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NEMA Standards Publication No.

SM 23-1991(R1997, R2002) Steam Turbines for Mechanical Drive Service


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Published by:

National Electrical Manufacturers Association


1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1847 Rosslyn, VA 22209

O Copyright 2002 by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. All rights including translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the international and Pan American Copyright Conventions.

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NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER The information in this publication was considered technically sound by the consensus of persons engaged in the development and approval of the document at the time it was developed, Consensus does not necessarily mean that there is unanimous agreement among every person participating in the development of this document. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards and guideline publications, of which the document contained herein is one, are developed through a voluntary consensus standards development process. This process brings together volunteers and/or seeks out the views of persons who have an interest in the topic covered by this publication. While NEMA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not write the document and it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy or completeness of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards and guideline publications. NEMA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, application, or reliance on this document. NEMA disclaims and makes no guaranty or warranty, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and disclaims and makes no warranty that the information in this document will fulfill any of your particular purposes or needs. NEMA does not undertake to guarantee the performance of any individual manufacturer or sellers products or services by virtue of this standard or guide. In publishing and making this document available, NEMA is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any person or entity, nor is NEMA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Information and other standards on the topic covered by this publication may be available from other sources, which the user may wish to consult for additional views or information not covered by this publication. NEMA has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. NEMA does not certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for safety or health purposes. Any certification or other statement of compliance with any health or safety-related information in this document shall not be attributable to NEMA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement.
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NEMA SM 23

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NEMA Standards Publication No. SM 23-1991 (R1997)

Steam Tuhines for Mechanical Dive Service

Published by:
National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite i 847 Rosslyn, VA 22209

Q Copyright 1997 by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association. All rights including translation into other bnguages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the International and Pan American Copyright Conventions.

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~ ~

STQ-NEMA

SM 23-ENGL 1991

6470247 0524297 714

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sectkn 1

sectm2

............................................. .................... ..................................... ........................................... ....................................... .................................... CiassiedbyExhaustcaiditiasis.............................. . N Tiabmc .................................. CoadensingTUrbinc ................................... classified by Number of Stages and C o a m 1Valves .................... SingleValveSingieSEagC'Iirrbint ............................ Single Vaive MuuistegeM i n e ............................. Multi* sil@ stage m i n e ............................ Muitivaive Muitisiage'ixine ............................. C i a s s i d b y ~ N e e d s................................ controlled (Alumtic) Exeraction Turbine ....................... NoncwtrolletiExtractiosi nlrbhw ............................ Noacontrolled Induction 'linbine ............................ CmmUed InQiCtim(Mixdnesslire) M e ..................... InductimExtractionTirrbine .............................. SteamIIiabinecctUl~ts.................................. Turbinecasmg ....................................... SteamInletEndseCtion ................................. ExhaustEI?dstction ................................... Irlemedia&sactiw ................................... Steam Chest (GOV~IIKN vahe Body) ............................ SteamRing ......................................... N o z z l e s ........................................... StatiomyReveEngBladcs ................................ StationaryRevczsingCham~ .............................. Diciphragm ......................................... s w . nlrbirbe ........................................ ImpuIseStage ...................................... ReactianStage ...................................... shaftseals ......................................... casingshaftseals ..................................... Intemagestlaftseals .................................. BearingHousing ...................................... Bearings ........................................... RacaiBcarings ..................................... ThnistBearings ..................................... AntitiCtianBearings ................................... RotorAssembly ....................................... wheels@iscs) ......................................... Biades(Buckets) ........................................ Shroud ............................................. Handvalve@) ......................................... RotectiveDevice ....................................... COnmhgDevi~ ....................................... ExtemalcontrolDevice .................................... WamingDeVice ........................................
SCOPE REFERENCEDSTANDARDS AND DEPlNlONS RefaencedSEancbrrds Definithm CONSTRUCTION 'I)pesofSteamT

F O R E w o m .........................................

PiSc
i
1 1 1

ii

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 4 4
4 4 4

4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5
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5 5 5
5 5 5

5 5 5

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plr

sectlocr2

Sentinel W h g Valve soleplate(s) .......................................... Basephte .........................................


FeatmsandAccessan ?es

...................................

............................. Nonconp.olled InductiaiIlabines ............................. ?IiirbineRating......................................... power ............................................ speed ............................................ R a t e d s p e e d ....................................... Maximum continwuss p e e d .............................. N d Power end Speed and Steam Caiditions ..................... Stcamconditiaas: ...................................... MinimwnSteam(hKiibS ............................... MaximumStcamconditions .............................. MinimumEnergystcamccmditions .......................... Inletsteampressure ................................... ExhaiistSteampressUre .................................
Extraction Steam Rressiire

BasicFeaMesaQd............................... OptiOnalFeaMesandAccessorics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c o n t r o n e d ~ ~ a n d c o n t r o l l ?Itrrbines e d ~ ................. Ncmwntroiled Exach Turbhes

...................................

5 5 6

6
6

6
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8

ExhaustSteamT~ perame
Extiaction SteamTemperatrae L n d p c t i mSteam Tempgatme Maximum Mowable Working PressuresandTeanptmtms

Induction Steam Pressure ................................ Inlet Steam Tempemure ..................................

................................

............................. .......................... Thermodynamic?Iienns .................................... SteamRateS ......................................... TheOretidSteamRate ................................. ActualsteamRates ................................... GuaranteedSteamRate .................................
?Iiirbineconnectiais......................................
Steamcohus AuxiliaryconnectionS LlbiClUb

DualSteamconditions

VauiationsinSteamconditions Flow Limits for an Automatic Exaaction ? M i h e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HowrjmitpforanInductionTurbine Units of Measurement for Absolute and Gauge Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . .

.............................. .............. .................................

............................... ..............................

8 8 8
8

8
8 8 8

8 9
9

9 9 9 9 10 10
10 1 0 1 0 10 10 1 0 10

outputshaftExte~..................................

NonpFessure?lSpeLubncation(Single stage lbbines) oil Lulnicztred sleeve Beanngs (HarizwEalTiirbines) G?ease or oillubricatadAntinictionBearings ..................... pressure?lslpeoilLu~ InProduction Oilnrmpr ........................................ oilReservoir

..................................... ................................... ...........................................

..................

.................

............................... ....................................... ....................................... oilcooler ........................................ OilFdt~zs .........................................

10
11 11 11 11 11 11

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL L99L

b470247 0524299 5 9 7

section2

piping and Instnunentation nwisons for the Esrvin>nment Eaclosufe Exposwe to Nanrral Elements Exposure to Abnonnal Ahnphedic conditioas GeneraiRequiremeats PltsSureandTempemmRanges

Sedkn 3

............................... ................................ .......................................... ............................... ...................... ..................................... ............................. vibration .......................................... Singlestagerbim .................................. M d t i s t a g e r b ~ ................................... clitwspeeds.L................................... NameplateData ....................................... CONTROLS .......................................... GoveaningSystem ....................................... SpeedGOmar ....................................... Multivariable Govexnor ................................... CoatmlMeChanism ..................................... GOvmorconmlled WVe(S) ............................... Servomom System ..................................... E x t e m a l C d D e v i w .................................. Speedcbangetlype ................................... RemoteSetPointQpe .................................. Valve Actuating.................................. s p e e d c h a n g e r ....................................... Speed Govaning System classification ............................ SpeedRange ........................................ M a x i m u m s@Rise .................................... speedvariation ....................................... DeadBand ........................................ stability ......................................... Speed Regulation. Steady State .............................. steamPressurecaritrd .................................... PressureRegUlatingSysea~................................ PressureRegUlatw ..................................... Control MechaniSn ..................................... nessUre Controlled Wves ................................. pressurechanger ...................................... SteadyStatePxess~mRe guuion .............................. PressureReguiatioaiC . ............................ stability ........................................... pressure control perfamilmce ............................... Compensated coatrol System ................................. Electronic Governing System ................................. Basic Features ........................................ Accessones ......................................... Control Primiries ..................................... Control of inuctimo r Extracoon ............................ Missing Signai Detection Featrae ............................ SensorRedundancy ...................................

.
11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18

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ZQ

m m

20 20
20

A)

21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21

...................................... ........................................... Automatic S t a t Controls ...................................


OverSpeeaTnp
Genexal

22 22 22 22

22

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STD.NEMA Sfl 23-ENGL 1991 m b470247 0524300 039

secth4

secSIon5

Sectbn6

sectm7

sectkn8

S h i j l p i D g R e ...................................... ~ Shipneat ............................................ W i t and Storage of Equipmeat .............................. INSTALLAIION In-tion ........................................... SupervisionOfIaseallation

......................................... ......................................... ......................................... Overspeed'LtipSystem ................................... OverspeedScnsingD ................................. n i p speed .......................................... nipvalve .......................................... Combined 'Ltip and IhrottltValve ............................. overspeednipsystemsetting ............................... FACIDRYTESTING ..................................... 'Iiirbine ............................................. HydroTd .......................................... NoLoadRUnmngTesc ................................... SOUNDPESSUREJEVELS ................................ Gtaeral ............................................. swnd3essweLev& ..................................... soSmd~LevelMtasuremcntprocedme ........................ Camction for BacLgrwnd Noise ............................... souadResolution ....................................... Instnuneats........................................... S d A e nd o n ....................................... PRapARATI0NFORS"TANDSTORAGE ....................
PRECTiON BasicFeaues UanUalTrip

p.pc
23 23 23 23

23 2 3

23
23

23 25 25
25

25
27

27 27
28 28

28
29 31 31 31 31 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 36 36

seCtrOn9

........................ ............................... .................................. ................................. .................... .......................................... ........................................... .................................... ...................................... Grwting ............................................ FlushingiiSystem ...................................... OPERATONANDMAINTENANCE ............................
The Piping noblem as Applied to ?brbines FbmsDue to S t e a r n Pressure FbmsDue to Temperatwe FarcesDue to Dead Weight AuowaMe Fces and Moments on Sttam Turbines DrainPiping Iak-ofli Fuil-FiowReii &Device CoUptingAlignmcnt

....................................... ................................... ........................................... Fouudation ......................................... steam Inlet and Exhaust Piping ............................... Cieamngof~SteamPiping ............................. SteamPipingSystems ..................................... I n e t i o n .........................................

3 6 36 38 40
41 42 42 42 44 44 44 51 51 51 51 51 51 51

In-tim

operatioa ............................................ Noncondensin ' g 'hbine opetatiano f aMultisragecondensia . g'Ihrbine .......... 'I)pical SEertmg Seqaence fima Steam nirbine ........................
Maintlmance Intluduction

..........................................
.........................................

..........................................

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S T D m N E U A SU 23-ENGL 1991

6470247 0524303 T75

SeCtknS
Sacth10

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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pige

UitemalWaterWashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . steamhinty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INQUIRYGUIDE.. .....................................

52 52 67

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S T D * N E M A SU 23-ENGL L99L

9 6470247 052430il 7 D l W

Foreword
Ilhis standard has been developed by the Steam "wbiine Section of NEMA. In its preparation andrevision,considaationbas been given to the work of other organizations. such as the American National Standards institute, the American Peuoleum institute, the AmericanBoiler Manufacturas Association, and the Amencan . SoCiety of Mechanical Engineers, striving toward the deveiopment ofstandards,anddtishaebygiventoaii whosesiandardsmayhavebeenh~~inthepreparatian of this publication. nK purpose of this standard f a singie stage and multistagemechanid drive steam turbines is to faciiitate the appiication of the.se turbines by engineers, users, aad conuactas, t o promote ecwomieS m driving rotalhg mechanical equipment, and to assist in the proper seiection and app~ofthedifferingmechantcal designs of turbines. NEMA Standards P u b l i a SM 23-1991revises and SupeISedes the NEMA StandardsPubliCation Steam Turbinesfor Me~hanical z)rive S e M e , SM 23-1985. User needs have been considertd throughout the development of this standard. Proposed M r e c o m m m d e drevisions should be submitted t o :
Vice Resident,E n g i n e e r i n g Depamnent NationalEiecaicalManufacturersAssociation 2101 L S l E a Nw, suite 300 Washnigton,DC 20037 (202)457-8400

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S T D - N E M A SU 23-ENGL L99L

b 4 7 0 2 4 7 0524303 848

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ii

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 2992

6470247 0524304 784

Section 1 REFERENCEDSTANDARDS AND DEFINITIONS

AmtriamNationolStandandsInstitute
1430Broadway NewYork,NY 10018 S1.4-1983 s1.11-1%
ANSUASME B1 6 . 1 1 9 8 9 B16.5-1988 B 1 . 2 0 . 1 1 9 8 3 B31.1-1989
Spcjficprionfor Soundikwl Meters Spe@hations for Octave-Bad, Fractional Octaw-Band Anolog Md

DgM Fms

J h t Ililrinnfactprors Association 25 North Broadway -,NY 1 0 5 9 1

Can Iron Pipe Flanges mid Flanged Fttings,Class25,125,250a n W piPC F b g e s and Flrurged F&gs General Purpose Pipe ThrecuFr (Inch) PowcrPpng

The S t a d a d sf the IIqmsion Jont Matu#actmrs AssocirrtiOn (1980) (198s Addendum).


Riuiont-An -t deviarian in SM caiceaoicityiodicattdbytheoatputofaprmimityprobc whichisduetovariatiaas in the electricalcondllctivjty
magnetiCpopertiesOfthtobsavedshaftsraface.

EntrrippedEwrgy-'Ibe~whichcemainsintk

volume of steam bappad betweem the turbine and a trip valve u r notmew Valve. FhibleShriPt-Ashaftwhichisintendedfmapera0ioa
atspeedsgreaterthanthe firstlateral c r i h i speed. Hmting-Te oscillationof speed o r other c011PD)led pamnmx above and b e l o w the mean vaiue. An MsEable

coaditioll.
Hydno --A test fm leairs and mtegrity 0fthepn~smecontainingcompentsofthe turbinebypressip1pag with water. ntemaiWaterW~g-Aproceduremwhichsteam having a high percentage of moisture is hjecte into the tuhine forthepinpose of removhg water soiuble &posits from the tirrbine blades and aozzles.

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STDmNEMA SM 23-ENGL 1991 W b 4 7 0 2 4 7 O524305 bLO


SM 23-1991 Page 2
Laterpl C r i h l Speeds-The speeds at Which the ~ITIplitude of die iaterai vibration o f a machine rotar due t o shaft rotation I.each their maximum due. Proximity Probe-A non-contacting device which eiecronidy measures the position o r displacement motion of an obsexve surface relative t o the probe position. Purge A i r 4 method of seaihg in which air (or ineat gas) is b i d into the seal ar housing to maintain a slight positivep.essrireandthuspreventtheentranceofcoaruuninants.

criticalspeed.
Therm0coupl-A &vice for Sensing temperatures in which a pair of dissimilar conductors are pined at two pints so that an electromotive force is developed by thermoeiectric effects when the junctions are at merent
temperature.
NEMAStandard 130-91.

ResiSEnace lkmperaure Detector (RTD)-A device f o rd g temperature in which the ewhicai resistance of tbe &vice changes with mperaiure. Respoase The-'ib time required to m v e r to the d y suue operatingvalue afterasudden change in bad. Service Factor-he factor by which the maximum power capability of a device exceeds its rated m.

