Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 193

HOLHA

TBOH JKOHOMHHLCKHH HAPTHLP


BAPHABA 2OO6
H3AHO MHHHCTLPCTBOM JKOHOMHKH B COTPVHHHLCTBL
C HHCTHTVTOM KOH1KHKTVPL H JLH BHLHHLH TOPIOBH
MATLPHAL HOIOTOBLHL HHCTHTVTOM KOH1KHKTVPL H JLH
BHLHHLH TOPIOBH
Copyriglt ly nstytut Koniunltur i Cen Hanulu Zagranicznego, Warszawa 2006
HHCTHTVT KOH1KHKTVPL H JLH BHLHHLH TOPIOBH
nstytut Koniunltur i Cen Hanulu Zagranicznego
04-028 Warszawa, Al. Stanow Zjeunoczonycl 53, Honima
tel.: (48) (0-22) 813-46-50, 813-51-86, 813-46-40
!ax: (48) (0-22) 813-53-74
e-mail: loniultilclz.pl
lttp://www.ilclz.pl
SBN 83-89897-13-X
3
Veawaeoe :unane:u!
Ja npoueuue 17 :en e Ho:tue npousou:u ucnopu:ecrue usenenu. Lo:u nocnpoeno ocnoeo
pono:nou aronouru, yrpenu:oct sna:enue :acnnoeo cernopa. Ho:tua onrpo:act na up u arnueno
er:m:u:act e upoeym aronoury. Bcnynu:a e BTO, OJCP, HATO u Eeponeucruu coms. Ho:nonpaeno
::eno Eeponeucroeo comsa Ho:tua cna:a c 1 a 2004 e.
Ho:tcrue xosucneymue cyoerno na:a:u ycneuno paoonant na euno eeponeucro ponre.
Hoeu:uct noeoe eosownocnu : npunora npox unocnpannox uneecnuuuu e Ho:tuy rar us
Eeponeucroeo comsa, nar u us npentux cnpan.
B noc:enue eoo eawneuuu qarnopo, cnuy:upymu aronou:ecruu pocn Ho:tuu, cna:
oocnpo pacnyuu arcnopn. Hpeno:aeaenc, :no e o:uwauuee epe pocn no:tcrou aronouru
coxpanunc narwe, o:aeoap ece oo:ee eocoroy enynpenney nonpeo:enum u one:ecneenno
uneecnuuu.
C na:a:a 90-x eooe pacnen unnepec sapyoewnox npenpunuane:eu r cyecneymu e Ho:tue
eosownocn u yc:oeu eeenu xosucneennou ene:tnocnu, e no :uc:e r uneecnupoeanum.
V:unoea anon unnepec, nau Hncnunyn, na:una c 1992 eoa, eweeono paspaoanoeaen u usaen
unqopauuonnou cnpaeo:nur o Ho:tue. B usanuu coepwunc unqopauu o npaeoeox acnernax
y:pewenu qup, uneecnupoeanu, nopre no:y:enu ronueccuu na eeenue xosucneennou
ene:tnocnu, o cyecneymux na:oeax, nou:unax, no:owenux npyoeoeo saronoane:tcnea,
npaeu:ax npuoopenenu neeuwuocnu, a narwe o ue:o pe pyeux eawnox eonpocoe, ronopoe
neooxouo snant, :nooo eecnu e Ho:tue ceou ousnec. B cnpaeo:nure coepwanc narwe ocnoenoe
annoe o cnpane u ee aronoure.
Haeec, :no nau unqopauuonnou cnpaeo:nur noowen Ba e na:awueanuu u paseunuu
aronou:ecroeo conpynu:ecnea c no:tcruu napnnepau. e:ae Ba ycnexoe e anou ene:tnocnu.
Pouap Muxa:tcru
upernop Hncnunyna ronmnrnypo u uen
eneuneu nopeoe:u
4
Honima
5
COEPXAHHE
I. OEuHE CBEEHHR......................................................................................................7
1. Ieoiaqnnecioe nonoenne..........................................................................................................7
2. Knnxa+ ...........................................................................................................................................8
3. Hacenenne n x:ii ..........................................................................................................................8
4. Honn+nnecinn c+on .....................................................................................................................9
5. Ten+onaninoe (enenne ............................................................................................................9
II. HOLuA B EBPOHE H B MHPE............................................................................12
1. Mec+o Honimn n xnonon iionoxnie .......................................................................................12
2. Hnenc+no n xe(ynao(nix oiann:annxx n nnc+n+y+ax.........................................................13
3. Honima n Lnonenciox com:e....................................................................................................18
III. 3KOHOMHHECKOE PA3BHTHE H EIO HEPCHEKTHBL ..............................24
1. Jionoxnneciax cn+yannx Honimn.............................................................................................24
2. 3ay6enie onenin nonicion iionoxnin.................................................................................31
3. Hecnei+nni iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx Honimn
n cne+e C+a+einn a:nn+nx c+ani na 2OO7-2O15 ii. ................................................................32
IV. PECVPCL H HHmPACTPVKTVPA...........................................................................36
1. Pinoi +y(a.................................................................................................................................36
2. Hno(nie ecyci....................................................................................................................41
3. Hon:no(c+nennie qon(i..........................................................................................................42
4. Jionoxnneciax nnqac+yi+ya................................................................................................43
5. Oiyammax ce(a .....................................................................................................................48
6. Hoiannnnie neexo(i..............................................................................................................5O
V. OCHOBHLE OTPACH 3KOHOMHKH..................................................................52
1. Hoximnennoc+i........................................................................................................................52
2. C+on+enic+no .............................................................................................................................62
3. Cenicioe xo:xnc+no .....................................................................................................................62
4. Toionnx ......................................................................................................................................64
5. Tancno+nie ycnyin..................................................................................................................68
6. Tyn:x..........................................................................................................................................7O
7. Lanin n qnnanconie ycnyin .......................................................................................................72
VI. PEIHOHL HOLuH..................................................................................................76
1. Jionoxnneciax xaai+enc+nia nonicinx einonon ................................................................76
2. Oco6ie iionoxnnecine :oni......................................................................................................91
VII. VCOBHR BEEHHR XO3RHCTBEHHOH ERTELHOCTH...........................101
1. O6mne nnnnnni ......................................................................................................................1O1
2. Hanonie ocnoni......................................................................................................................1O1
3. Pa:emennx na ne(enne xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n n ionneccnn........................................1O4
6
4. Peinc+annx xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+on...................................................................................1O5
5. Kon+oni :a ne(nnnnxa+enex...............................................................................................1O6
6. Co6c+nennoc+i na :exnm n ne(nnnxoc+i...............................................................................1O7
7. Ho+nno(enc+nne xonononnc+nnecion nai+nie n ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn...........11O
8. Oxana nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n..............................................................................114
9. Ty(onie o+nomennx ................................................................................................................116
1O. Hanoionax cnc+exa ....................................................................................................................119
11. Te6onannx n o6nac+n oxani oiyammen ce(i................................................................125
12. Cy(e6nax cnc+exa n a6n+a..................................................................................................127
13. Hnqoxannonnie n einaxnie ycnyin ...................................................................................128
14. Banenmne nanonie ai+i.......................................................................................................132
VIII. OCHOBHLE VCOBHR BEEHHR BHEuHETOPIOBOH
ERTELHOCTH ......................................................................................................136
1. Vcnonnx +oionoio o6xena n axiax Lnonencioio com:a....................................................136
2. Taxoennie nannna n inannie ne+anqnie oiannnennx n +oionne co c+anaxn,
ne nxo(xmnxn n Lnonencinn com:..........................................................................................138
3. Banm+noe nano.........................................................................................................................149
4. Banm+nin iyc ..........................................................................................................................152
5. Banenmne nanonie ai+i.......................................................................................................153
IX. HPAKTHHECKAR HHmOPMAHHR........................................................................155
1. Bse:(nie nn:i...........................................................................................................................155
2. Vcnonnx +y(oyc+onc+na nnoc+annen...................................................................................159
3. Kna+ni...................................................................................................................................161
4. 3(anooxanenne .......................................................................................................................161
5. Han6onee nonynxnie nnoc+annie x:iin.............................................................................163
6. Banm+a .......................................................................................................................................163
7. Tancno+ ..................................................................................................................................163
8. Cnx:i...........................................................................................................................................164
9. Hn+ene+ ...................................................................................................................................165
1O. Bexx a6o+i yne(ennn, 6anion n xaia:nnon ....................................................................165
11. Ioc+nnnni n nn+anne................................................................................................................166
12. Bo:xonoc+n none(ennx cno6o(noio nexenn ......................................................................166
13. L(nnnni n:xeennx, ieoiaqnnecioe nexx, nanxenne n inei+oce+n..............................167
14. Hoxomi n iic+ennix cnynaxx.................................................................................................168
15. Iocy(ac+nennie n ennino:nie na:(nnin ...........................................................................168
X. OCHOBHLE CTATHCTHHECKHE AHHLE.......................................................169
XI. HOE3HLE APECA ................................................................................................176
7
1. Feorpaqueckoe nonoeuue
Honima acnonoena n Jen+aninon Lnone, y Lan+nncioio xox. Ho cnoen nnoma(n (312 685 ix
2
)
ona :annxae+ (enx+oe xec+o n Lnone n mec+oe n Lnonenciox com:e. C cenea na mi Honima
no+xnynaci na 649 ix, a c noc+oia na :ana( na 689 ix. C+onnna Honimn Bamana.
O6max no+xennoc+i iocy(ac+nennon iannni coc+annxe+ 3511 ix. Ha :ana(e iannna
c Iexannen noxo(n+ no eiax O(a n Hica-ynnia n nxee+ no+xennoc+i 467 ix. Ha cenee
6onimax nac+i iannni noxo(n+ no 6an+nncioxy no6eeim (44O ix) c (nyxx iynnixn :annnaxn
Hoxocinx n I(anicinx. Oc+aninie 21O ix iannni na ceneo-noc+oie, i+o iannna c occnncinx
aninanox Kannnnnia(cion o6nac+im. Ha noc+oie Honima iannnn+ c n+non (1O4 ix),
Lenaycim (418 ix) n Viannon (535 ix). C mia ionie xe6+i Cy(e+ n Kana+ o+(enxm+ Honimy
o+ Hexnn (796 ix) n Cnonainn (541 ix). Lonee nex +icxneinnoxe+onax iannna Honimn
c Viannon, Lenaycim n occnncion Kannnnnia(cion o6nac+im c 1 xax 2OO4 i. xnnxe+cx noc+onnon
iannnen LC.
Cnime 9O nnoma(n Honimn :annxam+ annnni c iyc+on ce+im 6onimnx n xaneniinx ei.
Hno(oo(nie :exnn, 6naionnx+nin innxa+ n y(o6noe ieoiaqnnecioe nonoenne no:nonxnn
Honime na no+xennn xnoinx neion 6i+i nanix non:no(n+enex cenicioxo:xnc+nennon
no(yinnn. Ve n +nna(na+ox neie :(eci (enc+nonana nicoio iqqei+nnnax cnc+exa c6i+a
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix +onaon. Hx +ancno+nonia ocymec+nnxnaci (eenxnnixn nno+axn nnn:
no eiax (ne(e nceio no Bncne, caxon (nnnnon eie n Honime) n I(anici no+onin ioo(
y Lan+nncioio xox n (anee n (yine enonencine c+ani.
Lonimym nac+i Honimn noiinam+ neca, io+oie o6a:ym+ o(nn n: caxix iynnix necnix
xaccnnon +aioio o(a n Lnone. V iannni c Lenaycim naxo(n+cx Lenoneciax nyma noniciax
nac+i ynnianinon, e(nnc+nennon n Lnone nac+oxmen neno:(annon nymn. B nen o6n+ae+ xnoio
nn(on nno+nix, n +ox nncne +oniio :(eci nnymne na none :y6i.
Hecxo+x na emn+eninoe neo6na(anne annnn (ce(nxx nico+a na( yonnex xox coc+annxe+
173 x), nen:a Honimn (ononino a:noo6a:en. Honexnoc+i qoxnonanaci :(eci ne(e nceio
no( nnnxnnex ne(nnion. J+o 6naio(ax nx n cenenon nac+n c+ani o6a:onanoci xnoec+no
nennionennix o:e (caxie iynnie iynni o:e Ma:ycinn n Hoxocinn o:enie iax), io+oie
ne+ox nnnneiam+ xnoionncnennix o+enec+nennix n nnoc+annix +ync+on.
Lcnn (nnia+icx n mnox nanannennn, +o nen:a xenxe+cx, neexo(x n: annnnnoio n xonxnc+in,
a :a+ex n ionin. Caxie 6onimne ionie xe6+i i+o Cy(e+i n Kana+i, a n nnx Ta+i, c caxon
nicoion n Honime nemnnon Pici (2499 xe+on na( yonnex xox). 3nxon nonxin oxo+no
8
nne:am+ n ioi no:annxa+icx :nxnnxn nn(axn cno+a, a ne+ox nm6n+enn ionix iiciycnn
nixo(x+ na nemne n nenocnne(nie +ync+cine xamy+i.
2. Knuuaf
B Honime neo6na(ae+ yxeennin innxa+. Xaai+enon eio ne+on xnnxe+cx neexennnnax
noio(a, n+o ni:nano c+oninonennex +ennix nnanix xacc xocioio no:(yxa c A+nan+nnecioio
oieana c cyxnx no:(yxox, n(ymnx n: iny6nni enoa:na+cioio ion+nnen+a.
B nenox, n cenenon n :ana(non nac+n c+ani neo6na(ae+ yxeennin xocion innxa+ c xxiion
nnanon :nxon, noxna(nix ne+ox n (ononino 6onimnx ionnnec+nox oca(ion. 3a+o n noc+onnon
nac+n c+ani omymae+cx nnnxnne ion+nnen+aninoio innxa+a, c cyonon :nxon n ainx, 6onee
cyxnx ne+ox.
Caxie +ennie anoni acnonoeni na mio-:ana(e c+ani (Cnne:ciax annnna) n na mio-
noc+oie (:ana(nax nac+i Can(oxncion io+nonnni). Caxin xono(nin einon n Honime i+o
acnonoennin n ceneo-noc+onnon nac+n c+ani Cynanicinn ian, na:inaexin nonicinx nonmcox
xono(a.
3nxi n Honime nenxymec+nenno +ennie n nnanie, xo+x cnynam+cx n (ononino xoo:nie,
ioi(a +exnea+ya onyciae+cx nne -1O
o
C. B xnnae ce(nxx +exnea+ya ione6ne+cx o+ -1
o
C
na :ana(e (o -4,5
o
C na noc+oie n (o -5,5
o
C na ceneo-noc+oie. 3a+o ne+o name nceio xxiioe, c nac+ixn
(o(xxn n io:axn. Ce(nxx +exnea+ya n nmne (oc+niae+ 17
o
C na no6eeie Lan+nin n 2O
o
C
na mie.
Caxie nicoine noia:a+enn ionnnec+na oca(ion o+xenam+cx n ioax n na no:nimennoc+xx.
Maicnxyx oca(ion nnxo(n+cx na ne+nne xecxni.
3. Haceneuue u nsuk
Hacenenne Honimn nacnn+inae+ 38 174 +ic. nenonei (na 31.12.2OO4 i.), n+o c+ann+ ee na 29 xec+o
n xne (O,6 nncnennoc+n nacenennx 3exnn), na 7-e xec+o n Lnone (5,3 nacenennx ion+nnen+a)
n 6-e n Lnonenciox com:e (cnime 8,4 n+enen LC-25). Hno+noc+i nacenennx coc+annxe+ 122
nenoneia na ix
2
.
Heo6na(ammax nac+i nacenennx (61,5) nne+ n ioo(ax. Caxix iynnix n: nnx xnnxe+cx
c+onnna c+ani Bamana, nacnn+inammax 1692,9 +ic. n+enen (4,4 nceio nacenennx c+ani).
yine iynnenmne ioo(a i+o: o(:i (774 +ic.), Kaion (757,4 +ic.), Bonnan (636,3 +ic.),
Ho:nani (57O,8 +ic.), I(anici (459,1 +ic.), Hennn (411,9 +ic.), Li(iom (368,2 +ic.), m6nnn
(356 +ic.), Ka+onnne (319,9 +ic.).
Mynnni coc+annxm+ 48,4 nonicioio nacenennx, enmnni 51,6. Ce(nxx no(onn+eninoc+i
n:nn xynnn 7O,5 ne+, a enmnn 78,9 ne+.
Honima c+ana c (ononino o(noo(nix nannonaninix coc+anox. Hannonaninie xenimnnc+na
coc+annxm+ xenee 2 ncex ee n+enen. Han6onee xnoionncnennixn n: nnx xnnxm+cx nexni, niiane,
yiannni n 6enoyci. B Honime nonnam+ +aie enen, nn+onni, cnonain n (yine nannn.
Heo6na(ammee 6onimnnc+no nacenennx ncnone(ye+ ia+onnnec+no (oiono 9O).
Iocy(ac+nennix x:iiox xnnxe+cx nonicinn x:ii.
9
4. Ronufuecku cfpo
Coinacno ionc+n+ynnonnoxy :aiony, nnnx+oxy 2 anenx 1997 i., nexonnixn iocy(ac+nennixn
oianaxn xnnxm+cx:
n o6nac+n :aiono(a+eninon nnac+n Cenx n Cena+ Pecny6nnin Honima,
n o6nac+n ncnonnn+eninon nnac+n He:n(en+ PH n Cone+ Mnnnc+on,
n o6nac+n cy(e6non nnac+n ne:anncnxie cy(i.
Cen nn:max nana+a nanaxen+a, n:6nae+cx na ne+iexne+nnn coi na nceo6mnx, annix,
nxxix n nononnonaninix ni6oax. B eio coc+an nxo(x+ 46O (eny+a+on. Cenxy no(nnnena
Bexonnax ion+oninax nana+a nicmnn ion+oninin oian iocy(ac+na. Oianaxn Cenxa xnnxm+cx:
He:n(nyx Cenxa, Cone+ c+aenmnn (Konwent Seniorow) n ioxnccnn Cenxa. Ocnonnon qoxon
nonn+nnecion oiann:annn (eny+a+on Cenxa xnnxm+cx (eny+a+cine iny6i.
Ceua1 nicmax nana+a nanaxen+a, n:6nae+cx +aie coiox na 4 io(a na nceo6mnx ni6oax,
o(nonexenno c ni6oaxn n Cenx. B coc+an Cena+a nxo(x+ 1OO cena+oon.
Ho caxix nanix nonocax, oionoennix n Konc+n+ynnn, Cenx n Cena+ nono(x+
conxec+nie :ace(annx Hannonaninoio Co6annx no( ne(ce(a+enic+nox xamana (cnniea)
Cenxa.
B cen+x6e 2OO5 i. n Honime coc+oxnnci nceo6mne ni6oi n Cenx n Cena+, io+oie :anemnnnci
no6e(on nanix cnn. Caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no ionocon nonynnna na+nx 3aion n cnane(nnnoc+i
(PiS), io+oax o6a:onana xaon+anym nanaxen+ciym ioannnnm c (nyxx (yinxn na+nxxn
Caxoo6oonon n nion nonicinx cexen (IPR).
Hpesueu1 n:6nae+cx coiox na 5 ne+ na nceo6mnx, annix n nxxix ni6oax n xoe+ 6i+i
neen:6an na onee(non coi +oniio o(nn a:. On xnnxe+cx nicmnx ne(c+ann+enex iocy(ac+na,
cne(n+ :a co6nm(ennex Konc+n+ynnn n :a 6e:onacnoc+im iocy(ac+na. He:n(en+ na:nanae+
He(ce(a+enx Cone+a Mnnnc+on n no eio ne(noennm xnnnc+on. Hcnonnn+eninix oianox
ne:n(en+a xnnxe+cx eio Kannenxnx. He:n(en+ox Honimn c 23.12.2OO5 i. xnnxe+cx ex
Kannnicinn.
Cone1 Muuuc1pon coc+on+ n: He(ce(a+enx Cone+a Mnnnc+on (nexie-xnnnc+a), :axec+n+enen
He(ce(a+enx Cone+a Mnnnc+on n xnnnc+on. Hann+enic+no o+nenae+ :a nny+ennmm n nnemnmm
nonn+niy iocy(ac+na.
K :a(anax nann+enic+na o+nocn+cx, n nac+noc+n, o6ecnenenne ninonnennx :aionon,
yiono(c+no iocy(ac+nennon a(xnnnc+annen, no(io+onia noei+a 6m(e+a n yiono(c+no no eio
ncnonnennm.
Bo+yx (onenx nann+enic+ny o6sxnnxe+ Cenx.
5. Teppufopuanuuoe peneuue
C O1.O1.1999 io(a nne(eno +exc+ynenna+oe +en+onaninoe (enenne c+ani n coo+ne+c+nnn,
c io+oix Honima (enn+cx na:
16 noeno(c+n,
314 o6nac+nix n 65 ioo(cinx nonx+on (ioo(a na nanax nonx+on),
2478 ixnn.
Inuua i+o ocnonnax e(nnnna +en+onaninoio (enennx c+ani. Ixnnon yiono(x+: cone+
ixnni, n:6naexin na nceo6mnx ni6oax xec+noio caxoynannennx, a +aie nannenne,
n:6naexoe cone+ox ixnni n ocymec+nnxmmee ncnonnn+eninym nnac+i. B cenicinx ixnnax
ne(ce(a+enex nannennx xnnxe+cx non+, n ne6onimnx ioo(ax 6yioxnc+, a n iynnix ioo(ax
1O
ne:n(en+. Konc+n+ynnx iaan+nye+ ixnne nenenc+no n ne(ennn iocy(ac+nennix (en xec+noio
:nanennx.
B ne(ennn ixnn naxo(x+cx:
- nananinie mioni n inxna:nn,
- (e+cine ca(i,
- 6n6nno+ein,
- (oxa iyni+yi,
- no(onono(nax ce+i,
- xec+nin +ancno+,
- oxana oiyammen ce(i na ee +en+onn,
- ixnnnie (ooin,
- no(ocna6enne,
- yc+anenne +ne(ix o+xo(on n o+no( c+onnix no(,
- ynannenne iniaxn,
- :(anooxanenne (ax6yna+onn n nonninnnnin, a n ioo(cinx ixnnax eme n 6oninnni).
Hona1 i+o e(nnnna +en+onaninoio (enennx n+oon c+ynenn, n eio coc+an nxo(x+ (o (na(na+n
ixnn. Pyiono(c+no nonx+a o6a:ym+: cone+ nonx+a, n:6naexin na ni6oax n xec+noe
caxoynannenne, a +aie nannenne nonx+a, no inane io+ooio c+on+ c+aoc+a.
Honx+ :annxae+cx +exn no6nexaxn, c io+oixn ixnni ne xoiy+ cnann+icx caxoc+ox+enino.
On emae+ o6mne nonoci (nx nxo(xmnx n eio coc+an ixnn, iacammnecx, nannxe, 6oninnn,
o6meo6a:ona+eninix mion nime nananinon c+ynenn.
A(xnnnc+a+nnnax ia+a Honimn c (enennex na noeno(c+na
W noeno(c+no
11
B ne(ennn nonx+on naxo(x+cx:
- oxana o6mec+nennoio nox(ia n o6ecnenenne 6e:onacnoc+n,
- :amn+a o+ nano(nennn n no+nnonoanax oxana,
- 6oi6a co c+nxnnnixn 6e(c+nnxxn n nx nocne(c+nnxxn,
- co(eanne 6oninnn o6meio noqnnx,
- connaninax noxomi,
- no+nno(enc+nne 6e:a6o+nne,
- c+on+enic+no n co(eanne (ooi xec+noio :nanennx,
- :amn+a nan no+e6n+enen,
- ni(ana :aiannacno+on n nonoci, cnx:annie co cxenon ia(anc+na.
3a(ann noeno(cioio caxoynannennx cnx:ani c co:(annex ycnonnn (nx einonaninoio a:nn+nx
n +ex ocnonnix cqeax:
1. iionoxnnecioe a:nn+ne, oxna+inammee +aie xe(ynao(noe iionoxnnecioe
co+y(nnnec+no n no(nnenne einona;
2. ny6nnnnie ycnyin nicoioio yonnx (n +ox nncne nicmne mioni, cnennann:nonannie
xe(nnnncine yne(ennx, iyni+ynie yne(ennx);
3. qoxnonanne 6naionnx+non (nx nenoneia oiyammen ce(i.
Boenoc1no i+o caxax iynnax e(nnnna +en+onaninoio (enennx c+ani. Pyiono(xmnxn
oianaxn noeno(c+na xnnxm+cx: Cenxni noeno(c+na, n:6naexin na ni6oax oianon
caxoynannennx, a +aie Hannenne noeno(c+na. Bo inane Cenxnia n Hannennx c+on+ xaman
noeno(c+na. He(c+ann+enex iocy(ac+nennon nnac+n n noeno(c+ne xnnxe+cx noeno(a, io+oin c+on+
na c+ae o6menannonaninix nn+eecon.
Boeno(c+no :annxae+cx nonocaxn, iacammnxncx nnnnnn:annonnoio a:nn+nx einona. Ono
a:a6a+inae+ n nono(n+ c+a+einm iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx einona n co:(ae+ ycnonnx (nx ee
eann:annn. B axiax einonaninoio co+y(nnnec+na noeno(c+no xoe+ no((enna+i cnx:n c
o6mec+nennoc+im (yinx c+an.
Jionoxnneciax xaai+enc+nia nonicinx einonon, nxec+e c onncannex nenen n nanannennn
einonaninon nonn+nin, (ani n V! inane.
1. Mecfo Ronuuu e uupoeo skououuke
Honima enonenciax c+ana, nxemmax :nann+eninin +en+onaninin, nenonenecinn
n iionoxnnecinn no+ennnani. Le y(eninin nec n :nanenne n xnonox xo:xnc+ne :a nocne(nee nexx
:axe+no niocnn. Han6onee xinx cnn+e+nnecinx noia:a+enex, o+aammnx i+o+ noiecc,
xnnxe+cx (nnaxnia oc+a nanonoio nny+enneio no(yi+a.
C xoxen+a nanana +ancqoxannn c+onxoc+i nonicioio BBH, niaennax n (onnaax CHA,
ynennnnnaci n nx+i a:. B 199O i. ona coc+annxna oiono 59 xn(. (onnaon CHA (n +eiymnx nenax
no oqnnnaninoxy nanm+noxy iycy), a n 2OO4 i. nenicnna yoneni 242 xn(. (onnaon CHA.
B e:yni+a+e Honima oia:anaci na 22 xec+e ce(n c+an xna n na 12 xec+e n Lnone no c+onxoc+n
BBH. B 2OO5 io(y i+o+ noia:a+eni coc+annn ye oiono 3OO xn(. (onnaon CHA, a coinacno
oqnnnaninix nann+enic+nennix noino:ax n noino:ax xe(ynao(nix oiann:annn, n 2OO6
io(y BBH Honimn ynennnn+cx ne xenee nex na 5, +.e. 6onime nex n ce(nex n xne.
Ho ninyciy xnoinx noximnennix +onaon Honima nnna(nen+ i nncny ne(ymnx xnonix
non:no(n+enen. J+o iacae+cx iai ocnonnix nn(on ciix, +ai n no(yi+on neea6o+in. Ona nxo(n+
n nenym (ecx+iy c+an no non:no(c+ny aqnnnonannon xe(n, cei, iaxennoio n 6yoio yinx,
a +aie +enenn:oon, a no n+oym no non:no(c+ny cenon incno+i, nexen+a, nyiyna n inei+oineinn.
Honima nnna(nen+ i iynne ne(ymnx xnonix non:no(n+enen x(a cenicioxo:xnc+nennix
no(yi+on. Ona xnnxe+cx iynnenmnx n xne non:no(n+enex n, noc+annxmmnx oiono o(non
ne+ne+n xnonon no(yinnn. Ho non:no(c+ny onca, ia+oqenx, caxanon cneini, noiononim
cnnnen Honima nxo(n+ n (ecx+iy iynnenmnx non:no(n+enen. Mec+o no n+oon (ecx+ie
o6ecnennnam+ en o6sexi non:no(c+na xnxenx, nmennni, caxaa, xxca, ioonieio xonoia n iynnix
xnn.
B 2OO4 i. Honima oia:anaci ce(n +n(na+n iynnenmnx xnonix iicno+eon, :annxax 27 xec+o
c noia:a+enex O,9 n ino6aninox nino:e +onaon. B o6nac+n nxno+a Honima ye xnoio ne+
naxo(n+cx n ne(ymen iynne; n 2OO4 i. ona 6ina 23-x no nennnnne nxno+nix iniox c noia:a+enex
annix 1 xnonoio nxno+a.
Pac+ymax no:nnnx Honimn na xe(ynao(nix iniax xnnxe+cx e:yni+a+ox nicoion (nnaxnin
