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. . , .. , ..

2006

004.4 (075.8)
32.973 - 018.2 73
47

:
,
. . ..

..
47
: -.
. . .
./ .. , .. , .. . .: ,
2006. 26 .: .
ISBN 985-444-959-9
, ()
.
004.4 (075.8)
32.973 - 018.2 73

ISBN 985-444-959-9

.. ..,
.., 2006
, 2006


1.
..... 4
1.1. .... 4
1.2. . 7
1.3. ... 8
2.
.... 10
2.1. . 10
2.2. .. 15
2.3. . 16
3.
... 16
3.1. .... 16
3.2. ... 20
3.3. . 22
4. ........ 23
4.1. ..... 23
4.2. ... 25
4.3. .. 25
... 25

1


.
1.1.
-
, . - , .
( ) xa (t ) , , t < t < t , x < x < x .
, , ,
(. 1.1).

x (nt d ) ,

x x x , n , , n = 0,1,... ; t d ; f d = 1 / t d
. : x (n ) , xn , , {x (nt d )}, ,
, t = nt d (. 1.2).
.
,
. ,
- .

x (nt d ) , .. , h1 , h2 ,..., hk , n 0,1,... .
, ,
. K
s s int (log 2 K ) .
,
xa (t ) x (nt d ) , x (nt d ) = x a (nt d ) .
4

,
x (nt d ) xa (t ) , x (nt d ) > xa (t ) .

( ) .
,

.

xa(t)
)

xk=1
t

tk

x=-1
. 1.1.

x(ntd)

. 1.2.
(- ) , x (nt d )
x (nt d ) , x (nt d ) > x (nt d )
x (nt d ) = x (nt d ) , n = 0,1,...

, x (nt d )

x (nt d ) , x (nt d ) > x (nt d ) , x (nt d ) = x (nt d ) .

, . , () , , () .
, , , ,
.
, ,
.
:

u (n) = (i) ,
(1.1)
i =

(n) = u (n) u (n 1) .

(1.2)


N , n x(n ) = x(n + N ) .
, y
x , y(n ) = x(n n0 ) , n .

:

x ( n) =

x(k ) ( n k ) .

k =

(1.3)

-.
() .
,
( ).
, .

,
< t <

x(t ) = x(t + mT ) ,

(1.4)

m ;
T .
:

x(t ) = A cos(0t + 0 ) ,

(1.5)

A, 0 , 0 , 0 = 20 .
(
).
1.2.

1. .
2.

2 f n

+ ,
x(n) = A sin
N

(1.6)

A ;
N = 512, 1024, 2048;
n = 0 N -1;
;
f ;
) A f .
, . A , , f -

(. 1.1);
) A f .
, . A , , f
(. 1.2);
) f A .
, . A , , f
(. 1.3).

3.

2 f j n

x(n) = A j sin
+ j ,
N

j =1
k

(1.7)

A j j- ;
N = 512, 1024, 2048;
n = 0 N -1;

j j- ;
fj

j- ;

k .
A , , f (. 1.4). A j , f j j , .
1.3.