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SpeeiTied Conditions-Specified conditiolls are aU customer d e f d power, speed and steam conditions at which the turbine must operate. Steam liirbine-A prime mover which converts the thermal energy of steam directly into mechanical energy of d o n . S t i f fShaft-A shaft which will not be operated during n o d circumstancesat speedsgreaterthan the nrst l a r e r a l

STD*NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1991

b470247 0524306 5 5 7

SM 23-1991

Page 3

Section 2 CONSTRUCTION
2 1 TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES

2.1.1

clsssified by Exhaust conditkns

2.1.1 .I NO"DPISING TURBINE A noncondengng turbine is a steam turbinedesigned to aperate with an exhaust steam pressureequal to ur greatex tbanatmospkricpressure. NEMA11-13-1969. 21.12 CONDENSING TURBINE Amturbine is a sream W i n e designed to
operatewithanexhauststeampressurebelowamia6p~c

2.1 3.2 N O " T R 0 U D EXTRACTlN TURBYSE A nonconmiied exnaction turbine is a steam trrranC which has an opening(s) in the turbine casing for thc extraction of steam but which does not have means f a cantrollingthe presswe o f the extracted steam.
NEMA SIPndard 6-21-1979.

2.1.3.3 NO"TR0LLED N ITuRBWE A I1oI1contTdled mduction turbine is a steam Mbine whichhas an opening(s) in the airbinecasingfainductioa of steam but which does not have means for CQltlDUiilie the pressureof the inducted steam. NEMA S W d d 11-14-1W.
m D INWCTION

P=-=

NEMAStandard 1-30-91. 2.1 6 4

(m

2 1 2 CWslfedbyNunberofStegesand Clwvahrea
STAGE TURBINE 2.1 2.1 SINGLE VALVE -LE A singie valve single stage turbine is a steam airbine w h i c h has one govmor conmiled valve and one stage.

2.1 2.2 SINGLEVALVEMULTISTAGE T U R B I N E A single valve multistage turbine is a steam trirbine w h i c h has one govmorconaoued valve and two or more
stagts,

NEMA6-21-1979.

P R E S S U R E )m B W E A controlled induction (mixed pressiire) turbine i sa steam turbine which is povided with sepirate inlccs far steam at two pressures and has an automatic device f a conb.olling the f l o w of steam to the turbine stages following the induction opening. NEMA stendprd 6-21-1979. 2.1.3.5 INDUCTION EXTRACT" T U R B I N E An induction exmtion Mbinc is one which combincs t h e fatum of extraction (controlled ar nanconmikd) with the featuresof induction. NEMA standerd 6-21-19B. 2.2 STEAM TURBINE COMPNENTS 2 2 1 nirblnecaslng A turine casing is the e n c l o m which sumomis tbc rotating element of the turbine and supports the s t a t i m steamparts.CasingsshallbeaxiallysplitJadiauysplifa a combination thereof. he turbine casing W be divideaintotwourmon sections as follows: NEMA Standard 6-21-19B. 2.2.1.1 S T E A M INLR ENDSECTION T h e steam inletend section is that portion o f the riffpinn which containsthe higher pressure steam. NEMAStandard 6-21-197W. 2.2.1.2 EXHAUST ENDSECTION The exhaust end section is that partion of the cssing which contains the exhaust connection and the steam at exhaust conditions.It sha also contain the l o w pressnn stage(s) of a multistage turbine. NEMA Standard 6-12-1979.

NEMASEendard 6-21-1979.

2.1 9.3 MULTIVALVE SINGLE STAGE TURBINE A mdtidve A g i e stage turbine, i s a steam turbine wbich has two or m a t governorcontmkdvaives and one
stage.

NEMA spnd9id 6-21-1979.

2.1 9.4 YULTIVALVE MuLTWTAOETURBPIE Amuitivaive muitistageturbine is asteamuxbine which has two ar more governar Caimlled valves and two OT -stages215 C ~ b y P F o c e s S N e e b s
2.1 3.1

NEMAStandard6-21-1979.

m
T U R B I N E

D ( A W W A C ) EXTRACTION

A controlled (automatic) extraction turbine is a steam turbme w h i c h has an opening(s) in the turbme casing for the extraction of steam and which is provided with means far directly reguiacing the flow of steam t o the turbine
stages following the extraction opening for the purpose of

mmiiingextraction pressure.

NEMAStandaid 6-21-1979.

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL L99L
SM 23-1991 page4

H 6470247 0524307 493

2.2.8.1.1 Aptsure impulse ur Rateau stage coLIsi8t8 d smionmy expnshx~ nozze(s) and one row o f rotatiag bkides. 2.2.8.1.2 A velocity-compoanded impuise o r Curtis stageconsistsofstationaryexpansionnozzle(s)Imdtwoa more rows of rotating blades. 2.2.8.13 A v e l o c i t y ~ p u n i d e d i m p u i s e ~ ~ s i a g e umsists of Srationary expansion nozzie(s), am?IOW at

rotatiogbladesandoneormorereversingchambas.
TbepressmdropacrossaRateanstageisreiativelybw inwmpoaisontothepssmdmpacmsaCmtis~.
Authorized E n g W n g l t l h n a h6-21-1070.

2.2.8.2 R ~ C T I OSTAGE N A reaction stage consists of stationary expanSion


nozzie(s)discharginghighvelocitysteamjetsaitherotat-

ingblades.Apressuredropoccursinboththesiatioaary and rotatingelements.


NEMAStandard-21-107B.

229 shaftseals

NEMAStandard6-21-1979.
INTERSTAQE S H A F TS E A L S

Interstage shaft s e a l s minimize the leakage of steam h g the shaft between stages m amuitisfage m r b h
NEMAStandaid6-21-1979.

2.2.10 Beerlngtlouslng Abearing housing Coataias andsupputs abeariagfs)

andisequippedwithseaistopreventlccageofdaodttie entnince of m o h , dust,and foreign matmi&.


N E M A 6-21-1970.

2.2.11 mtln(Y 2.2.11.1 RADIAL BURINOS Raclialbearingsarebearings Which s u p p a r t t b e ~

elementinhorimtalshaftbirbines.Iheyareofihtsl~~, tilting pord m a n t i f r i c t i o n type. In verticat tmbrnes,these bearings tnri;sllv positiOn the mtar assembly.
NEMAStandrurl6-21-1970.

2.2.11 9 T H R W BEARINGS

Thrust bearings rn m g s which trammitthe a x i d thrust of the rotatllig dement t o the beaping bousmg and maintain the axial position of the mux assenibly m the

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2.28.1 CASING SHAFT SEALS Casingshaftsealsminimizetheleakageofsteamoutof uie casing dong tbe shaft. For condensing turbines, seals are arranged t o jxemt rhe entnuiceof airinto the casingdong the ShaR *yare aaraaged fur the admifipimi of steam a t a canstant low pressmcand low m p e r a l m e .

STD-NEMA

SM Z3-ENGL

I99L

W b470247 0524308 32T

m
SM 23-1991 Page 5

casing. They m of the antifrictm, laad, ar scgmeniai tutuigpadtypt.


NEMASWdaid6-21-1939.

2.2.113 ANTFRICTION BURIN08

2.2.18 ConadllngDeVice Acoatrolliagdevice is OM which manidly icaliy initiates action of a system which caaerols a(MnB1 apaationofthetiirame.
N E M A 11-13-1968.

Antiictim bearings stmuid have a minimum rating l i f e of3 yearsa25 o0Ohoursw h e n a p e r a t e d ~ ~ a t 2219 ExtemalcontrdDwlce maxgnumtblUStdradislloadsaodat~speed. An extanal control devi is an element which is EAuthorized Engheeiing Inkrmillion 6-21-1979. sponsive to signais other than turbine spaad, ie., flow, The rating life is tbe number of houisatcunstant speed presswe, -,and soforth,dacis toconirol the tbat9perctntofagroupofidcnticalbearhgswiiiopcratc fbw o f steam t o the turbiDe. shalt be pnemwid Y* befcxe the fitaevie-nce of fatigue devebps. mecbanidy, hydraulically.or electricany actuated fiom kthomed E n g i i n g Inbnnaakn 6-21-1979. the signal sollfcc to position the governor vaive@). (Ref2.2.12 RotorA88etnbly mm Section 3.1.6.) NEMAStandard 6-21-19'19. "be r ~ oassembly t is the rotlltingelemnt of the turbine

whichinclubesaipartsattachedtotheshaft,excludiugthc caipling(S) unless coupling i s integral Witb the shaft.


N E M A 621-1979.

2.2.13 W h 0 d s m ) wheels arediscs which are inmgrai witb,orxcdto, the ~ieshaftandoawhichbladesaremounted,orinwwhich

2220 WamlngDeVlce A warning de* is one w h i c h ,by v i s i l eo r auiblc means, or both, indicates that an abnomai apefatingumditionexiscs,
NEMAStandard6-21-1879.

bladesorbuclrmsaremachined.

N E M A -

6-21-1979.

2.2.21 Sentlnel Wamlng Valve A sentiael waming valve is a pressure warning device whichopenswhaithesteampressurerisestoapredetermined1eveLThedeVicesha dischge tothe atmosphere andshallbesolocatedasto be plainly visible& For condcaskig tl&K%% it shall be set a t 5 psig 135 kFa(gauge)]. For noocondensing m n ie s the minimm seing shall beeither 10 percent o r 10psi (OLpa) above maximnm exhaust steam pftssuR, Whichever is greater.
NEMA standard 6-21-1979.

A sentinci warning vaive is not recoaimended for the

following applications: a i n e s which u t m d volatile gase^ locatiais where the discbarge of steam to the am+

2.2.16 H a n d W 0 ( S ) A hand vaive@) i s the valve which isalates steam flow to a gmup afnozzle(s) to pennit e&cient apetriton a t

- Mbineswhicbareanangedforauiomaticworunatm d e dstart-up

sphaeisobjcctionable,hamdousorpmhibkdbyhw

redmtdpowerawithdualsteamconditionsHaudvalvalves can be either manuaily condied or arbomated and are used on singie valve turines oniy.
NEMA SiaKliUd6-21-1979.

hir these applicaliom, an alteniate wanimg device optionaitrip device is iecommended.


Authorued Enginwing Information 1-91.

2217 PmtecthreDeVice Apotective device is one which, alone oras p?* Qf a sy9iem,respondsinsomepredetemiinedmannerto,~sormalconditionsaoendllig theopewtion ofthe unitorsystem towhichit is connected.
NEMA Standard6-21-1979.

2.222 s o w w s ) A soleplate(s) is a machined fiat steel piate(s) o r casting(~)for mounting o f the equipment supports and far biting and grouting to the foundatiar.
NEMAStandard 11-13-1689.

2 . 2 2 3 mapiate Abaseplate is a fabricated of cast continuwsstructure havingmachinedpads for mountingof the equipment and for bolting and grouting t o the foundation.
NEMASQndard 11-13-lQ69.

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S T D -NEMA Sfl 23-ENGL

m 6470247 05243q 266

2.3 FEATURESANDACCESSORIES

9. Insulation for the high tempemm section of tht Wine to limit exposed siirfaoe temperatme to 16pF (74OC) or other tempemture specified by the
10. Steampresswegaugestoindi~inletsteam,~

. P

Ionment.
15. Supemhry instniments to m o n i t o r such a s vibration, axial shaft movement,tempemtms, etc. 16. Shaftgroundingdevicetocarrytogromdanysatic charge which might be developed on the hirane romandwhichmayotherwisebuildtoLevelswhich ddamageturbhcbearings. 17. Rotor turning gear togeUier with driving maus, engagement and isengagementfeaiures, and lube oil pressure interlocks to permit s l o w turning of the

18. AlbusSm trip valve which provides a means far quick and positive shutof of admjssion stcam f a emegencY tnppuig. 19. Nonretuni valve(s) for blocking ihe revme flow of steamfkom~intotheturbmethrough~ orextractioaopenings. 20. Redmiantoverspeedtrip. 21. Exhaustreliefvalveornrptriredisctopre~over piessrning of the exhaust end section (see S e c t i m
8.7).

mtorsystemonstatt-upandsbutdown. ..

22. Vacuumbreakertoadmitairiatotheexhau9tam nections d a condensing turbiue in cmk t o reduce


coastdowntime. Additbd items may be availsble.
Authorized E n g i i t q ~ infamaiion 1 1 .

2 s ControlledEXttadknandmled
k r d u d k n m r b l n e s Conwlle exmaion, ccmtrolled indoction, and ummlled induction exmction turb8nes &ail include basic

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ring, nrststage,dexhauststenimpressure. 11. Coupling between the turine and driven machine (normaiiy fumhhed by the m8nufacturea of the dnven equipment). 12. coiipling guard SuppOIted frwi tbe baseglate oc adjacent bealing housmg(s). Tbe couplmg guard shouldbecasilyremovableandbe~ientlyrigid to withsiand deflection and plevent rubbing as a resuuofnamalt!odilycaitsctbypersonnel.Wbco continuauslylubaicatedcouplragsare~the coupiing guard housing should be fitted so that oil leaks will b e p m t e d . 13. GlandleakageevacUatingappIiratuswhendiegland casngdesignrequiresitsuse. 14. Tachometer of the vibaatuig mai, machanical, a r e~type;iodicatiagspeedsfroniabovethcip speed to M o w the minimum aperatiag speed. Thchometers shall be suitale for the specifmed eavi-

SM 23-1991 page 7

features W i n items 1 thrwgh 6ofU.1, together Witti those lisied in 23.3.1 through 23.3.4.
2.33.1 Controlled extraction turbhm shall bave apre+ 8utt regdath8 SySteB for mtroiiing mt p s s m of the extracted ste9m by regulaiing the fbwo f steam to the turbine stages fallowing the extracth opening(s). Anonreturn valve br the extraction apallng(s), which is also actpated by the ovaspetd tip s y s t e m . is nquind far installationintheexoactimsteamline(s).

242 speed
2.4.2.1 RATED SPW Ratcdspeedisthespeedcanesponduig * toratedpowa. It is measiaed at the output shaft of the turbw, is expressed in rievdutioas per minute, and is quai t o M less than m8ximm~ u o u speed. s NEMA standprd 6-21-1979.

2.3.3.2 controlled mduction turbines Shan imve apesme regdating sysrem for cantrolling tticpm5urcof the imjucth steam toregulate t h e b w ofsteam tothe turbine

2.4.2.2 W u u Com~uous SPEED M a x m iu m conhinuous speed is the highest specifiad speed at whicb a turbine can be operatcd continwusly pwidedproperovaspeed~goverwr- a r e

iastalledand operatianal.
corabns

stagesfoiowingthein&ctionopening.Atripvaivewbi& isalsoactuatedby theoverspeedmpsystemisnquired fnrinstallaaon . intheinductionsttamk.


N E M A 190-1991.

2 ~ 3 NomralPower,SpeedandSteam h J power, and cooditionsaretbost caiditionsfwadmd~aadatwbichrhesteam ratcwillbeguafan~


N E M A 6-21-1979.

233.3 Dependmg on the source of induction steam, the usashould consider the need for a steam ssainer in t i i s h e to protect the loweapressure stages of me turbine.
2.3.3.4

N E M A -

621-1979.

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AumaiEed Engineering Infornietion 11-14-1985.

U A S~Conditlons
2.4.4.1 WNuW S T WC t d m M n im iu m steam ~ t i ~ a thelowest r e i n l e t stcam pressure and tempemm and lowestexhaustprcssm t o which theturbineissubjectedincontinuwSopaatiOa. NEMA stadard 6-21-1979.
2.4.4.2 M A # ~ ~ ~ ~ T E A ~ ~ ~ N ~ T K I N ~ Maximum steam CDnditiOIls am thehighest inlet steam pitssrrre and imperature and exhausspIesllm to Whicb the tiirbmeis subjectedincaltinuousopaation.
N E M A 621-1979.

Controlled extraction turbines and controlledinduction turbines shall have a multivariablem i m l system which provibes interconnectiOn die pressiut rCguiatingsystemaadthespeedgovemingsystem.

