd VRd .ct ,
: V
2 - 2
sd = 12, 47
;

VRd .ct ,
.
1
VRd .ct = 0,12 k (100 l f ck ) 3 0,15 cp b d =

1
= 0,12 1, 767 (100 0, 0074 20, 0) 3 400 340 = 65, 695 H ,


VRd .ct .min = 0.4 f ctd 0,15 cp b d
= [ 0, 4 1, 032 ] 400 340 = 56,115 ,
k = 1+

200
200
= 1+
= 1, 767 < 2, 0
d
400

cp = 0
Vsd = 12, 47 < VRd.ct = 65, 695 .
,
. 6 S400 S=300 ,
20 d = 20 16 = 320 .

3.3. .
.
=800, h=1000, bc=400,
h=200.
:
d = h - = 200 - 40 = 160
.

:
H * 6, 65
S= 1 =
= 2, 22 ;
n
3
*
H1 ;
H1* = H
1 - 0.15 = 6,8 - 0,15 = 6, 65
n .
:
lo1 = 1,5 H
.
1 = 1,5 6,8 = 10, 2

, 4 4.
08
; N
sd,max: M
( 4-4;1,13,4+8).
sd = 88,
sd = 815,93
97,56
; N
Msd,min: M
( 4-4;1,14,3).
sd =
sd = 471, 76
:
i=

c2
0,82
=
= 0, 2 .

3 0,82
3 c 2
4 1 + 2
4 1 + 2 2
2
3 0, 2
n h

.
:
N sd M max ns 815,93 88, 08 1
N

= 407,97 110,1,
;
sd, =
2
c
2
0,8
;
: N
sd, = 407,97 110,1 = 297,57
: N
sd, = 407,97 + 110,1 = 518, 07
:
Vsd S
18, 73 2, 22
M
=
= 10, 40
.
sd, =
4
4
.
:
= N + ;
M sd,
10, 4
e
=
= 0, 035
oN =
N sd,
297,57

10, 2
l0
600 = 600 = 0, 017 ,

e
,
a = max 0, 02
1
0, 2
h
= 0, 01 ,
=
30
30

0, 035 + 0, 02 = 0, 055
e=
o

etot = eo+ 0.5 h c= 0, 055 + 0,5 0, 2 0, 04 = 0,115 .


, 2 (ks1=ks2=1,0)
(.
) :
= n =

N sd,
f cdb d

N sd, etot

297,57 103
= 0,349;
113,33 400 160

297,57 103 0,115 103


= 0, 251;
f cdb (h c) 2
113,33 400 1602
= 0,349 < lim = 0, 656 , .. 2,
.

.
m =

As = A
st =

h =

f cd b d m n ( 1 0,5 n ) 1 13,33 400 160 0, 251 0, 349 ( 1 0,5 0,349 )

= 1,15
f yd
1 h
367
1 0, 25

1
0, 04
=
= 0, 25 .
d 0,160

A s min :
5 N sd
5 815,93 103
min =
=
= 0,17%
f yd b d 367 106 0, 4 0,16
l 10, 2
= 0 =
= 51, 0
i
0, 2
27 + 27 + 51,0
min > =
=
= 0,18%
440
440
min > 0,1%
Ast = Asc = min b d= 0, 0018 40 16 = 1,15

216 ( Ast = A
s = 4, 02
.

.
:
M sd,
10, 4
e
=
= 0, 02 ; e=
0, 02 .
oN =
a
N sd,
518, 07
0, 02 + 0, 02 = 0, 04
e=
o

etot = eo+ 0,5 h c= 0,04 + 0,5 0, 2 0, 04 = 0,1 .



M sd .1 = Nsd. tot = 518, 07 0,1 = 51,81
, 2 (ks1=ks2=1,0)
(.
) :
= n =

N sd,
f cd b d

Nsd, etot

518, 07 103
= 0, 607;
113,33 400 160
Nsd, etot

518, 07 103 0,1103


m =
=
=
= 0,380.
f cdb d 2 cd f b (h c) 2 113,33 400 1602

= 0, 607 < lim = 0,656 , .. 2,


.