ee nnemnen +oionnn, :nann+enino 6onee nicoion, nex (nnaxnia xnonon +oionnn. B neno( c 199O
no 2OO4 ii. ce(neio(onie +exni oc+a o6sexon nonicioio iicno+a +onaon nenimann 1O n io(,
a nxno+a 15 n io(, n +o nexx iai o6sexi xnonon +oionnn nonimannci :a i+o+ neno( +oniio
nexnoinx 6onee nex 6 n io(. Taie n 2OO5 i. oc+ o6sexon iicno+a +onaon n: Honimn (na 1O,6)
:axe+no oneean oc+ o6sexon xnonoio iicno+a +onaon (7,5). B 2OO6 i. o6max c+onxoc+i
iicno+nyexix Honimen +onaon (onna nnenie nenicn+i 1OO xn(. (onnaon CHA.
12
13
Vcioennm (nnaxnin oc+a nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a Honimn n cymec+nennon c+enenn
cnoco6c+nonann (enc+nymmne na ee +en+onn o6mec+na c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana.
Honima oc+ae+cx o(nnx n: inannix nonyna+enen nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn n Jen+aninon
n Boc+onnon Lnone n nn(eox no conoiynnoxy o6sexy nnnnenennix ce(c+n. Lnaio(ax
nc+ynnennm n Lnonencinn com:, Honima c+ana 6onee nnnneia+eninix xec+ox (nx a:xemennx
nnnec+nnnn. 4ai+oaxn, nnnneiammnxn nnoc+annie nnnec+nnnn, xnnxm+cx, ne(e nceio, 6onimon
n exinn nny+ennnn inoi, 6naiononynnie necnei+nni iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx, ioniyen+nie
ycnonnx xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n (o+nocn+enino (emenax a6onax cnna n xnoionncnennie
nicoioinannqnnnonannie ia(i), a +aie ieoiaqnnecioe nonoenne c+ani, niio(noe c +onin
:ennx noinc+nin n a:nn+nx co+y(nnnec+na c noc+onnixn iniaxn Poccnen, Viannon
n (yinxn c+anaxn CHI.
2. -neucfeo e uepyuapopuux oprauusaunx
u uucfufyfax
Honima xnnxe+cx ai+nnnix nnenox xnoinx xe(ynao(nix oiann:annn n nnc+n+y+on
ino6aninoio n einonaninoio xacm+a6a.
Opaausau Oeuemx Hau (OOH)
Honima xnnxe+cx o(non n: c+an ocnona+enen OOH. B +enenne cnime 6O ne+ (ex+eninoc+n i+on
caxon nanon xe(ynao(non oiann:annn Honima nnnnxana ai+nnnoe ynac+ne n a6o+e ee
oianon, cnennann:nonannix aien+c+n, an+onoxnix oiann:annn, (enc+nymmnx no( iin(on OOH,
a +aie ynac+nonana n a:nix noiaxxax, ocymec+nnxexix OOH.
Oco6enno 6onimon nina( ne(c+ann+enn Honimn nnecnn n:
(ex+eninoc+i n o6nac+n a:oyennx n yiennennx xna no ncex xne,
oiann:annm xe(ynao(noio iionoxnnecioio co+y(nnnec+na n noxomn (nx a:nnnammnxcx
c+an,
(ex+eninoc+i, cnx:annym c :amn+on nan nenoneia,
io(nqniannm n c+anonnenne xe(ynao(noio nana.
Honicine iicne+i nnnnxann ynac+ne n a6o+e no no(io+onie (oionoon no a:oyennm,
eann:yexix no( iin(on OOH. Honicine ia(ancine n noennie ne(c+ann+enn ynac+nonann
n xnoionncnennix xnnix n na6nm(a+eninix xnccnxx OOH (n nnx nnnxnn ynac+ne 6onee nex
35.OOO nonxion), n nac+noc+n, na Koenciox n Hn(oin+anciox nonyoc+onax, n nnane, na Ionancinx
nico+ax, n Pyan(e, Kynen+e n n6enn, a n nocne(nne io(i n 6inmen Kiocnannn, Aqiannc+ane
n n Haie.
Honicine nnenei, nann n ynenie nnnnxam+ ai+nnnoe ynac+ne n noiaxxax +exnnnecion
noxomn (nx a:nnnammnxcx c+an, ocymec+nnxexix cnennann:nonannixn oiann:annxxn OOH:
IAO, WHO, \!DO n \DP/!IO.
Hoxnnennex nn:na+eninoc+n (nx ai+nnnoc+n Honimn n (ex+eninoc+n OOH 6ino ee n:6anne
nenoc+oxnnix nnenox Cone+a Le:onacnoc+n, a +aie ninonnenne ne(c+ann+enxxn namen c+ani
qyninnn :axec+n+enen ieneaninoio ceie+ax n ne(ce(a+enx o(non n: ceccnn Ieneaninon
Accax6nen.
C qenanx 2OO6 i. ncnonnn+eninix ceie+aex Lnonencion iionoxnnecion ioxnccnn (LJK)
o(non n: nx+n einonaninix ioxnccnn OOH, xnnxe+cx 6inmnn nexie-xnnnc+ nann+enic+na PH,
noq. Maei Leniia.
14
Opaausau Cesepoamnamuvecxoao Uaxma (HATO)
Honima c+ana nnenox HATO 12 xa+a 1999 i., nxec+e c Hexnen n Beninen. Tainx o6a:ox, 6ina
(oc+niny+a c+a+einneciax neni Honimn, a nxenno yiny6nenne nn+eiannn c+ani c 3ana(ox
ny+ex ynac+nx n eio iionoxnnecinx, nonn+nnecinx n noennix c+yi+yax. Bc+ynnenne Honimn
n HATO 6ino noinnecinx cne(c+nnex neexen, noncxo(xmnx n c+ane nocne 1989 i. n ioennix
o6a:ox ynennnnno ee xe(ynao(nym 6e:onacnoc+i, a +aie o6neinnno nonecc nn+eiannn
Honimn c oc+aninixn enonencinxn c+yi+yaxn, n +ox nncne, inannix o6a:ox c Lnonencinx
com:ox.
B nac+oxmee nexx Honima ynac+nye+ n noiaxxax HATO, iacammnxcx co+y(nnnec+na n o6nac+n
6e:onacnoc+n n o6ooni n axiax Ha+nec+na a(n xna n Cone+a Lnoa+nan+nnecioio
na+nec+na (LAPC), a nonicine noncia nxo(x+ n coc+an xnoionannonaninix no(a:(enennn, +ainx
iai nonicio-nexenio-(a+cinn ionyc Cene-Boc+oi, nn+oncio-nonicinn 6a+anion xno+nonecinx
cnn n+noni6a+ n nonicio-yianncinn 6a+anion xno+nonecinx cnn Honiyi6a+. Honicine
noennie ynac+nym+ n xno+nonecinx xnccnxx HATO, nanannennix na coxanenne n nocc+anonnenne
nox(ia n xe(ynao(non 6e:onacnoc+n, a +aie n xnccnxx OOH, OLCL n 3LC. B nac+oxmee nexx
onn ynac+nym+ n cne(ymmnx xno+nonecinx oneannxx HATO:
Me(ynao(nie xno+nonecine cnni Kosowo Ioice (KIOR) n Kocono,
Me(ynao(nie c+a6nnn:annonnie cnni (SIOR) n Locnnn n Ieneionnne,
Me(ynao(nie cnni no((ein 6e:onacnoc+n (!SAI) n Aqiannc+ane,
xno+nonecine xnccnn noennon an(axenn L\IOR n Locnnn n Ieneionnne, n n Konio.
Opaausau Besonacocmu u Compyuvecmsa s Espone
(OBCE)
He(noenne o co:ine xe(ynao(non ionqeennnn no 6e:onacnoc+n n co+y(nnnec+ny 6ino
ni(nnny+o nonicinx xnnnc+ox nnoc+annix (en A.Pananinx no nexx X!X ceccnn Ieneaninon
Accax6nen OOH n (eia6e 1964 i.
Ceio(nxmnxx OLCL xnnxe+cx caxon xnoionncnennon einonaninon oiann:annen n xne. Ona
o6se(nnxe+ 55 iocy(ac+n, nnnex ioxe enonencinx iocy(ac+n, ee nnenaxn xnnxm+cx +aie CHA
n Kana(a, a +aie a:na+cine iocy(ac+na, no:nnimne nocne acna(a Cone+cioio Com:a.
Bamana xnnxe+cx xec+ox ne6inannx, yne(ennoio n 1992 i., Lmo (exoia+nnecinx
nnc+n+y+on n nan nenoneia OLCL (OD!HR). Lmo ocymec+nnxe+ ion+oni :a co6nm(ennex nan
nenoneia, n +ox nncne nannonaninix xenimnnc+n n nnnnnnon (exoia+nn na +en+onn
iocy(ac+n-nnenon. Lmo +ecno co+y(nnnae+ c Bicoinx ioxnccaox OLCL no nonocax
nannonaninix xenimnnc+n.
Banix +ec+ox ai+nnnoio ynac+nx Honimn n OLCL 6ino ne(ce(a+enic+no n Oiann:annn
6e:onacnoc+n n co+y(nnnec+na n Lnone n 1998 i., +.e. nonn+nnecioe yiono(c+no ncen oiann:annen,
a +aie oiann:annx conxec+nix (enc+nnn c (yinxn oiann:annxxn, n nac+noc+n c OOH, HATO,
LC n Cone+ox Lnoni. Hoynenne Honime i+oio ne(ce(a+enic+na 6ino oco6ix o+nnnnex n o:nanano
nxo(enne c+ani n nncno nen+on, qoxnymmnx enonenciym nonn+niy.
Opaausau sxoouuvecxoao compyuvecmsa u passumu
(OSCP)
Honima xnnxe+cx nonnonannix nnenox OJCP c 22 nox6x 1996 i. Hnenc+no Honimn n OJCP
c+ano cymec+nennix nnc+yxen+ox eann:annn nenen ee iionoxnnecion nonn+nin, cnx:annix
inannix o6a:ox c a(an+annen nonicioio xo:xnc+na i nnemnnx +e6onannxx n o6nac+n cnc+exnon
+ancqoxannn, einonann:annn n ino6ann:annn. Oco6o nanym oni i+a oiann:annx ciiana
15
n c+a+einn nxo(ennx Honimn n enonencine c+yi+yi, inannix o6a:ox n ycnnnxx no
nc+ynnennm n LC. Hon:omno :axe+noe c6nnenne nonicioio :aiono(a+enic+na, nnc+n+y+on,
iionoxnnecion nonn+nin, a +aie nai+nin, nnxenxexon no xnoinx o6nac+xx, co c+an(a+axn
OJCP.
Hnnx+ne Honimn n OJCP nec+nnin iny6 nicoio a:nn+ix iocy(ac+n xna, 6ino
(oia:a+enic+nox ee iionoxnnecion c+a6nninoc+n, n+o n nocne(c+nnn o6neinnno Honime (oc+yn
i niio+nix ie(n+nix nnnnxx, ne(oc+annxexix xe(ynao(nixn qnnanconixn nnc+n+y+axn.
C+ano +aie (oia:a+enic+nox +oio, n+o Honima 6ina n coc+oxnnn a(an+nona+icx i xe(ynao(nix
c+an(a+ax n nannnax.
Honima c caxoio nanana cnoeio nnenc+na nnnnxae+ ai+nnnoe ynac+ne n a6o+e Koxn+e+on
n Pa6onnx iynn OJCP, a +aie ninmnae+cx no nce ne(nnnnxaexie i+on oiann:annen nnnnna+nni
iai n +a(nnnonnix, +ai n nonix xe(ncnnnnnnanix o6nac+xx. Ocenim 2OOO i. n Honime
coc+oxnaci nie:(nax ceccnx Cone+a. J+o 6ina +e+ix n nc+onn OJCP nie:(nax ceccnx n nenax,
oiann:onannax n nen+aninoenonencion c+ane. Koxe +oio, c anenx 2OO3 i. Honima nnnnxae+
ynac+ne n ioncyni+annonnox xexann:xe iocy(ac+n LC, xnnxmmnxcx nnenaxn OJCP.
OJCP nono(n+ cnc+exa+nnecine o6:oi nonicion iionoxnin, anann:nye+ nanannennx
nono(nxix eqox n noiecc n nx ocymec+nnennn. oina(i n: i+nx o6:oon accxa+nnam+cx
n ianec+ne an+on+e+noio n na(enoio nc+onnnia nnqoxannn o6 iionoxnneciox a:nn+nn n eio
necnei+nnax, xnnxxci o(nonexenno ocnonon (nx onenin (oc+onenoc+n c+ani na xe(ynao(non
aene.
Bceuupa mopaosa opaausau (BTO)
Honima 6ina o(nnx n: no(nncan+on 3ainmnn+eninoio ai+a, :anemammeio neeionoi
Vyinancioio ayn(a GATT n Coinamennx o6 yne(ennn Bcexnnon +oionon oiann:annn.
Honnonannix nnenox BTO ona c+ana 1 nmnx 1995 i., nocne n:xenennx nny+enneio :aiono(a+enic+na
n nocne :anemennx nonecca a+nqniannn Coinamennn Vyinancioio ayn(a.
Bc+ynnenne no BTO nnnecno Honime ynynmenne ee iionoxnnecioio nonoennx na xe(ynao(non
aene, a caxo nnenc+no n i+on oiann:annn c+ano n (aninenmex o(nnx n: ycnonnn nc+ynnennx
Honimn n (yine oiann:annn n xe(ynao(nie c+yi+yi, n nac+noc+n OJCP n Lnonencinn
com:.
Hnnx+ne Honimen ncex coinaconannix nn6eaninix o6x:a+enic+n no BTO o:nanano, n+o nxec+e
c ynynmennex (oc+yna nonicinx +onaon na inin +e+inx c+an, :amn+a nny+enneio inia o+
nxno+a yxenimnnaci, a ioniyennnx ynennnnnaci. 3nann+enino ynennnnnaci (onx nn6eann:no-
nannoio nxno+a no ncex noniciox nxno+e n: c+an-nnenon, oco6enno n nxno+e noximnennix
+onaon. Cymec+nennoe :nanenne nxenn (nx Honimn +aie noc+anonnennx no nonocax cenicioio
xo:xnc+na. Honima nnnxna nce o6mne nn6eaninie o6x:a+enic+na, ni+eiammne n: Coinamennx,
n nac+noc+n, n o6nac+n one(enennx ino+ (oc+yna i iniy, a +aie coiamennx xacm+a6on
cy6cn(nonannx cenicioio xo:xnc+na.
B o6nac+n +oionnn ycnyiaxn, nc+ynnenne n BTO o:nanano (nx Honimn nnnx+ne oionoin
o enxe nan6onimeio 6naionnx+c+nonannx no o+nomennm io ncex na+neax i+on oiann:annn,
a o6x:a+enic+na no o+nomennm i nnenax OJCP 6inn acmneni na nce c+ani BTO. Honima
nnnxna +aie o6x:a+enic+na n o6nac+n nn6eann:annn qnnanconix ycnyi.
Cn+yannx Honimn n BTO n:xennnaci nocne 1 xax 2OO4 i., +.e. nocne ee nc+ynnennx n Lnonencinn
com:. Toionax nonn+nia c nannonaninoio yonnx 6ina neenecena na yoneni nceio coo6mec+na.
J+o o:nanae+, n+o neeionoi c +e+inxn c+anaxn n BTO ne(e+ n nac+oxmee nexx Lnonenciax
ioxnccnx (Ieneaninax (neinnx no nonocax +oionnn) na ocnonannn xan(a+a o+ Cone+a LC,
ioncyni+nyxci c a6onnxn iynnaxn Cone+a LC, inannix o6a:ox c Koxn+e+ox 133. B ioxn+e+e
16
o6cy(am+cx a:nnnnie nonoci, cnx:annie c ynac+nex iocy(ac+n LC n BTO, a n co+y(nnnec+ne
c o+(eninixn c+anaxn-nnenaxn nia6a+inae+cx +oionax nonn+nia LC (nx ny( neeionoon
c BTO.
Me+yapom ax pexocmpyxuu u passumu (Bceuupm
ax)
Honima nnna(neana i nncny nnenon-yne(n+enen Me(ynao(noio nanm+noio qon(a
n Bcexnnoio 6ania, n: io+oix en nnmnoci nin+n n 195O i. no nonn+nnecinx nnnnnax; n 1986
io(y ona 6ina nnoni nnnx+a n i+n oiann:annn.
Hocne 1989 i. Bcexnnin 6ani c+an (nx Honimn o(nnx n: inannix nc+onnnion qnnancnonannx
connanino-iionoxnnecinx eqox n o(nonexenno ciian nanym oni n nonecce nonynennx
Honimen (oc+yna i xe(ynao(noxy iniy iann+ana (qon(onoxy iniy).
Honima nonynnna n: i+oio 6ania ie(n+i na noei+i, ocymec+nnenne io+oix cnoco6c+nonano
yiennennm inonnon nanannennoc+n eqox, ec+yi+yn:annn iionoxnin, ynynmennm ie(n+non
(oc+onenoc+n Honimn, a +aie none(ennm cnc+exnix, nnc+n+ynnonaninix n c+yi+ynix
eqox.
o 2OO5 i. Lani ne(oc+annn n acnoxenne Honimn ce(c+na nox(ia 6 xn(. (onnaon CHA
na qnnancnonanne cnime 4O noei+on, n: neio (o nenon nononnni 2OO6 io(a 6ino ocnoeno oiono
4,5 xn(. (onnaon CHA. B nac+oxmee nexx ocymec+nnxm+cx iai nnnec+nnnonnie noei+i, +ai
n xeonnx+nx, cnx:annie c nne(ennex c+yi+ynix n:xenennn, inannix o6a:ox n o6nac+n
xo(enn:annn nnqac+yi+yi ineie+nnecioio cei+oa, :amn+i oiyammen ce(i n a:nn+nx
cenicinx anonon.
Hocne nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC, ocymec+nnxexax anee c+a+einx ie(n+non noxomn Lania
nannnae+ xenx+icx n nanannennn no((ein Honimn n ianec+ne c+ani-nnena LC.
J+o no((eia ne(na:nanae+cx inannix o6a:ox na ynynmenne +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi,
a +aie na noxomi nann+enic+ny n nynmex ncnoni:onannn c+yi+ynix qon(on LC. B +enenne
nenoio io(a nocne nc+ynnennx n LC, Lani ne(oc+annn Honime ce(c+na na conxec+noe
qnnancnonanne co(eannx n xo(enn:annn (ooi n +ancno+non ce+n, a +aie na eiyni+nnannm
:exeni, oc+anmnxcx nocne :aii+nx iaxennoyioninix max+ n no((eiy nann+enic+nennon
noiaxxi eqoxnonannx nonicion iono(o6inammen noximnennoc+n. B +o e nexx, nxec+e
c ynennnennex (oc+yna nann+enic+na, a +aie nac+noio cei+oa, i ioxxenecioxy qnnancnonannm
na ioniyen+nix ycnonnxx, noxo(n+ noc+enennoe neexemenne (ex+eninoc+n Lania o+ ne(oc+annennx
ie(n+on n na(:oa, n c+oony neie(n+non no((ein. Jeni i+on no((ein :ainmnae+cx
n noxomn, oia:inaexon nonicioxy nann+enic+ny n nynmex ycnoennn xe(ynao(noio oni+a
n ni+eiammnx n: neio nino(on, nn eann:annn inmnenix iionoxnnecinx eqox.
Inannixn cqeaxn (ex+eninoc+n Bcexnnoio 6ania n Honime xnnxm+cx n nac+oxmee nexx:
ocymec+nnenne eqox connaninoio cei+oa, ec+yi+yn:annx n nnna+n:annx ny6nnnnoio
cei+oa, (oc+nenne nenen n o6nac+n :amn+i oiyammen ce(i, conemenc+nonanne ynannennx
n ny6nnnnox cei+oe, co:(anne a6onnx xec+ nne cenicioio xo:xnc+na, a +aie no((eia
nann+enic+nennon Hoiaxxi ec+yi+yn:annn iaxennoyioninon o+acnn n ne(oc+annenne
ie(n+on na ocymec+nnenne nnnonannonnix n nnno+anix noei+on.
C 1997 i. n e:yni+a+e eqoxi cnc+exi a6o+i Lania, oqnci xnoinx (nei+oon n iicne+on
no o+(eninix c+anax 6inn neeneceni n: Bamnni+ona n c+ani nx (ex+eninoc+n. B Bamane
naxo(n+cx xec+o ne6inannx (ena+axen+a Honimn n nn6an+nncinx iocy(ac+n.
17
Me+yapom Bankmm 1o (MB1)
Ho((eia co c+ooni Me(ynao(noio nanm+noio qon(a ciiana cymec+nennym oni
n c+a6nnn:annn iionoxnin Honimn n nananinin neno( +ancqoxannn. B 199O-1994 ii. Honima
nonynnna ie(n+i n ccy(i MB4 na o6mym cyxxy 1237 xnn. SDR (oiono 1,8 xn(. (onnaon CHA).
Lic+oe ynynmenne iionoxnnecioio nonoennx n nicoinn yoneni nanm+nix e:enon no:nonnnn
na nx (oconnoe noiamenne, inannix o6a:ox n 1995 io(y.
C i+oio nexenn Honima ne ny(ae+cx n qnnanconon noxomn 4on(a. J+o nnneno i n:xenennm
qox co+y(nnnec+na, io+ooe coc+on+ n ocymec+nnennn cnc+exa+nnecioio xonn+onnia oianaxn
MB4 iionoxnnecioio nonoennx Honimn n a:nn+nx noneccon +ancqoxannn, a +aie
n ioncyni+nonannn.
Esponecxu ax pexocmpyxuu u passumu (EBPP)
LLPP xnnxe+cx xe(ynao(nix qnnanconix nnc+n+y+ox, co:(annix c nenim no((ein
nonn+nnecinx n iionoxnnecinx neo6a:onannn n c+anax Jen+aninon n Boc+onnon Lnoni
n nanannennn inonnon iionoxnin. On 6in yne(en no nnnnna+nne Lnonencioio cone+a,
a 51 ainnn nxee+ n nex Lnonencinn com:. Honima xnnxe+cx o(non n: 39 c+an ocnona+enen,
io+oie n 199O i. no(nncann (einaannm o6 yne(ennn Lania.
B nnnx+on n 1999 i. Cone+ox (nei+oon Lania c+a+einn co+y(nnnec+na c Honimen
ne(ycxa+nnae+cx ionnen+annx (ex+eninoc+n n nnecne(ymmnx cqeax:
oia:anne qnnanconon n +exnnnecion noxomn n o6nac+n nnna+n:annn n ec+yi+yn:annn
iocy(ac+nennix ne(nnx+nn n 6anion, a +aie noxomn nac+nix ne(nnx+nxx n nnon+e+nix
cei+oax nao(noio xo:xnc+na,
oia:anne +exnnnecion n qnnanconon noxomn 6aniax n qnnanconoxy cei+oy n nenox, a +aie
no(nnenne cnennann:nonannix qnnanconix nnc+n+y+on n 6anioncinx ycnyi (nx xanix
n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn,
oia:anne +exnnnecion n qnnanconon noxomn noiaxxax :amn+i oiyammen ce(i,
oia:anne +exnnnecion n qnnanconon noxomn ineie+nnecinx noiaxxax, ynn+inammnx
+e6onannx :amn+i oiyammen ce(i, a +aie noxomn n o6nac+n xo(enn:annn, c+a6nnn:annn
n nnna+n:annn noc+anoi ineinn.
B nocne(nee nexx n (ex+eninoc+n, nono(nxon Laniox, nxem+ xec+o neio+oie n:xenennx,
a nnon+e+axn c+anonx+cx, n nac+noc+n:
nnnnenenne nnnec+oon, iann+ana n nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn (nx ny( ec+yi-
+yn:annn n xo(enn:annn nac+nix ne(nnx+nn, inannix o6a:ox n cei+oe ineie+nin,
ia:onon noximnennoc+n n xnxnn,
nonci n a:nn+ne no:xonoc+n qnnancnonannx cei+oa xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn,
a +aie no(onenne (nanoia c nann+enic+nox no nonocy qnnancnonannx i+oio cei+oa,
no((eia a:nn+nx nnqac+yi+yi n :amn+i oiyammen ce(i, ny+ex co+y(nnnec+na
c nen+aninixn n xec+nixn oianaxn nnac+n n o6nac+n no(io+onin, conxec+noio
qnnancnonannx n nne(ennx noei+on n noiaxx c nenim nynmeio ncnoni:onannx
c+yi+ynix qon(on LC,
ncnoni:onanne xe(ynao(noio oni+a (nx a:nn+nx qnnancnonannx noei+on n axiax
na+nec+na nac+noio n ny6nnnnoio cei+oon, inannix o6a:ox n ioo(ax n ixnnax n cei+oe
+ancno+a n ioxxynniannn.
o ionna 2OO4 i. n Honime 6ino eann:onano non+n 14O noei+on, c+onxoc+im n nenox oiono
3,1 xn(. eno, qnnancnyexix conxec+no c LLPP. Hon+n 85 i+nx noei+on 6ino eann:onano
n nac+nox cei+oe.
18
3. Ronuua e Eeponeckou cokse
1 xax 2OO4 i. Honima c+ana nnenox Lnonencioio com:a. Bc+ynnenne n LC 6ino :anemennex
xnoione+nnx ycnnnn onee(nix nonicinx nann+enic+n, a +aie naxnnn nonicioio o6mec+na,
io+ooe c nnenc+nox n LC cnx:inano na(e(y na (aninenmee ynynmenne connaninoio n iiono-
xnnecioio nonoennx n namen c+ane.
Uyms x vnecmsy s Esponecxou cokse
H(ex nn+eiannn Honimn c Lnonencinx com:ox noxnnnaci ncioe nocne nanana cnc+exnix
eqox n 1989 i. Henox maiox na ny+n ee ocymec+nnennx 6ino no(nncanne n (eia6e 1991 i.
Lnonencioio (oionoa, na ocnonannn io+ooio Honima c+ana acconnnonannix nnenox
Lnocom:a. O(nnx n: nocne(c+nnn eann:annx nonoennn Lnonencioio (oionoa c+ano co:(anne
:oni cno6o(non +oionnn noximnennixn n:(ennxxn xe(y Honimen n LC (1 xnnax 2OO2 i. 6inn
yna:(neni nocne(nne +axoennie +anqi na nxno+ an+oxo6nnen n: LC), a +aie nn6eann:annx
nannn n o6nac+n neexemennx iann+ana, n xo+x n n xenimen c+enenn, a6onen cnni n ycnyi.
3ainmnenne (oionoa o6 acconnannn xnnnoci c+nxynox (nx none(ennx xnoinx nonn+nnecinx
n iionoxnnecinx eqox. B neno( acconnannn c LC n Honime 6ino nnnx+o xnoio nonix
nanonix ai+on, nn:nannix coc+iiona+i nonicioe n enonencioe :aiono(a+enic+no
1
, co:(anannci
+aie nnc+n+ynnonaninie c+yi+yi, neo6xo(nxie c +onin :ennx qyninnonnonannx inonnon
iionoxnin n 6y(ymeio nnenc+na n LC.
B 1994 io(y nonicioe nann+enic+no no(ano oqnnnaninoe :axnnenne o enannn c+a+i nnenox LC.
Tn io(a cnyc+x na nc+ene n micex6yie Lnonencinn Cone+ nninacnn Honimy nana+i necnon
1998 i. neeionoi o nc+ynnennn
2
. Heeionoi, nono(nxie no 31 +exe, :anemnnnci n (eia6e 2OO2
io(a. 16 anenx 2OO3 i. n Aqnnax 6in no(nncan oiono o nc+ynnennn, one(enxmmnn ycnonnx
nnenc+na Honimn, a nxec+e c nen +aie (enx+n (yinx iocy(ac+n (Knn, Hexnx, n+na, a+nnx,
Jc+onnx, Mani+a, Cnonainx, Cnonennx n Beninx) n Lnonenciox com:e.
B xae 2OO3 i. na o6menannonaninox eqeen(yxe 77,45 noionoconanmnx nonxion nicia:anoci
:a nc+ynnenne Honimn n Lnocom: (xnia coc+annna 58,85). 31 nmnx 2OO3 i. ne:n(en+ Honimn
a+nqnnnonan (oiono.
Uepexome nepuom s oaosope o scmynneuu
Bc+ynnenne Honimn n Lnonencinn com: o:nanano nnnx+ne ncen nanonon 6a:i LC, +.e. eio
nennnnoio n n+onnnoio :aiono(a+enic+na. Hxenn xec+o +aie neio+oie ncinmnennx,
oqoxnennie n nn(e neexo(nix neno(on. J+n ncinmnennx, :aqnicnonannie n (oionoe
o nc+ynnennn, n 6onimnnc+ne cnynaen 6inn nne(eni no nnnnna+nne Honimn, iai 6onee cna6oio
na+nea, onacammeiocx ceie:nix :a+a+ no nne(ennm nox LC, n+o xoino 6i nonnnx+i
na cnnenne ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n nonicinx +onaon n ycnyi. Caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no
neexo(nix neno(on y(anoci nonynn+i n o6nac+n oxani oiyammen ce(i, n+o no:nonn+
Honime acne(enn+i no nexenn oioxnie nnnec+nnnonnie ycnnnx, cnx:annie c nne(ennex
____________________
1
Ce(n o6nac+en, oxnanennix iaxonn:annen, caxixn nanixn xnnxm+cx: :amn+a ioniyennnn, 6anioncioe nano,
:amn+a nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n, +axoennoe nano, +exnnnecine noxi n nannna, iocnennie nanoin.
2
B +o e caxoe nexx i nanany neeionoon 6ino nninameni +aie nx+i (yinx iocy(ac+n: Knn, Hexnx, Jc+onnx,
Cnonennx n Beninx. B (eia6e 1999 i. n Xenicnnin i nmicex6yicion mec+eie nncoe(nnnnnci: Lonianx, n+na, a+nnx,
Mani+a, Pyxinnx n Cnonainx.
19
nicoinx c+an(a+on LC n i+on o6nac+n
3
. Heexo(nie neno(i o+nocx+cx, n nac+noc+n,
i oiannnennm ni6oca n a+xocqey :aix:nxmmnx nemec+n, ion+onm :a +ancno+nonion
n cina(nonannex o+xo(on, i nno(y nox n o6nac+n enninnnia ynaionoi n coiamennm
co(eannx cei n n(inx nn(ax +onnnna. Ho no(o6nix iionoxnnecinx nnnnnax Honima
nonynnna neexo(nie neno(i ((o 2OO6 i. nnn (o 2OO7 i.) na a(an+annm ne(nnx+nn nnmenon
noximnennoc+n i +e6onannxx LC n o6nac+n ne+ennanix n cann+anix nox. Ho noci6e
Honimn 6inn yc+anonneni neexo(nie neno(i n (enc+nnn :aiono(a+enic+na LC n +ainx o6nac+xx,
iai cno6o(noe neexemenne +onaon (none(ya einc+annn neiac+n) n iann+ana (oiannnennx
n iynne ia(anaxn LC cenicioxo:xnc+nennon :exnn n necon, a +aie +ai na:inaexix n+oix
(oxon), nonn+nia ioniyennnn (oia:anne ny6nnnnon noxomn, oco6enno (nx oco6ix iionoxnnecinx
:on), a +aie +ancno+ (coxanenne (o 31 (eia6x 2OO8 i. oiannnennn n (oc+yne i nonicion
(oonon ce+n an+oxamnn necox cnime 4O +onn), :aion o6 o6mec+nax n nanoiax (neio+oie
o+c+ynnennx n nnxenennn HC). Hecxo+x na ycnnnx, nonicinx ynac+nniax neeionoon ne
y(anoci o+o(nnny+i no nexenn o6x:annoc+i neenncnx+i nonnin n:noc n 6m(e+ LC. Bxec+o i+oio
Honima nonynnna (ononnn+eninie ce(c+na, ne(na:nanennie na coxanenne na(neamen
nninn(noc+n iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a n nenie io(i nnenc+na
4
.
B +ex o6nac+xx neexo(nie neno(i 6inn nne(eni n (oiono o nc+ynnennn no nnnnna+nne
c+an-nnenon LC. J+o iacanoci cno6o(noio neexemennx nnn (necioniio ne+ na nne(enne nonnon
cno6o(i +y(oyc+onc+na ia(an n: nonix c+an-nnenon n c+anax LC, Honima nonynnna
oionoiy n:anxnoc+n), +ancno+a (n nac+noc+n, 3-ne+nnn neexo(nin neno(, c no:xonoc+im
no(nennx (o 5 ne+, na ninonnenne nonicinxn neeno:nniaxn ia6o+anix neeno:oi n c+anax LC),
a +aie cenicioio xo:xnc+na (6onee nn:ine, nex n c+anax LC-15 nxxie (onna+i, a non:no(c+nennie
ino+i xenime, nex on(ana noniciax c+oona).
Bonoci, cnx:annie c cenicinx xo:xnc+nox, 6inn oco6enno +y(nixn nnn(y o+nocn+enino
6onimon (onn nacenennx Honimn, :anx+oio n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne n onacennn nonicinx iec+ixn
o+nocn+enino no:xonoc+n iqqei+nnno ioniynona+i na enonenciox inie c iec+ixnaxn n: LC
(iai noia:an (nyxne+nnn neno( nnenc+na neo6ocnonannix).
Yvacmue s opaaax Esponecxoao coksa
C 1 xax 2OO4 i. nonie iocy(ac+na-nneni nonynnnn nonnoe nano na ynac+ne n nnnx+ne emennn
no ncex oianax LC. Konnnec+nennin coc+an enonencinx oianon n ne(c+ann+enic+no n nnx
o+(eninix iocy(ac+n-nnenon, 6inn one(eneni no nexx caxxn+a Lnonencioio cone+a n Hnnne
n (eia6e 2OOO i. Hoei+ Lnonencion ionc+n+ynnn ne(ycxa+nnan nonie yeiynnonannx n i+on
o6nac+n, o(naio on 6in o+inonen ia(anaxn 4annnn n Ionnan(nn na eqeen(yxe
o a+nqniannn.
Coc+an o+(eninix oianon LC n 6nnanmne io(i 6y(e+ xenx+icx nnn(y nnc+n+ynnonaninon
eqoxi Lnocom:a, ni:nannon, n nac+noc+n, eio acmnennex. Honecc :aionnn+cx nxec+e co
nc+ynnennex n 2OO7 io(y (nyx nonix iocy(ac+n Loniann n Pyxinnn.
____________________
3
O6sex acxo(on, cnx:annix c nnnec+nnnxxn no :amn+e oiyammen ce(i n Honime onennnae+cx na oiono 3O xn(.
eno.
4
Heo6xo(nxoc+i c+a6nnn:annn iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a n nenie io(i nnenc+na cnx:ana c +ex, n+o n i+o+ neno(
iocy(ac+nennin 6m(e+ 6y(e+ niny(en nec+n :nann+eninie acxo(i no ninonnennm ec+inx o6x:a+enic+n no o+nomennn
i 6m(e+y LC (nannxe, n:noc n 6m(e+ LC, coqnnancnonanne n: iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a c+yi+ynix noei+on n
+.(.), +oi(a iai ce(c+na n: 6m(e+a LC noc+ynx+ +oniio n nocne(ymmne io(i (nannxe, nocne xo+x 6i nac+nnnon
eann:annn c+yi+ynix noei+on).
2O
____________________
5
Bce ne(c+annennie nime acne+i, iacammnecx +ex ocnonnix oianon LC, onnam+cx na ne(nonoennn, n+o
Pyxinnx n Lonianx nc+ynx+ n LC ne no:e, nex n xoxen+ nc+enennx ninemneio coia Lnonencioio nanaxen+a (2OO4-2OO9).
Honima nxee+ o+nocn+enino 6onimoe ne(c+ann+enic+no n oianax LC, ne(e nceio 6naio(ax
nncnennoc+n nacenennx (c +onin :ennx (exoiaqnnecioio no+ennnana Honima xnnxe+cx mec+ix
iocy(ac+nox n Lnonenciox com:e). C 1 nox6x 2OO4 i. ona acnonaiae+ 27 ionocaxn n Cone+e LC,
a n coc+ane Lnonencion ioxnccnn nxee+ o(noio ioxnccaa (any+a Xm6ne :annxae+ (onnoc+i
ioxnccaa no nonocax einonaninon nonn+nin). B a6o+e Lnonencioio nanaxen+a nnnnxae+
ynac+ne 54 (eny+a+a n: Honimn, ni6annix 13 nmnx 2OO4 i. na nceo6mnx ni6oax na coi 2OO4-2OO9 ii.
(n nocne(ymmne coin co:ina nanaxen+a 6y(e+ 5O (eny+a+on n: Honimn)
5
.
Upumue espo
Bc+ynnenne n Lnonencinn com: o+iino Honime (ooiy i onee(noxy i+any iionoxnnecion
nn+eiannn, io+oix xnnxe+cx nnenc+no n :one eno. Bc+ynax n LC, Honima o6x:anaci n (aninenmen
necnei+nne nnnx+i eno n +ainx o6a:ox ynac+nona+i n none(ennn conxec+non (enenon