1.1

.
1
2
3
4
5
6

10
5
8
6
7
9

2
1
4
3
5
4

.
1
2
3
4
5
6

/6
/2
/3
/6
0
3 / 4

/4
3 / 4
2 / 3
/2
/3
2

/2
0
/4
0
/6

/4
/6
2

/3

0
3 / 4
/2
/6

1.2

1
2
3
4
5
6

3
1
4
8
5
7

/2

0
/4
3 / 4
/6

.
1
2
3
4
5
6

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

5
1
8
2
1
4

4
3
1
4
5
8

2
2
5
3
11
2

6
4
4
7
6
1

3
10
9
5
3
9

1.3

.
1
2
3
4
5
6

1
4
2
5
3
7

/2

.
1
2
3
4
5
6

0
/4
3 / 4
/6

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

2
3
8
2
1
4

3
5
3
2
2
5

6
10
2
8
11
3

5
4
1
3
4
1

1
8
4
1
2
7

1.4
1

Aj

fj

Aj

fj

1
2
3
4
5

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
3
4
5

0
/4
/6
2

1
2
3
4
5

5
5
5
5
5

1
2
3
4
5

/9
/4
/3
/6

Aj

fj

Aj

fj

1
2
3
4
5

3
3
3
3
3

1
2
3
4
5

/4
3 / 4
2 / 3
/2
/3

1
2
3
4
5

6
6
6
6
6

1
2
3
4
5

/6
/2
/3
/9

Aj

fj

Aj

fj

1
2
3
4
5

9
9
9
9
9

1
2
3
4
5

/2
0
/4
/3
/6

1
2
3
4
5

7
7
7
7
7

1
2
3
4
5

/4
0
3 / 4
/2

.
2.1.

() . , , . , ,
, , ,
, , , , , .
. :
() .
,
.
:
1. ,
.
2. .
3. , .
() , . , ,
, m - .
.
.
( ). . : (, ); ; (
).
, , ,
.
10

.
.
1. .
2. .
( ). , .
.
( ):
:
x x(t ) ,
t x(t ) T = Nt :

1 N 1
1T
x = x(t )dt ; x =
x(n ) .
T0
N n =0

(2.1)

, :

2
() x x(t ) ,
2
t x (t )
T :

1 N 1 2
1T 2
2
x = x (t )dt ; x =
x (n ) .
T0
N n =0
2

(2.2)

Dx x(t )

x(t ) x T :

N 1

1T
1 N 1
2 1
Dx = ( x(t ) x )2 dt ; D x =
(x(n) x ) = x(n ) .

T0
N n=0

N n=0

(2.3)

:

. ,
.
11


.
:
R xx ( ) x(t )
T , t t + :

1 N 1
1T
Rxx ( ) = x(t )x(t + )d ; R xx (K ) =
x(i )x(i + K ) .
T0
N i =0

(2.4)

.
:
,
x(t ) , ,
, .
:
P( x ) ,
t x(t ) x(t ) x .

x

P(x ) =

p(u )du .

(2.5)

:
p( x ) x(t )

p(x ) =

P ( x, w )
,
w

(2.6)

P( x, w) x(t ) w
x .
:
.
, -.
X ( f ) x(t ) ,
, f ,

X(f )=

x(t ) e

12

i 2ft

dt .

(2.7)

, x(t ) , X ( f ) . x(t ) X ( f )

x(t ) =

X ( f )e

i 2ft

df .

(2.8)

X ( f ) x(t )
. X ( f )

X ( f ) = Re( X ( f )) i Im( X ( f )) ,

Re( X ( f )) =

x(t ) cos 2ftdt

; Im( X ( f )) =

(2.9)

x(t ) sin 2ftdt ,

(2.10)

2
i i = 1.
x(t ) T ,
X ( f ) () .
T

X t ( f ) = X ( f , T ) = x(t )e i 2ft dt .

(2.11)

.
:
x(t ) .
x(t ) , (0, T ) , T , :
) , -;
) ;

a0
x(t ) =
+ an cos( 2nft ) + bn sin( 2nft ) .
2 n =1
n =1

(2.12)

f = 1 / T ( ).

13

2T
2T
an = x(t ) cos(2nft ) dt ; bn = x(t ) sin(2nft ) dt .
T0
T0

(2.13)

, (2.12) :

a0
ei 2nft + e i 2nft
ei 2nft + e i 2nft
x(t ) =
+ an
+ bn
=
i
2 n =1
2
2
n =1

a0 an ibn int an + ibn int


=
+
e
+
e
,
2 n =1
2
2

(2.14)

an ibn
1T
= x(t )e i 2nft dt ,
T0
2

(2.15)

an + ibn
1T
= x(t )e i 2nft dt ,
T0
2

(2.16)

a ibn
a + ibn
, Cn = n
; C n = n
,
2

x(t ) =

cn eint ,

n =

(2.17)

1
1
Re(Cn ) = an ; Re(C n ) = an ,
2
2

(2.18)

1
1
Im (C n ) = bn ; Im (C n ) = b n .
2
2

(2.19)


, .
14

2.2.