.
As = A
st =

f cd b d m n ( 1 0, 5 n ) 113,33 400 160 0,380 0, 607 ( 1 0,5 0, 607 )

= 1,32
f yd
1 h
367
1 0, 25

h = 0, 25 .
A s min : min = 0,18%
Ast = Asc = min b d= 0, 0018 40 16 = 1,152 2
2
216 ( Ast = A
).
s = 4, 02
:
A + Ast 4, 02 + 4, 02 4, 02 + 4, 02
l = sc
=
+
= 0, 02 .
b d
50 16
50 16

.
.
:
N sd M min ns 471, 76 97,56 1
N

= 235,88 121,95,
;
sd, =
2
c
2
0,8
= 235,88 121,95 = 113,93 ;
: N
sd
,

= 235,88 + 121,95 = 357,83


: N
sd
,
:
Vsd S
2, 2 1,71
M
=
= 0,95
.
sd, =
4
4

.
:
e = eN + e a ;
M
0, 95
e oN = sd, =
= 0, 008 ; ea = 0, 02 .
N sd, 113, 93
eo = 0, 008 + 0, 02 = 0, 028 .

e tot = eo+ 0,5 h c = 0, 028 + 0,5 0, 2 0, 04 = 0, 088 .


, 2 (ks1=ks2=1,0)

:
113,93 103
= n =
=
= 0,134;
f cd b d 1 13,33 400 160
N sd,

m =

Nsd, e tot

Nsd, etot

113,93 103 0, 088 103


= 0, 074;
1 13,33 400 160 2

f cdb d 2 cd f b (h c) 2
= 0,134 < lim = 0, 656 , .. 1,
.

.

As = A
st =

f cd b d m n ( 1 0.5 n ) 1 13,33 400 160 0, 074 0,134 ( 1 0,5 0,134 )

= 1,58
f yd
1 h
367
1 0, 25

h = 0, 25 .
A s min : min = 0,18%
Asc = Ast = min b d= 0, 0018 40 16 = 1,52 2
216 ( A
st = 4, 02
.

.
:
M
0, 95
e oN = sd, =
= 0, 003 ;
N sd, 357, 83
eo = 0, 003 + 0, 02 = 0, 023 .

e tot = eo+ 0,5 h c = 0, 023 + 0,5 0, 2 0, 04 = 0, 083 .


, 2 (ks1=ks2=1,0)

:
357,83 103
= n =
=
= 0, 419;
f cdb d 113,33 400 160
N sd,

m =

N sd, etot

Nsd, e tot

357,83 103 0, 083 103


= 0, 218.
113,33 400 160 2

f cdb d 2 cd f b (h c) 2
= 0, 419 < lim = 0,656 , .. 2,
.

.
As = A
st =

f cd b d m n ( 1 0.5 n ) 1 13,33 400 160 0, 218 0, 419 ( 1 0,5 0, 419 )

= 3,5
f yd
1 h
367
1 0, 25

h = 0, 25 .
A s min : min = 0,18%
Asc = Ast = min b d= 0, 0018 40 16 = 1,52 2
216 ( A
)
st = 4, 02
:
A + Ast 4,02 + 4,02 4, 02 + 4,02
l = sc
=
+
= 0, 025 .
b d
40 16
40 16
,
:
:
Asc=4,022 (216 S400); Ast=4,02 2 (216 S400);
: Asc=4,022 (216 S400);
Ast=4,02 2 (216 S400).
2



l1 = 0,8 H
.
1 = 0,8 6,8 = 5, 44

lo1 5, 44
l
8,16
=
= 13, 6 < o =
= 40,8 ,
b
0, 4
h 0, 2
.
: :

,
. 6 S240 S=300 ,
20 d
= 20 16 = 320

3.4. .
.
, :
Vsd S
18, 73 2, 22
M
=
= 20,79 .
sd , s =
2
2
M sd .s
20, 79 106
m =
=
= 0, 034 , d = h c
= 380 40 = 340
f cd b d 2 113,33 400 3402

m = 0, 034 6.7 [2] = 0, 085 < lim = 0, 656 .


m = 0, 034 , 6.7 = 0,970 .

M sd .s
20, 79 104
=
= 1, 72 2 .
f yd d 367 0,970 340
216 (sc=Ast= 4,02).

V ' sd VRd ,ct
Asc = A
st =

Vsd S
18, 73 2, 22
=
= 51,96 .
c
0,8
, / :
1

Vsd 0,12 k (100 l f ck ) 3 0,15 cp b d ,

'
V
sd =

k = 1+

A + Ast 4, 02 2
200
200
=
= 0,0059 .
= 1+
= 1, 77 < 2 , l = sc
b d
40 34
d
340

3
0,12

1,
77

(100

0,
0059

25)
+ 0 0, 4 0,34 103 = 70,84 > V ' sd = 51,96 .

,
. 6 S240 S=150 ,
h 380
S
=
= 190
, S 150 .
2
2

4. .
4.1.