2.335 conarouedinductim ~rtractioa trabinesshall inchdethecombinationofthefcxegoingitems.


N E M A 11-14-1085.

23A ~ ~ E x t r a c t b n T i a M n e r N o n c c m m i i e d e x t n i c t i o n t u r b i n e s s b a l l i n c l u d e t b b a s c

feaaacsiistedinitemsl througIi60f2~.1,togctfrtr~ith mwisecmnvatve(s)far theextractionopening(s). 'he quan2.4.4.3 Wuuu E N m v Smw tity and lomion of nomearni valves are tobedetermhl MniInm~geamconditi.Mlsiuetbe~inltt bythetrirbincman~basedonentrappedaiergy steam presswe and t e m m and the highest CxImust ~redimdaacypolicy. pmsm at which the turbine i s requucd to produ a NEMAStandard 130-1991. specinedpower~speed 2.3.5 N ~ l l e d k i $ u k n n i i b l I l @ S 2.4.4.4 hLET STEAM PRESSRE N o a i c o n m I I e dinduction turbines sha inchidethe basic uiietsteampressiireis the pressureof the steam supplied feahaeslistBdinitnS1 tl1rough6of23.1,togetheswirb t o t k tUrbii.Jtis mwredat the $tcf3minlet conncctim a trip vaive@)for the induction opening(s). of the airbine and is e x m a s a gauge piessure.
N E M A 11-14-1985.

NEMAStandard6-21-1979.

2 . 4 TURBINE RATING
2A.i

Power
NEMA Standard 6-21-1979.

Rated power is the maximum specifiedpower output o f the~ine.Itismeasuredattheoutpitshaftofthearrbine.

2.4A.5 EXHAUST STEAM PRESSURE Exhaust steam pressure is the pressure of the steam system to w h i c h the turbine exhausts. It is measured at the exhaust connection of the turbine and is expressed as a

gauge pressure far -n ' airbineSandasanabsolute pressrrre for condensing tuhines.


NEMAStandard6-21-1979.

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STD.NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1971 D b470247 0524311 9L4

2.4.4.6 ExtRAcT#))JSTEAM PRESSURE Extraction steam p m s m is the pressine of the steam extractedfrom the turbine. it is measuredat theextraction wnnecticm of the turbine, and is expressedas a gauge

2.4.4.13 DUAL Srrrun CNMl"S Dual steam conditiansare two ofmmcombin8tons of iniet steam pressme, inlet steam tempenitine, o r exhaust -pressure.
NEMAStandard6-21-1979.

P===

NEMA-6-21-1979.

2.4.4.7 hwCnON STEAM PRESSURE Inductionsteam~isthepIessureofthesecoadary steam supplied to the W i n e .it i s measureatthe inductionconnectian of thetrirbineandis expressedasagauge
p#rsiae.
NEMASEandaid6-21-1979.

2.4.4.14 VARIAl"S IN STEAM CCXJITlONS The Iatng, capability, steam flow, speed r e , and pressme control shall be basedon operation at maximum stcam unutions as defined m 2.4.42. Steam Mbiaes shall be capable of operating under the followingvariatioasininletpressureandm~but pe?f~shallnotnecessar * y i lbem accardance with

2.4.4.8 INLET STEAM TEMPERATURE conditions.continuousopetatiaiatotherthanmaximum Inlet steam tempeniture is the total teInof the steam conditioI1s sha require review by the turbiw mansteam supplied to the turbine. It is nreasiireda t thesteam ufacturer. inletcmnectionoftheturbineandisex~inde~ NEMAStandard6-21-1979. Fatireobeit~indegrces C e W . NEMAStandard6-21-1979. 2.4.4.14.1 VARUTKJNS FROU hhXUuUINLET STEAM

thestandaadsestab~foroperatmgatmaximumsteam

2.4.4.9 EXHAUST STEAM T E M P E R A T U R E luhapststeam temperameis the totai t e m m of the steam cxhartpted from the tinrbine. It is r n d at the cxhailst CoMectiOn o f the tuxbine and is expresd m degrees Fahrenheit or in degrees Celsius.
NEMAStanderd6-21-1979.

PRESSURE

The turbine shali be capable of operating without damageat less than the guaranteedsteam flow tothe Mbine with average Wet pressure of 105 percent of maximum idet steam pressure. (This pemisible variation recognizesthe~inpressurewith~insteamflOW

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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2.4.4.10 W R A C l " STEAM T E M P E R A T U R E Exaaction steam temperatureisthetotalteInperatureof the steam extracte from the turbine. It is measuredat the exixmirn connection of the tintiineandis eJtpressedin egreesFahrenheit o r m degrees Celsius.
NEMASEendaid6-21-1979.

encountered in operahion.) The inlet steam pxsure shall average not more than
maximum pressiire over any 12 month opedug period, Theinlttsteamprwsureshailnotexceed110perccmd maximumpressurein maintainingtheseaverages,e;xcept during a b d COilClitioI1S. During abmnmal c o s i d i t i m ,the steam paessare at the tiirbineinletconnection - shallbepermitredtoexdmaxh u m pressure briefly by as much as 2pesent, buthe aggre@e drnation of such swings beyond 1M percent of maximumpssure shallnotexceed 12hwrsper 12mondi operatingpenod.
N E M A 6-21-19m.

244.11 1NDUCTK))II STEAM TENPERATURE Uiductioosteamtempenimreisthetotalm~of t h e ~ s t e a l n ~ W t o t Itislmasmtd h e ~ a t the iiiductionconnectimof die turbine and is expressed in d e Fahrenheitorin Celsius.
NEMASEandaid-21-1979.

2.4.4.14.2 VARIATIONS FROU WXiNUM INLET STHM


mPERAlURE

Theinietsteamtempeniturestaveragenotmorethan maximum tempexatme over any 12 month operatmg p e riod. In maintaining this average, the tempemm shall n o t exceedmaximum tempemureby nme than 1fl(8oc) exceptduringabnnmalcoaditions.Duringabaonnalcooditions, the tempcratiae shall not exceed maximum ternperature by m m dian m ( 1 4 O c ) fwojmathgperiods

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S T D - N E M A SI 23-ENGL L77L

H 6470247 0524312 850

SM 23-1991 page9

h2-theenthalpyofsteamatwrhaustsLeam paeasiiredinitialenaopy. NEMA s&idard -21-197Q.


2.5.1.2 AcniAL STEAM R A 26.1.2.1 TURBINE

-TE rbinesmunrateisthequaatityofrmctsteamnqairad by the tlirbioe per miit of power outpit, lneasmdattbt ouiputshaftofthe tmbme. I tisd y-e i npounds ofsteamperhorstpower-hour(orinkilogremsasteem pa kilowatt-hour).
2.51 -2.2 TURBINE GEAR STEAM WlE

Whenagearisprovidedytheturbineman~,tht
turbine gear steam rate is the quantity o f inlet weam required by the turbine gear set per unit of power outpiit, measured at the output shaft of the! gear. It is &y

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STDeNEMA SM 23-ENGL 3993

M b470247 0524333 797

SM 23-1991
Page 10
eqxessed mpoundsof steam pet harsepower-hour (or in kil~0fsteampexkilowa#-hour.
NEMAStendard-21-1979.

intenial taper threads conforming to ANSI/ASME B 1.20.1-1983.


NEMAStandard 11-14-1@8!5.

2.5.1.3 GUARANTEED STEAM RATE' Theguarauteed steam rate is thesteam rate which will not be exceeded When the turbine isoperaredat w)rmal power, speed. and steam condkions.
NEMAStenderd6-21-1979.

26.3

ArorlllaryConneUtons

ANSVASME B120.1-1983. W y , these are a d ring prtssure gauge - , drain C o NEMA-

AuxiliarycotlIlectiomthataredireadedshallconf~to e
fat

2.6 TURM"CO"ECTK)NS u 1 o u t p u t s h a f f ~

casingandsteamchest,casingsealingglandsandbeariqg h~~,cooling~,valve~l~~,and~fforih
11-14-1086.

2.7 LUBRICATKIN 2.7.1 2.7.1.1

26.1.1 Omput shaft cxtensionS shall be Spatable for a cyimdrical coupling bore and provided with a keyway(& tapaed ooupling bom with a keyway(s), tapered for a hydraulic ft, or ntted with an hie!@coupling hub.
N E M A W 11-14-1985.

NipressueTypekibrcation(Singie
ste(leWW)

2.6.1 2 When a tapered shaft extension with keyway(s) is specied,the taper, wupiing hub, andmupiingnut sha be in accardancewirb Figure 2-1. NEMA taper diameteSS areavailablefarshaflextenshsfrwi2 inches m 5 inches.
NEMA11-14-1985.

2.6.1.3 if cyhdrical shaft Cxtension is specfied, it is ncommendedthat the cwpling-to-shaftfit be an inmfer-

ence fit
N E M A 11-14-1985.

OIL LUBRlCATESLEEVE BWNS (tiomzomL~~meB) a LU~~WOII Should be prended by oil l h ~Similar means. b . Beating housings should be large enough to peanit solidsor water m d e to the bottarn and should haw a dtain connection at the lowest point, o i l fiil fittings, and an oil level indicam. g ne^C. . F ~ i l i h f o r c d i nshouldbeprovided~hcn essary to assure the proper oil temperahrre. nie cooling water should be supplied a t a temperame not exceeding 9 0 % ( 3 2 O c ) . GREASE OR OIL LLJBUCAE A N i F H C "
BEAWNGS

26.1.4 When a hydraulic fit coupling is s p e c i f i e d ,the mountiug method should be reviewed with the turbine lnallllfimmr.
NEMAStandard 11-14-1985.

2.7.1.2

2.6.1.5 Recommended use o f one and two keys and keyways is as shown in Tbble 2-1.
Authid Enginwring Intomiobon * 11-14-1986.

SteamComecUons 'Iiirbmeflangedsteam Connections shallbe facedand drilled for bolting to flanges w h i c h arem accordancewith ANSUASME B16.1 o r B16.5. CastiNnlflaagecOM~nsshallbeflatfaced The thicknessof cast iron exhaust flanged connections under 1 0 m c h e s ( 2 s o m m ) i n d ~ b e n o t l e s s m Class 25 o f ANSUASME B 16.1. Singie vaive single stage hariuwall Ysplitcasinganbines shall have steam cannectionsm the bwexhaifdthe trnbiae. connections for making up topipenot0ver2 inches in diametex (So m m nominal diamtter) shall have

2 & 2

Gmse-lubricated autifriction bearings should be regreaseable ~ die I Ikid. Grease fittings should extendtotheoutsideoftheniachiaetopermitregreasingduringopemion. Means should be provided far venting grease lutNicated bearings to pment the buildup of pnssure within the housing. Facitiesforcoolingshouldbeprovidedwbennecessary to assure the proper lubricant tempemme. The cooling water shouid be suppiied at a temperature not exceeding 909: (32Oc).
27.2

Pressum tLpe Oil Lubrlcatii

2.7.2.1 ~ O D U C T I N It is recognized that there is awidevariation in turbine Szesandapplicaths which makes it impracticai t o have one recommended lubrication systcm ckign. However,

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STD.NEMA

SM 2 3 - E N G L 1991 H 6470247 0 5 2 4 3 1 4 623

SM 23-1991
Page 11

the foilowingdiouidservewagenaal design guide tothe


oeafur~hisraquirements.

total cooling loadandshouidbearrangedandventedf? maintaining eitha cooler with the Wire in ojmation.

27292

OILPWPS

2 . 7 . 2 . 5

OIL FILTER(S)

Single or twin oil tilters may be used. Afiltafs) shoptd 2 7 2 . 2 . 1 A main o i l pump drive^ from the turbine shaft be capable of nmving panicles iarger than 25 micmns. ar a seperately driven pump to provi& oil for lubrication When the film is clean, the pmsurc drop sbould not aadgovemingshouldbepm4de.d. exceed5 Pgi (35 kPa)atdesign t a n m a a d flow. Tiviu flters should be piped i n paraiicl witha c o n fkw 272.2.2 Anauxiliaryoilpumpforuseduringthc starttransfervalve t o permit the transfa of oil fiom 011c filta u p ? s h p t - Q w n p e M d s h w l d b e ~ w h e n r e q ~ t o t h e o c h a w i t b u' tg~ the oil flow. Each nUa by bic design ? whan qecihd. niiS pump should be should be sized fm the total oil flow end sbaild bc Upowaedbyadiffemismceofeaagythanthemainoil ranged aad vented for lminmining uthu filtawirh tbe pimp.AprrssurtsensingdeviceshouMbeprovidedfcx tiirbineinoperation.Acommontrsasfavalvemaybt~ aptomatically sfming the ruailiary oil pump when the oil fortheoilflteIsaQdcoolas.m?l~cartridgeshouldbe pmsmeintbcmainsystemdmpsbebwapredetermined camsion nesisauu. Filter cases should be suitable for v a l m opaationatapressurenotlesstbanthcreiidvahn~ For a Mbinedriven auxiliary oil pump, the turbine oftbepmitivedispiacementoilpumpsoratthemaximum 8bOdd d m to all of the @pli* pvisim of diese shut off discharge pressiire of cenhifugal oil pump.
sltmd&L

272.3 OILRESERVOIR A samate ail ~ ~ S U V O ~ should T have

2 . 7 . 2 . 6 RPNAND INSTRWEWTAT" 2 . 7 . 2 . 6 . 1 Pressure sensitive devices sboahl be prwidad forea&prtssurclevel(forwrampie,oii h&tokarings, discharge 6rom oil pumps, befase and afta flta(s) and c ~ n h oil). ~ l Means should be pwidad fm BII ai-liee
main~asappropriaie.
Authorired Engineering Inforniafion l l l C l O B s .

a
c .
d
t .

f .
2.7204 oLcoolar(s) The oii coola should be capable of maimhhg the empuame oftbc oil supplied to the bcaringsatamaximimi d 120F (49oc), with a maximum woling water tmrpaaaarcmx excealhg 90F (32OC). It should have a f w l i n g f C ~ o f O .on ~ lthe wataside fopcoaliag towel water an afouling faaor asncommendcdby the manu-

2 . 7 . 2 . 6 . 2 if bearing mctal thenwconples ot #Il)s arc not pvic, tben thamometers should be povidad for oilwtlet fromcachbesring housing.Tbemiametasmay be provi&dbefore and after oil d e r @ ) . Thermowells should b e p v i d d in the piping f a t h e m ofthCrm e t e r repiacemaitwhile oniine.Tbenmweiasshouki begaSfilledOrcrnrosion-resistantbimetalliCtypc.
AuthorioedEngineeringI n -

11-14-1985.

2 . 7 . 2 . 6 . 3 An oil sight flow indicatm wbui spccifia shouldbe provided m the oil return from each caring
housing where thedesign permis
Authofbd Engineering Infotmatm 11-14-1985.

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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nicMafarothtrcoolingwate?sources.'Ibemo~sbould be suitable fora working pressmeof notkss than 75 psig [517 kPa (gauge)] m the w w side. Singkartwin~kmmaybeused.Eechcoolershould be capable of operatioa a t a pressure quai to o r peat ter tima the n l i e f valve setting of positive displacement o i l pumps o r ofth maxllnum shutoff dischargepressiae of ca~trifugal o i l pumps. M coolets should be piped in paraciwith acontintmusflow transfervalve t opert., ,ithe traas6er of o i l from one cooler to the ocher without interrupting the oil flow. Each cooler should be sized for the

2 . 7 . 2 . 6 . 4 A pressiire regulam o r relief vaive should be providedto maintain the oil pressure level(s).
A u t h o n z e d E n g t n e a r i n*g I ~ 11-14-10Bti.