1. .
2.

2 n
x(n) = sin
,
N

(2.20)

N = 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048 ;

n = 0... M .
M K 2N , 8 M = N 1. K (. 2.1).
x(n ) () :
)

X =

1 M
[x(i )]2 ,

M + 1 i =0

(2.21)

)
2

X =

1 M
2 1
.
[
]
[
]

x
(
i
)
x
(
i
)

M +1

M + 1 i =0
i =0

(2.22)

= 0,707 X .

(2.23)

M .
3. . 2 ,

2 n

+ ,
x( n) = sin
N

(2.24)

, (. 2.1).

15

2.3.

2.1

3N
4

N
4

3N
4

N
4

N
4

32

16

N
4
2
3

,
.
3.1.

,
.. , , ().
,
, ,
.
x(n ) N , ..
x(n ) = x(n + kN ) k . x(n ) , ..
,
2 / N .
N , N .
i 2 nk
e N
k N
i 2nk
i 2nN
e N =e N ,
16

i 2nk
i 2n ( N +1)
N
e N =e

(3.1)

..,

N
,

r = 0,1,2,..., N 1 , 2 / N . x(n ) N :

1 N 1
x (n) =
x ( R )e 2nk .

N k =0

(3.2)

i 2
Wn = e N ,

x( R) =

N 1

n =0

x ( n) =

x (n)WN n

1 N 1
R
x(R )WN n .

N R =0

(3.3)

(3.4)

(3.3) (3.4) , N
N
.
X (R ) , (3.3) R = 0,..., N 1
, ,
R (3.3). . X (R ) .
.

, .
:

2 N 1
2nR
x(n) cos
Re( x( R )) =
;

N n =0
N

(3.5)

2 N 1
2nR
x( n) sin
Im( x( R )) =
,

N n=0
N

(3.6)

R = 0,1,2,..., M ,
17

x ( n) =

2nR
2nR
Re( x( R )) cos
,
+ Im( x( R )) sin
N
N

R =0

(3.7)

M = N / 2 , N , M = ( N 1) / 2 , N .

Re( x( R )) = Re( x ( R )) ; Im( x( R )) = Im( x ( R )) .

(3.8)

, .
. N , .

TSIN (I ) = A sin 2 I / N ,

(3.9)

I = 0,..., N 1;
TSIN N ;
A , A=1 2.
sin( 2nR / N )
, nR .

,
( nR + N / 4) mod N .
. 2.1.
R
N . (Re)
(Im) R - . N , ""
00000111...n ,
l = log 2 N , 1
.

18

k;x(i);i=0,
N=1

Re=0;
Im=0;

i=0;ss=0;
sc=N/4;

Re=Re+x(i)Tsin[sc]
Im=Im+x(i)Tsin[ss]

i=i+1

i<N

ss=(ss+k)mod N

Re=Re/(A*N)
Im=Im/(A*N)

sc=(sc+k)mod N

Re;Im

. 2.1.
. , . , , :

l = l g + li + ln + 1 ,

(3.10)

19

1 ;
l g
;
li
.

log 2 A
li =
int(log 2 A + 0,5)

ln = log 2 N , N

, A
, A

(3.11)

,
.
.
(3.3) ,
().
.

3.2.

1.
)
, :

2 N 1
2ji
Acj =
x(i ) cos
;

N i =0
N

(3.12)

2 N 1
2ji
x(i ) sin
;

N i =0
N

(3.13)

Asj =

Aj =

2
2
Acj
+ Asj
;

(3.14)

Asj

Acj .

(3.15)

j = arctg

20

:
- x (i ) , i = 0,..., N 1 ;
- N ;
- j , .
:
- Acj ;
- Asj ;
- A j ;
- j .
sin cos .