.
d fn = 1,2 .
: d f = k n d fn = 0,6 1,2 = 0,72
kn = 0,6 .5.3., [4].
H f df 0,15 = 0, 72 0,15 = 0, 57 .
H f hh+ h ,
hh = h f + 50

:
0,5 + 0,33 h
h + 0,33 1 = 0,83 f <1,2;
k = 0,5
h=
0,85 ;
f

, :
hh = h
f + 50 = 850 + 50 = 900
,
f hcf+ h = 900 + 350 = 1250 . f
300 . f =1500 ,
.
:
b f = b
k + 2 50 = 400 + 2 50 = 500

l f = h
k + 2 50 = 1000 + 2 50 = 1100
bcf = bk + 2 75 + 2 225 = 400 + 2 75 + 2 225 = 1000
lcf = hk + 2 75 + 2 225 = 1000 + 2 75 + 2 225 = 1600

100,
b
, cf= 1000
l
,
b
;
.
: l
cf = 1600
f = 1100
f = 500
4.2. , .



f =1 , -

>
1
f
.

,
, 4.
Gw = G + G. . ;
;
G
sd
, = 39,85
G
sd, = 25 F = 25 1,35 = 33, 75

Gsd, - .

G
;
w = 39,85 + 33, 75 = 73, 6
, (
), :
M = M Sd + VSd H f Gw w ;N N
= Sd G+ w ;
ew = e
.
5 = 0, 65
4.

M sd4 4 ,

N sd44 ,

kH

kH

1,363

64,62
1,45
M min
-67,28
1,363
N max
30,40
1,39
Vmax

64,83

1,325

615,80
1,425

331,06
1,383

630,97
1,383

572,99

1,363

13,74
1,45

-1,18
1,363

8,24
1,39

17,89

F =1

88,08

815,93

M min -97,56

N sd ,

20,61

49,79

670,32

-1,77

-104,49

385,58

12,36

7,32

685,49

26,84

56,23

627,51

18,73

28,10

68,34

889,53

471,76

-1,71

-2,565

-147,97

545,36

N max 41,44

872,63

16,86

10,45

946,23

90,11

792,45

11,23
24,87
(1,3,12,5+9)

37,31

79,58

866,05

M max

F >1

M sd ,

M max

Vsd4 4 H f

Vmax

Gw,

Vsd4 4 , kH

54,52

73,6

Gww,

35,44

47,84

F. + F.
, n .
F =
n
4.3. .
R= 350 .
:
F =1
N Sd
685, 49
=
=
= 1,77 2 ,
1, 2 R m d f 1, 2 350 20 1, 65
m ;
d f .
A
B
1, 77
=
= 1,59 .
m = = 0,7 , L=
L
m
0, 7
, L= 1,8 . , B= 1,8 0, 6 = 1, 08 ,
B= 1, 2 . : A = B L= 1,8 1, 2 = 2,16 2 .
:
B L2 1, 2 1,82
W
=
=
= 0, 65 3 .

6
6

:
F =1
F =1
M
=49, 79N
= 670,32
Sd
Sd
Pmax/ min =

N Sd F =1
A

M Sd F =1
W

+ m d f ;

N Sd F =1

+ cp d f
A
670,32 49, 79
P
R+

+ 20 1, 65 = 419,93
< 1, 2 o = 420
max =
2,16
0, 65
670,32 49, 79
P

+ 20 1, 65 = 266, 73
>0;
min =
2,16
0, 65
670,32
P
R + 20
1, 65 = 343,33
< o = 350
.
=
2,16
:
F =1
M
=104,N49
Sd F =1 = 385,58
Sd
Pcp =

385,58 104, 49
R+

+ 20 1, 65 = 372, 26
< 1, 2
2,16
0, 65
385,58 104, 49
P

+ 20 1, 65 = 50, 76
> 0;
min =
2,16
0, 65
385,58
P
R + 20
1, 65 = 211,51
< o = 350
.
=
2,16
:
F =1
F =1
M
=7,32N
= 685, 49
Sd
Sd
P
max =

P
max =

685, 49 7,32
R+
+

20 1, 65 = 361, 626
2,16
0, 65

< 1, 2

= 420

= 420

685, 49 7,32

+ 20 1, 65 = 339,09
>0;
2,16
0, 65
685, 49
P
R + 20
1, 65 = 349,52
< o = 350
=
2,16
P
min =

:
F =1
F =1
M
=56, 23N
= 627,51
Sd
Sd
627,51 56, 23
R+

+ 20 1, 65 = 627,51
< 1, 2
2,16
0, 65
627,51 56, 23
P=

+ 20 1, 65 = 237, 01 > 0 ;
min
2,16
0, 65
627,51
P
R + 20
1, 65 = 323,51
< o = 350
.
=
2,16
P
max =

= 420

4.4. .
f > 1
NH
M
147,97
.
sd = 545,36
sd =

.
N
M
Pmax = sd sd ;
A
W
min
545,36 147,97
545,36 147,97
P
+
= 480,13
;

= 24,84
;
min =
2,16
0, 65
2,16
0, 65
Pmax + Pmin 480,13 + 24,84
P
=
= 252, 49
.
=
2
2
300.