2.7.2.6.5 Afterfabricafim,pipingshauldbecleanedd passivated by mechanical an4or chemical means.


Authomed EngVieering I n h i i o n 6-21-1879,

2.8 PROVISIONS FOR THE ENVIRONhENT

2.8.1

Encksure Steam turbines shoud pfembly be installed in enciosedareas.Thee?Fe!&tsofundseMceconditi~may

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 3991

b470247 0524335 5bT

SM 23-1991 Paga 12

be mi@ted by the use o f one or moxe of the measmes bescribed i n 2.82 and 2 . 8 3 .
Authobd Engineefing Infonnetkn 11-14-1985.

2 m ExporiuretoNaifal~ in general, d exposed surfaces should be potected againstrusting by apaotectivecoatiagor paint after instalhion of the unit. Enposed workiqg parts which affect aperation d the u n i t such as govexnor, govexnor inkage, fuiuum pomts, Valve s t e m s .and imilw elements should b e ~ a g a i a s t ~ g i s t u i g the b yuseof comwionresistantmatenalS. Equipment having nonpressure lubricated bearings
y x bearinghai9ngs. EqpipntnthaMig~l&iCaboihydrauEicgovaning systans,or both, shouldbepruwtedasbilowx

Exposu~toAb110mialAtm0spheric oondltkns if possible, the turbine should be located away froin damaging f u m aand vapars, or abrasive, magnetic ai metallic dust. If t h i si s not pnictical, the atmospheric candirioas should be called t o the aaention of the manufactufft. Suitable materialsor protective coatings may be
2 . . 3

requiredtoansetthecomisiveeffectsofthefumes.When necessary, purge air connections on bearing housings, glaad cases,and govemm should be provided.
Auth#ired EnQnWringInfonnaoion 11-14-1s.

2.9 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

sbouldbedcsignedtopvcnthetnaruiceof dust, and fmign mamiais t o the governing s

2.82.1 The lULnisystem 09 goveanar system, 09 both, should be protected againstthe entrance of water or foreign materials by proper seaiing devices. The points to beprotectedinchideallcofinectuwis - orapeningstotbeoil EaleVoir, goveznor. g B r o m o t o r , bearing housings, and

PmssureanTemperaaireRanges Sieam turbines shouidbe designed and proportionedfar operationatmaximumsteamconditions.Genedpressnre and tempexatme ranges utsown in Figure 2-2. The ranges are general, accmding to tempeam&xsure cambinationsat w h i c h pomt material or design changes, OrbOth,~~berequired.
2.9.1
Authorlled EngineeringInformation6-21-1978.

sidarelements.Tbereservoirshouieprovi&xiwirha ventwithanairierandcarnectionstofacuitsteremovd of water.


2.8.2.2 In addition to the foregoingprotectivemeasum, tbe following should be included when ambient ttmpezgtrires will be less than 4?F (4%) 1. Far use durhg down times,drains sbaild vi&d whee water can colkctforallsteam,d, and waterlines, the turbme casing and steam chest, and the oil aad water si& of the o i l coolex. Pneumatic "blow down- may benectssary m someiostances. 2 Aheater for the ail mservoir.Ifaa electric heater is specineditmustbeofawifncicntlylowwaadeasity topmt coking of lkoilAn auxiliary pump may be reqiiired to eosure o i l CircUlatBon for unitonn

Vlbratlon T h e vibmion of the turbine rotar (double ampitude) within thespecifedoperatingspeedrangeas measuredon thesprfacedtheshaftadjacenttotheradialbeaaingsshall be m accadancewith the foilowing:
2.9.2
2.9.2.1 SINGLE STAGE TURBINES The maximum permissible w i o n sha be not peatex than 2.0 mils for speeds 4ooo rpm and lower, or 1.5 mils for speeds 4001 rpm and higher.
NEMAStandard 11-10-1985.

~resuat-protectionoypa.asa.

demaisoatedthatmtcbanid&electncalnmoutis~ent, this sha be added to the abwale vibration level op toamaximum 25 peacent of thedioweddoubleampiitude v i o r2 5 mils, whichever is greater.
NEMAStendard 6-21-1978.

AuthobdEngineeMgInfomiehon 11-14-1985.

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heating. o cover the 3. An enclosure or bood witb venting t govemlg system may be provided, and heating shouklbesuppliedtoprevent icing. The amountand type of enclosure and heating wiii be governed by localconditions. 4. Protection against fieeziag for instnuaenBand dPi@& 5. m i n e manufacturer shouid identay those lines

2.9.2.2 MULTISTAGE TRBINES T h e maximum permissi'ble vibratian shall be inaccardaace with F i g u r e 2-2. The absolute values for vibrath levels above 3ooo rpm can be derived from the following formule 1 M Shaft mechanid and electrid runout sbaii be determined by slow rolling the rotor in its bearings while measming the Nwut witb a proximity probe. if it can be

S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1771

6470247 05243Lb 4Tb

SM 23-1991 Page 13 not have the specified margins betweem the apaating
speadsand~speeds.nthiscasetheturbinedesigna should Catculanerotor response to unbalance. The prime caisiderationisseasitivitytom~ Authorired Enghming Inlonnation 6-21-1985.

2.9.4 NAMEPUTEDATA nie following minimum data tiabiae nameplale:


1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Manufacainr'snameandbcatioa SaialnumW
Ratedborsepower

Ratedspeed Maximuminletste9mpressure
Maximmillletsteamtunpenitiite

fied).

StlfJu

be given on the

8. Maximumexhauststeampressure 9. M a M m u m e x ~ ~ p r t s s u r e ( i f ~ blc) 10. Tripspeed 11. Maximum continuous speed (ifdifmnt fim rated
rg6ed). 12 F m i lataalcritical speed 13. purchaser's equipmeat item number (when speciNEMA standard 6-21-1979.

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STD-NEMA SM 23-ENGL

1993

6470247 0524337 332

ft +'

CIE

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S T D - N E M A S U 23-ENGL

1991

6470247 0524318 2 7 9

SM 23-1991 Page 15

RPM. THOUSANDS

Figure 2-2 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SHAFT VIBRATION

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SM 23-1991 Page 16

Table 2-1 RECOMMENDED KEY FITS


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(up to & including) 1-50 2 250 3 350


4

40 50
65 75 90 100 115 125 140 150 165 180 190

450 5 550 6 650 7 7.50 8

rn
230
w)

9
10

Twokeys may be used in any c89e.

Table 24 GENERAL PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE RANGES

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S T D I N E M A SU 2 3 - E N G L 199L

b 4 7 0 2 4 7 0524320 927

SM 23-1991 Page 17

steam 00 cnmthe turbine. nie pilotvaivecoatroistbc flow of highpnssme fluid t o the power cylink. This f l o wd highpressmfluidcausesthepistonmthepowcrcyinda t o move in rcspaise to the signai h m thegovanar
conQo1mechasiism.
NEMA612-1986.

81.6 Extemalcontrol-' Extanal calm1 devices shall be m e of thne Eypcs

deaibedbebw:
3.1.6.1 SPEED CHANGER TYPE -mchangatypeisdirtcts,iaDothe governing system which in hun positions the g o m a r coatrolled vaivt(s). The govenoat shall be !Aaxcd to
providethe9pecinedadjustaiespecrange.

3.1.6.2 ReuOlESET Popsr TYPE ?be remote set poiat type is mcorparated dinxtly mio

thegovanmgsystemwhichinmposi~tbegovam ancudfd valvc(S). Tbc gwawr shall be 8ekctcd to provide the specincd adjustableranges f a i watroing
patameta9

3.14 3 VALVE ACTlJAlW TYPE Tbe valveacluating typeissepame h n l ttlegovan. 'e extaaal signai acts t o positiaa e i t k tbe gmaacr coamiied valve@) or a separate liac mounted valve In thiscase.tbe govemxacts oniy asa speehiting @e
emergeacy)goveniar.

N E M A -

11-14-1985.

3.1.7 speed changer Thespeed changa is a device fwcbging the setting 0fthegoverningsy~withinthe~ifiedspeedrange while the turbineis in aperation.
NEhkStrvidard 6-12-1885.

3 . 2

SPEU) GOVERNING SYSTEM

CLASSIFICATION SpeedgoYeaningsystemSs h a l l b e c ~ a s s h o w n m

T a b l t 3-1.
NEMA standatd 6-12-1985.

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STD.NEMA
SM 23-1991 Page 18

S N 23-ENGL

3993

b470247 0524324 8 6 3

m
--

TWb 3-1 SPEED GOVERNING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION

(SeeF i g u r e3-1for agraphic repmentationof speed rise charactexisticsof a Class D govenior.)


3 2 . 3 speedvariation Speed variaiion, expressed as a percentage of rated speed, is the t o t a l magnitude of speed change or fluctuations h m the speed setting uner the steady state caditiom given in 33.4. 'Lhe speed change is dehedas the difem m speed variation between the governiag system in Operation and the goveZnmg system biocked tobe inoperative,withalloiherconditionswnstant, Sjmdvari&an includes dead band and sustained osciiiati~
Speed variation (+ a) =

1 0
6

B C

0.75 0.50

13*
7* 7*

4
0.50
~ ~~~~

0 . 2 5
O Z
~~

7*

* niese Maximum speed Rise Percent values can be achievedunderthef~wi43conditians: a Govemor system is adjustedfop maximum sensitivity. b. Rotational inertia of the equipment is relatively iargeforthepowerrating. c. Steam mditionsproduce a relatively low theoreticalsteamrate. Agowrnor s y s t e m in seMce which meets ali the foliow-

2xratedspeed

(See Figure 3-2 for graphic npresenratiai of speed variation charactaisticsof a Class D governor.)
3.23 DEADBAND Deadband i s the t o t a imagnia>dtofthechange in steady state speed within w h i c h thereis no &ring measiirable change in the position of the governor conmilexivaive@). It is a measure of the speed gweming system insensitivity and is expressed in percent of xated speed 9.232 S r M i U n Sabiity is theability of the speedgoveming system to position the goveniar conmlied valve@) so that a sustained osciliath of sped or o f enezgy input to theturbine
isnotproducedbythespeedgovemingsystemchniag

ingwnd.itionsshallbecapableofiimiingspeedtoprevent
overspeed trip when load is suddedy reduced f r o m rate to zero: a nie driven machine is synchronous perator. b. Thegovernorsystemisoperatinginamodeinwhich it m s t o demand for electrical power. c . niesteamturbinehasaninletpressureofatleast 150 psig i1035 kPa (gauge)]. d . Tbsteamturbineexmuastoaccm&~.
-Range Speed range, expressed as a percentage of rated speed, is the specined range of opeming speedsbeiow or above rated ,$xx!d, or both, for w h i c h the governor shall be d j d e when the tucbh is Operatmg nnder the control
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operation under sustaid load demand or following a o a new sustainedload demand. change t
324 Speed Regulation, steady State Speed regdation, expnxsed as a percentage of rated speed,is the change in gli5t8ined speed when thepower output of the turbine is gradually changed fmn rated power oulput to zen, power outpit mider the following steady state conditions: 1. when the steam mditiom (inlet inlet temand exhaust pressrire) 8Ic set a t rated
valuesandheidconstant 2. When the speed changer is adjusted to give rated speed with rated power OUlpUL 3. When any exteanai conmldeviisrenderedinoperative and blocked in the open positfon so as to offexnoresaictionstothefreefiowof steam tothe goveanar controlled valve(s).

of~~goveanor.

NEMAStanclard6-12-1985.

3 . 2 2 8bximunSpeedRlse The maxjrnum speed rise expressedasa percentage of ratedspeed,isthemaximummomentaryincxeaseinspeed which is obtaine when the turbine is dcveiopmg rated p o w e r output atnited speed and the bad i s suddenly and unnpletelyreducedtozeao. Maximum speed rise (%) =

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S T D - N E M A SI 23-ENGL

L99L

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SM 23-1991 Page 19

107%

100.0%

i I
w O

a w
t

LOU)

'

100%

I I I

Figure 3-1 SPEU) RISE NEMA CLASS D GOVERNOR

259

Figure 3-2 SPEED VARIATION NEMA CLASS D GOVERNOR

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STD.NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1991


SM 23-1991 Page 20
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b470247 0524323 6 3 6

LOAD

1oOY

flgure3-3 STEADY STATE SPEED REGULATION NEMA CLASS D GOVERNOR

3 . 3 . 5

PmssunChanger

Thepressurechangerisadevicebymeansofwichthe setting of the pressure regdating system maybe changed for the piirpose of aajusting the p m s m o f the exhaust s t a u no r ofthe extraction or mduction steam w h i i e the turbme is m @on.
NEMA standard 6-12-1985.

3 . 3 . 6 SteaiyStatePressureRegulation F a r controlid extraction or conmiled induction type turbines,the steady stare ~ ~ g u l a t i O n i s t h e C h a n g e in sustained extraction or induction pressure when, with identicalsettingsofall parrs of thespeedgoverningsysttm and of the presswe reguiating system(s), the exmxtmn a iaductian flow is gradually changed from rated flow I o zero flow. Fornoncondensmg turbioesprovidedwithexhauscpressureregdatas,the steady s r a t e p r e s s u r e r e ~ i s the change i n sustained exhaustpmsurewhen. with identical seings of ail parts of the speed govemiag system and through tbe action ofthe p r t s m r r e m , the powa
outputofthesteamtucbineispduayreduced6romrate power output to zero power outpit.
NEMAStandard6-12-1985.

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STD-NEMA

SM 23-ENGL

1991

b 4 7 0 2 4 7 0524324 5 7 2 M

SM 23-1991 Page 21
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3.3.6.1 PRESSURE REGULA^ Rcssueregulationiscoasideredpositivewhcnprtssure iacreaseswith decrease in steani flow.


NEMASEandard6-12-1985.

3.3.7 Stablltty Stabiity is the capabiiity of the pessure regulating NEMASEandaid6-21-1979. system(s) to position the pressurt controlled vaIve(s) so that sustained oscillationsof the coaadled pressrno(s) ar 3 . 5 ELECK= GOVERNING SVSTEM theeaxzgy~puttothesteamturbincarenotproducedby the pressrire regulating S Y m drnmg m m undfx 3.5.1 BaslcFeatures An electronicgovanhg system shaincludethe foilowmstaimfiow demands or fauowing achange to another value of sustained flow dtmand. ingbasiccompooeprs: 1 Sensorswhichmeasureanoperat8igparamctaof For Ihe pirpose of this standad ~ ~ i l . l a t i ~ the turbineai system, andpoduce ~bY~pressureregulatiagsysteniOfelectricsipah. pressurtar of encrgy inpt are definedas the dinaence b c t w c c n t h o s e e ~ w i t h t h e p r e s 9 u r e r e ~ s y s t e m 2 Agovamx which compares ( s ) fnw dic seagor(s) witb the seiectcd set point(s) and padeces a in semicc and thme existing with thepressrinregularing Qgnal(s)fobthevalveactuator(s)tomaintainsystem system blocked o r inaperstve.
NEW-6-12-1985.

3 . 4 COMPENSATED CONTROLSYSTEM Acompcrisatedcontral system is one w h i c h is provid with intaconneciions between its conml mechanisms so that the action dthe speed governar or of the pressure qdator(s) also directly actuates the Othet control mechanism.

Parametebs3. An actuam@)whicb positions the valve(s) directly or though a a m l nucbamm * inIespsetoh gov=SiEm. one or mon of followingparameters shallbecxxumlld bythegovemingsystem: a . speed b. Eachinduction/exaaction~ c. othersforspecificapplicatiom.
NEMASE8ndard 11-14-1985.