1 2004 .




(25 ) (27 )



321 345
,


27 ( 8,4%) 27 ( 7,8%)



25 (
)

- (
2014 .)


1 ?

2004-2009
(25 ) (27 )

(27 )


732 786

736
-

54 ( 7,3%) 54 ( 6,8%) 50 ( 6,8%)

.
: .
21
nonn+nin co c+anaxn, nnna(neamnxn i nanm+noxy com:y. Coin nc+ynnennx n conxec+nym
nanm+nym :ony eme ne one(eneni. Honima xnnxe+cx nnenox nanm+noio n iionoxnnecioio com:a
c (eoiannen. Bc+ynnennm n :ony eno (onno ne(mec+nona+i ynac+ne n enonenciox iyconox
xexann:xe LRM !!. Hncoe(nnenne Honimn i :one eno 6y(e+ :annce+i o+ iionoxnnecinx
ne(nocinoi (ninonnenne xaac+nx+cinx in+enen).
Cmpyxmypme qom
Hnenc+no n LC o:nanae+ +aie no:xonoc+i nonynennx qnnanconon noxomn n: qon(on LC
(c+yi+ynix qon(on n qon(a cnnonennx). J+n ce(c+na ne(na:naneni, n nac+noc+n, na
xo(enn:annm cenicioio xo:xnc+na, xo(enn:annm nnqac+yi+yi, einonaninoe a:nn+ne, a +aie
na (ex+eninoc+i xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn. ononnn+eninix nc+onnniox qnnancnonannx
n: LC xnnxm+cx +ai na:inaexie nnnnna+nni coo6mec+na, nanenennie na no((eiy LC iai nenoio,
a ne o+(eninix einonon. K +ainx nnnnna+nnax o+nocx+cx: !TLRRLG (xeeinonaninoe
co+y(nnnec+no), \RBA (onnnenne ioo(on co c+yi+ynon 6e:a6o+nnen), ILADLR+ (noxomi
n a:nn+nn cenicinn anonon), LQ\AI ( niannnnanne mancon na inie +y(a). B 2OO4-2OO6 ii.
n axiax c+yi+ynon noxomn Honima na(ee+cx nonynn+i cnime 13 xn(. eno.
4nxi, :ann+eeconannie n o6xene xamnnnoio naia, :aiynie non:no(c+nennix xamnn
n o6oy(onannx nnn ocnamennx (nx oqncon, xoiy+ o6ama+icx c noci6on o (o+annn na noii+ne
nac+n cnx:annix c i+nxn nnnec+nnnxxn acxo(on. Ha (o+annn xoiy+ +aie accnn+ina+i
ne(nnx+nx, acmnxmmne (nana:on (ex+eninoc+n iai n cqee ycnyi, +ai n non:no(c+na, a +aie
xo(enn:nymmne non:no(c+nennin nonecc nnn co:(ammne nonie a6onne xec+a. He(nnx+nx,
io+oie ne:xeno :aix:nxm+ oiyammym ce(y, xoiy+ o6a+n+icx :a no((eion (nx nnnec+nnnn,
nanenennix na ninonnenne nox :amn+i oiyammen ce(i. He(nnx+nx xoiy+ +aie
accnn+ina+i na ioxnneicnie n cnennann:nonannie ioncan+nnionie ycnyin, oia:inaexie
ioxne+en+nixn yne(ennxxn. Hac+i ce(c+n na no((eiy ne(nnx+nn ne(na:nanae+cx na
a:a6o+iy n nne(enne conexennix +exnonoinnecinx noei+on n nonimenne yonnx nnnonannn
n qnxax, a +aie o6neinenne (oc+yna xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nxx i cnennann:nonannix
na6oa+onxx n yiennenne co+y(nnnec+na xe(y noximnennix n naynno-nccne(ona+enicinx
cei+oaxn. Pa6o+o(a+enn, io+oie xo+x+ nnnec+nona+i n a:nn+ne cnonx a6o+nnion, xoiy+
nonynn+i nac+nnnoe qnnancnonanne n: Lnonencioio connaninoio qon(a a:nnnnix qox yne6i,
oiann:onannon yne6nixn yne(ennxxn, naynnixn nen+axn nnn oiann:annxxn a6o+o(a+enen.
4nxi, :ann+eeconannie n no(nnennn na :ay6enix iniax, xoiy+ o6ama+icx :a noxomim
n nn(e noii+nx nac+n acxo(on, cnx:annix c ynac+nex n xxaiax n nic+aniax :a y6eox, a +aie
n 6n:nec-+yax. He(nnx+nx, :annxammnecx i6ononc+nox, neea6o+ion nnn +ancno+ox i6i,
xoiy+ nocnoni:ona+icx x(ox qox noxomn, nono(nxon n axiax no((ein cei+oa i6non
noximnennoc+n.
Vcnonnex nonynennx no((ein xnnxe+cx xec+ononoenne qnxi n Honime, no(io+onia noei+a
n 6n:nec-nnana xeonnx+nx, a +aie nnecenne co6c+nennix qnnanconix ce(c+n. Hoxomi
ne(na:nanae+cx ne(e nceio (nx xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn.
B neno( 2OO7-2O13 ii. o6sex ce(c+n n: c+yi+ynix qon(on, :a(einanonannix na noxomi
(nx Honimn, n necioniio a: nenicn+ cyxxy, ne(na:nanennym (nx nee n neno( 2OO4-2OO6 ii.
Hnon+e+i, cqei nnxenennx n cnc+exa ocnoennx qon(on LC n Honime n 2OO7-2O13 ii.
one(eneni n c+a+einneciox (oiyxen+e Hannonaninax c+a+einx cnnonennx (HCC) (anee
Hannonaninie c+a+einnecine axin o+cne+a). O6max c+onxoc+i qnnanconix ce(c+n, nnnnenennix
na eann:annm HCC, coc+ann+ oiono 85,6 xn(. eno. H: i+on cyxxi oiono 9,7 xn(. eno 6y(e+
nnoeno nonicinx iocy(ac+nox, na oiono 16,3 xn(. eno onennnae+cx c+onxoc+i nnoennn
nac+nix cy6sei+on, a cnime 59,5 xn(. eno 6y(e+ noncxo(n+i n: c+yi+ynix qon(on n 4on(a
cnnonennx.
22
C+a+einnecion nenim HCC xnnxe+cx co:(anne ycnonnn (nx nonimennx ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n
nonicion iionoxnin, onnammencx na :nannx n ne(nnnnxa+enic+no, o6ecnennnammen oc+ :anx+oc+n,
a +aie oc+ yonnx connaninon, iionoxnnecion n noc+anc+nennon cnnonennoc+n Honimn
n axiax Lnonencioio com:a n nny+n c+ani. Koxe c+a+einnecion nenn, HCC ne(nonaiae+
eann:annm nac+nnnix nenen, ni+eiammnx n: ncca6oncion c+a+einn, c+a+einnecinx (nei+nn
coo6mec+na, a +aie nino(on, cne(ymmnx n: anann:a cna6ix n cnninix c+oon nonicion
iionoxnin, n c+oxmnx nee( nen mancon n yio:. Hac+nnnie nenn HCC oxna+inam+:
co:(anne ycnonnn (nx coxanennx yc+onnnnix n nicoinx +exnon iionoxnnecioio oc+a;
oc+ :anx+oc+n ny+ex a:nn+nx nenonenecioio iann+ana;
nonimenne ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n nonicinx ne(nnx+nn, oco6enno cei+oa ycnyi;
c+on+enic+no n xo(enn:annm +exnnnecion nnqac+yi+yi, nxemmen ocnonnoe :nanenne
(nx oc+a ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n Honimn n ee einonon;
oc+ ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n nonicinx einonon n no+nno(enc+nne nx connaninon, iiono-
xnnecion n noc+anc+nennon (eia(annn;
a:nn+ne cenicinx anonon.
HCC 6y(e+ eann:onana c noxomim Oneannonnix noiaxx (OH), ynannxexix Mnnnc+ec+nox
einonaninoio a:nn+nx n Peinonaninix oneannonnix noiaxx (POH), ynannxexix
caxoynannennex o+(eninix noeno(c+n:
OH Pa:nn+ne Boc+onnon Honimn;
OH Hnqac+yi+ya n oiyammax ce(a;
OH Henonenecinn iann+an;
OH Hnnonannonnax iionoxnia;
Hoiaxxi enonencioio +en+onaninoio co+y(nnnec+na;
Oneannonnax noiaxxa +exnnneciax noxomi;
16 Peinonaninix oneannonnix noiaxx (POH).
B axiax noiaxx Lnonencioio +en+onaninoio co+y(nnnec+na nnannye+cx ai+nnnoe
a:nn+ne noei+on, no(nniammnx co+y(nnnec+no xe(y c+anaxn-nnenaxn LC n nx coce(xxn,
ne nxo(xmnxn n i+y c+yi+yy (co+y(nnnec+no n +anciannnnox, +ancnannonaninox
n xeeinonaninox nnane). He(ycxa+nnae+cx eann:annx cne(ymmnx noei+on c ynac+nex Honimn:
+anciannnnoe co+y(nnnec+no:
- +n (nyc+oonnne noiaxxi na iannne Honimn n Iexannn (c ynac+nex Meinex6yinn,
Lan(en6yinn n Caiconnn),
- Honima Hemciax Pecny6nnia,
- Honima Cnonainx,
- Honima n+na,
- Honima Hnennx annx (Knax Lan+nia),
+ancnannonaninoe co+y(nnnec+no:
- Ten+onx Jen+anino-Boc+onnon Lnoni,
- Peinon Lan+nncioio xox,
noiaxxa xeeinonaninoio co+y(nnnec+na, oxna+inammax ncm +en+onm LC.
Ha nnemnnx iannnax LC +anciannnnoe co+y(nnnec+no c na+necinxn c+anaxn 6y(e+
noomx+icx n: ce(c+n noei+a Lnonencinn nnc+yxen+ coce(c+na n na+nec+na. B axiax i+oio
noei+a c ynac+nex Honimn 6y(y+ eann:onani noiaxxi +anciannnnoio co+y(nnnec+na
c Viannon, Lenaycim n Kannnnnia(cion o6nac+im Poccnncion 4e(eannn.
* * *
Hnenc+no n Lnonenciox com:e nxee+ (nx Honimn oioxnoe :nanenne. Bc+ynax n LC, Honima
ne +oniio yiennna cnom xe(ynao(nym no:nnnm, no n nonynnna no:xonoc+i oia:ina+i nnnxnne
23
na nonn+niy LC. Vnynmenne eny+annn Honimn na xe(ynao(non aene cnoco6c+nonano
(ononnn+eninoxy nn+oiy nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn n namy c+any.
Bc+ynnenne n LC nxee+ +aie oioxnoe :nanenne n xacm+a6e xnio. Honicine xo:xnc+nymmne
cy6sei+i +enei nanxxym ioniynym+ c ne(nnx+nxxn coo6mec+na, nxemmnxn qnnanconie
n xaie+nnionie nenxymec+na. B +o e nexx c+yi+ynie n qon(onie neo6a:onannx, io+oie
nanannci eme n neno(, ioi(a Honima 6ina acconnnonannix nnenox LC, no:nonxm+ nx na annix
nanax conennna+i c qnxaxn n: oc+aninix iocy(ac+n LC. Koxe +oio, ynennnnnmnncx inoi
co:(ae+ 6onimne manci a:nn+nx, 6onimne manci na nonynenne nonix +exnonoinn, iann+ana na
a:nn+ne, nnnec+nnnn. n6eann:annx +ai na:inaexix ce+enix cei+oon (nannxe, +eneioxxynniannx,
ineie+nia), iai n yna:(nenne noiannnnix 6aieon, no:nonxe+ cnn:n+i n:(ein non:no(c+na.
Becixa cymec+nennoe :nanenne nxee+ +aie nync+no c+a6nninoc+n n ne(cia:yexoc+n ycnonnn
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
Lonimnnc+no onacennn, nxenmnxcx y nonxion (o nc+ynnennx n Lnonencinn com:, oia:annci
nnmennixn ocnonannn. Kono+nnnax n no(onn+eninax no(io+onia i nc+ynnennm no:nonnnn
c(ena+i nnannin neexo( i nonon iionoxnnecion cnc+exe n 6ic+o a(an+nona+icx i nonix
ycnonnxx.
B cne+e 6naiononynnix e:yni+a+on ! nonyio(nx onenia oc+a o6sexa BBH na 2OO6 io(
coc+annxe+ oiono 5. Hoino:i nonicinx nen+on no(+ne(am+cx nonenmnx noino:ox
Lnonencion ioxnccnn o+ cen+x6x 2OO6 i.
1. Skououueckan cufyaun Ronuuu
Hocne(nne io(i xnnxm+cx (nx nonicion iionoxnin necixa 6naiononynnixn. Bicoinxn +exnaxn
ac+e+ nanonon nny+ennnn no(yi+ (BBH), ai+nnn:nye+cx nnnec+nnnonnax (ex+eninoc+i, ynynmae+cx
cn+yannx na inie +y(a, nnqnxnnx coxanxe+cx na nn:iox yonne. Jicno+ ac+e+ 6ic+ee nex
nxno+, n+o ne(e+ i coiamennm o+nna+eninoio cani(o +oionoio 6ananca n coxanennm (eqnnn+a
+eiymnx cne+on nna+enoio 6ananca na 6e:onacnox, nn:iox yonne.
Hocne ocna6nennx iionoxnnecioio oc+a n nanane ninemnen (eia(i, c 2OO3 i. Honima nenynaci
na ny+i 6ic+oio a:nn+nx. B 2OO5 io(y n n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. +exni oc+a BBH ynennnnnannci
n: ina+ana n ina+an.
24
I 2005 II 2005 III 2005 IV 2005 I 2006 II 2006
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Kna+aninin oc+ BBH n 2OO5 i. n n ! nonyio(nn n 2OO6 i. (+exni oc+a o6sexon n
no o+nomennm i coo+ne+c+nymmexy neno(y ne(i(ymeio io(a)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S).
25
C +onin :ennx (nnaxnin a:nn+nx iionoxnin nonicine noia:a+enn nenimam+ ce(nmm
nennnnny (nx nonix c+an-nnenon LC n: Jen+aninon n Boc+onnon Lnoni. B e:yni+a+e
o+nocn+enino 6ic+oio +exna iionoxnnecioio oc+a Honima ynynmae+ cnom no:nnnm
n Lnonenciox com:e. Ho (annix Lnonencion ioxnccnn, yoneni BBH na o(noio n+enx n Honime
ynennnnncx c 4O,1 ce(nen (nx LC-15 n 1997 i. (o 46 n 2OO5 i., +.e. non+n na 6 nonen+nix
nyni+on.
Poc+ BBH na yonne oiono 5 (onen coxann+icx +aie n 2OO7 io(y. J+oxy 6y(y+ cnoco6c+nona+i
6onee mnoine, nex n nomnox, ne(nocinin (nx 6ic+oio oc+a, +ai iai nc+onnniox nicoion
(nnaxnin 6y(e+ ye ne +oniio iicno+ (n+o neo6na(ano oco6enno n 2OO5 i.), no n nny+ennnn cnoc
iai no+e6n+enicinn, +ai n nnnec+nnnonnin.
B ycnonnxx oc+a :anx+oc+n n :aa6o+non nna+i no+e6n+enicinn cnoc xnnxe+cx nicoinx
n 6ic+o ac+e+. Texni oc+a nn(nnn(yaninoio no+e6nennx ynennnnnnci c 2 n 2OO5 i. (o 5,1
n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i., a :a neci 2OO6 io(, no oneniax Mnnnc+ec+na iionoxnin, (onni coc+ann+i
oiono 5.
Cne(ye+ oco6o o+xe+n+i nannnne (anno on(aexoio cnninoio onnnennx nnnec+nnnonnon
ai+nnnoc+n, io+ooe na6nm(ae+cx co !! nonyio(nx 2OO5 io(a.
Ho (annix Mnnnc+ec+na iionoxnin, o6sex nnnec+nnnonnix :a+a+ n 2OO6 i. ynennnn+cx na
1O,9 (n 2OO5 i. na 6,5 ). Ocnonnix qai+oox ynennnennx onnnennx nnnec+nnnonnon ai+nnnoc+n
xnnxe+cx ac+ymnn on+nxn:x ne(nnx+nn, cnx:annin c cnninix nny+ennnx cnocox n
6naionnx+nixn necnei+nnaxn (aninenmeio oc+a iicno+a. 4nnancnonanne nnnec+nnnonnix
:a+a+ c+anonn+cx no:xonix 6naio(ax xoomexy iionoxnnecioxy n qnnanconoxy coc+oxnnm
6onimnnc+na qnx n ac+ymen (oc+ynnoc+n 6anioncinx ie(n+on, a +aie nce 6onimexy nn+oiy
ce(c+n n: qon(on noxomn LC.
Hnnec+nnnxx 6naionnx+c+nye+ +aie nn:inn yoneni nnqnxnnn, coxanxmmnncx necxo+x na
nicoiym (nnaxniy iionoxnnecioio oc+a. Vcnnenne nnqnxnnonnoio nanxa, io+ooe o+xenanoci
n 2OO4 i. n n nanane 2OO5 i. n 6ino cnx:ano c moiox nocne nc+ynnennx n LC n nonimennex nen
+onnnna na xnonix iniax, nxeno nexennin xaai+e. Ce(nnn yoneni nen +onaon
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
()
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Poc+ BBH n 2OOO-2OO5 ii. n noino: na 2OO6 io( (+exni oc+a o6sexa n no o+nomennm
i ne(i(ymexy io(y)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S); noino: Mnnnc+ec+na iionoxnin.
26
B cnx:n c yxenimammnxcx nnqnxnnonnix (annennex, Cone+ (enenon nonn+nin, qoxnymmnn
xone+anym nonn+niy n Honime, n 2OO5 i. cxennn nen+aninie xei na xxiine n nx+nia+no
n no+e6n+enicinx ycnyi n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. 6in +oniio na O,7 nime, nex n coo+ne+c+nymmnn
neno( ne(i(ymeio io(a. Voneni nnqnxnnn n Honime, io+oin eme necioniio ne+ na:a( 6in
o+nocn+enino nicoinx, ceio(nx xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: caxix nn:inx n Lnonenciox com:e.
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
()
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Voneni nnqnxnnn n 2OOO-2OO5 ii. n noino: na 2OO6 io( (ce(neio(onon oc+ nen +onaon
n no+e6n+enicinx ycnyi n , no o+nomennm i ne(i(ymexy io(y)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S); noino: Mnnnc+ec+na iionoxnin.
I 2005 II 2005 III 2005 IV 2005 I 2006 II 2006
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Kna+aninin oc+ nanonix :a+a+ na ocnonnie qon(i n 2OO5 i. n n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i.
(+exni oc+a o6sexon n , no o+nomennm i coo+ne+c+nymmexy ina+any ne(i(ymeio io(a)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S).
27
nonnan nonen+nie c+anin (n nenox na 2 nonen+nix nyni+a). Cne(ymmne nonnennx (no O,25
nonen+nix nyni+a) nxenn xec+o n xnnae n n qenane 2OO6 io(a. B nocne(ymmne xecxni
xone+anax nonn+nia c+ana 6onee oc+oonon, na n+o nonnnxnn iai nny+ennne (oc+ :anna+i
n nny+enneio cnoca), +ai n nnemnne (nonax nonna nonimennn xnonix nen na +onnnno) qai+oi.
Tex ne xenee, iai noino:nye+ 1.P.Moigan, ye n 2OO9 i. Honima 6y(e+ o+nena+i Maac+nx+cinx
in+enxx yonnx nonen+non c+anin.
B ycnonnxx ac+ymeio iionoxnnecioio onnnennx, cnc+exa+nnecin ynynmae+cx nonoenne na
inie +y(a, xo+x ionnnec+no 6e:a6o+nix n noxa 6e:a6o+nni oc+am+cx nicoinxn.
3217 3176
3000
2773
2488
2002 2003 2004 2005 I 2006
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
.
0
5
10
15
20
25
%
( .) ( %)
Konnnec+no 6e:a6o+nix n noxa 6e:a6o+nni n 2OO2-2OO5 ii. n n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i.
(no coc+oxnnm na ionen neno(a)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S).
Honoenne na noniciox inie +y(a xnnxe+cx cnonix. C o(non c+ooni, yoneni noqeccno-
naninon ai+nnnoc+n xnnxe+cx nn:inx (52 n 2OO4 i.) naxnoio nne, nex n c+anax LC-15 (non+n
65), no 6nn:oi i ce(nexy yonnm nonix c+an-nnenon LC (56). C (yion c+ooni, nexx,
io+ooe n Honime nocnxmae+cx a6o+e, 6onime nex n c+anax Lnonencioio com:a, oco6enno
c+aix. B cnx:n c i+nx nicoi noia:a+eni oc+a non:no(n+eninoc+n +y(a. 3a nocne(nne (ecx+i ne+
on ynennnnnancx n ce(nex, na oiono 5, a n 2OO5 i. (ae na 7,7 :a io(. J+o no:nonxe+ 6ic+o
niannnna+i a:in n yonne non:no(n+eninoc+n +y(a no o+nomennm i c+aix c+anax
Lnonencioio com:a.
Lonimnx ni:onox (nx iionoxnnecion nonn+nin Honimn, oco6enno n ion+eic+e no(io+onin
i 6y(ymexy nnenc+ny n :one eno, xnnxm+cx xei no ynynmennm cn+yannn n cqee ny6nnnnix
qnnancon. 3(eci no+e6ye+cx no+nno(enc+nne ne:xenoxy ynennnennm connaninix acxo(on
n none(enne ioxnneicnon eqoxi ny6nnnnix qnnancon, nexy 6naionnx+c+nye+ 6naiononynnax
n nocne(nee nexx iionoxnneciax ionsmni+ya.
Honicioe nann+enic+no ne(ycxa+nnae+ nonnenne coo+nomennx (eqnnn+a ny6nnnnix
qnnancon n BBH c 3,9 n 2OO4 i. (o 3 n 2OO6-2OO7 ii. Lme 6onee on+nxnc+nnnix xnnxe+cx n i+ox
o+nomennn noino: OJCP (2,8 BBH n 2OO6 i. n 2,6 n 2OO7 i.). O(naio i+n acne+i none(eni
no nnxenxexon n nac+oxmee nexx n Honime xe+o(onoinn. C 2OO7 io(a Honima 6y(e+ o6x:ana
28
nnxenx+i xe+o(, eioxen(yexin Lnoc+a+ox. Toi(a 6m(e+nin (eqnnn+ +aie 6y(e+ coiama+icx,
no nenicn+ (onyciaexie n LC 3 BBH. C noia:a+enx n 5,6 BBH n 2OO4 i. on coia+nncx 6i (o
4,6 n 2OO6 i. n 4,1 n 2OO7 i.
B cnom onee(i, ny6nnnnax :a(onennoc+i coxanxe+cx na o+nocn+enino nn:iox yonne n necxo+x
na cnon oc+, naxnoio nne (onyciaexoio n LC no+onia n 6O no o+nomennm i BBH. B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii.
ona coc+annxna oiono 42 BBH, a n 2OO7 i. (onna nonicn+icx non+n (o 47.
Hanoionax naiy:ia, n:xexexax y(eninix necox nanoionix noc+ynnennn n BBH, n Honime
nne ce(nen n c+anax LC n nxee+ +en(ennnm i nonnennm. Ona (onna coiama+icx c 38,5 BBH
n 2OO5 i. (o 32,9 n 2OO7 i., n +o nexx iai n ce(nex n LC-25 ona coc+annxe+ oiono 4O BBH.
Cnninix c+nxynox iionoxnnecioio oc+a Honimn n nocne(nnn neno( 6ina nnemnxx +oionnx.
B 2OOO-2OO5 ii. o6sex iicno+a nonimancx n ce(nex n io( na 15,4, +.e. non+n n (na a:a 6ic+ee,
nex o6sex nxno+a (8,5 n io(). Oneeammnn oc+ iicno+a no cannennm c nxno+ox coxanxncx
+aie n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i.
Ieoiaqnneciax n +onanax c+yi+ya nonicion nnemnen +oionnn no(neinaci n neno(
+ancqoxannn iny6oinx neo6a:onannxx, io+oie coc+oxnn n neeonen+annn o6oo+a
n nanannennn nicoio a:nn+ix c+an, n +ox nncne, oco6enno, Lnonencioio com:a, a +aie
n :nann+eninox ynennnennn (onn neea6o+annix noximnennix n:(ennn n iicno+e, ne(e nceio
:a cne+ coiamennx (onn ciix. B e:yni+a+e, c +onin :ennx +oionoio o6oo+a, Honima xnnxe+cx
ceio(nx 6onee nn+einonannon c Lnonencinx com:ox ne +oniio no cannennm co ce(nen (nx
1O nonix c+an-nnenon, no n no cannennm co xnoinxn c+anaxn LC-15. Ho(o6nym nnqoxannm
na +exy cn+yannn no nnemnen +oionne Honimn xono nan+n n a:(ene V.4 n n C+a+nc+nneciox
nnnoennn.
Lic+in oc+ iicno+a n nocne(nne io(i nnnen i +oxy, n+o (eqnnn+ +oionoio 6ananca
n o+nna+eninoe cani(o +eiymnx cne+on nna+enoio 6ananca xnnxm+cx n nac+oxmee nexx
(no o+nomennm i BBH) o+nocn+enino nn:inxn n cnc+exa+nnecin na(am+.
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
0
5
10
15
20
25
30