:
1-1 ;
2-2 ;
:
:
( L + lcf )
( Pmax Pmin )
(480,13 24,84) (1,8 + 1, 6)
2
2 = 454,84
P11 = P
= 24,84 +
min +
L
1,8
( L + h )
( Pmax Pmin )
(480,13 24,84) (1,8 + 1, 0)
2
2 = 378,95
P2 2 = P
= 24,84 +
min +
L
1,8
:
2 1
2 1
M 11 = ( P11 + 2 Pmax ) ( L l
cf ) 24 = (454,84 + 2 480,13) (1,8 1, 6) 24 = 2,36
P
max =

2 1
M 22 = ( P2 2 + 2 Pmax ) ( L h
k)

= (454,84 + 2 480,13) (1,8 1) 2 1 = 37, 74


24
24
= 300 80 = 220 ;
1-1: d 1 = h c
M 11
2,36
m =
=
= 0, 0037 , b= 1 - .
2
f cd b d o1 113,33 10, 222 1000

= 0,5 + 0, 25
11
A
=
st

m
0, 0037
= 0,5 + 0, 25
= 0,998
Co
1,947

M 11
2,36 10
=
= 0, 29
f yd d oI 0,998 367 0, 22

= 1500 80 = 1420 ;
2-2: d o 2 = H f c
M 22
37, 74
m =
=
= 0, 0014 , b= 1 - .
2
f cd b d o 2 1 13, 33 1 1, 42 2 1000

= 0,5 + 0, 25
22
A
=
st

m
0, 0014
= 0,5 + 0, 25
= 0,999
Co
1,947

M 22
37, 74 10
=
= 0, 72
f yd d o 2 0,999 367 1, 42

7,85 2 10 S400 S=200.


A=
st . x
.
:
2
( B bcf ) 2
1, 2 1, 0 )
(
M 11 = P
= 252, 49
= 1, 26

8
8

( B bk ) 2
( 1, 2 0, 4 ) = 20, 20
M 2 2 = P
= 252, 49

8
8
M 11
1, 26
=
= 0, 002
1-1: m =
2
f cd b d o1 113,33 10, 222 1000
2

= 0,5 + 0, 25
11
A
st =

m
0, 002
= 0,5 + 0, 25
= 0,999
Co
1,947

M I I
1, 26 10
=
= 0,16
f yd d oI 0,999 367 0, 22

2-2: m =

= 0,5 + 0, 25
22
A
=
st

M 22
20, 20
=
= 0, 0008
2
f cd b d o 2 1 13, 33 1 1, 42 2 1000

m
0, 0008
= 0,5 + 0, 25
= 0,999
Co
1,947

M 22
20, 20 10
=
= 0,39
f yd d o 2 0,999 367 1, 42

5,50 2 10 S400 S=200.


A=
st . y
.

4.5. .
4-4
:
1/ 3
sd Rd .ct = 0,15 k ( 100 l f ck ) 0,1 d

l = lx ly = 0, 0016 0, 0017 = 0, 0016 0, 02 ;

Ast . x
7,85
=
= 0, 0016 ;
L d 180 27
A
5,50
ly = st . y =
= 0, 0017
B d 120 27
d = h c
= 350 80 = 270
;
= 0

lx =

k = 1+

200
200
= 1+
= 1,86 2
d
270

1/ 3
Rd .ct = 0,15 1,86 ( 100 0, 0016 25 ) 0, 27 1000 = 119,57 ,

Rd .ct min = (0,5 f ctd 0,1 ) d


= 0,5 1, 032 0, 27 1000 = 139,32
Vsd
sd =
, = 1 , Vsd = N sd P A
u
A = l1 l2
l1 = h + 100 + 1,5 d
2 = 1000 + 100 + 1,5 270 2 = 1910
;
l1 = b + 100 + 1,5 d
2 = 500 + 100 + 1,5 270 2 = 1410
;

A= 1,911, 41 = 2, 69 2 ;
= 2 l1 + 2 l2 = 2 1,91 + 2 1, 41 = 6,64 ;
Vsd = 946, 23 252, 49 2,69 = 267, 03 ;

Vsd 1267, 03

=
= 40, 22
.

6, 64

VRd .ct = 139,32


sd = 40, 22
, ,

.
sd =

4.6. .
.