338 Pressum~rolperformanee A Class D goveniOringsystem (see 3.2) shall exhibit the following characteristics when u t i h in a c o m conml s y s t e m :
w . 1 changeinsuseainedspeedshallbe196maximum for any sustamed change i nf l o wwithin limits of 5%and 95%of maximum inductionorexmuionfbw guaranteed forthatload.
N E M A 11-14-1985.

3.3.8.2 Steady state plessare regdation shall be 0.5 psi ( 3 5 kpa) maximmor496 of ratedexbaust, extrauion.n indmion plesule wtpressed m psig oc kPa ( a b s o l u e ) ; whichever is larger.
N E W S U d d 11-14-1985.

332The following are accessories which may be selected, aependingonratingaod~


u . 1 CONTROLP~ES Asignal selectmmay be incorporated intbegOVUIIOrt0 aowthegovenwrrtoreceivesignalsfromse.veralscnsus and tochoose the signal, which wiii result in thc piopa

3.3.8.3 sustained 0Scillat.i~ of canttolled pressure, wiien aprating a t COIISEB~ flow ~ demaad op foiiowing a change to another canstant flow, Shan notcxcetdoa psi (1.7 kPa) ar 2% of thecon~fledpnsnireexptssed i n psi ob kPa (absolute); whichever is larger.
N E M A 11-14-1985.

valveopening. Any p a r a m m may be primary which the governing . . as constant during IK)iTmBI operation. SyAny panunetex could be secondary which i s i g n d as lcQgasitisbelow the preset value.

334.4 s ~ o s c i l l a t i ~ o f e i a e r g y i n p u ~ w h e n o p 3.599 CONTROLOF INDUCTION OR E X T R A m &gatconstant f l o w demand or foilowing achange to The governor may be designed to control the low presanorher~tfiow,shaUnote~4 ofratedpcwer. % surevahrt(s) daninductim urextlxtion m i n e in conjunctian wih the high pressure nive(~). in t h i s case,the 338.5 The range of adjustment for ptsmre change(s) governar wnmls the flow t o maintain the steam pressure sha pennit adjustment of exhaust, extraction, or iaducat each controlled extraction or induction opening while tion pressure betweem f5 p i g (35 kPa) M f10% of the simuuaneously controlling speed when necessary for the coamlled pressure expressed i n psi or kFa (absolute); appiication. whichever is iarger. NEMA11-14-18!j.

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S T D m N E M A SM 23-ENGL L991

6470247 0524325 409

Agoveniar with h i s capability incorporatesfeatUtes to adjustaii the ccmtroiied valves i n mponse to a change in any controlled parameters.
NEMAStandard 1-1-1991.

3 . 5 . 2 3 MISSHG SIGNAL DRECllONFEAtLIRE nie missing signai &tecrion feature monitors all input signahandaetaminesifthey are in the cmect range. Any signai that is out o f range shwld cause immediate action by the electmiic govexnor to enSure safe operation of the tmbine,and should cause an alami indication.

3 . 5 2 . 4 SENSOAREDUNDANCV
8.5.2.5 OVU1SPEEDTmP nie overspeed trip feature in the governor can be provided in addition t o the primary trip.

theirassociafedWiringshouldbepro~fmnheat,weat and induced signais Local codes and area classifshould be c o n Whenmi~basedturbinecontrolsystemsIrre provided which interface with plant distributed control systems, there may be some overlap of control loops and confusionregardinginpuWoutputs.in these cases the pni chaser and the vendor should mutually agree upon scapt and responsibility spiiL Extemal selpointscan come knn the piant DCS but the turbine control loop should be suppiie by the Wine manufacturer. A typid eiec&onic governor schematic is shown m Figure 34.
NEMAStandard 1-30-1991.

3 . 5 . 2 6 other demonic governor accessories m a y be available.


GENERAL Caw shouid be talren in each installation to provide for adequate wiring. in addition, elecmnic governors and

3.6 AUTOMATIC START CONTROLS Automatic start controls are avaiiabie for turbine and driven machine. nie W i n e manufacturer should t e msuited for recommendedequipment and pnicediires
Auaionred~neeringInfonnabon * 6-12-1mS.

INPUTS

Figure 3 4 ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR FOR PUMP OR COMPRESSOR CONTROL

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3 . 5 . 3

SM 23-1991

Page 23

Section 4 PROTECTION
4 1 BASICFEATURES Thefollowmgfeaturesandaccessoriesarenecessaryfar the proper functioning of equipment and safety of opera41.6 Comblned mp and mmle mive Thecambineatrip,and throttle valve is separate fmm the govelnor controlled valve@) and is closed (tripped) m response t o the action of the overspeed sensing &vicc, other safety &vices or manuai trip device. ?his vaive pennits manual ttirottling of steam to the turbine. NEMA standard 6-21-1978. 4.197

tion:
11.1
Ananugill@

Each turbine shall be pvided with amanual tripping device to ciose h i p valve o r hip and throttic valve.
NEMASEandard612-1985.

overspeed

m h g

4.12 ~ M p s y s t e m Theoverspeedtrip system shall besparkpioofandshall include the overspeed sensing &vice, linkage. and a (rip valveora combined trip and bottle valve sepatate from the spce governor conmiled valve@).
NEMA11-14-1985.

The tnp speedseauigsshowninTable4-1 shall be above the speedreacbeddue t o the maximum speedrisecharacEeristic of the govetning system to avoid tripping the turbine on sudden loss of load.
NEMA Standd 6-12-1985.

A13 overspeedsensingDevlce The ovaspeed smsing device mc1Udes those elements which are direcily responsive to speed and which initiate action to close the trip valve at apmkammd -speed NEMA standard 621-1979. 41A

when design or application of driven equipment requires trip speeds other than thoseshown in Thble4-1, the trip speed should be specified.
Authohcl Engineering Infomiation6-21-1979.

Table 4-1 TRIP SPEED SEmNGS

m s p e e d Tbt trip speed is the speed at which the overspeed ansing device i s set
NEMAStandard6-21-1979.

A B

41.5 TpVahre "be hip vaive i s separate f r o m the goveanor conmiied vaive@)and isclosed (tripped) in responset othe action of UaiIripdeVice.
NEMA6-21-1079.

C D

115 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

theoverspbedscnsingdcvice,othasaf~&~orman-

*An vrluaueinpe<rmidmuiminiiContinLKnM Ipd.

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S T D - N E M A SM 2 3 - E N G L 1991 W b 4 7 0 2 4 7 052i1327 281

Sectlon 5 FACTORY TESTING


S . 1 TURBiNE
1 . Qiecknerieraloperatioa

6.1.1
1 .

~ ~ i e x b a u s t ~ ~ h s t e a r n or hydro testcd a t a minimum of25 p i [172 kPa 0 1 .


N E M A 11-14-1085.
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r d e m shall be hyrottsted 2 Wa!exj&~ts, coils, o


t o 1.5 times thespecifiedcooluigwar~,but notkman115psip93kPa(gauge)]. NEMA SkldWd 6-21-1979.

m of 15 3. pressirre(s) shall be maintained for a millUteS.TbeteStShallbeamsidaed~ when no extemai leaLsfrom be item under test are
observed,
NEMA SEandard 6-21-1879.

5.12

No Lond Running Test

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~~

S T D * N E M A SM 23-ENGL 199L

I I 6470247 0524328 IL6 H

SM 23-1991 Page 27

Sedon 6 SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS


occurring atratedpowerandspeedandmaximum steam amditions, are shown m ble 6 . 1 .

TaMe 6- Sound Pressure Levels

45-90 90-180 1-355 355-710 710-1400


1400-2800 2800-5600

63 125
250

98 94
91 89

106

98 97
92

500

l o 0 0
2Ooo

MoO-llu10 OVeralldBA

4OOo 8Ooo

...

89 89 89 89 93

90 90 90 90 95

For arrbmemoimtedon asteeibasepiate.abdonea&iitioaaidecibeltotabul8tcdval~. Actnai swnd pre9sure levels may not equa maximum t a b wv a l mf o r all fequewy bands. o v d dBAis* therefore*less than the sum o f individual values.
Authorized Engiuieenng Infwmation&21-1979.

6.3

SOUND PRESSURE LEVU MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE Sound presswe levels shall be measiindin accordrmce with Ameaican N a t i d Standard S 5 . 1 . Section 7 . 0 , as it i!Japplicable,Eammamd * asfallows: Acoilstical penamanCe i s based on a sound prtssure level which is &pendent on acoustical c b & x i s t k s o f the space m which the unit operam. AU m d soumi

levels are assumed t o be in k ! d s p k - d netfleldar semi-revaberant field which has r00m m t iarge empgh so as to not significantiy ef?eztm pressum levebathcmeasiiriagpoint. A six decibel drop o f f in SOWICI pressure levei per distance douling in each octave band of inmesr, as the microphoaeismoved~eachmeasurementlocationm aii direaionSamundthe machine.regardlessof distanCC, i n d i c a t e s approximate free fieid conditjolls.Corrections must be made f?environment whea the drop Onis less than su decibels.
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SM 23-1991 page 28

All 3Ound--readings shallbercaorded as sound pressme p l s in decibels at refereace pressure of two times 10' Newton per square meter.
Ausoraid~readingsshallbemadewitbanoctave

baad meter set f o r slow respanserecordingvisualaverage of maclings. Fldgmisel e * equal to arhigkdian plus oc minus 2dBAovetall shall be murded. 'Lbe~shallbeprottctednomexternaldistmbing mfluences (vibnitian,aircunents,alldelec~o f magnetic fields) which may affectreadings. Miaophoae locations shall be approximately,but not less than, aae meter from any sound sotme being mead a n d a t a heigbt 1.5 meters above the fioor. Care shall be talrcn to avoid a poBitiai at the nodal point of standing wave. (hie set ofreadingsskould b e d that is requaedif
tbemicrophoneissopositioaed.~seotenceis~-

find the noise output of one particular sou~ce in a noisy envimment. However, noise measurements cannot be addedmsubsracted directly. Rather,measuremauscaube canbined wirb a coirection number.The CQzeCtioll numbers obtained from * i 6-1 and 6-2 areappoximate. However, the graphic results are East and sufficiently accurareformosteagineaiagapplications. The currection numbex is based on the dif6erence m amplitude of two sormds whether the sounds ale beiqg

addedoi~btracted.Wh~sonnds~~tbe~rion number is added to the higherlevel Far example, 80


SUBTRACTING BACKGROUND NOISE

izedEnghe&gWxmation.)ThcpaBitionofthemicm phane fmmeesirringkkgmundambient sound and total swndshanbeidentical.


. 4 CORRECTION FOR BACKGRWND NlSE rvm!memats oftiirbiae sound plesSun levels should be WHWWI far ambient baclrgtouadm d press~re levels. Levels at each iocatim should exceed background levels by a t least tea decibels in each octave b a n d If the
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NEMASEendard6-21-1979.

dinereaceetweenmeasuredsoundevelandbacirground
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 soundkvelislessthanthree&cibelsingivenoctave-nd, DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TOTAL SOUND vatid e q sound level in that bad cannotbe deterAND BACKGROUND NOISE (dB) mineb.when thc m i s , t w a ~ ~ rection factor should be subtmcw fnwn the measured Figure bl sound levek CORRECTION FOR BACKGROUND NOISE Decibeloorrection~=

and 86 decibel sound levels diffa in amplitude by six Thus,totai sound level is 87 deciLels. when~noiseissubtractedbromtiretotal ' numerissubtractedals0.k cori9ideratonshould~begiiventoef6ectsof~ somid lcvek the Lxmwtmn example, a 90 decibel backgod noise and a 97 dezibel m s o n n d somes, such as piping anddrivenequipment, total sound level difer m amplitude by seven decibels, a weaml~or~efmnvaivesandpiping How. difthat yields acmectum numberoflfr0nif;igUr ever, swndlevels from these somcesmay be 80 clase to 6-2'Thnsthem~level without theba&gmmd noiseis leveis from the turbine that a meaninghil meatmment %decibels. will be difncnlt or impossible unless s&ep are taken t o Authomed E n g i i w Informatian 6-21-1979. isdatedietnrbine. Itmaybepossibletoaccomplishchis by inanlnting all Piping, using acoustic barners as appw 6.6 INSTRUMENTS pllate, and cowring some sound sources with lead blauSound pressure levels should be measundby meam o f kets. a sound level meter which m e e t s the requkments o f Aumorired E n g M n g Infamalion6-21-1979. American Naticmal Standard S1.4. Afull-octave&andsoundanalyzex,rneetingtherequire6 . 5 SWNRESOLUTION men& of Ameriwn Nationai Standard 51.11, should be Ikromeasuremeatsoftenmustbeaddedtodeerminethe USed~conjimctionWiththesoumdlevel~teatOmeaSme cunbined mise level of s e v d sources or wibtracted to
2

3 3

4-5

6 - 2 loandover O 1

decibels.a dinerencethat yieisacxmctm * mlmkofl


frwn F-6-1.

SoUd

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S T D - N E M A Sfl 23-ENGL 1991


ADDING TWO SOUNDS

6470247 0524330 87b

SM 23-1991 Page 29

Insfmments, including microphones, should receive an acoustic check an overaU calibration before and after every swnd pressure level test.
Authorired Engineering Information621-1979.

6.7 SOUND AmNUATION It is recommended that acoustic81 t r e a t m e n tfor turbines and similar machinery be applied after instailation of the equipment and ensuing piant operation. Facm which &ea sound levels are many and varied and may not be associated as closely with the machinery itself as with steam velocities i n piping and other sound sources. After instailation and operaton has commenced, an ovexall piant sound levei can be establishedand corrective m e a s u r e s Ealren to isolate the major sound producing portions of the process.
Authorized Engineering information6-21-1979.

8 9 1 0

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOUNDS (dB)

Flgure 6 2

SMIND RESLUI"

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SM 23-1991 Page 31

Section 7 PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT AND STORAGE


7.1 SHPPING PREPARATION nit turbine and ail scparate parts shall be properly taggodandidentified

The purchaser should advise the mandacturer of thc unladmg facilities available and w h e t h e r skids will be
newsaryformllinglargeassemblesintopoStion.
Authonred Engineering Infarmath 11-14-1985.

A t ttit timeof shipment,aiieqoscdnonmachinedsurfaces shall be protected widl OpLe coiitof shop paintaad
coatingorcovaiagorboth Aiiexpastdmachincdsurk c s a n d oiiIiaparvoH.iateriorsshall be protected with a nist pvenmtive. All ojmlngs shall be jllugged oc cov-

7.3 RECEIPT AND S T M I A G E OF EQUIPMENT U p o n receipt,the purchaser should check ail equipment for darnagt which may have o c c d in transit. Any

aad. llleinteIiorofthertbineshallbesaitablytFeaud
toprcvcntnist Ocean freight or extended storage shall require aditiooal protectionand packaging.
NEMASEandard 11-14-1885.

damageorshortagcsshouidbereportedimmediatelytothe
tninsportatioacompanyandacopyofthereporttothemanufactuta. AH material should be checked against the manufsctraers packiug liss and my discrepancies repoml immediately to themanufcturer. The equipment should a t a times be storedin a clean, noncorrosive atmosphere and protected against loss, weather,damage,and fareig0 materialssuch as dust, sand, a d so starage where constant ternpawe . forth . indoor ismauitained a t a levei which wiil p v m t condcz1sBtiQ1 is preferred. The purchaser should seek the manufacturers advice if storage conditions are other than thc

Theppamionassumesthas~ewillbesoarrangd tbattheequipncntwillbeprotectedagainstloss,~on andwtathadamage. ki(h0rlled Engineering Infomiawn . 11-14-1985.


