Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

AIR COMPRESSOR

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Learning Objective: Know the basic design features and functions of various marine auxiliary machinery

Machinery: Air Compressor


Specific Objectives: Recognize the various names and locations of auxiliary machinery found on board Describe the basic operation of the machinery Identify the main parts of the machinery Sketch and label the main parts

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Introduction
Air compressor is a thermal machine used for repeated compression of gas known as atmospheric air to produce high-pressure air.
Air Composition: mainly 23% oxygen and 76% nitrogen by mass (small quantities of other gases such as carbon dioxide, argon, helium, neon and water vapour) A mixture of them will behave as a perfect gas, following Boyle and Charles law. When air is compressed, its temperature and pressure increase as its volume is reduced.
Air Compressor DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB 3

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Uses of Compressed Air


Air compressors of various designs are widely used in numerous applications including the operation of equipment and portable tools. Ship board compressed air usage may divided as follows: Starting operation Control & Instrumentation General Service/ Utilities
Air Compressor DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB 4

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

- High-pressure air 25 to 40 bar for starting and reversing of diesel engines (two or three stage-reciprocating units) - Medium pressure air 7 bar for general service air, deck air pneumatic systems, power positioners, servo mechanisms and air puff soot blowers (single/two stage reciprocating units & rotary units) - Medium/low pressure air 4 and 5 bar Utilitiespneu-press and grinell sprinkler by single/two stage-reciprocating units or by rotary units. - Low-pressure air 2 bar Control & Instrumentation pneumatic control systems by single stage or rotary units
Air Compressor DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB 5

Compressed air is used onboard ship for a number of purposes and at varying pressures depending on that purpose.

Starting operation
(average 25 to 40 Bar)

Starting the compression ignition diesel engine require normally 30 Bar or related with total capacity of the air bottle On generators, starting air system is normally connected to emergency air compressor driven by small engine or manually operated Prior to starting and FWE, engine is blown through with air to remove any condensate or residue in cylinder

Control & Instrumentation


(1.4 to 7 Bar)

Pneumatically controlled instruments for pressure, temperature, level, speed, flow etc., with working pressure in the range of 1.4 to 7 Bar.
The range of pressure is obtained by using a small reducing valve or solenoid valve to supply air at the correct value

General Service
(4 to 7 Bar)
Service air is used for kind of tools (considered as pneumatic tools) which are operated by compressed air (e.g., drilling machine, impact wrenches, hand grinder, lifting gear etc.,) Used on auxiliary or deck machinery operated by compressed air (e.g., Wilden pump, lifeboat davit, de-mucking winches etc.,) Pneumatic wrenches for even tightening of studs Fuel injector testing Water Pressure Test Used for cleaning purposes. Dust cleaning/clearing at narrow spaces where brush and finger tips cannot reach Cleaning any dust from the electrical machinery e.g. alternator, motor etc.,

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Chart of air compressor


AIR COMPRESSOR INTERMITTENT FLOW CONTINUOUS FLOW

Positive Displacement

Dynamic

Ejector

Reciprocating

Rotary

Radial flow

Mixed flow

Axial flow

Mechanical piston

Sliding vane Liquid ring helical screw straight lobe

centrifugal

Mixed flow

Axial

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Classification
Compressors can be classified based on operational principle of compression as follows:
Positive displacement compressors Dynamic compressors

Specially designed compressors used for specific purpose are further defined by:
The number of compression stages Method of cooling (air, water, oil) Drive method (motor, engine, steam, other) How they are lubricated (oil, oil-free) Packaged or custom-built

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

10

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

11

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

12

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

13

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Multi stage compressors


They are used for three reasons:
By cooling between stages the air is kept in a moderate temperature range, By cooling between stages less work is required to compress a given quantity of air to a required pressure (closer to isothermal) Lubrication difficulties minimized (air temperatures low)
Air Compressor DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB 14

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

The capacity of an air compressor is measured by the number of cubic metres of free air discharged per minute (FAD). Air Receivers (Air Bottles) are provided as per Regulations. Safety features include Fusible plugs and Relief valves

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

15

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

The Volumetric Efficiency of an air compressor is measured by the number of cubic metres of free air discharged (FAD) per minute compared with the displacement of the LP piston in cubic metres per minute. Modern air compressors have a Volumetric Efficiency of 80 to 90%.
Air Compressor DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB 16

To Be A World Class Maritime Academy

Summary
Uses of Compressed Air onboard. Compressor Types Operation of Single and Multi-stage Air Compressor Components of Air Compressor Safety features an Air Compressor and Air Reservoir.

Air Compressor

DME/MECC/Marine Engineering Knowledge / Jan 2007 /RB

17