.
2 :

. 11. .
.
M sd ,11 = M sd ,4 4 + Vsd ,4 4 hcf Gw ew ;
M
= 97,56 2,565 47,84 = 147,97
sd ,11

N sd ,11 = N sd ,4 4 + Gwf+ G ; N
sd ,11 = 471, 76 + 73, 6 + 36, 45 = 581,81
Gf - ;


.
G f = lcf bcf lh bh h
/ F = ( 1, 6 1, 0 1, 0 0, 4 ) 0,9 25 1,35 = 36, 45 . ;
h

ON =

M sd ,
N sd ,

147,97
= 0.254 ;
581,81

hcf
1,125
=
= 0.0019 ,

600
600

e
,
a = max 0.02
1
1.6
l
= 0.053 ,
cf =
30
30

h1f

30
= 0.19 ;
d 156
,
1 m = 0,126 .
M sd .1 = N sd . (etot + 0.5h c) M Rd ,
.
M
581,81 (0, 254 + 0, 053 + 0.5 1.6 0.04) = 620, 79
sd .1 =

. =

2
M Rd = m f cd b 'f d
= 1 0.126 13,3 1.0 1.56 2 103 = 4078, 22

;
, ,
beff= 1000.
N sd
581,81
= n =
=
= 0, 028;
'
f cd b f d 113,3 103 1, 0 1, 56
N (e + 0,5 h c) 581,81(0, 254 + 0, 053 + 0,5 1, 6 0, 04)
m = sd tot
=
= 0, 019;
f cd b 'f d 2
113,3 103 1, 0 1,56 2

= n = 0, 028 < lim = 0, 656 , . :

f cd b 'f d m n (1 0,5 n )
Asc = Ast =

=
f yd
1 'h
=

1,0 13,3 103 1,0 1,56 0, 019 0, 025 (1 0,5 0, 025)

= 3,3 c 2 < 0;
3
367 10
1 0, 026

0, 04
=
= 0, 026.
d 1,56

:

: h =

Asc = min b'f d


= 0, 0005 1, 0 1,56 = 7,8

2
6 16 S400 Asc = Ast = 12, 06c .

. 12.

.
M
h
147,97
h 1, 0
= 1,0 = 0,167 < eoN = sd =
= 0, 254 < =
= 0,5 ,

6
N sd 581,81
2
2

M ki = M sd4 4 + Vsd4 4 y 0, 7 N sd4 4 e


oN = 97, 56 1, 71 0,85 + 0, 7 471, 76 0, 254 = 15,13
.
: y = h
h 50 = 900 50 = 850
4 :
M ki
15,13
A
=
= 0,19 2 ;
sw =
3
f yd zswi 240 10 ( 0, 05 + 0, 25 + 0, 45 + 0, 65 + 0,85 + 1, 05 )
: zswi -
.
2
4 8 S240 A
200.
sw = 2,01

. 13. .

5. .
5.1. .
35/45,
f

35

ck
: fck = 35 , fcd = = 1.5 = 23,33, =
c

f
0, 21 f ck3 0.21 35 3
f ctd = ctk =
=
= 1,5 , 6.1 [1] fctm =3,2 , 6.2
c
c
1.5
[1] cm = 34,2 103 . fcd
= 0,85,
.
:
- - S1200, : fyk =1200 , fyd = 960
, = 1.9 105 (. 6.6 [1]).
- - S400,
5
f
, f
, f
, E
,
yk = 400
yd = 367
ywd = 290
s = 2 10
cu2
f
3,5
367
=
= 0, 656;
sy = yd =
= 1,835. lim =
5
cu2 + sy 3,5 + 1,835
Es 2 10

m.lim = c lim ( 1 k2 lim ) = 0,810, 656 (1 0, 416 0, 656) = 0,386.

5.2. .
.
l
, l
,
= 18
= 17, 94
l
.
eff = 18 2 0,175 = 17, 65

2, 7 .
B= 6 , h=

l=
3, 0 . . 14.
1
0,5(Gsd+Qsd)

Gsd+Qsd

Gsd+Qsd

2700

10

08
39 11

12

40
36

Gsd+Qsd
3

13

36
40 14

7
2825

Gsd+Qsd

15

40
36

16

3000

39
0
18 8

36
40 17

8
3000

0,5(Gsd+Qsd)

Gsd+Qsd

19

9
3000

3000

2825

17650

14.

4.
5. 1 2

1.
2.


-. = 20 , = 20 3

0.15
0.5

. f
1.35
1.35

3.
4.