Poc+ +onanoio o6oo+a no nnemnen +oionne Honimn n 2OOO-2OO5 ii.
(+exni oc+a o6sexon iicno+a n nxno+a no o+nomennm i ne(i(ymexy io(y n )
29
-2,3
-1,0
-1,4
-2,1
-4,2
-1,5
-2,0 -2,0
2004 2005 2006
()
2007
()
0,0
1,0
-1,0
-2,0
-3,0
-4,0
-5,0

Cani(o +oionoio 6ananca n +eiymnx cne+on nna+enoio 6ananca no o+nomennm i BBH
n 2OO4-2OO5 ii. n noino: na 2OO6-2OO7 ii. (n BBH)
Hcno:nur. Oqnnnaninie onenin n nann+enic+nennie noino:i.
eqnnn+ +oionoio 6ananca xnnxe+cx o6innix xnnennex (nx 6ic+o a:nnnammencx c+ani,
n io+oon i +oxy e na6nm(ae+cx :nann+eninin nn+oi nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn.
4nnancnonanne i+oio (eqnnn+a n nonicinx ycnonnxx ne co:(ae+ 6onimnx +y(noc+en. Hannxe,
n 2OO5 i. (eqnnn+ no +eiymnx cne+ax +onanoio o6xena n nna+enox 6anance coc+annn 2,7 xn(.
(onnaon CHA. B +ox e io(y n:nnmin na cne+ax ycnyi (oc+ninn non+n 2 xn(. (onnaon CHA,
n:nnmin +ancqe+on 6,9 xn(. (onnaon CHA, a nn+oi nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn
nenicnn 7,7 xn(. (onnaon CHA. B cnx:n c i+nx yoneni nanm+nix e:enon ynennnnncx
c 36,8 xn(. (onnaon CHA na ionen 2OO4 i. (o 42,6 xn(. (onnaon CHA na ionen 2OO5 i. (n ionne
2OOO i. on coc+annxn +oniio 27,5 xn(. (onnaon CHA). On no:nonxn qnnancnona+i acxo(i na
nxno+ +onaon n ycnyi n +enenne 4,8 xecxnen, +.e. naxo(nncx na conemenno 6e:onacnox yonne.
Bce 6onimym oni n nonicion iionoxnie niam+ ne(nnx+nx c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio
iann+ana. Ho coc+oxnnm na ionen 2OO4 i. onn coc+annxnn 15,3 o+ o6meio nncna ne(nnx+nn
c yonnex :anx+oc+n 1O n 6onee nenonei; na nnx nnxo(nnoci 24,7 o6men :anx+oc+n n i+on iynne
n 36,9 ocnonnix qon(on. onx i+nx ne(nnx+nn n (oxo(ax ncex ne(nnx+nn n 2OO4 io(y coc+annxna
41,6, n nnnec+nnnonnix :a+a+ax na nonie ocnonnie qon(i 52, a n iicno+e n nenox 56,7
(6O,6 n nxno+e). B +ex o+acnxx iionoxnin, io+oie noni:ym+cx oco6enno 6onimnx nn+eecox co
c+ooni nnoc+annix nnnec+oon, a nxenno: neea6a+inammax noximnennoc+i, +oionnx
n exon+i, +ancno+, cina(cioe xo:xnc+no n cnx:i, cy6sei+i c nnoc+annix iann+anox
coce(o+onnnam+ ye 6onee nononnni ocnonnix qon(on n niam+ emammym oni n qoxnonannn
o6meio yonnx nnnec+nnnonnon, non:no(c+nennon n cenncnon ai+nnnoc+n.
Cy6sei+i c nnoc+annix iann+anox xnnxm+cx inannix c+nxynnymmnx qai+oox n:xenennx
c+yi+yi noximnennon no(yinnn n iicno+a n nanannennn ynennnennx (onn nicoio+exnono-
innnix n:(ennn. onx n:(ennn nicoinx n ce(ne-nicoinx +exnonoinn n nx iicno+e ynennnnnaci
n neno( c 1995 (o 2OO4 ii. non+n n (na a:a c 3O (o 56. Ho(o6nax +en(ennnx na6nm(anaci
n o+nomennn (onn i+nx n:(ennn n eann:onannon no(yinnn i+on iynni ne(nnx+nn. B i+nx
ycnonnxx nn+oi nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn (HHH) n Honimy n ai+nnnoc+i qnx
c nnoc+annix iann+anox nannnam+ one(enx+i (nnaxniy noneccon a:nn+nx n nonicion
iionoxnie n n noniciox iicno+e.
3O
B ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. nn+oi HHH n Honimy (oc+nian 5,8 xn(. (onnaon CHA n 6in na oiono
28 nime, nex n coo+ne+c+nymmnn neno( ne(i(ymeio io(a. Ho oneniax Honicioio aien+c+na
nnqoxannn n nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn (PA!i!Z) n xacm+a6e nceio io(a on coc+ann+ oiono 1O xn(.
(onnaon CHA. Tainx o6a:ox, no:a(n oc+ancx neno( ocna6nennx nn+oia HHH (2OO1-2OO3 ii.),
cnx:annin c :a+yxannex inannoio i+ana noneccon nnna+n:annn. Hnna+n:annx ye ne niae+ onn
ceie:noio qai+oa n nn+xinnannn nxxix nnnec+nnnn. Le xec+o :anxnn xnoionncnennie nonie
noei+i +nna greenfield nnn ennnec+nnnn nn6inen qnx c nnoc+annix iann+anox, ye
(enc+nymmnx n Honime.
Ha(e(y na coxanenne :nann+eninoio nn+oia HHH n 6y(ymex (am+ nonon+eninie onenin
Honimn iai xec+a a:xemennx nnnec+nnnonnix noei+on, qoxynnyexie n nocne(nee nexx
:ay6enixn nen+axn (cx. cne(ymmnn nyni+).
Ce(n inannix qai+oon, o6ycnannnnammnx ai+nnnoc+i nnoc+annix nnnec+oon n namen c+ane,
caxoe 6onimoe :nanenne nxem+ o6sexi nonicioio inia, c+onxoc+i a6onen cnni n necnei+nni
iionoxnnecioio oc+a.
Bce 6onimee :nanenne nno6e+am+ +aie nicoine inannqniannn nonicinx a6o+nnion.
B Honime ac+ymnn nonen+ xono(en :aiannnnae+ ny:i, co:(anax no+ennnan nicoio
inannqnnnonannix ia(on, nynix (nx iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx, n nac+noc+n, (nx nnoc+annix
nnnec+oon. B yne6nox io(y 2OO2/2OO3 na 1O +ic. n+enen Honimn n ny:ax nonynano o6a:onanne
519 c+y(en+on, 6onime nex n (yinx c+anax nnenax Lnonencioio com:a n ne naxnoio xenime, nex
n CHA (57O).
J+o naxo(n+ cnoe o+aenne n ac+ymex n nocne(nee nexx nn+oie nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn,
+e6ymmnx nicoinx inannqniannn neconana n cnx:annix c nnemnnx :aia:ox ycnyi (offshoring).
J+o nen+i no HHOKP, no nnqoxannonnix +exnonoinxx n o6cnynnannm 6n:neca. Ho (annix
PA!i!Z n Honime (enc+nye+ n nac+oxmee nexx oiono 9O +ainx nen+on, co:(annix nnoc+annixn
nnnec+oaxn; n nnx :anx+o cnime 14 +ic. nenonei.
9343
5714
4131
4589
12873
8241
10000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
()
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
Hn+oi nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn n Honimy n 2OOO-2OO5 ii. n noino: na 2OO6 io(
(n xnn. (onnaon CHA)
Hcno:nur. annie HHL; noino: PA!i!Z.
31
2. 3apyeuue oeuku nonucko skououuku
Vcioenne iionoxnnecioio oc+a, nananmeecx c 2OO3 i., cnoco6c+nye+ nocnnx+nm Honimn iai
c+ani ycnexa, c+a6nninon n iionoxnneciox n nonn+nneciox o+nomennn, c xoomnxn necnei+nnaxn
a:nn+nx. Ha i+o yia:inam+ onenin xe(ynao(nix iionoxnnecinx oiann:annn n qnnanconix
nnc+n+y+on, :ay6enix nen+on n yne(ennn, qoxnymmnx o6mec+nennoe xnenne, a +aie
ny6nniannn n iionoxnnecinx n:(annxx. B nnx o6amae+cx nnnxanne na o6sexi nonicioio inia
n eio nonoenne n caxox nen+e Lnoni, a +aie na xoomee coc+oxnne qnnanconon cnc+exi ee
yc+onnnnoc+i no nexx in:ncon. Honon+enino onennnam+cx c+yi+ynie eqoxi, oco6enno
nne(enne nonon cnc+exi nencnonnoio o6ecnenennx n no(nnenne nonecca +ancqoxannn.
Jicne+i Bcexnnoio 6ania nicoio onennnn qai+, n+o Honima nxee+ caxym nn:iym nnqnxnnm
n einone, a +aie nicoiym (nnaxniy iicno+a n nxno+a. Cymec+nennix xnnxe+cx +aie +o, n+o
n ionne 2OO5 i. (nnia+enex oc+a c+ann nnnec+nnnn.
Oiann:annx iionoxnnecioio co+y(nnnec+na n a:nn+nx (OJCP) on(ae+ (aninenmeio oc+a
:anx+oc+n n cnnennx 6e:a6o+nni n Honime, no o6amae+ nnnxanne na neo6xo(nxoc+i qncianinon
ionconn(annn, io+oax oc+ae+cx ni:onox, necxo+x na coiamenne 6m(e+noio (eqnnn+a.
Jicne+i Lnonencioio 6ania eionc+yinnn n a:nn+nx n cnoex (oina(e Tiansilion Reoil
2OO5: Business in Tiansilion nonon+enino onennnam+ na qone (yinx c+an Jen+aninon
n Boc+onnon Lnoni, (oc+niny+in Honimen noiecc n +ancqoxannn qyninnonnonannx +ainx
cqe iai: ne(nnx+nx, inin, qnnanconie nnc+n+y+i n nnqac+yi+ya. Honima (oc+nina yonnx
nan6onee iionoxnnecin no(nnny+ix c+an, nonynax (n xacm+a6e o+ 1 (o 4+) xaicnxaninym oneniy
n +ainx o6nac+xx iai nnna+n:annx n xanox xacm+a6e, nn6eann:annx nen, eiynnonanne +oionnn
n o6xena nanm+. B (nyx (yinx o6nac+xx onenia Honimn niocna n nocne(nex (oina(e c 3+ (o 4-.
J+o iacanoci a6o+i ny6nnnnix nnc+n+y+on c ne(nnx+nxxn n nx ec+yi+yn:annx. Vnynmenne
onenin 6ani o6ocnonan ycnemnix xo(ox ec+yi+yn:annn c+aninon noximnennoc+n, no:na+ox
i ycioennoxy eqoxnonannm iynnix iocy(ac+nennix ne(nnx+nn, a +aie ynennnennex
(onenx i iionoxnnecion nonn+nie Honimn nocne ee nc+ynnennx n Lnonencinn com:. B cnom
onee(i, nonimenne onenin n o6nac+n 6anioncinx eqox n nn6eann:annn nonen+nix c+anoi
ni+eiano n: oc+a o6sexon ie(n+on (nx (oxamnnx xo:xnc+n, ynynmennx :amn+i no+e6n+enx
n 6anioncioio na(:oa, a +aie no(onennx nnna+n:annn n ec+yi+yn:annn 6anioncioio cei+oa.
Lonimoe :nanenne (nx onenin ie(n+non na(enoc+n n nnnec+nnnonnoio ncia nxem+ en+nnin
an+on+e+nix qnx Slandaid & Poois, Iilcl !BCA n Moody`s !nvesloi Seivice. ne nenie n: nnx
(ann Honime oneniy BBB+, a Moody`s A2. C 1998 i. Honima nxee+ cnon nnnec+nnnonnin en+nni.
Tai na:inaexax necnei+nna :a(onennoc+n Honimn n nnoc+annix nanm+ax xnnxe+cx
nonon+eninon coinacno Iilcl Ralings n c+a6nninon coinacno Slandaid&Poois.
O6amae+ nnnxanne +o+ qai+, n+o n x(e en+nnion xec+o Honimn nocne nc+ynnennx n LC
nenonananino yxy(mnnoci, a :a+ex nenynoci na :annxaexie anee no:nnnn, +ai iai ncne:nn
onacennx, n+o Honima xoe+ ne cnann+icx c +y(noc+xxn, cnx:annixn c nnenc+nox n i+on
oiann:annn.
B en+nnie nan6onee ioniyen+ocnoco6nix c+an GloLal Comeliliveness Reoil 2OO5-2OO6,
no(io+onnennix n cnx:n co Bcexnnix iionoxnnecinx qoyxox, Honima oia:anaci na 42 xec+e
c +onin :ennx +eiymen ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n BC! (Business Comeliliveness !ndex), n+o o:nanae+
ynynmenne na 15 no:nnnn no cannennm c ne(i(ymnx io(ox. Vnynmnnaci +aie no:nnnx Honimn
c +onin :ennx ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n oc+a GC! (Giowll Comeliliveness !ndex). Hocne +oio iai
nama c+ana n nomnox io(y ynana c 45 na 6O no:nnnm, ona no(nnnynaci na 51 xec+o. Henin
nn(eic onennnae+, n nac+noc+n, ne(nnnnxa+eniciym ce(y n inonnym c+a+einm ne(nnx+nn.
Hn(eic ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n oc+a one(enxe+ cnoco6noc+i c+ani (oc+nia+i c+a6nninin
iionoxnnecinn oc+ n +enenne 6nnanmnx 5-8 ne+, n nac+noc+n, noce(c+nox onenin +exnonoin-
necioio yonnx n nnnxnnx ny6nnnnix nnc+n+y+on na iionoxniy.
32
4nxa A.T.Keainey !nc. n:ynae+ o+(eninie c+ani, coc+annxx noia:a+eni (onenx (nx nxxix
nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn (ID! Conlidence !ndex), io+oin cnyn+ (nx o6o:nanennx nan6onee
nnnneia+eninix (nx nnnec+nonannx xec+ n xne c nicoinxn necnei+nnaxn a:nn+nx. J+o+
noia:a+eni 6a:nye+cx na ocnonannn xnennn ne(ymnx xene(eon 1OOO iynnenmnx ionoannn
xna, a xnennx iacam+cx nan6onee neox+nix nanannennn nnnec+nonannx n +enenne 6nnanmnx
+ex ne+. B nocne(nex en+nnie c ocenn 2OO5 i. Honima no(nnnynaci c 12 na 5 no:nnnm, n +o nexx
iai n ne(i(ymex io(y ynana na 8 xec+. Tainx o6a:ox, non:omen non+n no:na+ na xec+o,
:annxaexoe (na io(a na:a(. oina( noia:an, n+o Honima xnnxe+cx +e+ien c+anon n Lnone
c +onin :ennx nnnneia+eninoc+n nn noiann:annn nen+on no HHOKP, nocne Bennio6n+annn
n Iexannn. nx xnonix ionoannn Honima xnnxe+cx nnnneia+eninix xec+ox (nx
nnnec+nonannx n nen+i a:nnnnoio o(a ycnyi, +ainx iai 6yxian+ecine ionoa+nnnie nen+i
nnn call centers.
B en+nnie ie(n+non na(enoc+n axeniancioio eexecxnnnia !nslilulional !nvesloi (xa+
2OO6 i.) noc+oennox na ocnonannn (annix, ne(oc+annennix inannixn iionoxnc+axn ne(ymnx
xnonix 6anion n c+axonix ioxnannn, Honima oia:anaci na 41 xec+e ce(n 173 c+an, nonynax
68,2 nyni+a nn xaicnxaninon onenie n 1OO nyni+on. Ho cannennm c ne(i(ymnx en+nniox
o+ cen+x6x 2OO5 i. i+o o:nanae+ ynynmenne e:yni+a+a na 1,9 nyni+a n na 2,8 nyni+a no cannennm
c xa+ox 2OO5 i.
Ln+ancinn eexecxnnni Luiomoney ne(c+annxe+ en+nni c+an c +onin :ennx na(enoc+n
(nx nnnec+oon, ynn+inammnn, n nac+noc+n, nonn+nnecinn nci, noia:a+enn :a(onennoc+n n c+eneni
ninonnennx o6x:a+enic+n no o6cnynnannm (onia. B nocne(nex en+nnie (xa+ 2OO6 i.) Honima
:anxna 43 xec+o ce(n 185 onennnaexix c+an. J+o o:nanae+ no(nnenne na 2 no:nnnn iai no
o+nomennm i en+nniy o+ cen+x6x 2OO5 i., +ai n c xa+a 2OO5 i.
Kai cne(ye+ n: nimennne(ennix onenoi, co:(annie (nx ne(nnnnxa+enen niio(nie ycnonnx
n xoomne necnei+nni a:nn+nx (enam+ Honimy oco6enno nnnneia+eninix na+neox (nx
a:noo6a:nix qox iionoxnnecioio co+y(nnnec+na.
3. Repcnekfueu skououueckoro paseufun Ronuuu
e ceefe Cfpaferuu paseufun cfpauu ua 2007-2015 rr.
Hnenc+no Honimn n Lnonenciox com:e n a:in xe(y ee yonnex a:nn+nx n yonnex
6onimnnc+na c+an i+oio coo6mec+na +e6ye+ o+ nac ceie:nix ycnnnn no (oc+nennm yc+onnnnix
n nicoinx +exnon a:nn+nx. Honecci ino6ann:annn n :a(ann, noc+annennie nee( Lnonon
n ncca6oncion c+a+einn, +e6ym+ o+ Honimn qoxynnonin conexennon nonn+nin, c+nxy-
nnymmen a:nn+ne. J+o neo6xo(nxo (nx annonaninoio ncnoni:onannx mancon, ni+eiammnx n:
nnenc+na Honimn n Lnonenciox com:e, ne(e nceio ncnoni:onannx ne(ycxo+ennix na 2OO7-2O13 ii.
qnnanconix ce(c+n LC, :nann+enino ynennnennix no cannennm c neno(ox 2OO4-2OO6 ii. J+a
nonn+nia (onna ncnoni:ona+i +e cnonc+na nonicion iionoxnin n o6mec+na, io+oie xoiy+ c+a+i
nc+onnniox ioxnaa+nnnix nenxymec+n. J+o iacae+cx, ne(e nceio, o+nocn+enino xono(on n nce
nynme o6a:onannon a6onen cnni, 6onimon ne(nnnxnnnoc+n nonicioio o6mec+na n cnoco6noc+n
ne(nnnnxa+enen a(an+nona+icx i xenxmmnxcx ycnonnxx, a +aie 6onimoio nny+enneio inia
n cno6o(noio (oc+yna i nny+ennexy iniy Lnonencioio com:a.
Ocnonnoe :nanenne (nx nnnnnn:annonnoio noiecca Honimn nxee+ co:(anne na(neamnx
ycnonnn (nx a:nn+nx, a +aie iqqei+nnnon nnc+n+ynnonaninon n eiynnymmen cnc+exi, io+oax
no:nonn+ ncnoni:ona+i (oc+ynnie ecyci. Honima (onna ne(nnnx+i :nann+eninie ycnnnx no
n:xenennm nannn nii n iionoxnie, c +ex, n+o6i ne(enne xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n c+ano 6onee
noc+ix n xenee (ooioc+oxmnx, n+o, n cnom onee(i, (onno cnoco6c+nona+i ynynmennm
nonoennx na inie +y(a.
33
Oco6oe nnnxanne (onno 6i+i y(eneno co:(annm nonix a6onnx xec+, oco6enno n cei+oe
inonnix ycnyi, +ai iai +oniio i+o+ cei+o cxoe+ nnnx+i a6o+nnion n: xo(enn:nymmeiocx
noximnennoio cei+oa n n: ec+yi+yn:nymmeiocx cenicioio xo:xnc+na. onna nonicn+icx
ai+nnnoc+i n connanino-noqeccnonaninax xo6nninoc+i nacenennx, a +aie yoneni eio o6a:onannx.
Hnoioe acnoc+anenne (onno nonynn+i nexanen+noe o6ynenne. Honima (onna c+a+i c+anon,
onnammencx na :nannx n na mnoioe ncnoni:onanne nnqoxannonnix n ioxxynniannonnix
+exnonoinn no ncex o6nac+xx iionoxnin n connaninix ycnyi, (oc+ynnix (nx ia(oio ia(annna.
Iocy(ac+no 6y(e+ no(nnia+i a:nn+ne nn+ennei+yaninoio iann+ana iai no o+nomennm i nm(xx,
+ai n no o+nomennm i oiann:annxx.
Honi+ion cqoxynnona+i +aiym nonn+niy xnnxe+cx noei+ C+a+einn a:nn+nx c+ani na
2OO7-2O15 ii. (SRK). J+o ocnonnon nann+enic+nennin c+a+einnecinn (oiyxen+, one(enxmmnn
nenn n nnon+e+i n cqee connanino-iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx Honimn, a +aie ycnonnx, io+oie
(onni o6ecnenn+i i+o a:nn+ne. On xnnxe+cx nanenmnx accnn+annix na xnoine io(i
c+a+einnecinx (oiyxen+ox, iacammnxcx connanino-iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx c+ani. J+o o+nannax
+onia (nx (yinx c+a+einn n nann+enic+nennix noiaxx, a:a6a+inaexix +aie e(nnnnaxn
+en+onaninoio caxoynannennx.
Hoei+ xnnxe+cx ocnonon (nx iqqei+nnnoio ncnoni:onannx Honimen iai nny+ennnx, +ai
n nnemnnx (enonencinx) ce(c+n, ne(na:nanennix na eann:annm connanino-iionoxnnecinx
nenen. SRK (onen ciia+i cymec+nennym oni n ioo(nnannn nnc+n+ynnonanino-eiynnymmnx
eqox n noei+on, qnnancnyexix n: ce(c+n LC, +ai n+o6i nee: iqqei+ cnneinn o6e i+n cqei
iionoxnnecion nonn+nin c+ann eme 6onee e:yni+a+nnnixn.
SRK ocymec+nnxe+ nenn n o+nenae+ na ni:oni, noc+annennie n ocnonnox c+a+einneciox
(oiyxen+e LC ncca6oncion c+a+einn, (enax yno na oc+ n :anx+oc+i.
Honima n 2O15 io(y (onna c+a+i c+anon c nicoinx yonnex n ianec+nox n:nn nacenennx,
a +aie c cnninon n ioniyen+ocnoco6non iionoxnion, cnoco6non co:(ana+i nonie a6onne xec+a.
Inannon nenim c+a+einn xnnxe+cx nonimenne yonnx n ianec+na n:nn n+enen Honimn.
Ona 6y(e+ ocymec+nnx+icx n axiax nx+n nnon+e+on, one(enxmmnx caxie nanie cqei
(ex+eninoc+n. J+nxn nnon+e+axn xnnxm+cx:
1. Poc+ ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n n nnnonannonnoc+n iionoxnin;
2. Vnynmenne coc+oxnnx +exnnnecion n connaninon nnqac+yi+yi;
3. Poc+ :anx+oc+n n nonimenne eio ianec+na;
4. Hoc+oenne nn+einonannoio connaninoio coo6mec+na n eio 6e:onacnoc+n;
5. Peinonaninoe a:nn+ne n ynynmenne nny+ennen oiann:annn einona.
Peann:annn nenoio nnon+e+a, +.e. nonimennm ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n n nnnonannonnoc+n
iionoxnin, 6y(y+ cnyn+i cne(ymmne xei:
Pa:nn+ne ne(nnnnxa+enic+na;
Vnennnenne (oc+yna i nnemnexy qnnancnonannm nnnec+nnnn;
Honimenne +exnonoinnecioio yonnx iionoxnin ny+ex ynennnennx :a+a+ na nccne(onannx,
a:nn+ne n nnnonannn;
Pa:nn+ne nnqoxannonnoio o6mec+na noce(c+nox nnqoxa+n:annn ion+ai+on 6n:neca
n ny6nnnnon a(xnnnc+annn (a(xnnnc+a+nnnoe n qnnanconoe o6cnynnanne, 6a:i (annix
n +.n.), e-a(xnnnc+annx;
3amn+a ioniyennnn;
34
Jicno+ n co+y(nnnec+no c :ay6enixn c+anaxn;
Pa:nn+ne cei+oa ycnyi;
3anemenne ec+yi+yn:annn xano necnei+nnnix noximnennix o+acnen, c+yi+ynie
n:xenennx n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne n i6ononc+ne.
enc+nnx, nanenennie na eann:annm n+ooio nnon+e+a ynynmenne coc+oxnnx nnqac+yi+yi,
6y(y+ iaca+icx n cqee +exnnnecion nnqac+yi+yi: +ancno+a, nnnmnoio xo:xnc+na,
+enennqoxa+nin, ineie+nin n :amn+i oiyammen ce(i. B cnom onee(i, n axiax no:(enc+nnx
na connaninym nnqac+yi+yy, 6y(y+ (ena+icx ycnnnx no qoxnonannm nonoio ianec+na
nenonenecioio iann+ana nee: nnqac+yi+yy n o6nac+n o6a:onannx, :(anooxanennx, connaninoio
o6ecnenennx, iyni+yi, +yn:xa n cno+a.
B axiax eann:annn +e+ieio nnon+e+a, +.e. oc+a :anx+oc+n, 6y(y+ ne(nnnnxa+icx
cne(ymmne xei:
Co:(anne ycnonnn, cnoco6c+nymmnx ne(nnnnxa+enic+ny n coiamenne nanoionon naiy:in
na a6o+o(a+enen;
Honimenne inac+nnnoc+n inia +y(a n Honime, a +aie oc+ xo6nninoc+n +y(onix
ecycon;
Hnnnna+nni no niannnnannm mancon na inie +y(a;
Vnynmenne coo+ne+c+nnx yne6nix noiaxx ny(ax inia +y(a;
Pa:nn+ne nnc+n+y+on o6mec+nennoio (nanoia n yiennenne neeiononon cnc+exi o+nomennn
xe(y a6o+nniaxn n a6o+o(a+enxxn;
Vnynmenne 6e:onacnoc+n n ycnonnn +y(a;
Poc+ nnc+n+ynnonaninon iqqei+nnnoc+n n o6cnynnannn inia +y(a;
Hone(enne iqqei+nnnon xniannonnon nonn+nin.
Viennenne nn+eiannn connaninix o6mnoc+en n qyninnonnonannx ny6nnnnon nnac+n
(ne+ne+in nnon+e+) 6y(y+ ocymec+nnx+icx noce(c+nox +ainx xe, iai:
C+on+enic+no n coxanenne (oc+onenon, iqqei+nnnon n :acnynnammen o6mec+nennoio
(onenx ny6nnnnon nnac+n;
Ho+nno(enc+nne ioynnnn;
C+on+enic+no iqqei+nnnon cnc+exi cnaca+eninon cny6i, :amn+i nacenennx n in:ncnoio
ynannennx;
Ho((eia caxooiann:annn xec+nix o6mnoc+en;
Ho(nnenne ai+nnnon connaninon nonn+nin, n +ox nncne no((ein cexen.
Peann:annx nx+oio nnon+e+a, +.e. a:nn+nx einonon, 6y(e+ n 6nnanmee io(i :annce+i o+
cnoco6noc+n einonon n xec+nix o6mnoc+en ncnoni:ona+i nx co6c+nennie ecyci (nx a:nn+nx,
a +aie yxenne nnnneia+i nnnec+oon n: nne.
C+a+einnecion nenim einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+na na 2OO7-2O15 ii. xnnxe+cx co:(anne
ycnonnn (nx oc+a ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n +ainx o6a:ox, n+o6i cnoco6c+nona+i connaninon,
iionoxnnecion n +en+onaninon cnnonennoc+n, a +aie c+exn+icx i niannnnannm mancon
a:nn+nx noeno(c+n. Biannnnanne mancon a:nn+nx 6y(e+ iaca+icx +ex anonon, io+oie 6e:
noxomn iocy(ac+na o6eneni na (eia(annm nnn (oniym 6oi6y c +y(noc+xxn. B +o e nexx,
coinacno nnnnnny cy6cn(nanoc+n n nnnnnny no((ein in(oiennoio a:nn+nx, einonaninax
nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ nanenena na in6iym (nqqeennnannm nenen n ncnoni:onanne
nny+enneio no+ennnana o+(eninix :exeni.
nx (oc+nennx nenen einonaninon nonn+nin ncinmnn+enino nanixn xnnxm+cx cne(ymmne
:a(ann:
O6ecnenenne xoomen noc+anc+nennon oiann:annn c+ani;
enen+ann:annx noneccon a:nn+nx n ni+eiammax n: i+oio (enen+ann:annx ny6nnnnix
qnnancon;
Pa:nn+ne anonon noiyi iynnix ioo(on iai noioxo+nnon noiecca;
35
Pa:nn+ne cenicinx anonon, io+oie nac+o xnnxm+cx xec+ox iionoxnnecion, connaninon,
o6a:ona+eninon n iyni+ynon (eia(annn.
Ocnonnixn nanannennxxn einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+na 6y(y+:
Honimenne iionoxnnecion ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n nonicinx einonon;
Biannnnanne mancon a:nn+nx +ex anonon, io+oie 6e: noxomn iocy(ac+na o6eneni na
(eia(annm nnn no(onn+eninie +y(noc+n a:nn+nx.
Oioxnix mancox (nx (oc+nennx nenen SRK xnnxm+cx iynnie nnnec+nnnn, eann:annx
io+oix c+anonn+cx no:xonon 6naio(ax no((eie co c+ooni nonn+nin cnnonennx, nono(nxon
LC. O6max nennnnna qnnanconix ce(c+n, nnnnenennix na ocymec+nnenne SRK, xoe+ coc+ann+i
oiono 11O xn(. eno, n: neio oiono 88 xn(. eno 6y(e+ noncxo(n+i n: ny6nnnnix nc+onnnion.
H: i+on cyxxi oiono 72 xn(. eno noqnnancnye+ LC; oiono 16 xn(. eno coc+ann+ nina(
Honimn n noei+i, qnnancnyexie conxec+no c LC.
H: o6men cyxxi 72 xn(. eno n: ce(c+n LC, ne(ycxa+nnaexix na 2OO7-2O13 ii., cnime
59,5 xn(. eno 6y(e+ ncnoni:onano na eann:annm Hannonaninon c+a+einn cnnonennx (SS),
a +aie ni+eiammnx n: nee oneannonnix noiaxx. Oiono O,6 xn(. eno non(e+ na eann:annm
noiaxx +en+onaninoio co+y(nnnec+na, a na no((eiy ec+yi+yn:annn cenicioio
xo:xnc+na, xe no a:nn+nm cenicinx anonon n ec+yi+yn:annm i6ononc+na, 6y(e+ ni(eneno
oiono 12,5 xn(. eno.
O+enec+nennie ny6nnnnie ce(c+na n noei+ax, n io+oix nonyna+enxxn 6y(y+ nac+nie
cy6sei+i, (onni 6i+i (ononneni nac+nix nina(ox n nenox n o6sexe oiono 19,9 xn(. eno.
Jenn n nnon+e+i C+a+einn a:nn+nx c+ani 6y(y+ ocymec+nnx+icx noce(c+nox xe,
ni+eiammnx n: ocnonnix nann+enic+nennix (oiyxen+on (Conn(anoe iocy(ac+no, Hoiaxxa
ionneiennnn, Hannonaninax noiaxxa eqox) n n axiax oneannonnix noiaxx Hannonaninon
c+a+einn iaxonn:annn na 2OO7-2O13 ii., oneannonnon noiaxxi Pa:nn+ne cenicinx anonon
n 2OO7-2O13 ii., Hoiaxxi yannonemennoio a:nn+nx cei+oa i6ononc+na n nn6eenix
i6aninx :exeni n +.n.
Peann:annx C+a+einn (onna o6ecnenn+i Honime yc+onnnnin 6ic+in iionoxnnecinn oc+,
c+nxynnyexin inannix o6a:ox nnnec+nnnxxn n iicno+ox. Coinacno ocnonnix noia:a+enxx
n SRK ne(ycxa+nnae+cx, n nac+noc+n:
Vcioenne oc+a BBH c 3 n ce(nex n io( :a 2OO1-2OO5 ii. (o 4,7 :a 2OO6-2O1O ii. n 5
:a 2O11-2O15 ii. B e:yni+a+e yoneni BBH n neecne+e na (ymy nacenennx (no nan+e+y
noiyna+eninon cnoco6noc+n, n nenax 2OO5 i.) (onen ynennnn+cx c 11,6 +ic. eno n 2OO5 i. (o
14,6 +ic. eno n 2O1O i. n 18,6 +ic. eno n 2O15 i. J+o o:nanano 6i (oc+nenne 66 ce(nen LC
n nocne(nex io(y eann:annn C+a+einn, no+nn oiono 5O n nac+oxmee nexx.
Honimenne ce(nen noxi nnnec+nnnn c 18,8 n 2OO1-2OO5 ii. (o 21 n 2OO6-2O1O ii. n 25
n 2O11-2O15 ii., a +aie nn+oia nxxix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn c 7,7 xn(. (onnaon CHA
(2OO5 i.) (o 1O xn(. (onnaon CHA n 2OO6-2O15 ii.
Poc+ o6sexa iicno+a na (ymy nacenennx c 1871 eno n 2OO5 i. (o 32OO eno n 2O1O i. n 54OO eno
n 2O15 ii., +.e. n +exne cnime 11 n ce(nex n io(. onx nicoio+exnonoinnnix no(yi+on
n iicno+e (onna (oc+nni 8 n 2O15 i., no cannennm c 2,4 n 2OO4 i.
3nann+eninoe ynennnenne :a+a+ na (ex+eninoc+i no HHOKP c O,58 BBH n 2OO4 i. (o 2,2
BBH n 2O1O i. n 2,5 BBH n 2O15 i., nn ac+ymen (onn xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+on n i+nx
:a+a+ax, coo+ne+c+nenno c 22,6 (o 4O n 6O.
Cnnenne yonnx 6e:a6o+nni c 17,6 n 2OO5 i. (o 13 n 2O1O i. n 9,5 n 2O15 i.
Maioiionoxnneciax c+a6nnn:annx coxanenne noxi nnqnxnnn na yonne oiono 2,5
n io(, a +aie coiamenne (eqnnn+a cei+oa ny6nnnnix qnnancon (c 2,5 BBH n 2OO5 i. (o 2
BBH n 2O1O i. n 1 BBH n 2O15 i.), n+o no:nonn+ nnoc+anonn+i oc+ ny6nnnnoio (onia
(eio coo+nomenne c BBH nocne oc+a c 48,8 n 2OO5 i. (o 52 n 2O1O i., (onno nonn:n+icx
(o 47 n 2O15 i.).
1. Puuok fpypa
Honicioe o6mec+no xnnxe+cx o+nocn+enino xono(ix, xo+x n nocne(nne io(i eio no:ac+nax
c+yi+ya noc+enenno yxy(mae+cx nnn(y o+nna+eninoio ec+ec+nennoio nnoc+a. B 2OO5 i. nnna
+y(ocnoco6noio no:ac+a n xonoe coc+annxnn 84,6 nacenennx c+ani, a nnna +y(ocnoco6noio
no:ac+a 62,6 ncex n+enen. Bicoiax (nnaxnia oc+a iynni nnn +y(ocnoco6noio no:ac+a
na6nm(anaci c caxoio nanana neno(a +ancqoxannn, o(naio n 2OO5 io(y i+a +en(ennnx
nnoc+anonnnaci. Konnnec+no nnn +y(ocnoco6noio no:ac+a n ionne 2OO5 i. coc+annxno
23,8 xnnnnona.
O+nocn+enino xoomnx xnnxe+cx +aie yoneni o6a:onannx n inannqniannn nonxion, o nex
cnn(e+enic+nye+ nicoiax (onx (oiono 5O) nnn +y(ocnoco6noio no:ac+a, nxemmnx ce(nee
n nicmee o6a:onanne. annie :a nocne(nne io(i ionox+ o :nann+eninox oc+e ionnnec+na
c+y(en+on nicmnx yne6nix :ane(ennn.
C 2OO4 io(a non:omno :axe+noe ynynmenne nonoennx na inie +y(a. Lin o+xenen oc+
ionnnec+na ai+nnnix n +y(onox o+nomennn nnn n nncna :anx+ix. K ionny 2OO5 i. o6max
nncnennoc+i ai+nnnix n +y(onox o+nomennn nnn (n no:ac+e o+ 15 ne+ n c+ame) coc+annxna
n Honime 31 334 +ic. nenonei, +.e. 6ina non+n na 14O +ic. 6onime, nex n ne(i(ymex io(y,
n+o (anano 6onee 82 nceio nacenennx c+ani. Hncno a6o+ammnx n nao(nox xo:xnc+ne coc+annxno
14 39O +ic. nenonei, +.e. niocno na 6onee nex 33O +ic. nenonei no cannennm c 2OO4 i. n coc+annxno
non+n 46 nacenennx n no:ac+e iionoxnnecion ai+nnnoc+n (ninmnax nencnoneon n nnnann(on).
Caxin 6onimon oc+ :anx+oc+n 6in o+xenen n cei+oe o6a:onannx, +oionnn n exon+on,
ioc+nnnn n ec+oanon, o6cnynnannx ne(nnnxoc+n n qnx, a +aie noximnennon neea6o+in.
Ce(n a6o+ammnx nnn neo6na(am+ naexnie a6o+nnin (cnime 74 ncex :anx+ix n 2OO5 i.).
Pa6o+o(a+enn n nnna, ne(ymne nn(nnn(yaninym +y(onym (ex+eninoc+i, (anann nexnoinx 6onee
o(non nx+on ncex :anx+ix. Caxax 6onimax (onx :anx+ix nnxo(n+cx na cei+o ycnyi (non+n 64),
a :a+ex na noximnennoc+i (non+n 2O) n cenicioe xo:xnc+no (cnime 17). B o6mex ionnnec+ne
a6o+ammnx nne cenicioio xo:xnc+na (n nenox 11 921 +ic. nenonei n 2OO5 i.) neo6na(am+ a6o+nnin
noximnennoc+n, +oionnn n exon+on, nocnemennx, c+on+enic+na, a +aie +ancno+a,
cina(cioio xo:xnc+na n cnx:n.
Hoc+enenno ac+e+ ionnnec+no nnn, a6o+ammnx na nenonnym c+aniy n no (oionoy na
neone(enennin coi.
B 2OO5 io(y ce(nexecxnnax :aa6o+nax nna+a ((o nine+a nanoion) coc+annxna 2 38O :no+ix
n no o+nomennm i 2OO4 io(y noxnnanino nonicnnaci na 4,7. Caxie nicoine :aa6o+in 6inn
n iono(o6inammen noximnennoc+n (4 347 :n.), cei+oe qnnanconoio noce(nnnec+na (4 335 :n.),
36
37
non:no(c+na n acne(enennx inei+oineinn, ia:a n no(i (3 285 :n.), a +aie n ny6nnnnon
a(xnnnc+annn n axnn (3 O61 :n.). B cnncie caxix nn:ioonnannnaexix o6nac+en oia:annci
ioc+nnnnnoe xo:xnc+no (1 5O5 :n.), c+on+enic+no (1 9O9 :n.), +oionnx n exon+i (1 926 :n.), a +aie
:(anooxanenne n connaninoe o6ecnenenne (1 954 :n.).
7,9%
6,3%
22,6%
14,2%
6,4%
19,5%
17,2%
5,9%