7.2 SHIPMENT The purchaser*since he has the most wmpete knowledge o f local conditions,should specify the delivery point rind provide infamiadon on the method of handtingtothe

above.

pointddelivery.

Thcmanufacairashouduseshippmgmethodsandship p a r t s i n t h e s e q ~ r e q ~ f ~ y i n s t a l l- aar w ml n

Specialattention and cureshouldbe given to thesmage ofpartshavmgexposedmachinedsurfaces. B e h --up, the oil orpnxemtive usedin the beari & d f y d l ~ s b i p m e r i t s b y m a r k i n g i n d i v i d u a ~ ~ ~ -ing housingshouldbeflushedoutandrepiacedwirhc~ lubricatmg oil of the recommended type. Grease lubriblies c r ~ p n to m shipment. cated bearings may require lubrication prior t o start-up. Themanufacaurersshouldspccifythe~pfcpBo start up, forced lubrication systems should be retiOnandproteCtivecoatingSthatsbouldbeprwidedto Prior t checkedforproperoperation. protact the equipment if die i n s isdehyed.
Aulhonzed EngineerKig Infomiation 11-14-1885.

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STD-NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1791

b470247 0524332 6 4 9

SM 23-7997 Page 33

Sectlon 8 INSTALLATION
INTRO DU^ TbetmbineshauMbeiilptnllulmaccardencewithrwF ommendationsandinsmictions * ispuedbydrcmanufac n t

ai

The m f o m i a t i o n c o n ~ i n Section 8ispovided t o asgist~prirchasaarhiscontractatintbepropahandliog


gndinmiliahrn * 0fmtcbamcaldriveweamtiabmes.There &e m i y vatiabies mvohrcd mtheaquipnent funiished
Auihairod Enginwring Infomath 11-13-1969.

methodofshiplaent,andtypcsofiir9rallntinn.uierefore,it is not feesi'ble to detail step-by-stepproCadurW.


82 SUPERVISION OFINSTAUATION It is f c c o m m a that the man-'S representative faqwise theia9iallationofthe tmbiac.The mstatltt-

tion procedure should be in accordance with recammndatiaisandiartnictim~bythemanufacturcrutham drawings arbyoibeameans. Sucb piocb dares are arranged and planned to obtain the most Lwiskmy iImauion and commissionmg of the eqwp
ment.

pauyqualifiedlabor,incl~qpalinedsupervisim,is requiredfoapmpetirldhtm ' ,scastupand~m.


-Engineering*

6-21-1079.

83 INsTALmnoN propermazallatiaa i s a e c t s p a r y f m ~ i r ; a y operation.* nsershOuldprovidean adequate fauidation t o maintain alignment and sbould installpiping to minimize txtanalf~andmomentsonmeMbiae. S f i k n t space andnecessary openings in the foundationsandkiuding !aluCtun shaildbe pwided for the insWahn of theequ'ipment Suitablcqmiqs should be puvicd in the building to admit the quipmew me purchaser should provide sufncient space raound the quipmalt for savicmg, including the ripace formwing the rotor and setting down he upper half of the turine

casing.
8 . 3 . 1

Authorized Engineersiq Infomiation 11-14-1985.


~

FOUndatlOn

Foundations should be sufficiently heavy and rigid t o farm a permauentiy nonwarpmgsmictinie. The manufacturez should iunisbdimensionaldrawings to enabe the purchasez to design a suitable foundation o f

Inlet Exhaust Induction

175 250 175

Extraction

250

53 76 53 76

175 450 175 250


-

53 137 53 76

ample~~andstrengthfortheequip~tspeci6ed. "he fwndation souldbe designed so that it WU absorb 8.3.3 Cleaning af Tutt~ne Steam pping t o a large extent the vibrath o f die unit installed on it. Asourceofcleansteam,free~foreignparticles,must nefouadabon shouldbeisolated~thebuildingstnic- be provided t o the inlet of the turbine connecaons * .The hire by means of spacers (felt, coak,and so fortii) so that Station piping and the boiler system should be cleaned i n outsi& vibrationwill notbetransmioed tothe foundation.

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL L991

I 6470247 0524333 585

SM 23-1991 Page 34

pieces o f welding rod t o work their way ttuuugh the pipelhesandsupeitieaterlllbes. calculationscanbe made to show how much flow and what drum pressure am necessary foranassumed temporary ppe size to a c b a mass velocity head during cleaning quai t ot h a t attainedduring fuii loadoperatiai, basedMthe followinn: steambbwingisbestachievedbyrepeatedbeatingand coalingwhichwin~altwiateeiqiensaiandcoanaction t the 1. AS I nrst atten+, assume that tfie velocity a intkpipingwhichwinhelpbasenpipe~.Itisforthis pipe exit to atmosphere during blowdown is sonic, and that the pressure, Ppjllstinsidlediepipattht ~thattheMowdownshouidbeatfullpns9ureand terrpwratiae for several minutes to allow the pipc to get as exit is u)psi. Tomake this assumpion, it is neccs~toope!xs&~~asyossible.niepIpingshould ssay that all ofthe flow ateas in &he System be equal beallowedtoco0lbef~stastuigthenextMowdown. to, 01larger than, the dischargeam. AminimumofthreebbWSShOUldbe~and~ 2 Estimate the steam conditions (piessiae, enthalpy) subsequentblowsshouldiiseapolishedstedwgetatdiecnd a t the boiler o u t l a expected during steam blowoftheMowdowniinetoactasanindicatiaiofckantmess down.Fnim tbecurve~inFigure8-2read~ma~~ ~shouldbepolishedonbodisi&stoobiaindoublie flow function,F3o. Calculate the massfl<lw, Qcl as usage.AnewEargetshoutdbeitsedfareachttSandcheEsrget follows compand toanew one untiitheyqpeartobethesame. See Q c = F30xAp where Aphthe a r e a of the pipe at discharge Figure8-1f~~~ggesedtargetinstal)atim. epurchasershouldprovidetemporarypiphgrequlled m.3. for the blowdown. It is alwaysadvisable to blow to atmos3. It isnecessaryto dculate the presslm drop through p h e r e o u t s i d e t h e s t a t i o n i n a n a r e a w b e r e s t e a m a r p e r t i c l e s the temporary and permanent piping to amive at a boiler pmsure. Refa to Figure -3. 'ibis curve wouldnotinjurepersonnelaraffectequipnentnitpblow piping m u s t be iarge enough to develop a mass velocity shauldbe used todetennine rhe pressure dropnear head in the permanent piping at ieast equal to thatdevdthe discharge endofthetempmrypiping, since the oped during full l o a d Operation. Blowdown lines should velocity i s near sonic and an ordinary dculaiimof pressiiredrap due t o friction does not^^. be installed with adequate anchors toprevent pipe whip ping oc damage. "he trip throttle valve and stramer m u s t be removedandallvalves in the main healer should be
~withthepoceduressubsequentlywiggestedin d e r to assure the avaiiability of clean steam. steam Mowingisfequiredforall main steam,seal and . . piping before the steam turbii is put into adnussion aperation. steam Mowing greatly reduces potealtial damage to the turbim by weid beads and pipe slag.
wideopen. The following procedm should be used for sizing the

temporary Mow down line: Since the forcemaparticle is proportional tothe mass veiociry head of the fluid,it appears reasonable that the mass velocity head cieveiojxd during die Mowing cycle must be at leastequai to that developed during full &ad operation. 'ibis should rake care o f most hose pieces. However,a time Eactor is involved; no one can be sure how long it takes pipe scale to loosen up, ar such things as

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~~

S T D * N E M A SM 23-ENGL

L99L

6470247 0524334 411

SM 23-1991
Page 35

( P v ~= pressure-specif volume product during


cleaning a t boiler ouuet, ft3/in2
(P-) (Pc)

= pressure at maximum load flow a t


boiler outlet, psia =
presslire during cleaning at boiler

outlet, psia
( P V =~pssure-specific volume product a t

%'

m a x i m m load flow at boiler outlet, ft3/in2 5. Ifthisxatio,R,i slessthan are andthe steam velocity inthesupeheatertubesislessthantwice theabwable, divi& the pnssure assume inside pipe exit, Pp,by thisr a t i oand repeat the above process. Thus, therequired flow andgressuresfor equivalentcleaning forces can be deteamined. hereby estabMing the required sizes for the temporary Mowpip. N o t e that for a discharge pressure different than 30 psi, the flow function is

Figure 4 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTK)NNEAR M E END OF A PIPE DISCHARGING STEAM AT SONIC VELoclfv in applying Figure 8-3, assume as a rst hial thatL is dietotalequivalentIcngthofthetempararypiping,nicluding the equivalent length of elbows, tees, etc. i n the temporary system. calculate the

The~ofthetemporarypipeisamostimportantfactor.

anci aiter the curve i n

F m 8-3 and thus calculateP, the ptsamat thc distance FL Lfran the exist. N o t e that if-&D thewmpmry pipe i s more than 5, use a sharterL which wi makc? equa 5
andusecoxmpdm * g P/Pp to CalculatePat the shorts L . wtm+ is gnater tiun 5, the pressuredrop isa straight-

line frmction of L and can be caicuiaied by the conventional method. Then calculate, by conventional straight-line methods, the press~re drop due to friction in the piping from point Lfrom the exit t o the boiler outlet, thus arriving at the boiler outlet prrssiire, Pc. 4. Next, cacuiate the cleaning farce ratio a t the boiler outlet, using the calculated Pc and the expected enthalpy. This mio compares the mass-velocity head during cleaning with dut developed c&uing nomial fuii-loadoperation. nie cleaningfacc ratio is expressed by:

nie use d a iargerpipe wiU result in lesser flows and lesser pressure h e i s required for the same cleaning farce. The size effect is poportional to the ratio of diameters t o the fourth p o w .In no case, however, should the temporary pipe have a greater flow a r e a than the permanent piping. Pressurereadings during blowdown should be taken at the inltt u)the stop valves andas close as possible t o the MowclownPipedischarge. The lauer connectionshould be made ata convenientlocation,but not less than 20 diamet e r s fran the discharge end of the blowpipe in order t o obtain a stable pressure Feading. These readings will help substantiate the calculated boiler pressure and pipe Szes selected for the blowdown operation. A f d i size Mock valve, safeiy iocated, shouldbe used to perform die blow. Adequate pham communication between the b o i l e r mom and the operaror at the blow down valve m u s t be established This might also be backed up by a system of visuai communication, such as indicating lights, since phone communication may become difficult due to the high n o & level at the blowdown valve. An anangrnent should also be made t o record the pressure readings a t the various siations simultaneously through proper communications. When performingthe blav, the blow down vaive should fystbe cracked so as to get a graduai warming of all the steam lines. When the lines are adequately warmed up, open the blow down valve all the way as fast as possible. When the boiler pressure has dropped to approximately 150 pSi [lo35 kpa (gauge)], close the blow Qwn valve
~~ysothattheboilerpressuredoesnotdropbelow 100 psi [69kPa (gauge)].

where:

Qc Qmu

= calculatedflowdiiRngcltanllig,lb/hr
=maximumloIdflm,lb/hr

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STD-NEMA

SM 23-EWGL

L77L

W 6470247 0524335 358 H

Steam seal piping or any other lines that might bring steam to theanbinemustbebiowndown. Weldspatierand other foreign matenal that may becontained wihin the steam seal piping can cio appreciable damage to both the steam seal packing and the turbine shaft. Thetefare, it is prudent t o direCr as much attention t o the cieaning of this piping as has been stated for main steam lines.

stops at the W i inlet and exhaustconnectioasuother apeningsal the machinet o which externalpiping systems

connect. In ader t o keep the strains due to faces aad bending

It is imporiant that uie blowing apeiatiOn be conducted after ail of the field weiding is completed Allliough Mt the turbine manufacturers responsibility,it is a good pacti t o have a service supervisorwitness at least the finai b l o w down. It is l e f t to the customers discK&on to determine the most practical method of cleaning ktoiy prefabrid lines which may become conlmhaledin ihe field nKst

matnentsonthe~ineoonnections,iaciu~gtheweight ofthepipe,withinrecommene.dlimits,diepipingsystem desigashouldbe~hthatresoaintssinditMomafmovement match momentsat the connectionsto the t u r b i n eand toveqarge forcesat the turbine suppom. .. The faces in piping sys&m tauieroperatingcondutons can be giouped into three Classes: those due t o stean
l==-temperatiireanddeadweight. -fngineerkigi*

6-21-1979.

linesstiouldbecleanedandgivenseveralgoodbbwspror to final assembly. FOI short runs which cannotbebiown down,mechanical cleaning may be adequate. L i n t si d m g from the turbine t o the customers steam lines sbould also be blown Out for the best interestsof the custame.
Authonted Erigheerhrg Infomiation ll-14-lg85.

8.4 SMMPIPINGSYSTEMS
8.4.1 Intmductbn Reactions of piping s y s t e m s connecte to steam aubines, if of sufficient magnitude, will result m d i g n ment of the turbine sufcient to cause rough operationand sarious mechanical damage. Steam turbines have been very Carefdy designed t o provide for thermal expaeon and, a t the same tllne, maintain close agnmeat betwecn the tlubine rotating and stationary parts, and also the

8A3 FoiicesDueioOPressum niesealemOStcOmmanl~associatedWithbwprtssue andvacuum iineswhereexpansionjointsareof&nusedto provide flexibility. If an expansion pint is impmpedy used, it may c a m a pipe reactjon greater dmn he one which it issupposed toeliminate. An uriffsalctedexpmSion pint will cause an axial uuust equal to tbe effective ana ofthe bellows times the intend pfesslm The magnitudeofthese forces may be geater than the l i m i t sforme exhaust flange. In &to have the iowest reaction when it is found that expansionjoints ale required,die standad of the Expansion Joint Manufacturws Association should
installauons - andareofferedonlyasguide& Figure 8-4showsanexpansionjointm apressure lint. Theaxialthnist~theexparisionpinttendsto~

becmsulled. The following figures and paragraphs represent typical

~ineanddrivenequipnent.mpvisimfortlubii rbennai expansions by necessitylimits theallowable values of forcesand manen&applied tothe Qrrbine stnicture by the piping c o ~ ~ c t to ed it. It is the purpose here to briefiy discuss piping arrangements and recammendfiangeloedinglimitationsimposed on steam turbines by piping. This infonnatbn is presented as an aid t o the user and is not intended as aselfcaitaid thesisonpping. The recornrnendahns t o be discussed h u i d provide aibwable d u e s of forces and momeats a t the turbb connectionsforsteam inet,exaaction,andexhaustpiping. It is not caisidered necessapy to supply values far auxiitarypiping such as steam eakoff, hhkating o & and coolingwater,buteven s o ,thisadhrypiping sbaild also be designed such that tubine expansioSi i s not restramad.
Authorized bgimririg Infwmation6-21-1979.

Lhe~ineandtheelbaw.Topreventthis,dieelbowshould haveanahchortokeepitfnnnmoving.t?turbineshaild atsoabsorbthisthrnstand,mdoingso,becanes8nasichor. m fce a l the Mbme may be greater tbaa can be allowed. In general,this mebiod shouldbediscouage& F i g u r e 8 4showsthe SamepipingarrangemmtasngiPe 8-4 except for the atkiition of tie rods on the expansian pint. nie tie rodspvent the elongation of the joint and taketheaUalcreatedbythein~pressunofdie expansionpints o i tis n o t m i t t e d & b aabiaeflange. The t i e rods eliminate any axial flexibility,but t b e w ti s still fexibie in shear; that is, the fianges may m parallelplanes.IbebCatiOnOfthiS~Of~h~~ shwldbesuch~movememofdiepipingpiss~~

sionjointmsheainsteadoftensionocaimpessia
Fii8-6isanarrang~~tfiequentlyiised,hawigtie

8.4.2 ThePipingProblemssAppliedioWnes one o f die firstcxmidediaas in designing any piping system isto keep the StreSJes i n the pipe within the limits of ANSI/ASME B31.1 and/or any localcodes that may be appiicabe. In genera, the jipisdicaion d s u c h authanties

rods as indicated for 1yn1condeilsing aperation.This IIClangement should prevent ally duustdue to mtemalpessure of Ihe expansion pint 6rom being transnrtted * t o b
exhaiistaangeandretairistheaxiztlflexibuitydditjaitIt may be used for either VBCUIIIII oc pnsure savicc (by

suitablearangementoftheIods).