= 220 , = 4 3


36

0.88
0.05

1.35
1.35

1.188
0.067

1.57

1.35

1.806

5.

g,

q,

0.203
0.675

:
3.15
3.939
45 , 1 :
45
45
g
= 2,5 / , 1 2 = 0, 42 / 2 .
Dn =
17,94
17,94 6
:
Gsd .n = g sd .n B l1 + g Dn l
1 = 3,15 6 3 + 2,5 3 = 64, 2
Gsd = g sd B l1 + g Dn l
1 F = 3,939 6 3 + 2,5 3 1,35 = 81, 03
[3, 4].
.
. S
.
= 1, 0
() :
Qsd .n = S B l
1 = 1, 0 6 3 = 18, 0
= 1, 0 6 3 1,5 = 27, 0
Qsd = S B Fl
1
6 ,
LxB = 18 x
3,939 + 0, 42 1,35 + 1, 0 1,5 = 6, 0 / 2 , ( g sd + q
sd ) =
1, 0 1,5 = 1,5 / 2 , 1 [5] 2- .
2 [5]
:
- - bh = 250 200 ,
- - bh = 250 180 ,
- - bh = 120 150 .

5. 3.
:
) :
- - Gsd + 01 Q
,
sd = 81, 03 + 0, 7 27, 0 = 99,93
- - Gsd + Q
.
sd = 81, 03 0,85 + 27, 0 = 95,88
) :
- () - Gsd .n + Q
,
sd .n = 64, 2 + 18, 0 = 82, 2
- Gsd .n + 1 Q
,
sd .n = 64, 2 + 0,5 18, 0 = 73, 2
18, 0 = 69, 6 .
- Gsd .n + 2 Q
sd .n = 64, 2 + 0,3

SIRIUS.

.
6.
6
,

1
0
0
0
0
0
2
-4,2824
-427,94
-410,60
-313,47
-298,06
3
-427,94
-410,60
-313,47
-298,06

-4,2824

4
-4,2824
-427,94
-410,60
-313,47
-298,06
5
-4,2824
-427,94
-410,60
-313,47
-298,06
6
0
0
0
0
0
7
2,6157
261,39
250,79
191,47
182,05

8
4,8380
483,46
46387
354,14
336,72

9
2,6157
261,39
250,79
191,47
182,05
11
-3,6183
-361,58
-346,92
-264,86
-251,83
12
2,2423
224,07
214,99
164,14
156,06
14
-0,7474
-74,69
-71,66
-54,71
-52,02

15
-0,7474
-74,69
-71,66
-54,71
-52,02
17
2,2423
224,07
214,99
164,14
156,06
18
-3,6183
-361,58
-346,92
-264,86
-251,83
10
-0,5
-49,97
-47,94
-36,6
-34,8
13
-1,0
-99,93
-95,88
-73,2
-69,6

16
-1,0
-99,93
-95,88
-73,2
-69,6
19
-0,5
-49,97
-47,94
-36,6
-34,8

5. 4.
5. 4. 1.
.

8: N
sd = 483, 46
:
N sd 483, 46 10
A
=
= 5, 04 2 .
sp =
f pd
960
20 6 S1200, A
sp = 5, 66
15.

55

200 25

55

25

200

25

25

45 160 45
250

. 15.

.

.
[1]
.
0.max
,
:
0.max + p k p f pk

0.max p 0.3 f pk
: p = 0, 05 0.max - ,
k p = 0,8 - .
0.max + 0, 05 0.max = 1, 05 0.max 0,8 1200 = 960 ,
0.max 0, 05 0.max = 0,95 0.max 0,3 1200 = 360 .

, 0.max 378 0.max 914 .


0.max = 900 . (
) P0 = 0.max A
.
sp = 900 5, 66 /10 = 509, 4
:
- :

900

Pir = 0, 22 0.max 0,1 0.max A


= 0, 22
0,1900 5, 66 /10 = 33,1
sp

f pk
1200

- :
PT = 1, 0 T A
sp = 1, 0 65 5, 66 /10 = 36,8
: T - (
), .
T= 65 .
- :
l
2,15
PA = Esp A
2 105 5, 66 /10 = 12,8
sp =
l
19000
l
=
19000
:
;
l
= 1, 25 + 0,15 = 1, 25 + 0,15 6 = 2,15
- .
- , :
Pf = 30 A
sp = 30 5, 66 /10 = 17, 0
- , :

A
Pc = sp sp 1 + zcp2 c P0.c
Ic

: sp =

Esp

2 105
= 5,85
34, 2 103

Ecm
A
509, 4
sp = sp =
= 0, 010
Ac 250 200
P0.c ,

P0.c = P0 Pir PT PA P
f = 509, 4 33,1 36,8 12,8 17, 0 = 409, 7

P
c = 5,85 0,010 [ 1 + 0 ] 409,7 = 23,97
,
:
Pm.0 = P0.c P
, :
c = 409, 7 23,97 = 385, 73
P
A0, 75 pk sp = 0, 75 1200 5, 66 /10
= 509, 4
- .
m.0 = 385, 73 f
:
- ,
, :
Pt ( t ) = p.c + s + r Asp ,
p.c + s + r =

cs ( t , to ) E
sp +tt pr + sp

) ( cp + cp.0 )