,



,

C+yi+ya :anx+oc+n n o+(eninix o+acnxx iionoxnin Honimn coinacno nonicioxy
inaccnqnia+oy nn(on iionoxnnecion (ex+eninoc+n (PKD)
Hcno:nur. ICV (G\S).
Ha noniciox inie +y(a nxee+ xec+o :nann+eninax 6e:a6o+nna, io+oax o(naio nxee+
+en(ennnm i nonnennm. Hoxa 6e:a6o+nni coia+nnaci c 2O n ionne 2OO3 i. (o 17,6 n ionne
2OO5 i. n 16 n ionne nenoio nonyio(nx 2OO6 i. B ionne 2OO5 i. n Honime 6ino :aeinc+nonano
2 893 +ic. 6e:a6o+nix, n: io+oix cnime nononnni (53) coc+annxnn xono(ie nm(n n no:ac+e (o
34 ne+. Bicoinn yoneni 6e:a6o+nni xaai+een +aie (nx nnn c nn:inxn inannqniannxxn. Ce(n
6e:a6o+nix 56 i+o nnna, oionnnnmne +oniio nananinym nnn nenonnym ce(nmm miony,
noq+exynnnnme nnn inxna:nm.
Coxanxe+cx oneni cnninax +en+onaninax (nqqeennnannx yonnx 6e:a6o+nni. B ionne
2OO5 i. caxin nicoinn yoneni 6e:a6o+nni 6in o+xenen n noeno(c+nax: Baxnno-Ma:yciox
(27,5), 3ana(nonoxociox (25,6), m6ymciox (23,3) n Kyxncio-Hoxociox (22,3). B cnom
onee(i, caxin nn:inn yoneni 6e:a6o+nni o+xenancx n noeno(c+nax: Ma:oneniox
n Manononiciox (no 13,8), Benniononiciox (14,5), Ho(nxcciox n Cnne:ciox (no oiono 15,5).
Meeinonaninie a:nnnnx n i+on o6nac+n ni+eiam+ n: (nqqeennnannn yonnen connanino-
iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx o+(eninix noeno(c+n, a +aie no(nnennx noneccon ec+yi+yn:annn
n nnna+n:annn.
B 2OO5 io(y nncno :anx+ix niocno ne(e nceio n noeno(c+nax: Henecnne:ciox (na 1O,3),
Hoxociox (na 9,9), m6ymciox (na 6,7) n Benniononiciox (na 6,3). Menime :anx+ix c+ano
n noeno(c+nax: Kyxncio-Hoxociox (na 4,3), o(:nnciox (na 2,9) n Baxnno-Ma:yciox
(na 2,4).
38
Cnennqnnecion ne+on nonicioio inia +y(a xnnxe+cx nannnne o+nocn+enino nicoioio
ionnnec+na xono(ix nencnoneon, n: io+oix nac+i :anx+a na nenonnym c+aniy. B 2OO5 io(y ce(nxx
nencnx no no:ac+y n necenicioxo:xnc+nennon cnc+exe connaninoio c+axonannx coc+annxna 1 171 :n.,
nencnx no nnnann(noc+n 925 :n., a nencnx no no+ee ioxnnina 1 119 :n. (nce nennnnni (o
nanoionix nine+on).
Hecxo+x na nonon+eninie n:xenennx, cn+yannx na noniciox inie +y(a oc+ae+cx +y(non,
+ai iai n i+on cqee nxee+cx x( no6nex c+yi+ynoio xaai+ea, io+oie n :nann+eninon c+enenn
xnnxm+cx cne(c+nnex ycioennix noneccon a(an+annn n iionoxnnecinx eqox neno(a
+ancqoxannn. Bno(nxie n Honime eqoxi inia +y(a o+nenam+ nanannennxx, ne(naiaexix
Lnonencinx com:ox, n +ox nncne one(enennix n ncca6oncion c+a+einn n ne(y+ i nonimennm
yonnx :anx+oc+n (oco6enno enmnn n nnn c+ameio no:ac+a), nonimennm non:no(n+eninoc+n
n ianec+na +y(a, a +aie i ynynmennm connaninon cnnonennoc+n.
Pac+e+ :nanenne ai+nnnon nonn+nin na inie +y(a, io+oax oxna+inae+, n nac+noc+n, (o+annn
na neeinannqniannm 6e:a6o+nix n noqeccnonaninoe o6ynenne, noxomi n noncie a6o+i,
nn+enennnonnie a6o+i, ny6nnnnie a6o+i, ne(oc+annenne ccy( na nanano nn(nnn(yaninon
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, noqeccnonaninym ai+nnn:annm ninycinnion, co:(anne (ononnn+eninix
a6onnx xec+ (nx 6e:a6o+nix.
Mei nann+enic+na, nanannennie na ynennnenne :anx+oc+n, iacam+cx +aie ynomennx
none(y, cnx:annix c ne(ennex xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, a nxenno: nonimenne in6ioc+n
+y(onoio :aiono(a+enic+na, ynomenne a(xnnnc+a+nnnix none(y, cnx:annix c einc+annen
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, nonynennex a:emennn n nnnen:nn, ynennnenne no:annoc+n
(enc+nymmnx nannn.
Koxe +oio, xei no ynynmennm nonoennx na inie +y(a oxna+inam+: (aninenmym eqoxy
cnc+exi o6a:onannx n o6ynennx n nanannennn nonimennx yonnx o6meio o6a:onannx n nynmeio
coo+ne+c+nnx nonynaexix inannqniannn +e6onannxx inia +y(a, a:nn+ne neneinnoio
o6ynennx, a +aie ioo(nnannm cnc+ex nanoioo6noennx n connaninix noco6nn +ainx o6a:ox,
n+o6i onn c+nxynnonann a6o+o(a+enen co:(ana+i a6onne xec+a, a 6e:a6o+nix n neai+nnnix
n noqeccnonaninox o+nomennn nnn +y(oyc+anna+icx.
Vnynmennm cn+yannn na inie +y(a n Honime cnoco6c+nonano +aie noxnnenne no:xonoc+n
+y(oyc+onc+na n neio+oix c+anax Lnonencioio com:a. C 1 xax 2OO6 i. ia(ane Honimn
xoiy+ nanx+icx na a6o+y 6e: neo6xo(nxoc+n nonynennx a:emennx na a6o+y n cexn c+anax
LC-15:
Hnan(nn, Hnennn n Bennio6n+annn, i(e oiannnennx 6inn cnx+i c xoxen+a nc+ynnennx
Honimn n LC,
4nnnxn(nn, Iennn, Hcnannn n Ho+yiannn, io+oie nnnxnn emenne o cnx+nn oiannnennn
nocne 2-ne+neio neexo(noio neno(a.
Koxe +oio, oiannnennn na +y(oyc+onc+no ne+ n iocy(ac+nax, io+oie nc+ynnnn n LC nxec+e
c Honimen (Knn, Hexnx, Jc+onnx, n+na, a+nnx, Mani+a, Cnonainx, Cnonennx n Beninx).
Oc+aninie iocy(ac+na emnnn coxann+i oiannnennx n (oc+yne na cnon inoi. B +o e nexx
neio+oie n: nnx :axnnnn o naxeennn nnec+n nannna, o6neinammne nonynenne a:emennx na
a6o+y n nnxenennn i neio+oix cei+oax/noqeccnxx (Leniinx, 4annnx, micex6yi), ynomenne
none(y, cnx:annix c nonynennex a:emennn na a6o+y (annx) nnn ynennnenne nennnnni ino+
a:emennn na a6o+y (H+annx). Hann+enic+na Anc+nn n Iexannn emnnn coxann+i c+aie
nannna +y(oyc+onc+na n neno( c 1 xax 2OO4 i. no 3O anenx 2OO6 i. B Ionnan(nn +aie (enc+nye+
cnc+exa a:emennn na a6o+y, no nonoc o (oc+yne i iniy +y(a ia(an n: nonix iocy(ac+n-
nnenon LC (onen accxa+nna+icx ye n ionne 2OO6 i.
39

-
1
5


2
0
0
4
-
2
0
0
9


2
0
0
4


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
9


8
-


2
0
0
6
-
2
0
0
9


3
0


2
0
0
9


2
0
0
6


4O


2
0
0
4


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
9


3
0


2
0
0
9


2
0
0
6


1
4


2
0
0
6

.
,


1
7
0


2
0
0
4


2
0
0
7


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
6


2
0
0
7


2
0
0
6


1
.
0
1
.
2
0
0
7

-
1
5

.