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1791

b470247 0 5 2 4 3 3 b 294

SM 23-1991
Page 37

li
ANCHOR TURBINE

mgUr8 84

UNRESTRAINED EXPANSION JOINT (May Impose an unacceptable thrust for on the turbine.)

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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////////) EXPANSION JOINT -. .


-

Figure &5

TIE RODS (Flexible in shear only)

Fgute 8-7 shows a suggested anangementfar a andensing~widlEiniipexhaust.Duetothelargecxhaust

piPeSiZen<rmallY~teedOncandetmn g-k exhaustpipingmayberelativelystin,dan~jomt StioUMbeiisedatsomepoint t o take care oft h d expansion.An umestrictedexpansionPrntplaced at the exhaust fiange of the turbine may exert an upward o r lifting force on dit turbine flange which in many cases is excessive.

Figure 8-7p v i h the necessary flexibility to take care of themial expansiai without impsing any UnIliifting force on the turbine. The expansion joint is in shear which is the preferred use. The reatively sma vertical expansion may compress one p i t and elongate the other whichcausesasmdireactionaalyandmaybe wellwithin the turbine fange limits
Authorized EngineeringInfomation 6-21-1979.

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S T D * N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1991 W 6470247 0524337 1 2 0


s h 4 23-1991

page 38

Figure 8 4 EXPANSIONJOINT wmi TiE RODS FOR NONCONDENSING OPERATION (Proviaes awlel fiexlblllty without Imposing thnist on the tu*ine.)

8AA Fo~cesDuetoTTemperature if a pipe is COMtected to some point as Am Figure 8-8, and hestheamfgurathshown by the soiid tine, it may assiimetheappmmak ' pOmtioashownbythedashline when heated to a higher temperature, pmviing no restraint is offeredbypoint B . If both poms AandB are rigid points which may not
wwc, the pipemay assumeashapesimuartothathwn by thedashbe mFigure 8-9 whai heated.

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Figure 8-7 EXPANSION JOINT Wmi TIE RODS FOR CONDENSING OPERATIONWil" "UP" EXHAUST (Provles veitical flexibility without bnposlng thrust on the tu&lne.)

S T D e N E M A Sfl 23-ENGL L99L

6470247 0524338 Ob7

///////////
A

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STD.NEMA SM 23-ENGL

L99L

6470247 0524339 TT3 W

Rigid supportsmay be usedto limit die movementofaihe to prevent excessive deflection a t any point. A rigid sup-

portisnotsatisfactoPywherethennalexpansionmaycause the pipe t o move away from the support On the two types of rigid mpports shown in figue 8-12, the rise of the turbine CoNKctiOn due to temperatrire may lift the base elbow from the support so the tiabine would have t o suppat the weight of the pipe. nie expansion of the vertical mn of pipe would relieve the pipe hanger o f its ioad so the Mbine would again have t o
suppattheweightofthepipe.

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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Table 8-2 Temperature Rangesfor Forcesand Moments

Figure 8-12
DEAD WEIGHT SUPPORT
If an expansion joint with restraint ''ngtierodsisused, either a rigid pipe hanger o r a bitse elbow w i t h a siidhg oc rolling contact surface may be used as shown m f i m 8-13. When the thrustdue toan expansionjointis less than the exhaust flange limits and no resminhg tie rods are used, the pipe shwld have an anchor as shown in Figure 8-14. Since this condition rarely exists, it i s better t o use the pn?fdarrange.mentsasshownin figure 8-13 andeliminate as mpch pipe reaction aspossiilerather rhanjustsiay withinthelimits. spnnghangersorsupportsare best suited t o carry the dead weight when thereis thermai e x p s i o n to be considered. n i e movement of the pipe may change the spring tension or compression a sma amount, and the banger loadings snaii amount, but may n o t remove the i d fmm the banger. Pubiished manuals oc1 pipe design provide infonnatimon hangerspacingtogivepoper suppost Ia

'Ihe btrbine manufmurershonldbecoI1sulted toassure that the turbine car^ withstand forces and moments which wiU be imposed by Cdd-spning piping in the cald condih . Auihorired EngineeringInformation 6-21-1979.

8.4.5 FoicesDuetoDeadWeigM nie dead weight of the pipmg should be ea~tireiysup


pmcdbypipehangersorsupports.Therearebasicallytwo -rigid and m g . Rigid supports types Of necesSay*=t e d expansion joint is used

additiontothis,itmaybefoundnecessarytoaddadditioaal

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1991

6470247 0524340 715

SM 23-1991
Page 41
Where:

Resuitant fme (pounds) a t the CMnection. mis includes pessure forces Whereunreseauied ' expansion joinis are used except on vertical down exhausts Full vacuum load isallowedon Vertical down exhaust flanges. It is not included as part of the piping load frwn F i g r i r e 8-15:
FR=
FR=-

Figure &14 DEAD WEIGHT SUPPORT WiTH UNRESTRAINED MPANSIONJOINT sqpnts o r mweexisting supports ifresonant vibration appearsinthepiping. Aspring support should not be used to appose the titrust ofanexpansianjointWhcnthepnssureisnmovedh the line, the sping support may e x m a force the same as the expansionjoint ally m ihe opposite direction.
wbigineemg'

8.4.6

thesteam inlet,entraction,andexhaustconnectionsshould

be limited by the following:


8.4.6.1 nie totai resutmt force and t o t a i resuitant moment i mposedon thetucbimat any connection shwldnot exceed the values per Limit 1. 3FR + MR i;5oODe (Limit 1)

Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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Figure 8-13 DEAD WEIGHT SUPPORT W i l H RESTRAINED WPANSION JOINT

MR= Resultant moment (foot-pads) a t Lhe connecth from Figure 8-15 MR=~ M ? + M ~ ~ + M ? De = Nominal pipe sizeof ihe conne~tion in inches ~p to eight inches in diameter. For sizes greater than this, use a vaiue of De = 3
VERTICAL

Fy

/ '

/ '
///

Il
z+
l I

6-21-1979.

AlkWable Fomes and Moments on Steam Turbines

Figure 8-15 COMPONENTS OF FORCES AND MOMENTS ON TURBINE CONSTRUCTION. POSiTiVE MoMENTS ROTATE COUNTERCLOCKWISE WHEN VIEWED LOOKING INTO POSITIVE FORCES
8.4.6.2 The combined iiesdtants o f the f m e s and moments of the inlet, extraction, and exhaust connections, resolved at the centerlines of the exhaust conndon should not exceed the vaiues per Limit 2.

'Ibefcesandmantntsachgonstcamairbinesduem

a . These resultant should not exceed: 2Fc +h f cI =OD,


Where:

(Limit 2)

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STD.NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1971 I 6470247 0524343 b 5 L

tion,aaexhaust~gsuptoamiue

of 9 inches in iameer. For values beyond this. use a value of Dcquai to:

85 DRAINPIPING

IndividualdrainpipmgshOuldbe~withsbiiton
valvesortraps.
Authorired a nee ring Lnf#maEkn 11-14-1985.

8. LEAK-OFFS L e a k 4 should be piped dhxtly to an Opern iidn ventedtotheatmosphexew i b o u t v a h r e s o r a ~ to a combsue recway system. The pipe sixmid be adequately sized to avoid pmsure bdup. AuthociredEngineeiinqInformatian . 11-14-1965.
8.7 FULLFLOWREUEF VALVE
Thetnrbinecasingaadmtanalpartsshdbcp.otected

a~texcesSivep.essinrebytheinstallaaon ' of afu-fow relief valve. The relief valve is connected into tht piping system between the aubiueexhaustconnectieo and the nrst shutd valve. niis relief valve should not be coafused with the sentbel warning valve whichwhcn sup pli& is maunteon the Mbine casing. The full-flow relief device should be provided by the user aspart of the piping mstallationwhich iswrtanal to the tulbme. In COILdtLIsm * g appiicaoioar,a f a n f l o wdicf valve o r nipun disc may be pm&d as plin of the
c-thttiirbiat. The size o f the r n - hdevice diaildbe such that it willexhausttotheatm~the~mn<Ipansityof

( a s . bytheabinemanufrictunr)whidi wiupassthroughthe~~withmaxmnimiinitial

steamconditions.

For condensrn * g sabines, the full-flow device should give full relief a t no more than 10 psi POkni (3allge)l. Fot exlmtion Mbines ur b a c k tuhiDe& the fall-flow relief device shopldapen at 10psi om) Q 10 ~t(whichcvcrisgrtaoa)abovetbemaxmiunwrtasction~armaxmiumexhaastpresnnie.Therew device shalt give full relief atm mae thsn 10 pacent abovethe"start-to-open" pcwsure. fthehigh-~-pessweorhighextractimorIiriminnirn ~tripisfirmishedthereucfdevicepiesarresshopld braised 5 ppi 135 &(gaugc)l a n d t h C b i @ - ~ j ~ ~ + sr~e trip should be set at the above sure.

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Combined resultant ofinlet,extraction, and exhaust fcuces, in poiincis. Combined resuIcBnt ofinlet,extract&, and exhaust momeum, and moments resulting 6rom fon!es, in poond-feet Diameser (in inches) o f a circular opening equal tothe t o t a laleas oftheinle&exlrac-

~asde~byapplicabecodesaud~bad= ia.
Authorized Engineering Infomiatkn 11-14-1985.

8.4.6.5 See Sample problems 8 4 B and 8C for examplesof how thesef m and momat limitationsareqplied toturbineinstallati0 -0s.

S T D a N E f l A SM 23-ENGL L991

b470247 0524342 5 9 8

m
SM 23-1991
page 43

2 3 3
4

4 4 4 4 4 4

6 8 6 8 8 1 0

1 2
1 6 1 8
20

4 4 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 6 1 6 1 6 1 6

24 30 3 6 1 2 1 6 1 8
20 2A

316 412 335 427 447 480 511 5 7 5 607 640 7 0 6


804

.904 5 2 4
585

7 9 1 1031 839 1068 1118 1199 1 2 7 7 1 4 3 7 1518 1 6 0 0 1764 2011 2 2 5 9 1309 1 4 6 2

632 825 6 7 1 854


894

1581 2062

3 0 36 1 2 1 6 1 8
20

616 648 712 810 908


540

i n 1
1 6 2 0 1 7 8 1
2025

m i
1351 4 9 5 1571 1 6 4 8 1804
2044

959 1 0 2 2 1150 1 2 1 5 1 2 8 0 1 4 1 1 1609 1807 1047 1 1 7 0 1 2 3 2 1 2 9 6 1 4 2 5 1 6 2 0 1817

1677 2136 2236 2398


2554

2874 3037 3200 3528 4022 4518 2618


2924

1 M 1
11% 1 2 5 7 1318 1 4 4 3 1 6 3 5 1 8 2 9

5 9 8 1
628 659

3081 3240 3562 4050 4541 2702 2991 3 1 4 1 3295

791 1 0 3 1 8 3 9 1068 1 1 1 8 1 1 9 9 1277 1 4 3 7 1518 1600 1764 2011 2259 1 3 0 9 1462 1 5 4 1 16u) 1781
A125

7 9 1 1031 8 3 9 1 0 6 8 1 1 1 8 1 1 9 9 1 2 7 7 1 4 3 7 1 5 1 8 1 6 0 0 1 7 6 4 m11
2259

1309 1 4 6 2 1541 1 6 2 0 1781


2Q25

2 2 7 1 1351 1 4 9 5 1 5 7 1 1648
1804

24 30 3 6 48 1 2 1 6 1 8
20
2r)

722 817 915


1111

3608 4087
4573 5555
2802

3 0 3 6 48 1 8
20

2 . 4
U)

3 6
48

24 30 3 6 48

560 614 643 673 733 8 2 7 923 1117 661 689 747 839 932 1125 7 8 1 867
957

2287 2n8 1401 1 5 3 6 1608 1 6 8 2 1833


2068

2307 2 7 9 3
1651 1722 1868 2096 2331 2812 1952 2167 2 3 9 1 2 8 5 8

2222 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 9 1 2 8 6 1 3 4 5 1 4 6 7 1 6 5 4 1 8 4 5
2234 1 3 2 1 1377 1494 1 6 7 1865
2249

1 1 4 3

1 5 6 1 1733 1913 2287

3072 3216 3363 3667 4135 4614 5586 3303 3444 3736 4193 4662 5623 3904 4333 4783 571 6

2044 2287 2778 1 4 0 1 1536 1608 1682 1833


2068

2 2 7 1 1351 1 4 % 1 5 7 1 1 6 4 8 1804 2044


2287

237 2793 1 6 5 1 1722 1868 20% 2331 2812 1952 2167 2391
2858

2 7 1 8 1 4 0 1 1536 1608 1 6 8 2 1833 u168 2307 2 7 9 3 1651 1 7 2 2 1868


2096

2331 2812 1 9 5 2 2 1 6 7 2 3 9 1 2 8 5 8

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STD.NEMA Sfl 23-ENGL L99L


SM 23-1991 Page 44

bY70247 0524343 4 2 4 IFI

~shauldbenoairpocketsinthegrout.Aftertbegront i s dry, connect the piping, flly tighten the foundatim bolts,and recheck me aiignment. Amixtureof cement and h e sand isnormay usedas grout, 'ihm are other mateaals availabie which bave proven tmxcssM. Care mustbeexcrcisein tbe u s e d matajals whicb expami w h i l e setting, as they may OVQ expaad and prescrit mare of a problem tban mven~onai materials such as cement and sand,w h i c h have atendency to shtmk d&hdy. 8-16 a d 8-17 -t typicai i l s a a h s d a r e ~ t e d o n l as y guide&) Aulhailled Engineering - 1 11-14-1oe5.

aio FLUSHING OIL SYSTEM


When a foxwd-feed lubrication s y s t e m is provided,

prior to the initial start-up in accordance with the


man~srecommendations.
Authorized Engimefing Infomatiori 11-14-1985.

8.10.1 mushing oil shoold be compatiile with the finai airbiae oil.

aios oil should be circulatedtbmgh the entiresystem


as long as necessary to remove or to flush parrialate matter back tothe o i l reservoir. Aperiodic checkof theoil filtas or temporary screens should m e as a guide to detenninewtienmeoil isclean.
Authorized Engineemg Inforniath 11-14-1985.

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flushing of the iubricatbn system should be perfarmed

S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1991

= 6470247 0524344 360


SM 23-1991 Page 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Support Foot Mounting Pad Baseplate Anchor Bolt Anchor Nut Shims Foundation

F i g m8-16 BASEPLATE MOUNTED TURBINE AND DRIVEN EWIPMENT

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S T D I N E M A SM 23-ENGL L99L

H 6470247 05243q5 2T7

SM 23-1991 Page46,

1.

Support Foot

2. Soieplate 3. Hold-down Bolt


4.