A
A 2
1 + sp sp 1 + c z
t ( 1t + 0,8 ( , o ) )
cp
Ac
Ic

: p.c + s + r , ,
.
cs ( t , to ) t > 100 .

cs ( 100 ) = cs.d + cs.a = 3,5 104 0,541 104 = 4, 04110 4

cs ,d , ,
.6.3 [1] RH = 60%
4.
cs.d = 5, 0 104 0, 7 = 3,5 104

cs ,a ,
.
cs.a = as cs .a. = 0,865 (6, 25 105 ) = 0,54110 4

as ,

as = 1 exp ( 0, 2 t 0,5 ) = 1 exp ( 0, 2 1000,5 ) = 0,865

cs.a. = 2,5 ( f ck 10 ) 106 = 2,5 ( 35 10 ) 10 6 = 6, 25 10 5 < 0

( t , t0 ) to t = 100 .
. 6.1 [1].
2 Ac
2 250 200
=
= 111,1 ; ( t , to ) = 3, 2 0,7 = 2, 24
h
o =
U
2 250 + 2 200
cp
:
N
336, 72 103
cp = sd =
= 6, 7
Ac
0, 25 0, 2
cp.0
( ):
Pm.0 385, 73 103
cp.0 =
=
= 7, 7
Ac
0, 25 0, 2

pr

,
( 9.2 9.3 [1]
0.max

, 0.max = pg .0 ).
f pk
, ( )
:
P
385, 73 103
pg 0 = mo + cp =
6, 7 106 = 674,8
Asp
5, 66 104
0.max 674,8
=
= 0,56 ,

f pk
1200
, 4,5% , ..:
pr = 0, 045 0.max = 0, 045 900 = 40,5
250 2003
= 16667 4
12
4
5
4, 041 10 2 10 + 40,5 + 5,85 2, 24 ( 6, 7 + 7, 7)
p ,c + s + r =
= 112,9
5, 66 25 20 2
1 + 5,85
1 +
0 ( 1 + 0,8 2, 24 )
25 20 16667

) = 112,9 5, 66 /10 = 63,9


Pt ( t
I
c =

:
Pmt = Pmo Pt ( t
) = 385,73 63,9 = 321,83
:
Pmt 0,65 f pk Asp Pmt P0 100 Asp

P
0, 65
mt = 321,83 f A
P
P
mt = 321,83

pk

A 0 100

sp

sp

= 0,65 1200 5, 66 /10= 441, 48

= 509, 4 103 100 566


= 452,8

,
.
, ,
:
N sd N cr ,
: N sd - ,
;
N cr - , ,
.
N
N
f < A cr =P ctm c + m.t = 3, 2 0, 25 0, 2 103 + 321,83
= 481, 73
sd = 354,14
, .. .

.
.

5. 4. 2.
3 4
N
.
sd = 427,94
= 3000
. (. 14) - l
= 0,9 3000 = 2700
l0 = 0,9 l
.
l
2700
= 15 < 24 ,
= 0 =
h 180
:
N sd N rd = ( f cd Ac + f yd As .tot )
: - ,
:
l0
2 etot
2 etot
= 1,14 1
,
0, 02 1
h
h
h

etot = e0 + ea .
2700
lcol
600 = 600 = 4,5

: e
a = 20
1
180
h
=
= 6, 0
30
30
e
. e
,
a = 20
tot = 0 + 20 = 20
2700
2 20
2 20
= 1,14 1
= 0, 587 1
= 0, 78
0, 02
180
180
180

:
427,94
1 23,3 0, 25 0,18
0,587
A
= 8, 7 2
s .tot =
367

:
5 N sd
5 427,94 103
min =
=
= 0,167%
f yd b d 367 106 0, 25 0,14

27 + 27 + 15
=
= 0,105%
440
440
min > 0,1% min < 0, 25%
As.tot .min = 2 min b h
= 2 0, 00167 0, 25 0,18 = 1,5

min > =

4 12 S400 A
s .tot = 4,52

. 16.

5. 4. 3.

.
12 17,
N
N

sd = 224, 07
sd = 156, 06
.