41
2. Rpupopuue pecypcu
Pacnonaiax 6oia+ixn ecycaxn xnneaninoio ciix, Honima o+nocn+cx i ne(ymnx n xne
non:no(n+enxx n iicno+eax iaxennoio yinx, cei, xe(n n cee6a. Ha +en+onn Honimn
acnonoeni :nann+eninie :anen nnnia, cnnnna, nno(noio ia:a, conn n (yinx none:nix
ncionaexix.
Sepaemuvecxoe cmpse. Tonnuso-sepaemuvecxu anac
Jicnnya+annx :aneen yinx nen+ n ocnone cna6ennx c+ani ineinen n xnnxe+cx nanix
nc+onnniox nanm+nix noc+ynnennn o+ iicno+a. Honima xnnxe+cx iynnenmnx iicno+eox
iaxennoio yinx n Lnone (:a ncinmnennex Poccnn), a +aie nanix non:no(n+enex 6yoio yinx.
Pa:ne(annie ecyci iaxennoio yinx, onennnaexie n 42,6 xn(. +onn, iicnnya+nym+cx inannix
o6a:ox n Cnne:nn, a +aie n m6nnnciox einone. Lyin yioni, o+ii+ie :anen io+ooio
onennnam+cx n 13,6 xn(. +onn, (o6inae+cx n iaieax nen+aninon n mio-:ana(non nac+n c+ani.
Ho(+ne(ennix ecycon iaxennoio yinx nn ninemnex yonne (o6inn xna+n+ na 159 ne+, 6yoio
yinx na 29 ne+.
3nann+eninie ecyci n o6sexi (o6inn iaxennoio yinx o6ecnennnam+ Honime nicoiym c+eneni
ineie+nnecion caxo(oc+a+onnoc+n. Vioni o6ecnennnae+ 65 no+e6nxexon n c+ane nennnnon
ineinn, na 6a:e yinx a6o+am+ inei+oc+annnn, non:no(xmne oiono 95 inei+oineinn. O(naio
ec+yi+yn:annx yioninon noximnennoc+n n neo6xo(nxoc+i (nnecnqniannn c+yi+yi
cna6ennx ineinen nnnenn i oc+y :nanennx n ineie+nie c+ani neq+eia:onoio +onnnna.
Ocnoennie ecyci nno(noio ia:a n Honime coc+annxm+ 128 xn(. iy6. x, n+o coo+ne+c+nye+
23-ne+nen (o6ine na ninemnex yonne. Jicnnya+annx co6c+nennix ecycon noiinae+ cnime
1/3 no+e6noc+en c+ani n i+ox +onnnne. Pecyci n yoneni (o6inn neq+n nenennin n non+n ncx
neq+eneea6o+ia :anncn+ o+ nxno+nyexoio ciix.
B +enenne xnoinx ne+ e(nnc+nennix iicno+eox nno(noio ia:a n inannix noc+anmniox
neq+n n Honimy 6in 6inmnn Cone+cinn Com:. B 9O-e io(i :nann+enino ynennnnnnci no:xonoc+n
(nnecnqniannn nc+onnnion nxno+a neq+n. C i+on nenim 6ina ynennnena exioc+i neq+xnoio
+exnnana n i(aniciox no+y.
Caxix iynnix noc+anmniox ia:a no(onae+ oc+ana+icx Poccnx, io+oax no(ae+ i+o +onnnno
nee: Ia:nox. B nac+oxmee nexx Honima noiynae+ n Poccnn 6,5-7 xn(. iy6.x ia:a eeio(no,
n+o y(onne+noxe+ nnxeno nononnny o+enec+nennoio cnoca. Hac+i occnncioio ia:a noc+annxe+cx
no nenon ne+ie xxanicioio ia:onono(a, io+oin noxo(n+ nee: Lenayci n Honimy n Iexannm.
Honima c+aae+cx noc+enenno (nnecnqnnnona+i n noiyniy ia:a. 3nann+eninoe ionnnec+no ia:a
nxno+nye+cx n: Ka:axc+ana, Tyixennc+ana, Honeinn n Iexannn, a ne6onimoe n: Vianni
n Hexnn. C Honeinen 6in no(nncan +ai na:inaexin xanin ion+ai+. C 2OO1 i. ionnnec+no ia:a,
noc+annxexoio n: Honeinn no nexeninx ia:onono(ax, coc+annno 5OO xnn. iy6. x n io(.
Hn6nn:n+enino +aioe e ionnnec+no nxno+nye+cx n: Iexannn. B 6y(ymex nxno+ n: i+nx (nyx
c+an xoe+ ynennnn+icx. Paccxa+nnae+cx +aie nanan+ noc+onin ia:onono(a n ceneo-
:ana(non Honime, io+oin coe(nnnn 6i Honimy c ia:onon ce+im Iexannn, o6cy(ae+cx n(ex
co:(annx cnc+exi +ancno+nonin ia:a n: Honeinn. yion ionnennnen, io+oax no:nonn+
(nnecnqnnnona+i noiyniy ia:a, xnnxe+cx c+on+enic+no no+onoio +exnnana na noniciox
no6eeie (nx a:iy:in cnennoio ia:a. Menee eanen noei+ +y6onono(a Ha6yiio, io+oin
noc+annxn 6i +yixencinn n nancinn ia: (n: anona Kacnnncioio xox) n Lnony, n +ox nncne
n Honimy.
42
Memannm
Ocnoennix ecycon xe(n, onennnaexix n 1,36 xn(. +onn, nn ninemnex yonne ee (o6inn,
xna+n+ na 43 io(a. Me(i (o6inae+cx n Hnnen Cnne:nn c iny6nni (o 12OO x. Me(nax y(a,
:aneiammax n Honime, co(en+ xnoio cee6a, n+o nonimae+ en+a6eninoc+i iicnnya+annn max+.
Me(nax noximnennoc+i n Honime cannn+enino xono(a ee a:nn+ne nananoci n ionne 6O-x io(on
nomnoio c+one+nx. Honima xnnxe+cx (enx+ix n xne n nenix n Lnone (6e: yne+a Poccnn)
non:no(n+enex ionon xe(n, a +aie nx+ix n xne n nenix n Lnone non:no(n+enex cee6a.
Heo6na(ammax nac+i (o6inaexon xe(n n cee6a iicno+nye+cx, inannix o6a:ox, na inin c+an
Lnonencioio com:a. Pe:yni+a+ox nono(nxon n nocne(nne io(i ec+yi+yn:annn n xo(enn:annn
i+on o+acnn xnnxe+cx cnnenne n:(eei non:no(c+na n nonimenne ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n na
xe(ynao(nox inie.
B 1997 i. nananaci nnna+n:annx nonicion xe(noy(non noximnennoc+n. Ha o+ii+ix +oiax
o+enec+nennix n nnoc+annix nnnec+oax no(ano 36 ainnn KGHM Polsla Mieuz S.A. (Iono-
xe+annyinnecinn iox6nna+ AO Honiciax xe(i) e(nnc+nennoio n Honime non:no(n+enx xe(n.
On nnna(nen+ i nncny iynnenmnx nonicinx iicno+eon n xnnxe+cx o(non n: iynnenmnx qnx
n c+ane. J+a qnxa, nce eme ion+onnyexax iocy(ac+nox, nnnec+nonana :nann+eninie ce(c+na
n +eneioxxynniannonnin cei+o n xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: inannix ainnoneon Honiiox+ena o(noio
n: +ex onea+oon co+onon cnx:n n Honime. C+on+ (o6ann+i, n+o 2OO5 io( 6in onee(nix oneni
ycnemnix io(ox (nx i+oio iox6nna+a. Bicoine neni xe(n n cee6a na xnonox inie nnnenn
i +oxy, n+o ainnn i+oio o6mec+na (oc+ninn caxix nicoinx n eio nc+onn io+nonoi, a nnc+ax nn6ini
no cannennm c 2OO4 i ynennnnnaci na 7O n (oc+nina 2,4 xn(. :n. (742 xnn. (onnaon CHA).
3anen nnniono-cnnnnonon y(i naxo(x+cx n Cnne:cio-iaionciox einone. B nac+oxmee nexx
ee (o6ina ne y(onne+noxe+ ny( xe+annyinn. Hac+i no+e6noc+en noiamae+cx :a cne+ nxno+a
ionnen+a+on. B cnom onee(i, nac+i nn+ennon no(yinnn nnnia n n xenimen c+enenn +aie cnnnna
n(e+ na iicno+.
3. Rpouseopcfeeuuue qoupu
Conoiynnax c+onxoc+i ocnonnix non:no(c+nennix qon(on n Honime no +eiymnx yne+nix
nenax n ionne 2OO4 i. coc+annna 1747,9 xn(. :n., +.e. oiono 587,1 xn(. (onnaon CHA, 57,8
n: io+oix 6ino co6c+nennoc+im nac+noio cei+oa. Ha :(annx n cooyennx nnxo(nnoci 66,3,
na xamnni n o6oy(onanne 26,7, a na +ancno+nie ce(c+na 6,1 o+ o6men c+onxoc+n
ocnonnix qon(on. Lonee 73 ocnonnix qon(on 6ino coce(o+oneno n +ex cei+oax iionoxnin:
n noximnennoc+n 31,8 (n +ox nncne n neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n 17,1),
n o6cnynnannn ne(nnnxoc+n n qnx 23,2 (n +ox nncne nnie :(annx 21,7), a +aie na
+ancno+e n cnx:n (18,4).
Hon:no(c+nennie qon(i neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n 6inn coce(o+oneni, ne(e
nceio, n cne(ymmnx o6nac+xx: non:no(c+no no(ononic+nennix +onaon n nann+ion (18,1),
non:no(c+no xnxnnecinx n:(ennn (1O,8), an+oxo6nninax noximnennoc+i (9,1), xnneaninax
noximnennoc+i (8,7), non:no(c+no ioica n neq+eno(yi+on (6,5), non:no(c+no e:nnonix
n nnac+xacconix n:(ennn (5,8), non:no(c+no xe+anna (5,7), a +aie non:no(c+no xamnn n o6oy(o-
nannx (5,6). Inannixn coc+annxmmnxn nxymec+na neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n 6inn:
xamnni n o6oy(onanne (6O,4), a +aie :(annx n cooyennx (34,8).
Hon:no(c+nennie qon(i n Honime n 6onimon c+enenn n:nomeni. B ionne 2OO4 i. c+eneni
nx n:noca coc+annna n ce(nex 45,9. B noximnennoc+n c+eneni n:noca non:no(c+nennix qon(on
coc+annxna n ce(nex 5O,5, n +ox nncne n acne(enennn ineinn, ia:a n no(i 53,4,
n iono(o6inammen noximnennoc+n 53,1, a n neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n 48.
43
B neea6a+inammen o+acnn i+o+ noia:a+eni 6in cannn+enino nicoinx (6onee 55) n +ainx
ceixen+ax non:no(c+na, iai: non:no(c+no oc+aninix nn(on ce(c+n +ancno+a (inannix o6a:ox
cy(on), +eic+nninax noximnennoc+i, non:no(c+no xamnn n o6oy(onannx, non:no(c+no ioica
n no(yi+on neq+eneea6o+in, a +aie non:no(c+no xnxnnecinx n:(ennn. O+nocn+enino nennoxo
(xenee 42) i+o+ noia:a+eni niinx(en n +ainx cei+oax, iai: non:no(c+no an+oxo6nnen,
non:no(c+no oi+exnnin n ioxnim+eon, non:no(c+no xe6enn n non:no(c+no +a6annix n:(ennn.
C+eneni n:noca o+(eninix coc+annxmmnx non:no(c+nennix qon(on (nqqeennnonana. K ionny
2OO4 i. n:noc xamnn n o6oy(onannx coc+annxn 6O,9, +ancno+nix ce(c+n 52,7, :(annn
n cooyennn 38,7. Oneni nicoinn n:noc xamnn n o6oy(onannx na6nm(ae+cx n ceniciox
n necnox xo:xnc+nax (8O,9), :axe+no xenime, no +aie :nann+eninin n o6cnynnannn ne(nnnxoc+n
n qnx (64,5), c+on+enic+ne (62,2) n noximnennoc+n (6O,4). O+nocn+enino ne6onimnx i+o+
noia:a+eni 6in n +oionne n exon+nix ycnyiax (52,3) a +aie n ioc+nnnnax n ec+oanax (54,6).
B nenon iynne n nocne(nne io(i o+xenen nn+oi :nann+eninix nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn. Onn
6inn nananneni, ne(e nceio, n +oionie ce+n. B noximnennoc+n noia:a+eni n:noca xamnn
n o6oy(onannx neniman 65 n +ainx o6nac+xx, iai: non:no(c+no xamnn n o6oy(onannx;
(o6ina iaxennoio n 6yoio yinx; non:no(c+no ioica n neq+eno(yi+on; non:no(c+no n cna6enne
inei+oineinen, ia:ox n ioxnen no(on; non:no(c+no oc+aninix nn(on +ancno+nix ce(c+n
n +eic+nninax noximnennoc+i.
3nann+eninin n:noc non:no(c+nennix qon(on n nx ionnen+annx n ocnonnix o+acnxx
noximnennoc+n nnnenn i +oxy, n+o n ocnone nonicion +ancqoxannn nen+ (nax(y
c nocne(ona+enino nono(nxixn cnc+exnixn eqoxaxn) xo(enn:annx n :axena :nann+eninon
nac+n xamnnnoio naia, ne(e nceio n o6nac+xx, nxemmnx nicoiym non:no(n+eninoc+i n 6onimne
necnei+nni a:nn+nx. B neno( c 1996 i. no 2OO4 i. c+eneni n:noca non:no(c+nennix qon(on
n nonicion iionoxnie cnn:nnaci c 49,7 (o 45,9, n +ox nncne n noximnennoc+n c 57,2 (o 5O,5.
B i+ox cei+oe nimena:nannin noia:a+eni :a i+o nexx oco6enno cnnino coia+nncx n non:no(c+ne
xe+anna (c 66,3 (o 44,1), n non:no(c+ne an+oxo6nnen (c 54,9 (o 37,9), a +aie n non:no(c+ne
oi+exnnin n ioxnim+eon (c 54,9 (o 4O,4).
Coiamenne c+enenn n:noca non:no(c+nennoio nxymec+na n nonicion iionoxnie c+ano
no:xonix 6naio(ax nicoion (nnaxnie nnnec+nnnonnix nnoennn. J+n nnoennx oco6enno
6ic+o (15-22 n io( n noc+oxnnix nenax) ynennnnnannci n 1995-1998 ii. O(naio n 1999-2OO2 ii. i+n
+exni :nann+enino nonn:nnnci. Co n+oon nononnni 2OO3 i. nnoni o+xenae+cx onnnenne
nnnec+nnnonnon (ex+eninoc+n. B 2OO4-2OO5 ii. nnnec+nnnn ynennnnnannci na 6,5 n io(. Bce 6onee
cymec+nennym oni n nonecce nnnec+nonannx niam+ nnoc+annie qnxi. B 2OO4 i. (onx o6mec+n
c nnoc+annix iann+anox no ncex nanonix iann+anonnoennxx n ocnonnie qon(i coc+annna 45,5,
no+nn 2O n 1996 i.
4. Skououueckan uuqpacfpykfypa
Hnqac+yi+ya nxee+ inmnenoe :nanenne (nx a:nn+nx ai+nnnoc+n no ncex cei+oax iionoxnin.
Honima iai nnen Lnonencioio com:a c+exn+cx i nn+eiannn cnoen iionoxnnecion nnqac+yi+yi
c nnqac+yi+yon oc+aninix iocy(ac+n-nnenon. n6eann:annx inia ycnyi ce+enix cei+oon,
a +aie a:nn+ne :anymennon n +enenne xnoinx ne+ iionoxnnecion nnqac+yi+yi, xnnxe+cx
o(nnx n: caxix nanix c+a+einnecinx nanannennn iionoxnnecioio a:nn+nx Honimn.
Tpacnopm
Ho6nexon nonicion +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi xnnxe+cx o+cy+c+nne a:nn+on ce+n (ooi
c 6onimon nonycinon cnoco6noc+im (an+oc+a( n ciooc+nix (ooi), nicoinn nonen+ (oonon
44
ce+n c nnoxnx ianec+nox noii+nx, :nann+eninin +exnnnecinn n:noc ene:no(oonon ce+n,
nenncnoco6nennoc+i nnqac+yi+yi no:(ymnoio +ancno+a i ac+ymexy no+oiy naccanon,
cna6oe ianec+no xeeinonaninix +acc, oco6enno cnx:inammnx noc+onnie einoni Honimn
c oc+aninon nac+im c+ani.
Binmnenne nonicion ce+n +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi n enonenciym ce+i +e6ye+ ee
xo(enn:annn n acmnennx. Hnenc+no n LC co:(ano manc na :nann+eninoe ynynmenne cn+yannn
n i+on o6nac+n, 6naio(ax no:xonoc+n nonynennx qnnanconon no((ein co c+ooni Coo6mec+na
(nx nnnec+nnnonnix noei+on. J+o iacae+cx inexen+on +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi,
acnonoennon n +ancsenonencinx +ancno+nix ion(oax (ce+i TL-T), nxemmnx cymec+nennoe
:nanenne (nx nceio LC (xo(enn:annx ene:no(oonon n an+o(oonon ce+en, c+on+enic+no
an+oc+a( n ciooc+nix (ooi), a +aie nnnec+nnnn noxenime, necne(ymmnx neni a:nn+nx
n conemenc+nonannx +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi n einonaninox xacm+a6e. B 2OO7-2O13 ii.
n: ce(c+n LC ne(ycxa+nnae+cx ni(enn+i cnime 15 xn(. eno na: +ancsenonencine +ancno+nie
ce+n TL-T, a:nn+ne iionoinnecioio +ancno+a, +ancno+nym nnqac+yi+yy n noc+onnon
Honime, a +aie 6e:onacnoc+i +ancno+a n o+enec+nennie +ancno+nie ce+n. Ce(nxx (onx
ce(c+n LC n qnnancnonannn noei+on, oxnanennix nimena:nannixn nnon+e+axn, (onna
coc+ann+i oiono 84. Hax(y c o+enec+nennix ny6nnnnix nina(ox n eann:annn noei+on
ne(ycxo+eno +aie ynac+ne nac+noio cei+oa. Inannon nenim nono(nxix nnnec+nnnn 6y(e+
on+nxn:annx +ancno+non cnc+exi n Honime, a ee e:yni+a+ox 6y(e+ o+acnenax n +en+onaninax
nn+eiannx +ancno+a n nonimenne eio ianec+na.
Lnaio(ax +an:n+noxy nonoennm n eann:annn nnqac+yi+ynix nnnec+nnnn Honima nxee+
manc ciia+i :nann+eninym oni n o6cnynnannn xe(ynao(noio +ancno+a xe(y 3ana(non
Lnonon n Poccnen, Viannon n Ce(nen A:nen, a +aie xe(y cian(nnancinxn c+anaxn n miox
Lnoni.
Aenoopownou npancnopn
C xoxen+a nanana iionoxnnecion +ancqoxannn na nonicinx (ooiax 6ic+o ac+e+
ionnnec+no an+oxamnn. C 199O no 2OO4 io( ionnnec+no :aeinc+nonannix neiionix an+oxo6nnen
ynennnnnoci na 128 (c 5261 +ic. (o 11975 +ic.), iy:onix an+oxo6nnen na 129 (c 1O45 +ic. (o
2392 +ic.), a ce(nee cy+onnoe (nnenne niocno na 59 (c 8,5 xnn. (o 13,5 xnn. an+oxo6nnen).
B e:yni+a+e nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC inoi an+oxo6nninix neeno:oi 6in nonnoc+im
nn6eann:nonan, n+o nnneno i oc+y ionnnec+na an+oxamnn n xe(ynao(nox +ancno+e na 5O.
Lonimym (onm n xe(ynao(nix neeno:iax nxem+ neeno:in, ocymec+nnxexie xe(y 3ana(non
Lnonon n Poccnen, Viannon n c+anaxn Ce(nen A:nn.
3nann+eninin oc+ naiy:in na (oonym nnqac+yi+yy n +enenne ne(i(ymen n n nanane
ninemnen (eia(i ne conono(ancx ee (oc+a+onnix a:nn+nex n xo(enn:annen. K ionny 2OO4 io(a
Honima nxena 252 +ic. ix ny6nnnnix (ooi c +ne(ix noii+nex, n+o (anano 8O,7 ix na 1OO ix
2
+en+onn c+ani. Caxax nno+nax ce+i 6ina n noeno(c+nax: Cnne:ciox n Manononiciox, a caxax
e(iax n Baxnno-Ma:yciox n Ho(nxcciox. nnna (ooi xe(ynao(noio :nanennx coc+annxna
5,5 +ic. ix, n: neio 4,8 +ic. ix n +ancsenonencinx +ancno+nix ion(oax (ce+i T!A).
Inannix ne(oc+a+iox nonicion an+o(oonon ce+n xnnxe+cx xanax (nnna an+oc+a( (71O ix)
n ciooc+nix (ooi (247 ix). o 2O13 io(a ne(ycxa+nnae+cx ynennnenne (nnni an+oc+a( na
6O5 ix, a ciooc+nix (ooi na 13OO ix. Vnennnennm nonycinon cnoco6noc+n (ooi n 6e:onacnoc+n
na (ooiax 6y(e+ cnoco6c+nona+i noina(ia oiono 2O oiynix (ooi noiyi ioo(on n nacenennix
nyni+on. Lnaio(ax i+oxy o6a:ye+cx ce+i neneeceiammnxcx ny+en, io+oax noioe+ 6onimym
nac+i +en+onn c+ani. Konennon nenim xnnxe+cx (one(enne noia:a+enx o6men (nnni an+oc+a(
n ciooc+nix (ooi (o nennnnni oiono 72OO ix, n +ox nncne oiono 2OOO ix an+oc+a(. B neno(
c 2OO7 no 2O13 io(a c 15OO ix (o cnime 34OO ix (onna ynennnn+icx ce+i (ooi, nncnoco6nennix
45
(nx (nnennx an+oxamnn c naiy:ion na oci 11,5 +onni. Peann:annx i+nx nnnec+nnnn xnnxe+cx
neo6xo(nxon n cnx:n c noino:nonannix na 2O2O i. oc+ox ionnnec+na neiionix an+oxo6nnen na
5O-7O n ynennnennex neeno:oi iy:on na 33-67. O(nnx n: inannix nnon+e+on 6y(e+ a:nn+ne
(oonon ce+n n noc+onnon Honime n oco6enno ynynmenne (oonon cnx:n (nyx iynnenmnx
ioo(on i+oio einona Lenoc+oia n m6nnna c Bamanon. J+o (onno cnoco6c+nona+i ynynmennm
ianec+na o6cnynnannx xe(ynao(noio +ancno+a xe(y 3ana(non Lnonon n iocy(ac+naxn
Boc+onnon Lnoni.
e:esnoopownou npancnopn
K ionny 2OO4 io(a no+xennoc+i ene:no(oonix ny+en n Honime coc+annxna 2O,3 +ic. ix.
Hno+noc+i ene:no(oonon ce+n 6ina na yonne 6,5 ix/1OO ix
2
n 6ina 6onime ce(nen nno+noc+n
n LC-15, io+oax coc+annxna 5 ix/1OO ix
2
. Caxax nicoiax nno+noc+i ene:no(oonix nnnnn nxee+
xec+o n mio-:ana(non nac+n c+ani, oco6enno n Cnne:ciox noeno(c+ne (18,4 ix/1OO ix
2
), a caxax
nn:iax n Ho(nxcciox, m6nnnciox n Ma:oneniox noeno(c+nax (nne 5 ix/1OO ix
2
). Caxon nanon
nac+im ene:no(oonon nnqac+yi+yi xnnxe+cx Xene:no(oonax +ancsenonenciax
+ancno+nax ce+i (TL-T), na io+oon eann:ye+cx oiono 6O ncex neeno:oi. Hee: Honimy
noxo(x+ ene:no(oonie nnnnn, acnonoennie n ne+iex +ancsenonencinx +ancno+nix
ion(oax.
Pa:nn+ne ene:no(oonoio +ancno+a n Honime n 6nnanmne io(i 6y(e+ cnx:ano, inannix
o6a:ox, c ynynmennex coc+oxnnx ye cymec+nymmen nnqac+yi+yi. Pe:yni+a+ox i+nx xe 6y(e+
ynynmenne +exnnnecioio coc+oxnnx ny+en, n +ox nncne ynennnenne ne(eninon naiy:in (o 22,5 +onn
na oci, coiamenne n:(eei iicnnya+annn, ynynmenne ycnonnn neeno:in +onaon n nm(en
n oco6enno coiamenne nexenn noe:(a no ene:non (ooie. o 2O13 io(a ne(ycxa+nnae+cx
xo(enn:annx 5O ene:no(oonon ce+n, acnonoennon n +ancsenonencinx +ancno+nix
ion(oax, a (o 2O2O io(a (onna :aionnn+icx ee nonnax xo(enn:annx. O(nonexenno 6y(e+
xo(enn:nonana oc+aninax ce+i, naxo(xmaxcx n co6c+nennoc+n iocy(ac+na. o 2O13 i. nanne+cx
+aie no(io+onn+eninax a6o+a no c+on+enic+ny nicoiociooc+nix nnnnn.
Iopocrou npancnopn
B 2OO4 i. ioo(cion +ancno+ qyninnonnonan n 259 ioo(ax Honimn, nacnn+inammnx n nenox
18,1 xnn. n+enen. O6max (nnna na:exnix +ancno+nix nnnnn coc+annxna 52,5 +ic. ix.
Hx o6cnynnano 11,2 +ic. an+o6ycon, 3,6 +ic. +axnaen n O,2 +ic. +onnen6ycon. L(nnc+nennix
ioo(ox, nxemmnx xe+o, xnnxe+cx Bamana. B nac+oxmee nexx qyninnonnye+ o(na nnnnx xe+o
(nnnon n 16 ix.
Coc+oxnne nnqac+yi+yi noianinoio ny6nnnnoio +ancno+a n nonicinx ioo(ax a:nnnno.
K caxix ceie:nix no6nexax o+nocx+cx: nicoine n:(ein iicnnya+annn +ancno+non cnc+exi
n (eia(annx nnqac+yi+yi n e:yni+a+e ne:xenoio nn(nnn(yaninoio (nnennx, ne(oc+a+onnie
qnnanconie ce(c+na, nina(inaexie xec+nix caxoynannennex n noianinym nnqac+yi+yy,
ne(oc+a+onnoe a:nn+ne iionoinnnnx qox +ancno+a (+ainx iai ciooc+nax ioo(ciax ene:nax
(ooia, +axnan, xe+o nnn +onnen6yc), nn:iax ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+i eniconoio +ancno+a
(ioxe xe+o) n 6onimnx ioo(ax no cannennm c an+oxo6nnxxn nnn(y nn:ion iicnnya+annonnon
ciooc+n. Hn(nnn(yaninin +ancno+ no6e(ae+ an+o6ycnin +ancno+ n 6onimnnc+ne ioo(on,
oco6enno n ioo(ax ce(nen nennnnni. K nonon+eninix xnnennxx xono o+nec+n (exonononn:annm
inia neeno:oi n ny6nnnnox +ancno+e.
o 2O13 i. nnon+e+ox iocy(ac+nennon nonn+nin n o6nac+n +ancno+a 6y(e+ ynennnenne (onn
iionoinnnoio ny6nnnnoio +ancno+a n 9-+n iynnenmnx ioo(cinx ainoxeannxx: ia+onnnion,
i(anicion (I(anici, I(inx, Cono+), namancion, +oynicio 6y(iomcion, no(:nncion, iaioncion,
46
mennncion n no:nancion. Jenim i+nx xe xnnxe+cx nn+eiannx nnqac+yi+yi ncex ce(c+n
+ancno+a, qyninnonnymmnx na +en+onn :oni iynnenmnx ioo(on, nne(enne nn+einonannix
cnc+ex ynannennx (nnennex, o+(ammnx ne(non+enne ny6nnnnoxy +ancno+y, a +aie
no(nnenne iionoinnnix qox +ancno+a, ani+ena+nnnix no o+nomennm i nn(nnn(yaninoxy
an+oxo6nninoxy +ancno+y.
Mopcrou npancnopn
Kynnenmne nonicine xocine no+i n I(anicie, I(ine, Hennne n Cnnnoyncine xnnxm+cx
c+a+einnecinxn y:naxn o+enec+nennon n enonencion +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi. Onn
coe(nnxm+ a:nie o+acnn cyxony+noio (ene:no(oonoio n an+o(oonoio) n ennoio
+ancno+a c xe(ynao(nix xocinx +ancno+ox. B +ancno+nox o6cnynnannn nonicinx
xocinx no+on (oxnnnymmym no:nnnm :annxae+ ene:no(oonin +ancno+.
Honicine xocine +oionie no+i acnonaiam+ nnqac+yi+yon, io+oax no:nonxe+
oia:ina+i mnoinn (nana:on ycnyi n o6nac+n iy:onix n naccancinx neeno:oi. B o6nac+n
a:nn+nx nnqac+yi+yi xocioio +ancno+a ne(ycxa+nnae+cx xo(enn:annx no(noio ny+n
Cnnnoyncine Hennn, c+on+enic+no no+onon nnqac+yi+yi (nx ion+ennenon 6a:i n (nx
:ana(no-noxocioio noinc+nnecioio nen+a n Hennne, acmnenne (oc+yna i inannix xocinx
no+ax co c+ooni xox n cymn, a +aie xnoine (yine xei no xo(enn:annn n acmnennm
neenanonnix xomnoc+en.
Pe:nou npancnopn
Pennon +ancno+ niae+ n Honime ne6onimym oni. Ho+xennoc+i nny+ennnx no(nix
cy(oxo(nix ny+en coc+annxe+ n Honime oiono 3638 ix. Caxie 6onimne no:xonoc+n (nx
ncnoni:onannx ennoio cy(oxo(c+na (ae+ eia O(a n ee nn+oin. Bo(nin ny+i no eie O(e
naxo(n+cx n +ancsenonencion +ancno+non ce+n n o6cnynnae+, ne(e nceio, no+i Hennn
n Cnnnoyncine. 3nanenne ennoio +ancno+a, iai nan6onee iionoinnnoio, n 6y(ymex 6y(e+
n Honime nonima+icx.
Bosyunou npancnopn
Tonennym nnqac+yi+yy no:(ymnoio +ancno+a o6a:ym+ nen+aninin xe(ynao(nin
aiono+ n Bamane n 55 einonaninix aiono+on n aio(oxon. Peiynxnie enci naccancinx
caxone+on o6cnynnae+ 11 aiono+on, n: io+oix nocexi naxo(n+cx n ce+n TL-T.
nnaxnnnoe a:nn+ne naccancinx no:(ymnix neeno:oi nnene+ :a co6on neo6xo(nxoc+i
acmnennx n xo(enn:annn aiono+on, a +aie annannonnix na:exnix yc+anonoi, oco6enno (nx
nanniannn. B nac+oxmee nexx no(onae+cx a6o+a no acmnennm n xo(enn:annn caxoio
iynnoio n Honime xe(ynao(noio aiono+a Bamana Oienine (n neno( 2O1O-2O15 ii. eio
nonycinax cnoco6noc+i (onna (oc+nni 1O-15 xnn. naccanon n io(), a +aie oc+aninix cexn
aiono+on, nxo(xmnx n ce+i TL-T (Ho:nani, Hennn, Bonnan, I(anici, Xemyn, Kaion,
Ka+onnne). C+a+einnecioe :nanenne (nx nonicioio no:(ymnoio +ancno+a 6y(e+ nxe+i
c+on+enic+no n+ooio nen+aninoio aiono+a.
Hnnepoa:tnou npancnopn
B nocne(nne io(i n Honime :nann+enino ac+e+ :nanenne nn+exo(aninix neeno:oi,
ncnoni:ymmnx no iannen xee (na a:nix nn(a +ancno+a. O(naio nx oni nce eme xenime nex
47
n c+anax LC-15. Cymec+nymmax n nac+oxmee nexx ce+i +exnnanon ne(oc+a+onna n +e6ye+
xo(enn:annn n acmnennx. Pa:nn+ne nn+exo(aninoio +ancno+a 6y(e+ n(+n, ne(e nceio,
ny+ex c+on+enic+na nonix +exnnanon na 6a:e cymec+nymmen ene:no(oonon nnqac+yi+yi,
co:(annx noinc+nnecinx nen+on, cnx:annix c ene:no(oonon ce+im n c xocinxn no+axn,
nne(ennx conexennix +exnni ynannennx n +exnnanax n nen+ax. B e:yni+a+e i+nx (enc+nnn
(o 2O15 i. ne(ycxa+nnae+cx oc+ (onn nn+exo(aninix neeno:oi n neeno:iax ncex iy:on c 1,5
(o 5.
Hnqpacnpyrnypa npancnopnupoeru neqnu u npuponoeo easa
B ionne 2OO4 io(a +y6onono(i (nx neeianin neq+n n neq+eno(yi+on nxenn no+xennoc+i
2 278 ix. Hee: +en+onm Honimn noxo(x+ inannie neq+xnie +ancno+nie ny+n n: c+an
6inmeio CCCP n LC, n +ox nncne cenenax nn+ia neq+enono(a y6a. Heq+i n neq+eno(yi+i
nno:x+cx n Honimy +aie xocinx ny+ex. Hinemnne neenanonnie xomnoc+n Cenenoio no+a
n Heq+eno+a n I(anicie non+n n (na a:a nenimam+ o6sexi nonicinx no+e6noc+en n neq+n.
B 2OO4 io(y no+xennoc+i ia:onon nee(a+onnon ce+n coc+annxna 18636 ix, a acne(enn+eninon
1O1921 ix. Caxax iyc+ax acne(enn+eninax ia:onax ce+i cymec+nye+ n noeno(c+nax: Manononiciox
n Cnne:ciox, a nan6onee e(iax n noeno(c+nax: Ho(nxcciox n Baxnno-Ma:yciox. B nac+oxmee
nexx (o 88 noiynoi ia:a n: acne(enn+eninon ce+n eann:ye+cx n ioo(ax. Bnn(y on(aexoio
oc+a no+e6nennx ia:a (c 13,9 xn(.iy6.x n 2OO5 i. (o 18,8 xn(.iy6.x n 2O1O i.) neo6xo(nxo
a:nn+ne ce+n, oco6enno n cenicion xec+noc+n n ceneo-noc+onnon Honime.
B neno( c 2OO7 (o 2O13 ii., nn :nann+eninox ynac+nn ce(c+n n: qon(on LC, ne(ycxa+nnae+cx
c+on+enic+no n xo(enn:annx nee(a+onnix nnnnn nno(noio ia:a n neq+n, a +aie +exnnnecinx
cooyennn, o6ecnennnammnx a6o+y nee(a+onnix cnc+ex, acmnenne cina(on nno(noio ia:a,
a +aie c+on+enic+no nnqac+yi+yi, o6ecnennnammen (nnecnqniannm nc+onnnion noc+anoi
ia:a n neq+n n Honimy.
Csss
B ionne 2OO5 i. ionnnec+no a6onen+on c+annonanon +eneqonnon ce+n coc+annxno 11 8O3 +icxn.
Hno+noc+i c+annonanon a6onen+cion ce+n (oc+nina 33 inannix nnnnn cnx:n na 1OO n+enen. J+o
nce eme o(nn n: caxix nn:inx noia:a+enen n LC-25. B nocne(nne io(i n(e+ :axena n xo(enn:annx
+eneioxxynniannonnon ce+n, no ne ynennnnnae+cx ee no+xennoc+i. K inannix nnnnnax cne(ye+
o+nec+n nicoine n:(ein no noina(ie n iicnnya+annn nnnnn n ioniyennnm co c+ooni co+onon
cnx:n. B nac+oxmee nexx nce inannie +eneqonnie c+annnn xnnxm+cx nnqonixn, (enc+nymmnxn na
6a:e cne+ono(nix ce+en. Caxix 6onimnx onea+oox c+annonanon cnx:n xnnxe+cx TeleIomuniIacja
PolsIa SA, io+oax o6cnynnae+ cnime 9O a6onen+on. B 2OO5 i. (enc+nonano +aie 68
ani+ena+nnnix onea+oon, io+oie co:(ann co6c+nennie +eneioxxynniannonnie ce+n. Ce(n
nnx caxym 6onimym (onm n o6mex ionnnec+ne iananon nxena Telelonia Dialog (3).
Lic+ixn +exnaxn a:nnnae+cx n Honime co+onax cnx:i. B nac+oxmee nexx a6onen+on i+on
cnx:n 6onime, nex a6onen+on c+annonanon cnx:n. B neno( c 2OOO no 2OO5 io( nx nncno ynennnnnoci
c 6,7 xnn. (o 29,2 xnn. B 2OO5 io(y na 1OO n+enen nnxo(nnoci 76 a6onen+on co+onon cnx:n, n+o nce
eme o+nocn+enino xano no cannennm c (yinxn c+anaxn Lnonencioio com:a. Toxo:ox xnnxe+cx
nena ycnyi co+onon cnx:n, nce eme cnnmiox nicoiax no o+nomennm i noiyna+eninon cnoco6noc+n
nacenennx. B nac+oxmee nexx na inie (enc+nym+ +n onea+oa: POLKOMJL S.A., Polsla Jelefonia
Cyfrowa Sp. z o.o. n Polsla Jelefonia Komorlowa CNJRJL Sp. z o.o. Hx (onx n inie no ionnnec+ny
noni:ona+enen nn6nn:n+enino o(nnaiona. o ionna 2OO6 i. (onen nana+i (ex+eninoc+i onea+o,
ne(naiammnn ycnyin +e+ien ieneannn \MTS. He(ycxa+nnae+cx, n+o (o 2OO8 i. ionnnec+no
noni:ona+enen co+onon cnx:n niac+e+ (o 36,1 xnn., a nx (onx no ncex nacenennn ynennnn+cx (o 95.
48
O(non n: nanix :a(an nonn+nin n o6nac+n +eneioxxynniannn xnnxe+cx o6ecnenenne nceo6meio
n (emenoio (oc+yna i ce+n Hn+ene+. Konnnec+no noni:ona+enen Hn+ene+ox n Honime n no:ac+e
c+ame 15 ne+ onennnae+cx na 8-1O xnn. B 2OO5 i. nan6onee nonynxnon +exnonoinen (oc+yna
i Hn+ene+y 6in mnoiononocnin (oc+yn co ciooc+im 128 i6n+/cei (nx noni:onanoci 38
nn+enan+on). Menee nonynxnix 6in (oc+yn noce(c+nox +eneqonnoio xo(exa (26), xo(exa
ia6eninoio +enenn(ennx (14), 6ecnono(non (oc+yn (11) n oc+aninie +exnonoinn (6). B 2OO4 i.
(oc+yn i mnoiononocnoxy Hn+ene+y nxeno 88O +ic. noni:ona+enen (63O +ic. c ncnoni:onannex
nnqonix +eneqonnix nnnnn n 25O +ic. noce(c+nox ia6eninoio +enenn(ennx). B +enenne nocne(nnx
ne+ i+o+ ceixen+ +eneioxxynniannonnix ycnyi ac+e+ 6ic+ee ncex. Cnc+exa+nnecin ynennnnnae+cx
ionnnec+no o6me(oc+ynnix nyni+on, n io+oix xono nocnoni:ona+icx 6ecnono(nix (oc+ynox
i ce+n (+ync+nnecine xec+a, ioc+nnnni, oqncnie :(annx, ec+oani, iaqe, n +.n.).
Iocy(ac+nennax nonn+nia a:nn+nx +eneioxxynniannn n Honime (enae+ yno na co:(anne
ne+inx n no:annix nannn inonnon nii (nx ncex onea+oon, coinacno nnnnnnax nec+non
ioniyennnn. Lonimoe :nanenne nn(ae+cx ynennnennm (oc+ynnoc+n +enennqoxannonnix ycnyi
iai c+annonanix, +ai n xo6nninix, n +ox nncne mnoiononocnix ycnyi n co+onon cnx:n +e+ien
ieneannn.
Snexmposepaemuxa
B ionne 2OO5 i. no+ennnaninax xomnoc+i inei+oc+annnn n TJC coc+annxna 34,7 +ic. MB+.
Cnime 94 inei+oineinn non:no(n+cx n inei+oc+annnxx, a6o+ammnx na yioninox +onnnne.
B 2OO5 i. no+e6nenne inei+oineinn coc+annno 144.838 IB+/n, n+o (ae+ no+e6nenne 3,8 MB+/n na
1 n+enx. J+o+ noia:a+eni :nann+enino nne, nex n ce(nex n LC.
nnna inei+oineie+nnecinx nnnnn n Honime coc+annxe+ 75O +ic. ix, n +ox nncne nnnnn
inei+onee(an 13 +ic. ix, a acne(enn+eninix ce(neio n nn:ioio nanxennx 7O5 +ic. ix.
nx coxanennx ineie+nnecion 6e:onacnoc+n na xec+nox yonne neo6xo(nxa xo(enn:annx
n acmnenne inei+oineie+nnecion ce+n, oco6enno n cenicion xec+noc+n.
Honima acnonoena na iannne +ex inei+oineie+nnecinx cnc+ex :ana(noenonencion
(\CTL), noc+onnoenonencion (CHI/Lan+nncine c+ani) n cian(nnancion (oidel). Momnoc+i
coe(nnennn nonicion inei+oineie+nnecion cnc+exi co c+anaxn LC (Iexannx, Hexnx, Cnonainx,
Hnennx) coc+annxe+ 2OOO-3OOO MB+. B nac+oxmee nexx nnannye+cx acmnenne coe(nnennn
c Iexannen n :anyci nnnnn 75O iB c Viannon, n+o nonicn+ ineie+nneciym 6e:onacnoc+i Honimn.
He(ycxa+nnae+cx +aie c+on+enic+no (c ncnoni:onannex qon(on LC), nnnnn, coe(nnxmmen
noniciym n nn+onciym ineie+nneciym cnc+exy n Kannnnnia(ciym o6nac+i P4.
5. Okpyakan cpepa
Honima o+nocn+cx i c+anax, n io+oix yoneni :aix:nennx oiyammen ce(i :nann+enino
(nqqeennnonan. 3aix:nenne oco6enno :axe+no na +en+onn noximnenno-ioo(cinx nen+on,
:annxammnx 1O-15 ncen nnoma(n c+ani. 3a nocne(nne io(i coc+oxnne oiyammen ce(i
n Honime :axe+no ynynmnnoci. J+oxy cnoco6c+nonann: oiannnenne noximnennoio non:no(c+na
(oco6enno n :aix:nxmmnx oiyammym ce(y o+acnxx), nxenmee xec+o ne(e nceio n nananinin
neno( +ancqoxannn iionoxnin, yec+onenne iionoinnecioio :aiono(a+enic+na, nce 6onee
iqqei+nnnoe eio ncnonnenne noce(c+nox no:(enc+nnx iionoxnnecinx nnc+yxen+on, n nac+noc+n,
cnc+exi c6oon n m+aqon. B e:yni+a+e :nann+enino no:ocnn iann+anonnoennx n oxany
oiyammen ce(i, nonicnncx nn+eec ne(nnx+nn i noiynie +aioio ciix, neea6o+ia
io+ooio ni:inae+ xenimee :aix:nenne oiyammen ce(i (nannxe, yioni c nn:inx
co(eannex cei).
49
B 199O-2OO3 ii. ni6oc (nyoincn cei coia+nncx n nenox na 57,2, (nyoincn a:o+a na 36,9,
axxnaia na 41,3 , (nyoincn yineo(a na 16,4, xe+ana na 35,9. na nocne(nnx nnna(nea+
i inannix +ennonix ia:ax, ixnccnm io+oix Lnonencinn com: o6x:ancx oiannnn+i, ninonnxx
nonoennx Kno+cioio no+oiona, na 8 n neno( c 2OO8 no 2O12 ii. no cannennm c yonnex ixnccnn
n 199O i. Honima o6x:ana coia+n+i ixnccnm na 6 no o+nomennm i 1988 i. J+o +e6onanne 6ino
:nann+enino nenimeno: (enc+nn+eninoe cnnenne ixnccnn (oc+nino ye 3O, n+o (ae+ Honime
:nann+eninie ciionoxnennie nana na ixnccnm ia:on. Ha inie LC xono +oiona+i i+nxn nanaxn
c 28 qenanx 2OO5 i. On(ae+cx, n+o Honima nne(n+ cnc+exy +oionnn ixnccnxxn n 2OO6 i.
Bi6oc :aix:nxmmnx nemec+n na ne(nix (nx a+xocqei non:no(c+nax ynan c 1 163 +ic. +onn
n 199O i. (o 123 +ic. +onn n 2OO4 i., n +.n. nn cniannn iomneio c 933 +ic. +onn (o 99 +ic. +onn.
B +o+ e neno( o6sex neonnmennix noximnennix n ioxxynaninix c+onnix no( cnn:nncx
c 1,34 xn(.x
3
(o O,19 xn(.x
3
, n +ox nncne c+onnix no(, o+no(nxix no ianann:annonnon ce+n
c 922,9 xnn. x
3
(o 141,3 xnn.x
3
, a noximnennix c+onnix no( c 419,7 xnn.x
3
(o 5O,5 xnn.x
3
. O6sex
+e6ymmnx onnc+in c+onnix no( yxenimnncx c 4,1 xn(.x
3
(o 2,1 xn(.x
3
. Vnynmnnaci c+yi+ya
onnmennix c+onnix no(. C 39,5 (o 64,5. nonicnnaci (onx c+onnix no(, onnmaexix noce(c+nox
6nonoinnecinx xe+o(on, +.e. nan6onee 6naionnx+nix (nx oiyammen ce(i.
3a6o no(i (nx ny( nao(noio xo:xnc+na n nacenennx n 199O-2OO4 ii. nonn:nncx c 14,2 xn(.x
3
(o 11 xn(.x
3
. Ho+e6nenne no(i cnn:nnoci n +ex inannix cqeax no+e6nennx: (nx
non:no(c+nennix nenen (nne cenicioio n necnoio xo:xnc+n n i6ononc+na); n: co6c+nennix
nc+onnnion; (nx ny( xennoannn n nanonnennx ny(on n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne, n necnox xo:xnc+ne n
i6ononc+ne; n no(onono(non ce+n.
B cnx:n c neo6inanno 6ic+ixn +exnaxn oc+a ionnnec+na an+oxo6nnen n +enenne nocne(nnx
(ecx+ia non+oa ne+ ynennnnncx ni6oc neio+oix nn(on :aix:nxmmnx nemec+n, cnx:annix
c +ancno+nixn ce(c+naxn, inannix o6a:ox (nyoincn yinx n oincn a:o+a. O(naio ni6oc
(yinx nn(on :aix:nxmmnx nemec+n, cnx:annix c +ancno+ox, coia+nncx (xe+an, nexe+anonie
ne+ynne oiannnecine coe(nnennx, oinci yinx, oincn a:o+a, (nyoinci cei n cnnnen).
Xo:xnc+nennoe ncnoni:onanne 6onimen nac+n +en+onn Honimn nocn+ xio niaennin
iic+encnnnin xaai+e, n+o yxeennix o6a:ox nnnxe+ na n:xenenne ianec+na oiyammen ce(i.
Hannxe, n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne cannn+enino xano ncnoni:ym+cx xnneaninie y(o6ennx
n xnxnnecine ce(c+na :amn+i ac+ennn. O+iinam+cx mnoine no:xonoc+n (nx a:nn+nx
xo:xnc+n, non:no(xmnx iionoinnecin nnc+ie no(ononic+nennie no(yi+i. B 199O-2OO4 ii.
ionnnec+no iionoinnecinx xo:xnc+n n Honime ynennnnnoci c 27 (o 376O. Oco6enno cnninin oc+
nn+eeca i iionoinnecioxy xo:xnc+ny nxen xec+o n nocne(nnn neno(. B 2OO4 i. ionnnec+no +ainx
xo:xnc+n ynennnnnoci na 1474, a n nenon nononnne 2OO5 i. ye 3112 non:no(n+enx :axnnno o nanane
iionoinnecioio cenicioxo:xnc+nennoio non:no(c+na. O6max nnoma(i iionoinnecinx yio(nn
coc+annxna n 2OO4 i. 82,7 +ic. ia. Caxym 6onimym nnoma(i iionoinnecinx yio(nn nxem+ noeno(c+na:
3ana(nonoxocioe, Ho(iana+cioe, Baxnno-Ma:ycioe n Hnnecnne:cioe. Jionoinnecine
cenicioxo:xnc+nennie yio(ix :annxann n Honime n 2OO4 i. +oniio O,5 o6men nnoma(n
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn. nx cannennx xono ynoxxny+i, n+o n 15-+n c+aix c+anax
Lnonencioio com:a ananoinnnin noia:a+eni coc+annxe+ 3,4
oc+onnc+na nonicion nno(i onennnam+cx necixa nicoio, oco6enno no cannennm c 3ana(non
Lnonon. nx xnoinx anonon c+ani xaai+een nicoinn yoneni 6nonoinnecioio a:noo6a:nx.
B Honime nxem+cx e(ine co+a ac+ennn n nn(on nno+nix, io+oie n (yinx einonax Lnoni
ye ncne:nn nnn naxo(x+cx na iann ncne:nonennx. Ten+onx anonon, nxemmnx +e nnn nnie
nno(ooxannie oiannnennx, oxna+inae+ 1/3 c+ani, n+o c+ann+ Honimy n i+ox o+nomennn
na o(no n: nenix xec+ n Lnone. Cnc+exa +aion oxani a:nnnae+cx c cee(nni 8O-x io(on. Toniio
n 199O-2OO4 ii. nnoma(i nannonaninix naion ynennnnnaci na 91, :anone(nnion na 38,
nan(maq+nix naion na 114 n oxanxexix necon na 2O.