(. 3.1). ;
) :

y (i ) =

N
1
2

2ji

A j cos
j ,
N

j =0

(3.16)

i = 0,..., N 1 .
x(i ) y (i ) .
2.
)

x(i ) =

30

2ji

j ,
N

B j cos

j =1

(3.17)

N =128,256,512,1024;
B j j -
(. . 3.1);
j j - (. . 3.1).

N
A j , j , j = 1,..., 1 ;
2

21

)
N
1
2

2ji
y (i ) = 0 + A j cos
j .
2

N
j =1

(3.18)

;
)
:
N
1
2

A
2ji
y (i ) = 0 + A j cos
.
2
N

j =1

(3.19)

3.3.

3.1
.

2i
x(i ) = 10 cos

{1,3,5,8,10,12,16}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

2i

x(i ) = 10 cos
2
N

{1,2,5,7,9,13,18}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

2 10i
x(i ) = 20 cos

{1,3,4,10,11,14,17}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

2 20i
x(i ) = 100 cos

4
N

{2,3,5,9,10,12,15}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

2i 3
x(i ) = 30 cos

4
N

{3,5,6,8,10,13,16}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

2i

x(i ) = 50 cos
3
N

{1,5,7,8,9,10,17}

3
, , , , ,
6 4 3 2 4

6
22

, , .
4.1.

,
,
,
, .
.
. i -
( )

1 j =i + m
xi =
xj ,
K j =i m

(4.1)

K () (-

);
x j j - ;
m =

K 1
.
2

, , , , :

xi =

1
(5 xi 3 30 xi 2 + 75xi 1 + 131xi + 75 xi +1 30 xi + 2 + 5 xi + 3 ) ; (4.2)
231
xi =

xi =

1
(15 xi 4 55 xi 3 + 30 xi 2 + 135 xi 1 + 179 xi +
429
+ 135 xi +1 + 30 xi + 2 55 xi + 3 + 15 xi + 4 );

1
(18 xi 5 45 xi 4 10 xi 3 + 60 xi 2 + 120 xi 1 + 143xi +
429
+ 120 xi +1 + 60 xi + 2 10 xi + 3 45 xi + 4 + 18 xi + 5 );

(4.3)

(4.4)
23

1
(110 xi 6 198 xi 5 135 xi 4 + 110 xi 3 + 390 xi 2 + 600 xi 1 +
2431
(4.5)
+ 677 xi + 600 xi +1 + 390 xi + 2 + 110 xi + 3 135 xi + 4 198 xi + 5 + 110 xi + 6 ).
xi =

15-
:

xi =

1
( 3 xi 7 6 xi 6 5 xi 5 + 3 xi 4 + 21xi 3 + 46 xi 2 + 67 xi 1 + 74 xi +
320
3xi + 7 6 xi + 6 5 xi + 5 + 3xi + 4 + 21xi + 3 + 46 xi + 2 + 67 xi +1 ) .
(4.6)


.
.
N , N ,
,
, , .
, N / 2 , .
,
.
. . N ( N ) ,
K ( K < N ).
,
N 1
K
2
1
xi =
xm .
N 2K
N 1
m =i
+K
2
i+

(4.7)

,
.

24

4.2.

1. :

2ij
2i 70

x(i ) = B1 sin
,
+ ( 1) j B2 sin
N
N j =50

(4.8)

B1 >> B2 ;

j , 0 1 ;
N = 512 ;1024 ;2048 ;
.
2. .
3. x(i ) :
- (. . 4.1);
- ;
-
(. 4.1).
.
4. .
4.3.

4.1
.

1. ., .
. .: , 1978.
2. .., .. . .:
. , 2000.
3. . - . .: ,
1965.
4. .., .. . .:
, 1979.
25

. 2006, . 58

..
30.05.2006. 6084 1/16.
.
.
.-. . 1,3.
100 .

.
. . . 1,74.
167.

:

02330/0056964 01.04.2004. 02330/0131518 30.04.2004.
220113, , . , 6
26