:
N sd 224, 07 10
2
A
A=
=b 6,11
h
> st .min = 2 min =
2 0, 0021 0,12 0,15 = 0, 76 2
st =
f yd
367
f ctm
3, 2
= 26
= 0, 21% min > 0,13%
: min = 26
f yk
400
2
4 20 S400 A
.
st = 12,56
, :
3
N cr = f ctm A
c = 3, 2 10 0,15 0,12 = 57, 6

N6
< sd =

156,06
N

cr = 57,
.
X1,
.
:
wk = S rm sm
: = 1, 7 - ,
;

Srm = 50 + 0, 25 k1 k2
- , .
eff
2
2

sr s
N cr
sm = s 1 1 2
= 1 1 2

s Es
N sd
-
.
:
k1 - , ,

k1 = 0,8 ;
k2 - , -
, k2 = 1, 0 ;

eff

- :
A
12,56
eff = s =
= 0, 070
Ac.eff
180

Ac.eff - ;
- :
= 2,5 40 = 100
2,5 ( h d ) = 2,5 c
hc.eff = min
/ 2 = 150 / 2 = 75
h
h
, Ac.eff = 2 b h
c .eff = 75
c .eff = 2 12 7,5 = 180

1 = 1, 0 - ;
2 = 0,5 - , .
s - , ,
, ;
sr - , ,
, .
sr
N cr


.
s
N sd
20
S
1, 0
= 107
.
rm = 50 + 0, 25 0,8
0, 070

:
N
156, 06 10
s = sd =
= 124,3
As
12,56

sm =

2
124,3
57, 6
4

1,
0

0,5

= 5,8 10

5
2 10
156, 06

:
w
107 5,8
104 = 0,11 > k .lim = 0
k = 1, 7w

. 17.


.
18 11
N
= 3908 ,
. (. 14) - l
sd = 361,58
= 0,8 3908 = 3126, 4
l0 = 0,8 l
.
l 3126, 4
= 20,84 < 24 ,
= 0 =
h
150
:
N sd N rd = ( f cd Ac + f yd As.tot )
: - ,
:
l0
2 etot
2 etot
= 1,14 1
,
0, 02 1
h
h
h

etot = e0 + ea .

lcol 3126, 4
600 = 600 = 5, 21

: e
a = 20
1
150
h
=
=5
30
30
e
. e
,
a = 20
tot = 0 + 20 = 20
3126, 4
2 20
2 20
= 1,14 1
= 0, 419 1
= 0, 733
0, 02
150
150
150

:
361,58
123,3 0,15 0,12
0, 419
A
= 11,9 2
s .tot =
367

:
5 N sd
5 361,58 103
min =
=
= 0,37%
f yd b d 367 106 0,12 0,11

27 + 27 + 20,84
=
= 0,109%
440
440
> 0,1% min < 0, 25%

min > =
min

As.tot .min = 2 min b h


= 2 0, 0025 0,12 0,15 = 0,9
4 20 S400 A
s .tot = 12,56

. 18.
( 14, 15).
N
sd = 74, 69
= 4036
. l
(. 14),

= 0,8 4036 = 3229


l0 = 0,8 l

l0 3229
=
= 21,53 < 24 ,
b 120
7.1.2.17 [1]:
lcol 3229
600 = 600 = 5,38

: e
a = 20
1
150
h
=
=5
30
30
e
. e
,
a = 20
tot = 0 + 20 = 20
=

3229
2 20
2 20
= 1,14 1
= 0, 405 1
= 0, 733
0, 02
150
150
150

:
74, 69
1 23,3 0,15 0,12
0, 405
A
= 6, 4 2
s .tot =
367

:
5 N sd
5 74, 69 103
min =
=
= 0,12%
f yd b d 367 106 0,12 0,11
27 + 27 + 21,53
min > =
=
= 0,11%
440
440
min > 0,1% min < 0, 25%
As .tot .min = 2 min b h
= 2 0, 0012 0,15 0,12 = 0, 43 2

4 12 S400 A
s .tot = 4,52

4 12 S400 A
s .tot = 4,52

. 19.



,
I II
.


1. 5.03.0102 . .: ,
2003 . 274 .
2. . ,
// .
. .. . .. . - , , 2003 380 ., .
3. 2.01.0785. / . .:
, 1988. - 36 .
4. 2. 1.
/ , 2004 .
5. 1 5.03.0102 .
.: , 2004 . 16 .
6. 3 5.03.0102 .
.: , 2006 . 6 .
7. 4 5.03.0102 .
.: , 2007 . 4 .

3,65

13,57

Mp

3,65

70,61

70,61

37,30

13,57

37,30

. 20.

1,22

4,58
20,53

11,04

Ms

1,22

4,58
20,53

11,04

. 21.

MD

20,81

79,41

29,11

45,32

13,04

7,73

. 22.

MT

15,42

2,65

35,55

6,99

. 23.

MW

3,49

8,77

64,85

58,13

. 24.

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