-

-


16 3 35 - -
28 8 49 - -



22

8

-

5

-
4 2 - - -
2 1 - - -
6 5 - 1 -
6 5 - -

( )

18
5O
6. Rorpauuuue nepexopu
Honima iannnn+ c cexim iocy(ac+naxn na cyme. Cenenax nac+i iannni noxo(n+ n(oni
6eeia Lan+nncioio xox. C 1 xax 2OO4 i., +.e. co (nx nc+ynnennx Honimn n Lnonencinn com:,
:ana(nax iannna c 4e(ea+nnnon Pecny6nnion Iexannn, mnax c Hemcion Pecny6nnion n Cnonanion
Pecny6nnion n noc+onnax c n+oncion Pecny6nnion c+ann nny+ennnxn iannnaxn LC. Oc+aninax
nac+i noc+onnon iannni c Viannon, Pecny6nnion Lenayci, a +aie ceneo-noc+onnax iannna
c nnna(neamnx Poccnncion 4e(eannn aninanox Kannnnnia(cion o6nac+im, ne(c+annxe+
co6on nnemnmm iannny Lnonencioio com:a. Heecenenne iocy(ac+nennon iannni iai c iocy-
(ac+naxn LC, +ai n c Viannon, Pecny6nnion Lenayci n Poccnncion 4e(eannen a:emae+cx
+oniio na noiannnnix neexo(ax.
Honima nxee+ 6onimoe ionnnec+no noiannnnix neexo(on c ia(ix n: coce(nnx iocy(ac+n.
Hoiannnnie neexo(i xono no(enn+i na necioniio nn(on:
o6me(oc+ynnie;
ne(na:nanennie ncinmnn+enino (nx xanoio noiannnnoio (nnennx;
ne(na:nanennie (nx +ync+cioio (nnennx.
Oeocmynme nepexom
He(na:naneni (nx neecenennx iocy(ac+nennon iannni na ocnonannn :aiannacno+on,
a +aie (yinx (oiyxen+on, (ammnx nano na ee neecenenne. Onn co:(ani na ocnonannn (oionoon
n coinamennn, :ainmnennix Pecny6nnion Honima c 4e(ea+nnnon Pecny6nnion Iexannn,
Hemcion Pecny6nnion, Cnonanion Pecny6nnion, Viannon, Pecny6nnion Lenayci, n+oncion
Pecny6nnion n Poccnncion 4e(eannen. J+o an+o(oonie, ene:no(oonie n +ync+cine
neexo(i, ne(na:nanennie (nx neexemennx nm(en n iy:on.
51











,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
7.00 20.00
-


-


a




a






,



,
,


,

a
6.00 20.00.
Uoapauvme nepexom, npeasaveme ucxnkvumenso
n uanoao noapauvoao su+eu
Ha iocy(ac+nennon iannne Honimn co Cnonanion Pecny6nnion nxee+cx 27 an+o(oonix
neexo(on +oniio (nx xanoio noiannnnoio (nnennx, a na iannne c Hemcion Pecny6nnion 66.
Ha iocy(ac+nennon iannne Honimn c 4e(ea+nnnon Pecny6nnion Iexannn nce o6me(oc+ynnie
neexo(i ncnoni:ym+cx +aie n (nx xanoio noiannnnoio (nnennx.
Uoapauvme nepexom n mypucmcxoao su+eu
J+n neexo(i acnonoeni, inannix o6a:ox, na iocy(ac+nennon iannne c Hemcion Pecny6nnion
n co Cnonanion Pecny6nnion. Heexo(i ne(na:naneni (nx ia(an Pecny6nnin Honima n Hemcion
Pecny6nnin, a xec+a, ne(na:nanennie (nx neecenennx iannni na +ync+nnecinx xamy+ax,
noxo(xmnx nee: iocy(ac+nennym iannny co Cnonanion Pecny6nnion, ne(na:naneni (nx
ia(an Pecny6nnin Honima n Cnonanion Pecny6nnin.
Ho(o6nax nnqoxannx o noiannnnix neexo(ax co(en+cx na Hn+ene+-can+e Hoiannnnon
cny6i lll://www.sg.gov.l
52
1. Rpouuuneuuocfu
B 2OO5 i. c+onxoc+i eann:onannon noximnennon no(yinnn n nenox coc+annna oiono
664 xn(. :no+ix (2O6 xn(. (onnaon CHA), n +.n. no(yinnn neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n
oiono 559 xn(. :no+ix (173 xn(. (onnaon CHA), no(yinnn ne(nnx+nn no non:no(c+ny
n acne(enennm inei+oineinn, ia:a n no(i oiono 71 xn(. :no+ix (22 xn(. (onnaon CHA),
a +aie iono(o6inammen noximnennoc+n oiono 34 xn(. :no+ix (11 xn(. (onnaon CHA).
Ce(n o+acnen neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n n 2OO5 i. caxin 6onimon y(eninin nec
nxeno non:no(c+no nnmenix no(yi+on n nann+ion 17,9. 3a nnx cne(onano non:no(c+no an+o-
xamnn, nnnenon n nonynnnenon c noia:a+enex n 9,2, a :a+ex xnxnneciax noximnennoc+i
(6,2), neq+exnxnneciax noximnennoc+i n non:no(c+no ioica (5,7), non:no(c+no n:(ennn
n: xe+anna (5,4), non:no(c+no xe+annon (4,4), non:no(c+no e:nnonix n:(ennn, n:(ennn n:
nnac+xacc, xamnn n neinei+nnecioio o6oy(onannx, a +aie xamnn n inei+nnecion annaa+yi
(no oiono 3-4).
C 1992 io(a na6nm(ae+cx +en(ennnx i 6ic+oxy oc+y noximnennon no(yinnn. B ocnone
nicoion (nnaxnin noximnennoio cei+oa nen+ oc+ o6sexon non:no(c+na neea6a+inammen
noximnennoc+n, inannix o6a:ox 6naio(ax 6onimon ai+nnnoc+n qnx nac+noio cei+oa.
84,3%
5,1%
10,6%
,





C+yi+ya c+onxoc+n eann:onannon no(yinnn noximnennoc+n n 2OO5 i., no ceinnxx
coinacno Honicioxy inaccnqnia+oy nn(on iionoxnnecion (ex+eninoc+n (PKD)
53
O6sexi eann:onannon no(yinnn ocnn n 1992-2OOO ii. n ce(nex na 7,3 n io(. Hocne
nexennoio ocna6nennx +exnon oc+a n 2OO1-2OO2 ii., n 2OO3 i. onn ycionnnci (o 8,3, a n 2OO4 i.
(o 12,6. Hocne 6onee cna6oio 2OO5 io(a (+exni oc+a ynann (o 3,8), n 2OO6 i. noximnennoe
non:no(c+no nnoni 6ic+o ac+e+. B ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. ono ynennnnnoci na 12,6 no o+nomennm
i coo+ne+c+nymmexy neno(y ne(i(ymeio io(a. Oco6enno 6ic+ix 6in eio oc+ n neea-
6a+inammen noximnennoc+n (na 13,7), oco6enno n o6nac+xx non:no(c+na: a(no- n +enenn:non-
noio o6oy(onannx n +eneioxxynniannonnoio o6oy(onannx (na 53,9), xe(nnnncinx, +onnix
n on+nnecinx nnc+yxen+on (na 24,7), an+oxo6nnen (na 21,8).
Poc+ eann:onannon no(yinnn noximnennoc+n n 2OOO-2OO4 ii. 6in (oc+niny+ nn yxenima-
mmencx :anx+oc+n, a n 2OO5 i. nn :anx+oc+n ac+ymen 6onee xe(nenno, nex non:no(c+no.
B e:yni+a+e i+oio nonimanaci non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a, n:xexexax c+onxoc+im eann:onannon
no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio (n 2OO5 i. na 2,9).
B nanane 9O-+ix io(on nanancx nonecc ec+yi+yn:annn a:nnnnix noximnennix o+acnen
iono(o6inammen noximnennoc+n, neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n, a +aie non:no(c+na

2004 .





. .

%
6,9 2,9 179
5,0 2,1 125
8,2 3,4 333

( )

61,1

25,5

1783
9,8 4,0 195
, 4,9 2,0 40
2,8 1,1 145
47,3 19,7 1998



1,5

0,6

91



27,9

11,7

705
- 12,2 5,1 240
12,1 5,0 581
40,5 16,9 997
240,2 100,0 7412
a

. ,
, ,
. ,
,
.
: (GUS).
54

2002-2004 . ( %)
a

2002 2003 2004

100,0 100,0 100,0
5,4 5,1 4,5
- 21,2 23,4 25,6
- 29,8 30,1 31,3
43,6 41,5 38,6

100,0 100,0 100,0
3,6 3,2 3,2
- 21,3 22,9 23,7
- 50,4 55,2 56,8
24,7 18,7 16,3

100,0 100,0 100,0
5,6 5,3 4,7
- 21,2 23,4 25,8
- 26,8 26,7 28,3
46,4 44,5 41,2

100,0 100,0 100,0
9,3 7,8 6,5
- 35,8 38,9 42,5
- 18,0 19,2 19,2
36,9 34,1 31,8
a
1997 .
: (GUS).
n acne(enennx inei+oineinn, ia:a n no(i. Pec+yi+yn:annx nn:nana a(an+nona+i i+n o+acnn
i qyninnonnonannm n ycnonnxx inonnon iionoxnin, c oco6ix yne+ox ni:onon ino6ann:annn,
o+ii+nx iionoxnin, a +aie ynac+nx Honimn n nonecce nn+eiannn n ianec+ne c+ani-nnena
Lnonencioio com:a.
Pec+yi+yn:annx noximnennoc+n nono(n+cx n a:nix nanannennxx n oxna+inae+ iai
ion:on+aninie n o+acnenie noiaxxi, +ai n xei, ne(nnnnxaexie nenoce(c+nenno na
noximnennix ne(nnx+nxx. Ocnonon noiaxx no ec+yi+yn:annn xnnxe+cx nonimenne
nnnonannonnoc+n n en+a6eninoc+n ne(nnx+nn.
Pec+yi+yn:annonnie noei+i na yonne ne(nnx+nn ocymec+nnxm+cx name nceio nxec+e
c nnna+n:annen, n +.n. c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana. B 2OO5 i. ocnonnax nac+i noximnennon
55
no(yinnn (81,8) non:no(nnaci nac+nixn ne(nnx+nxxn, a nx (onx n ce(nen :anx+oc+n
n noximnennoc+n coc+annxna 79 (no+nn 5O n 1995 i.).
Mei no ec+yi+yn:annn coc+ox+ n ne(ennn ne+exnonoinnecinx nnnonannn nonix
oiann:annonnix c+yi+y n xe+o(on ynannennx, a +aie +exnonoinnecinx nnnonannn o6xene
xamnn n nne(ennn nonix +exnonoinn, o6nonnennn noqnnx n acco+nxen+a no(yinnn. J+nx
xeax cony+c+nye+ nne(enne nnqoxannonnix n +eneioxxynniannonnix +exnonoinn (!CT),
iqqei+nnnix xe+o(on cna6ennx (n nac+noc+n 1usl-in-Time) n ion+onx (n nac+noc+n TQM), a +aie
nox !SO n ce+nqnia+on Lnonencioio com:a.
Pec+yi+yn:annx noximnennoc+n ne(e+ i oc+y non:no(n+eninoc+n +y(a n ynynmennm
en+a6eninoc+n non:no(c+na. B c+a+einnecion necnei+nne ((o 2O-+n ne+) nenim ec+yi+yn:annn
xnnxe+cx oc+ y(eninoio neca cei+oa nicoinx n ce(nenicoinx +exnonoinn n noximnennox
non:no(c+ne, nn oiannnennn onn cei+oon ce(nenn:inx n nn:inx +exnonoinn. Ocnonon +aion
ec+yi+yn:annn xnnxe+cx (ex+eninoc+i n o6nac+n nccne(onannn n a:nn+nx (HHOKP), coc+oxmax
n cnc+exa+nnecion +nonecion a6o+e no ynennnennm ecycon :nannn n nonciy nonix o6nac+en
nnxenennx i+nx :nannn.
B 2OO4 i. nny+ennne :a+a+i noximnennix ne(nnx+nn na HHOKP, a +aie :anx+oc+i n i+on
o6nac+n, 6inn nan6onee :nann+eninixn n xnxnnecion noximnennoc+n, n non:no(c+ne xamnn
n o6oy(onannx n an+oxo6nnec+oennn.
B 1995-2OO5 ii. n nicoio+exnonoinnnix o6nac+xx 6ino :anx+o oiono 4 ncex a6o+ammnx
n neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n (na ne(nnx+nxx c nncnox :anx+ix 5O n 6onee nenonei).
onx nicoio+exnonoinnnoio cei+oa n c+onxoc+n no(a neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n
coc+annxe+ n nocne(nee nexx oiono 5, no nxec+e co ce(ne-nicoio+exnonoinnnix cei+oox
nenimae+ 3O, a n qnxax c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana (oc+niae+ 5O.
K xaai+enix ne+ax a:nn+nx neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n n Honime o+nocn+cx
o6a:onanne noximnennix inac+eon iynn cnennann:nonannix ne(nnx+nn, ioniynymmnx
n co+y(nnnammnx (yi c (yiox ne(e nceio na noianinox yonne, no +aie n c einonaninix,
o+enec+nennix n xe(ynao(nix oiyennex. Knac+ei iai c+yi+yi, co:(ammne cnoc na
nnnonannn, ienenym+ nicoio inannqnnnonannie ecyci, no:nonxmmne (oc+nia+i n y(enna+i
ioniyen+nie nenxymec+na. Koxxennann:annx e:yni+a+on naynnix nccne(onannn conemae+cx,
n nac+noc+n, n +exnonoinnecinx naiax n nen+ax +ancqe+a +exnonoinn. Tancnannonaninie
ionoannn oiann:ym+ n Honime naynno-nccne(ona+enicine nen+i n nannnam+ co+y(nnna+i
c nonicinxn nnnonannonnixn ne(nnx+nxxn.
Honicine noximnennie ne(nnx+nx einaxnym+ ce6x n noxemam+ cnon ne(noennx na
Hn+ene+ can+ax. J+a nai+nia nnxenxe+cx o6inno iynnixn ne(nnx+nxxn, 6onimnnc+nox
ce(nnx n nce 6onimnx ionnnec+nox xanix qnx.
Hspame cexmopm nonscxo nepepaammsake
npoumuneocmu no yposk mexonoauu
B mec+n ioo+inx, e(nnix no qoxe ne:en+annxx, (ae+cx ia+iax xaai+enc+nia cei+oa
(ceinnn noximnennoc+n) n eio xec+a na o+enec+nennox n xe(ynao(nox iniax. He(c+annennie
(annie no:nonxm+ o:naioxn+icx iai c ai+yaninix no+ennnanox, +ai n c necnei+nnaxn a:nn+nx
i+nx cei+oon neea6a+inammen noximnennoc+n.
O6nac+i nicoinx +exnonoinn (High-technology industries) ne(c+annxm+ annannonnax n qaxa-
nen+nneciax noximnennoc+i, a o6nac+i ce(ne-nicoinx +exnonoinn (Mediun-high-technology
industries) an+oxo6nninax n xnxnneciax noximnennoc+i. He(c+ann+enex o6nac+n ce(ne-nn:inx
+exnonoinn (Mediun-low-technology industries) xnnxe+cx cy(oc+on+eninax noximnennoc+i, a nn:inx
+exnonoinn (1ow-technology industries) neq+exnxnneciax noximnennoc+i (a +onnee non:no(c+no
ioica n neq+eno(yi+on).
56
Hpuepo onpac:eu eocorux nexno:oeuu
Anuauuouum cek1op (npouseocneo :enane:tnox u rocu:ecrux annapanoe, ro Cnanucnu:ecrou
r:accuqurauuu euoe aronou:ecrou ene:tnocnu Eeponeucroeo Coooecnea , KEC) 35.30)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 12 ne(nnx+nn, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
13,6 +ic. nenonei co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox n 2,5 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annxna 1,4 xn(. :n. (nnxeno O,4 xn(. (onnaon
CHA), non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio) 1O2 +ic.
:n., a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) 13,3 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 39,1, :anna+a 29,3, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 13,2.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annna O,3 o+ o6sexa no(a noximnennix
n:(ennn n nenox.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana annannonnoio cei+oa no nnemne+oionox
o6oo+e 6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax nonen+ o+ nceio o6sexa
+oionnn):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax annannonnoio cei+oa Honimn cne(ye+ o+nec+n, n nac+noc+n:
- xnoione+nne +a(nnnn n ionc+ynonannn, c+on+enic+ne, ncni+annn caxone+on (nx
ia(ancion n noennon annannn (:ao(enne i+nx +a(nnnn (a+nye+cx nananox nomnoio
c+one+nx);
- cnx:n c noximnennix o6oonnix no+ennnanox, oco6enno n o6nac+n HHOKP;
- a:noo6a:noe n cnc+exa+nnecin o6nonnxexoe annannonnoe o6oy(onanne, n nac+noc+n,
xo:xnc+nennoio n cno+nnnoio na:nanennx;
- cnennann:nonannin non:no(c+nennin no+ennnan na necioniinx ce(nen nennnnni
:ano(ax;
- iaan+nx caxoio nicoioio ianec+na 6naio(ax co6nm(ennm nox !SO;
- no+ennnan n no:xonoc+n co+y(nnnec+na c nn(eaxn xnonon annannonnon noximnen-
noc+n;
- qyninnonnonanne noximnennoio inac+ea Annannonnax (onnna (Xemyn).
-88 2004 2005