Anchor Bolt 5. Anchor Nut

6. Shims

7. Foundation
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Figure 8-17 SOLEPLATE MOUNTED TURBINE AND DRIVEN EQUIPMENT

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STD-NEMA SM 23-ENGL 1791

6470247 0524346 133

m
SM 23-1991 Page 47

mleproMem8A ALLOWABLE FORCES AND MOMENTSON STEAM TURBINES


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(31027)+ 680 5 (soo)(8) 1661S4ooois true so forces aadmomitsoa the inlet flangeare within acptablelimits f a exhaust

2 Check combined R E S U . M f o r aaad moment ON THE ?'U..ZNE Limit 2, Parap&


8.4.62.a.
Fy

&&

Fx= 40-110= -7Olb -100 - 250 = -350 Ib

Fz= - 70 + 180 t +110 lb

I&=
ExhaustFange & = -11Olb Fy= -25olb &= +180lb I&=+XI0 lbft My= +ux) lbft &= +350lb-ft check to see i f these farces and moma@are w i t h
NEMAguidclinea 1 . ~ R E S U L T A N T f ~ d m o m c aONINDIts VIDUAL FLANGES against Limit 1. paragrriph 8.4.6.1.

200+500=+700Ib-ft

M y s 150+300=+450bft
&e - l m + 350 = +230 lbft F&70)z+(-350)z+(110)2-= 373 lb F~~(700)z+(450)2+(230)2 = 863 lb-ft Nominai inlet Flange Area = = 1257 i r ? 4 Nominai~Fl8ngcArea.: = 50.27 Si2 4 T o t a i Fiange Area = 1257 + 50.27 = 6284 in2 Dc= = 8.%in.(Nocozrectiori x ntedtdbwvalues 9 m.aad Smaller.)

m2

m2

~=~(40)2+(-100)2+(-70)z = 128 lb

Allowpbk Foroes and M o m e n t s

Fx= 50&= 447lb F y = 125&= 11181b


Fz=loO&s 8Wlb & = 250&=2236bft M y 125 D c = 1118 l-ft &= 125Dc=1118l-ft

Magnitu~oftheactualforcesandmomentscaicuiate
in P a r t 2 of this problem are lower than the allowable

ExbaustFiange F ~ = ~ ( 1 1 0 ) ~ + ( 2 5 0 ) ~ + ( 1 8 0 ) ' =

327 ib

magnitudescalculatedabove.Therefaile.thecornponen~~ of rhe combined farce and moments on the turbine are WithinNEMAgUidelines. Resultsfrompipts 1,2,&3 o f this problem show that forces and moments imposed by the piping system are
WithinallNEMAgUidelines.

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STD.NEMA
SM 23-1991 Page 48

S I 23-ENGL

L97L

6470247 0524347 07T

Sample Problem88
ALLOWABLE FORCES AND MOMENTS ON STEAM TURBINES
A condensing turbine has a 6 inch side inlet and an 3 6 inch down exhaust. Analysis of the steam piping system pqxsed for the turbine has determined that the components dthe forces and moments imposed on the iniet and exhaustflanges(cxcludingfarceontheexhaust~~due IoprrssureforcesinttKumesaained * expansionjointinthe exhaust line.) will be 8s tabulated below. Inlet Fiange Fr= +901b Fy= -1zolb Fz= + m l b Mx= -350 lb-ft My= +200 lb-ft Mz= +150 Ib-ft

De =

(16+36)=17.33 inches

(3)(2!50)

+ O 500 (17.33)

ExhaustFlange Fx= O F y = -250lb FE= O Mx= O My= O &= O 4 Bellows area far the expansionjoint (obtained from NominalExhaust expansionjoint manufacturer) is 1030 square inches. Fiange Area =zQ&hJ2 = 1017.9 in2 Resure f m &vel@ by full vacuum in the expan4 sionpintis: T o t a l Flange Area = 23.3 + 1017.9 = 1046.2 ia (1030 = 15,141 Ib (14.7 This is additional force in the -Ydirection. Check t o see if thest forces and moments are within NEMAguidelines. 1. ~ k ~ U L T ~ f ~ ~ d r n ~ e n t s 0 N ~ ~ I Dc = 3 i = 18.166 in. VIDUAL FLANGES against Limit 1, Paragraph 3 8.4.4 1. 2Fc+Mc525oDc Limit2 (2) (456) +4301250(18.166) inlet Flange s me so the resultant forces and 1342s4542 i F ~ = ~ ( ! W ) 2 + ( 1 S 0 ) 2 + ( 2 0 0 ) ' = 2 6 6 lb moments are within NEMA guiWines. M~=d(-350)~+(+C200)~+(150)~ =430 lb-ft 3. Check the COMPONENTS of the cunbined foi.ces and moments ON THE lU..LVE against values & = 6 inches (No correction needed for flanges 8" and smaller.) calculated per Paragraph 8.4.6.2.b. 3FR+mS500& Limit1 From calculations in part 2 ,i k = 18.166 in. (3)(266) + 430 5 (500)(6) 1228S3 i s true so facesand momentson the inlet flange are within NEMA guidelines. AUowable Forces and Momenis Fx= 50Dc= 908lb Mx= w)Dc=4541Ib-ft Fy=125Dc=2271lb My= 125Dc=2271lb-ft ExhaustFange Fz= 100Dc= 18171b &= 125&=2271bft FR excludingpressweforce = Magnicudesoftheactuaifonwaad~cntscalailated d(0)2+(-250)2+(O)2 = 250 lb in Part 2 of this problem are l o w e r than the dowable MR= d(0)2+(o,2+(O)2'=O ib magnitudes calculated above. 'brefore, the c u m -

750 S8665istniesoforcesandmomentsoathecxhaustfiangearewithinNEMAguidelines. 2 Checkcombined RESJLTANTfacesandm~meat ON THE TURBINE against Limit 2 , Pamgmph 8.4.6.2.a Fx= W+O= 901b Fy = -150 - w ) = 4 0 0 Ib Fz= 200+0=200lb M x = -350 + O = -350 lb-ft My= 2OO+O=ux)lb-ft I&= 150+0=15OIb-ft F&O)2+(400)z+(2Ml)2 =456 Ib &d(-350)2+(200)2+(1S0)2= 430 b-fi . Nominai inlet Fiange Area = =2 8 . 3 in2

m2

in3

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Copyright National Electrical Manufacturers Association Provided by IHS under license with NEMA No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL

1971

b470247 0524348 TOb 9

SM 23-1991 Page 49
of I k canbined fotces and Inomem on the turbine are
WilhinNEhwgindClimes 4. aiecktoralformthetiabineexhaustfange against h e limit pes jtaragrapb 8.4.6.3. paragraph 8.4.6.3 statts that fame on the exhaust flangc should not exceed 15-112 times the nominai

T o t a l force on the exhaust fhnge is the vector total


of pressme farce from iheexparrsionjoint and the facescaicukd with force excluded. T o t a l farce = -15,141 - w)=-15391Ib Results from parts 1.2.3 and4 ofthispmblm show that forces and moments imposed by the piping system are within ail NEMA guideiines.

Cxhaustarea (1017.9 in5 = i s m ~b

(i5-w)

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL L99L

M 6470247 0524347 742

Sample Problem8C ALLOWABLE FORCES AND MOMENTS FOR A TURBINE WITH FOUR EXTRACTION OPENINGS
Strofoprneei
(UI 1 1 -

ms<ruuc~-)
1 5 3 . 9 4 7 8 . 5 4

Ara of o p e a h l p

Inlet 1 4 EXamiQn#l 1 0

Equivalent Diameter = 1 5 3 . 0 4 Eiches Equivalent Dhmem m u s t be corrected when value exceeds9inches . D c= =5 7 . 0 1 inches
* 3

Extraction#2 8 50.26 Extraction#3 1 6 2 0 1 . 0 6 ExtracrionM 30 7 0 6 . 8 6 E;xhaust 148 1 7 2 0 3 . 4 0 F m d the diameter ofa circular opening equal to the total
8ceB

F x = 50(57.01) = 2851 lb Fy= 125(57.01)= 71261b F z= 100 (57.01)= 5701 lb

Calculate maximum allowable forces and moments

Equivalent Diameter = 4 I133.W78.54+50.26+20 1.W7.86+1'1203.40)


It

M y = 125 (57.01)= 7126lb-ft M z = 125 ( 5 7 . 0 1 )= 7126 lb-ft

Mx = 250 (57.01)= 14253 lb-ft

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S T D * N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1991

b470247 0524350 bb4

SM 23-1991 Page 51

-Section9 OPERATION AND MNNTENANCE


9.1 INTRODUCTION T o ensure thatthe turbine receivestbe caeand artention necessary and dfor this type of equipment, specific

9.4

iastnictionswithrespecttostartingup,shuaingdown,and routine operation shouid be provided by the mufacturet in the instruction manual fumisbed with the airbine.
Authtnized Engineeringk\fom\rmon . 11-14-1985.

9 s opmnoN T h e following should be @vencareful consideration by


hopaator: 1 . The steam supplied t o the turbine should be free of debris. T o ensure maximum protection, steam lines shouid be blown prior to Starting. 2. l h e steam turbine operator shouldbe aware of the hazards associated with ccmtaminatioa of the p m cess steam with agents which p r o m o t e stress

sim Cracking. 3. Avoid slugs of w a t e r and unduly wet steam. 4. Avoid great or sudden fluctuationsin pressure and temperamre of steam supply. 5. proMbeanadequatesuppiyofcleanwaterfreef?om acid or scale forming impurities for oil m l e r s ,air cooexs and the gand ccmdensing system. 6. Provide lubricating oil of proper quality and characwtics, including i n i t i a l flushing change. 7. Maintain a log of aperating conditions, including steam i n i a pressures and t e m m stage pressures, oii pressures, exhaust pres~ures,whition, and 50 fimdi. This is m it in predicting and scheduling inspection outages. 8. Check trip valves o r trip and throttle valve for Operation. ----9. c h e c k o v e a s p e e d t r i p a t ~ intervals. 10. Check auxiliary oil pumps.
e

TYPICAL STARTING SEQUENCE FOR A S T E A M TURBINE 1. Open exhaust shut off valve. 2. Sfartcoolingwater. 3. Startlubri&onoilsyStem. 4. Startsteamsealsystem. 5. Opmcasedrains. 6. S& or m e t aip valve. 7. crack open isolating valve. 8. Aowcasingtoheatup. 9. Slowly upen isolating valve und governor Eakts control (observe manufacturers instructions re nard inn critical^. 10. h y &en isoladng ;alve. 11. Adjust governor speed. 12. closecasingdrains. 13. M o n i t o r turbine operation untii stable operation is achieved
~

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Authorized Engineering Information 11-14-1985.

9.5 MAINTENANCE 9.5.1 Introduction inspection and &ce should follow manuf~auws ioseuCtions. Frequency of inspection and degree of thoroughnessmay vary a n d a have tobe determhed by the mainteamce personnel: The foilowing is a typical maintenance program:

D a i l y
1. V i y inspect turbine for extemai damage and leaks. 2 Check oil level in resewoirand governor. 3. Check for unusual vibration and noise levels. 4. Check oil temperatureand p r e s s & . weekly 1. Check operation of auxiliary oil pump, if applicable. 2 . Check operation of ail shut down devices. 3. Check that shafts are fite of oil or grease. 4. E x m i s e the tnp valve. Monthly 1. Check overspeed governor. 2 Check foundation bolts for tighmess. 3. Checkoiandlter.
AMU~IY Shut down the turbine and perfom the following: 1. Remove and clean steam strainer. 2. Check shaft seals f aw e a r .

Aurhwued EngineeringInurmebjon 11-14-1985.

9.3

NONCONDENSINGTURBINE OPERA..N OF A MULTlsTAGECONDENSING TURBINE Noncondensing operation o f a multistage condensing turbine is not recommended unies approved by the manu f i u m n x . High exhaust pressme and temperanne can cause last stage blade flutter,Casing distortion and damage and misalignment w i t h driven machines. An mcrease m exhaust temperature and pressure may also afect pipiig farces. (Seepiping f o a calcuiationS given in Section 8.)
Authorized Engineering Information 11-14-1985.

3. Check thrust bearing end piay.


4. Remove sentinel warning valve and check for

proper operation.

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b b470247 0524353 5T0 9

SM 23-1991 Paga 52
5.
6. 7.

berter to prevent tbe bu&i up of sotids than t o bave to removedepositsaf'tertheybavefonnexL AuihorizedEngineehgInfomiabon . 11-14-1985.
9.7 STEAMPURITY Steam nub& users should be a m ob the hazards associated with contamination of tbe steam by agents which migtproniote stms cQnDGLos1 crackiag. solids baiM up. eosirm, and corroaioa. conmmiaan@wichris sodium, bydroxicks. chIodes, sulfates. copper.Itab and sjlicacesmayresult inshoateaedturbineiifeand f a i h a e d iutunalpar&s of the turbine. Since it is not possible to prescnbc the &grce of c o a thatsteamnirine~cantoleratem order t o achieve the iong l i f e expected of intemalturbine canponcnts,onlyg~gui&lin~caIlbeoffd Farsmalllow~applications,~mayaperate taisfactorily on steam havingpnity .limitssetby . see~=lethe A m e & m l 3 o i l e r ~ ~ 9-1.

8.

9.

. .

Auhized~neeringinfomiaiiar . 11-14-1985.

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S T D - N E M A SM 23-ENGL L77L

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SM 23-1991
Page 53

Table 9-1 WATERTUBE BOILERS RECOMMENDED BOILER WATER UMil'S AND ASSOCIATED STMM PURITY AT STEADY WATE FULL
LOAD OPERATION DRUM TYPE BOILERS

0-300
3014% 451-600 601-79 751-900 901-1Ooo

0-2068
2069-3103 3104-4137 4138-5171 5172-6206 6207-6895

700-3500 600-uxx) 5002500

140-700 12O-600 1CNMM

#)(11OOO
150- 750 125- 625

4 0 m
30-150 25-125

15 10 8 3 2 1

0.2 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.2 1.0 0.1 - 0 5 0.1 - 0 5 0.1 05

Table 9-2 SEAM PURITY- LIMITS

conductivity-

Micn>mhoslcm at Z 0 C
Dnun
nce dirough

0 . 3
0.2

SiO, ppb. max Fe,ppb, m a Cu, max

20
20 3

e,

1.o 0.5 50 50 10

Na+K,ppb,Up to 800 psi [5516kPa (gauge)] 801 to 1450 psi 15517 t o 9998 kPa(gauge)] 1451 to 2400 psi [9999 to 16548 kPa(gauge)] Over 24O psi [over 16548 kPa(gauge)]

2 0
10 5 3

20 10 5
3

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S T D g N E M A SM 23-ENGL 1791 I 6470247 0524353 373

SM23-1991 pases

Section 10 INQUIRY GUIDE (Authorized Engineering Information)


Job No. Item No. inquiry order No. pinrchase Chder N o .
R e v i s i m

Sk. savice ManuEacMa

No. Required:
Driven Equip.

Model

GearYesJNo

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sM23-1991

Page 56

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m u t
Mamifactunr'sstandard

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SM23-1991 Page 57

Factory Tests

Hydo test No-load running test DynamiCbalancerotor

site utilities cooling w8t#:


coding wata: Electrid supply:

N O M

other
d d c

F r e s h Tempcracurephase phase pressiire

Conml(s)

Motaro
Air Supply
Site Environment Ambient tempexatwe Elevation

volts volts

Brackish

Hz Hz

M a x i m m

M i n i m m

Environment Rdection at Site (Sor i ) Enclosed SheltfXd


other

outdooa

For monthss!crragepriortowartup S = Storage


I = Installation

Remarks

Drawings and Data to be Supplied


certifiedoutlinedrawings

Recommendedspanpamlist Instnicdonbooks other

No.

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MA

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