171
(0,2)
582
(0,7)
-411

152
(0,2)
393
(0,4)
-241

57
mapnauen1uuecku cek1op (Hpouseocneo qapaueenu:ecrux npenapanoe, euuuncrux xuu:ecrux
npenapanoe u cpecne pacnune:tnoeo npoucxowenu, ro KEC 24.4)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 71 ne(nnx+ne, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
22,7 +ic. nenonei, co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox 4,2 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annna 6,5 xn(. :n. (oiono 2 xn(. (onnaon CHA),
non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio) 287 +ic. :n.,
a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) 5,5 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 37,4, :aa6o+nax nna+a 2O,2, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 2O,3.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annxna 1,4 o+ o6sexa no(a noximnennix
n:(ennn n nenox.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana qaxanen+nnecioio cei+oa no nnemnen +oionne
6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax (onx no nnemne+oionox o6oo+e n ):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax qaxanen+nnecioio cei+oa Honimn o+nocx+cx, n nac+noc+n:
- ionnen+annx non:no(c+na neiac+nennix ce(c+n na :ano(ax, anee nxo(xmnx n o6se(nnenne
Honiqa;
- co+y(nnnec+no c Hnc+n+y+ox 6no+exnonoinn an+n6no+nion n c 4axanen+nnecinx
nnc+n+y+ox;
- qyninnonnonanne ne(nnx+nn no non:no(c+ny nenaa+on n: neiac+nennix ac+ennn
Xe6anoni, xnxnio-qaxanen+nnecinx :ano(on, a +aie xnoionncnennix nac+nix
ne(nnx+nn, ninyciammnx neiac+nennie ce(c+na, no(ammnecx 6e: enen+a;
- 6onimne nnnec+nnnonnie acxo(i na GMP (Good Manulacluiing Piaclice) (nx +oio, n+o6i
no(yinnx xoina o+nena+i xe(ynao(nix c+an(a+ax n noxax ianec+na, a +aie
co6nm(enne +e6onannn no oxane oiyammen ce(i.
-30 2004 2005

343
(0,5)
2761
(3,1)
-2418

525
(0,6)
3096
(3,1)
-2571

58
Hpuepo onpac:eu cpene-eocorux nexno:oeuu
An1onouuum cek1op (npouseocneo aenooou:eu, npuuenoe u no:ynpuuenoe, a narwe :acneu
u npuna:ewnocneu, ro KEC 34)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 255 ne(nnx+nn, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
88,8 +ic. nenonei, co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox 2,6 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annna 57 xn(. :n. (oiono 17,6 xn(. (onnaon
CHA), non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio)
642 +ic. :n., a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) 2,5 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 8O,3, :anna+a 5,3, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 6,2.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annxna 12,4 o+ o6sexa no(a
noximnennix n:(ennn n nenox.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana an+oxo6nninoio cei+oa no nnemne+oionox
o6oo+e 6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax (onx n o6oo+e n nenox, n ):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax an+oxo6nninoio cei+oa n Honime cne(ye+ o+nec+n:
- neo6na(anne qnx c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana;
- (oxnnnymmym (onm c6oin no cannennm c nonnix non:no(c+nox;
- noxnnenne 6aiea nny+enneio cnoca nn cymec+nymmnx ycnonnxx (oc+yna i ie(n+ax;
- ioniyennnm co c+ooni nn(nnn(yaninoio nxno+a 6/y an+oxo6nnen;
- qyninnonnonanne noximnennoio inac+ea non:no(n+enen :annac+en (nx an+oxo6nnen.
-87 2004 2005

9235
(12,5)
8786
(10,0)
449

11655
(13,0)
8836
(8,7)
2819

59
Xunuuecku cek1op - es qapnauen1uueckoro (Xuu:ecroe npouseocneo, ro KEC 24,
oes 24,4)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 212 ne(nnx+nx, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
64,O +ic. nenonei co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox nnxeno 3,3 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annxna 29,6 xn(. :n. (nnxeno 9,2 xn(. (onnaon
CHA), non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio) oiono
418 +ic. :n., a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) oiono 22 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 59, :anna+a 1O, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 18.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annxna 6,5 o+ o6meio o6sexa no(a
noximnennix n:(ennn.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana xnxnnecioio cei+oa no nnemne+oionox o6oo+e
6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax (onx n o6oo+e n nenox, n ):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax xnxnnecioio cei+oa n Honime cne(ye+ o+nec+n:
- 6onimoe ionnnec+no ne(nnx+nn, a +aie mnoinn acco+nxen+ n:(ennn;
- nan6onee xnoionncnennax iynna ne(nnx+nn n cei+oe i+o non:no(n+enn nnac+xacc;
- nicoiax (onx non:no(n+enen xnneaninix y(o6ennn (oco6enno a:o+nix);
- :nann+eninax (onx iicno+a n no(yinnn n nenox;
- :nann+eninoe o+nna+eninoe cani(o nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a n ycnonnxx 6onimoio cnoca
na o+enec+nennox inie;
- qyninnonnonanne noximnennoio inac+ea Hnac+nionax (onnna (Tanyn).
VI ( 30) 2004 2005


3398
(4,6)
6040
(6,9)
-2642

4121
(4,6)
7123
(7,0)
-3002

6O
Hpuep onpac:u cpene-nusrux nexno:oeuu
Cyoc1pou1euum cek1op (cnpoune:tcneo u peonn cyoe, ro KEC 35.1)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 52 ne(nnx+nx, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
27,5 +ic. nenonei, co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox 3 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annna 5,6 xn(. :n. (nnxeno 1,7 xn(. (onnaon
CHA), non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnx na 1 :anx+oio)
2O4 +ic. :n., a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) 5,9 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 53,8, :anna+a 16,7, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 2O,7.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annxna 1,2 o+ nceio o6sexa no(a
noximnennix n:(ennn.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana cy(oc+on+eninoio cei+oa no nnemne+oionox
o6oo+e 6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax (onx n +oionox o6oo+e n nenox,
n ):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax cy(oc+on+eninoio cei+oa n Honime cne(ye+ o+nec+n:
- 6onimym (onm no(a na nnemnnx iniax (cnime 9O) n nicoioe nonon+eninoe cani(o
+oionoio o6oo+a;
- mnoinn noqnni non:no(c+na o+ oieancinx +oionix n cnennann:nonannix cy(on
(o naycnix, xo+onix n cno+nnnix xx+, a +aie iaan+nx ianec+na ce+nqnia+i !SO;
- ne(noenne, oxna+inammee noei+nonanne n non:no(c+no, a +aie exon+ n xo(enn-
:annm cy(on;
- cnninie xyni+nnnnia+nnnie iqqei+i n o6nac+n :anx+oc+n n xa+enaninoio cna6ennx
(nicoiax (onx nnemnnx ycnyi n non:no(c+nennix n:(eiax);
- nannninoe, n cxicne nanannennx (HHOKP), no necixa cioxnoe qnnancnonanne n:
ioc6m(e+a;
- neo6xo(nxoc+i co:(annx 6n:nec-iynn n ianec+ne na+neon (nx 6anion-ie(n+oon.
-89 2004 2005



2935
(4,0)
2476
(2,8)
459

3046
(3,4)
1637
(1,6)
1409

61
Hpuep onpac:u nusrux nexno:oeuu
Heq1exunuueckaa uponmmueuuoc1 (npouseocneo u nepepaoonra neqnenpoyrnoe, ro
KEC 23.2)
B 2OO4 i. n cei+oe a6o+ano 15 ne(nnx+nn, na io+oix 6ino :anx+o (na ionen (eia6x)
9,2 +ic. nenonei, co ce(nnx xecxnnix oina(ox 5 +ic. :n.
C+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn coc+annxna 26 xn(. :n. (nnxeno 8 xn(. (onnaon
CHA), non:no(n+eninoc+i +y(a (o6sex eann:onannon no(yinnn na 1 :anx+oio) 2844 +ic. :n.,
a ineioexioc+i (na 1OO :n. eann:onannon no(yinnn) 7,4 iB+/n.
J+n e:yni+a+i 6inn nonyneni nn cne(ymmen c+yi+ye non:no(c+nennix n:(eei:
xa+enani 5O,5, :anna+a 1,7, ycnyin c+oonnnx oiann:annn 5,6.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i no(yinnn cei+oa coc+annxna 5,7 o+ o6meio o6sexa no(a
noximnennon no(yinnn.
B 2OO4 n 2OO5 ii. ncnoni:onanne no+ennnana neq+exnxnnecioio cei+oa no nnemne+oionox
o6oo+e 6ino cne(ymmnx (n xnn. (onnaon CHA, n cio6iax (onx n +oionox o6oo+e n nenox,
n ):
K cnennqnnecinx ne+ax neq+exnxnnecioio cei+oa n Honime o+nocx+cx:
- 6onimax ionnen+annx no+ennnana n AO HKH Onen;
- 6onimax nync+nn+eninoc+i n:(eei non:no(c+na i n:xenennxx nen neq+n na xnonix
iniax n:-:a neo6na(annx nxno+nyexoio ciix;
- cnninax nync+nn+eninoc+i nen i a(xnnnc+a+nnnix n:xenennxx ycnonnn (ex+eninoc+n,
+ainx iai ainn:nin nanoi n yoneni nanm+nix iycon, no nn:iax nenonax inac+nnnoc+i
cnoca;
- noc+oxnnoe co+y(nnnec+no co cnennann:nonannixn +ancno+nixn qnxaxn,
acnonaiammnxn o6oy(onannex n +ancno+nixn ce(c+naxn (nx neexemennx 6onimnx
o6sexon ciix no +y6onono(ax, nnc+enaxn n nee: no+onie +exnnani.
CN 2709-2715
( 2711)
2004 2005



719
(1,0)
5646
(6,4)
-4927

850
(1,0)
8130
(8,0)
-7280

62
B 2OO5 i. c+onxoc+i eann:onannon no(yinnn c+on+enino-xon+anon o+acnn coc+annna oiono
42 xn(. :n. (oiono 13 xn(. (onnaon CHA) n 6ina nime na 7,4 no cannennm c ne(i(ymnx
io(ox. Ha ynennnenne no(yinnn nonnnxn oc+ o6sexa a6o+ iai nnnec+nnnonnoio (na 7,6) +ai
n exon+noio xaai+ea (na 7), a (onx nnnec+nnnonnix a6o+ n o6men c+onxoc+n c+on+enino-
xon+anon no(yinnn ynennnnnaci (o 71,8.
aninenmee ycioenne oc+a c+on+enino-xon+anoio non:no(c+na (na 9,2) 6ino o+xeneno
n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 io(a. Taine qai+i, iai oco6enno 6ic+in oc+ no(a na ne(nnx+nxx,
:annxammnxcx no(io+onion nnoma(en no( c+on+enic+no (na 6onee nex 6O) n :nann+eninin oc+
nonix a:emennn na c+on+enic+no (na 6onee nex 3O), ne(nemam+ coxanenne xoomen
ionsmni+yi n c+on+enic+ne n 6nnanmee nexx. B cnom onee(i, n 6onee (nn+eninon necnei+nne
qai+oox, c+nxynnymmnx c+on+enino-xon+anoe non:no(c+no, 6y(e+ nnenc+no Honimn
n Lnonenciox com:e. Honax cn+yannx nnnece+ (noxinn iqqei+: eann:annm na +en+onn namen
c+ani xnoionncnennix nonix nnnec+nnnonnix noei+on c ncnoni:onannex noxomn n:
c+yi+ynix qon(on, c o(non c+ooni, n noc+enennoe ynynmenne ycnonnn ne(ennx 6n:neca (nx
nonicinx c+on+eninix qnx na e(nnox enonenciox inie, c (yion.
3. Cenuckoe xosncfeo
Honima xnnxe+cx iynnix xnonix non:no(n+enex cenicioxo:xnc+nennon no(yinnn.
2. Cfpoufenucfeo
C+on+enic+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: nanenmnx cei+oon nonicion iionoxnin. B 2OO5 io(y ce(nee
ionnnec+no :anx+ix n i+ox cei+oe coc+annxno 453 +ic. nenonei, +.e. 5,3 ncex a6o+ammnx
n nao(nox xo:xnc+ne.
Ce(n xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+on neo6na(am+ xanie nac+nie qnxi. B 2OO5 i. na i+n qnxi
nnxo(nnoci oiono 98 ncen c+onxoc+n c+on+enino-xon+anon no(yinnn. Caxym 6onimym (onm
nxenn ne(nnx+nx nonicinx qn:nnecinx nnn oiono 66 n nac+nie nonicine +oionie o6mec+na
cnime 21.
B a:6nnie c+on+enino-xon+anon no(yinnn no nn(ax o6sei+on cnime nononnni
nnna(nen+ i ia+eionn o6sei+on cyxony+non n no(non nnenenn, oiono 1/3 nennie o6sei+i,
n +oniio oiono 14 nnie :(annx.
-
2004-2005 . (%)
2004 2005


:



100,0
45,2

14,0
31,2
54,8
100,0
46,4

13,9
32,5
53,6
: (GUS).
63
Hnoma(i cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn coc+annxe+ 16,3 xnn. ia, +.e. oiono 12 nnoma(n
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn nx+na(na+n c+aix iocy(ac+n Lnonencioio com:a n :annxae+
6onee 5O +en+onn c+ani, +. e. 6onime, nex n ce(nex n LC-15. Ha nn(nnn(yaninie iec+ixncine
xo:xnc+na nnxo(n+cx cnime 14 xnn. ia, +.e. oiono 86 ncen nnoma(n cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn.
C 199O i. nanancx nonecc nnna+n:annn iocy(ac+nennix ne(nnx+nn aianoio cei+oa. Hon+n
nce :exnn 6inmnx iocxo:on ye neemnn n nac+nie yin, inannix o6a:ox n nn(e aen(i.
Haxo+nie :exnn :annxam+ 77 nnoma(n cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn, ca(i 1,7, a nyia
n nac+6nma 2O,5.
Ce(nxx nnoma(i nn(nnn(yaninoio iec+ixncioio xo:xnc+na coc+annxna n 2OO4 i. 8,4 ia, nnnex
oiono 32 :annxann xo:xnc+na c nnoma(im o+ 2 (o 5 ia, oiono 23 xo:xnc+na o+ 5 (o 1O ia, 9,6
o+ 1O (o 15 ia n 1O,4 6onee 15 ia. Hacnn+inanoci (ononino xnoio iec+ixncinx xo:xnc+n,
nxemmnx ynac+in nnoma(im o+ 1 (o 2 ia (25,8). C 1995 i. io(a ce(nxx nnoma(i nn(nnn(yaninoio
iec+ixncioio xo:xnc+na ynennnnnaci na O,8 ia.
C+eneni xexann:annn cenicioio xo:xnc+na (ononino nicoia. B 2OO4 io(y na 12 ia
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn nnxo(nncx o(nn +ai+o. Ho+e6nenne xnneaninix y(o6ennn
n neecne+e na ycnonnym e(nnnny n 2OO3/2OO4 cenicioxo:xnc+nennox io(y coc+annxno 93,5 ii na
1 iei+a cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn n 6ino 6nn:io yonnm ne(i(ymeio io(a.
B 2OO4 io(y n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne, oxo+nnniex n necnox xo:xnc+nax a6o+ano 2 138 +ic. nenonei,
+.e. 16,8 nceio a6o+ammeio nacenennx Honimn; n LC-15 i+o+ noia:a+eni coc+annxe+ nexnoinx
6onee 4.
Ha c+onxoc+i nanonon no(yinnn :nann+eninoe nnnxnne oia:inam+ aioxe+eoonoinnecine
ycnonnx, o+aammnecx na yonne ac+n+eninon no(yinnn. Onn c+ann nnnnnon +oio, n+o nocne
6ic+oio oc+a o6sexon cenicioxo:xnc+nennon no(yinnn n 2OO4 i. (na 7,5), n 2OO5 i. onn
cnn:nnnci na 2,5, +ai iai cnnennx no(yinnn ac+enneno(c+na na non+n 9 ne ioxnencnonan
oc+ no(yinnn nno+nono(c+na na 6onee nex 5.
Hocne nc+ynnennx n Lnonencinn com: n noniciox ceniciox xo:xnc+ne nanannci ceie:nie
nonon+eninie neexeni. Onn coc+oxnn ne(e nceio n ycioennn noneccon ec+yi+yn:annn
n xo(enn:annn, oco6enno n necnei+nnnix xo:xnc+nax, nncno io+oix onennnae+cx na 6onee nex
5OO +icxn. ononino 6ic+ixn +exnaxn ac+y+ xacm+a6i non:no(c+na n i+nx xo:xnc+nax, n+o
:axe+no no acmnennm nnoma(en cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn n oc+y noiononix iynnoio
oia+oio cio+a (oco6enno xononnoio), cnnnen n (yinx cenicioxo:xnc+nennix nno+nix.
B e:yni+a+e noncxo(n+ :axe+noe nonimenne non:no(n+eninoc+n n iqqei+nnnoc+n xo:xnc+nonannx
ac+e+ yoannoc+i no:(eninaexix iyni+y, oco6enno :enonix, ynennnnnae+cx no(yi+nnnoc+i
nno+nix, oco6enno xononnix ioon. B 2OO5 i., +. e. ye na n+oon io( nocne nc+ynnennx n LC,
non:no(n+enn :anonnnnn ino+y na non:no(c+no xonoia, yc+anonnennym n oionoe o nc+ynnennn
(oiono 8,5 xn(. nn+on). Lic+ixn +exnaxn a:nnnae+cx nnmenax noximnennoc+i n iicno+
cenicioxo:xnc+nennon no(yinnn n no(ononic+nnx. J+o+ iicno+ ynennnnncx n 2OO4 i. na 3O,2,
a n 2OO5 i. noxa oc+a 6ina eme nime n coc+annna 37,2.
Inannix qai+oox ycioennoio a:nn+nx nonicioio aiano-no(ononic+nennoio cei+oa
nocne nc+ynnennx n LC xnnxe+cx no((eia co c+ooni 6m(e+a iai n nn(e nxxon no((ein
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix (oxo(on (nxxie (onna+i), +ai n no((ein (nx +exnnio-iionoxnnecion
n connaninon ec+yi+yn:annn cei+oa.
O6max c+onxoc+i i+on no((ein ac+e+ n: io(a n io(. B 2OO4 i. noxomi coc+annna n nenox
11 xn(. :no+ix (n +ox nncne 5,74 xn(. :no+ix n: o+enec+nennoio 6m(e+a), a n 2OO5 i. oiono
16,5 xn(. :no+ix (n +ox nncne oiono 8 xn(. :no+ix n: o+enec+nennoio 6m(e+a).
Hocne nc+ynnennx Honimn n Lnonencinn com: nonicine iec+ixne nnenie nonynnnn qnnanconym
no((eiy n: 6m(e+a LC. Le a:xe coc+annn 25 o+ yonnx noxomn, oia:inaexon iec+ixnax
n: iocy(ac+n LC-15, no 6in (ononnen ninna+axn n: 6m(e+a LC n Honimn, io+oie c+ann
64
no:xonixn 6naio(ax neexemennm c+yi+ynix ce(c+n n: +ai na:inaexon !!-on onoi, n+o
no:nonnno (oc+nni cnime 3O o+ yonnx no((ein (nx iec+ixn n: c+aoio LC. Honima
ne(oc+annna +aie cnonx iec+ixnax noxomi n: nny+ennnx ce(c+n, n+o (ano o6mym nennnnny
no((ein cenicioxo:xnc+nennix (oxo(on n Honime na yonne oiono 55 o+ yonnx no((ein,
(enc+nymmen n iocy(ac+nax LC-15.
O6max c+onxoc+i nxxon no((ein cenicioxo:xnc+nennix (oxo(on coc+annna n 2OO5 i. cnime
7 xn(. :no+ix (n 2OO4 i. oiono 6,5 xn(. :no+ix).
Lonimoe :nanenne nxee+ +aie cy6cn(nonanne iicno+a aianon no(yinnn n no(ononic+nnx
n nn(e +ai na:inaexix ioxnencannn nn nino:e, c+onxoc+i io+oix n 2OO5 i. ynennnnnaci (o
42O,5 xnn. :no+ix.
Lonimoe :nanenne nxee+ +aie nn+enennnonnax (ex+eninoc+i Aien+c+na cenicioxo:xnc+nennoio
inia na iniax a:nnnnix no(ononic+nennix no(yi+on (inannix o6a:ox nn+enennnonnie
:aiynin). Pacxo(i na i+y (ex+eninoc+i coc+annnn n 2OO5 i. 1,391 xn(. :no+ix, n +ox nncne 34,2 na
inie :enonix, 31,7 na inie caxaa n caxao:i, 11,3 na inie xonoia n no(yi+on eio
neea6o+in, 1O,4 na inie +a6aia. Hn+enennnonnax (ex+eninoc+i Aien+c+na c+a6nnn:nye+
nonicinn aiano-no(ononic+nennin inoi n o(nonexenno nonimae+ iqqei+nnnoc+i aiano-
no(ononic+nennon no(yinnn n ee iicno+a.
B Honime no(onae+cx eann:annx noiaxxi xe no a(an+annn cenicioio xo:xnc+na n nceio
aiano-no(ononic+nennoio cei+oa i ycnonnxx, io+oie cymec+nym+ n iocy(ac+nax
Lnonencioio com:a. J+a noiaxxa ocymec+nnxe+cx:
onnaxci na ce(c+na :anymennon eme (o nc+ynnennx n LC Hoiaxxi SAPARD (Special
Accession Progranne for Agriculture and Rural Developnent). O6max c+onxoc+i ce(c+n
nanannennix na eann:annm Hoiaxxi coc+ann+ 6 343,74 xnn. :no+ix, n +ox nncne
4 191,13 xnn. :no+ix i+o ny6nnnnie ce(c+na (n: 6m(e+a LC n nonicioio 6m(e+a); ce(c+na
LC coc+annxm+ 3 144,13 xnn. :no+ix;
nee: qnnanconym no((eiy c+yi+ynix neo6a:onannn nonicioio cenicioio xo:xnc+na n
eio oiyennx n: ce(c+n LC n Honimn n axiax Hnana a:nn+nx cenicinx anonon na 2OO4-
2OO6 ii. B nenox n axiax Hnana ne(ycxo+ena qnnanconax no((eia n: 6m(e+nix ce(c+n
na yonne 3592,4 xnn. eno, n +ox nncne 2866,4 xnn. eno n: 6m(e+a LC. B 2OO5 i. nananaci
eann:annx ncex 1O-+n nnannyexix xe n axiax i+oio nnana;
ny+ex ec+yi+yn:annn aianoio n no(ononic+nennoio cei+oon, n +ox nncne cenicioio
xo:xnc+na, ocymec+nnxexon n axiax Cei+onon oneannonnon noiaxxi Pec+yi-
+yn:annx n xo(enn:annx no(ononic+nennoio cei+oa n a:nn+ne cenicinx anonon,
ne(ycxo+ennon na 2OO4-2OO6 ii. B nenox na eann:annm i+on Hoiaxxi nnannye+cx
ne(na:nann+i 1784,1 xnn. eno, n +ox nncne 568,9 xnn. eno n: o+enec+nennoio 6m(e+a.
4. Toproenn
Bympe mopaosn
Honecc iionoxnnecion +ancqoxannn n Honime nnnec 6ic+in iqqei+ n o6nac+n
qyninnonnonannx nny+enneio inia iai n on+onon, +ai n n o:nnnnon +oionne. B (enxnoc+ix
io(ax nncno xaia:nnon ynennnnnoci 6onee nex n (na a:a. B ionne 2OO4 i. o6mee nncno +onei
o:nnnnon +oionnn onennnanoci nnxeno na 84O +icxn, n +ox nncne oiono 37O +ic. xaia:nnon
n oiono 9,5 +ic. an+o:ananonnix c+annnn.
B ocnony acmnennx nnqac+yi+yi +oionnn 6ino nonoeno a:nn+ne nac+noio
ne(nnnnxa+enic+na, a +aie nnna+n:annx iocy(ac+nennix ne(nnx+nn. B 2OO5 i. (onx no(a
65
qnx nac+noio cei+oa n o6mex o6sexe iai on+onon, +ai n o:nnnnon +oionnn coc+annna oiono
98. B nac+nox cei+oe +oionnn a6o+ano oiono O,9 xnn. nenonei, n +o nexx iai n ny6nnnnox
cei+oe 6ino :anx+o nceio oiono 16 +ic. nenonei.
B 2OO5 io(y c+onxoc+i on+onix no(a (n +eiymnx nenax) n +oionix qnxax c :anx+oc+im
cnime 9 nenonei ynennnnnaci na 5,2 no cannennm c 2OO4 i. O6sex o:nnnnix no(a
(n noc+oxnnix nenax) n +oionix n ne+oionix ne(nnx+nxx c :anx+oc+im cnime 9 nenonei 6in na
1,5 6onime, nex n 2OO4 i. Lme 6onee nicoinn oc+ on+onon n o:nnnnon no(an 6in o+xenen
n ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. coo+ne+c+nenno na 8,1 n 1O,5 no cannennm c coo+ne+c+nymmnx neno(ox
ne(i(ymeio io(a.
B c+yi+ye o:nnnnoio o6oo+a neo6na(ano +onnnno (18,9 n 2OO5 i.) n no(aa
n necnennann:nonannix xaia:nnax c neo6na(annex no(ononic+nennix no(yi+on, nann+ion
n +a6annix n:(ennn (18,6). Menimym (onm nxenn an+oxo6nnn, xo+onnini n nac+n i nnx (9),
a +aie no(ononic+nennie no(yi+i, anioioninie n 6e:anioioninie nann+in, +a6annie n:(ennx,
no(anaexie n cnennann:nonannix +oionix +oniax (8,7).
Caxax nno+nax ce+i on+onix cina(on a:xemena n nan6onee a:nn+ix n noximnennox o+nomennn
einonax, +ainx iai: Cnne:nx, Ma:onnx, Benniononima. B 2OO4 i. +ax naxo(nnaci 6onimax nac+i n:
oiono 28,5 +ic. :aii+ix cina(on Honimn, oiono 2,7 +ic. ii+ix cina(cinx noxemennn, a +aie
oiono 4,8 +ic. cina(cinx nnoma(oi. B oiec+noc+xx neio+oix ioo(on (n nac+noc+n, Bamana,
Ho:nani, m6nnn, Pa(ox) qyninnonnym+ 6nn cenicioxo:xnc+nennix +onaon.
Koxnim+enix o6oy(onannex ocnameno 6onee 85 +oionix qnx. Koxe yne+a o6oo+a
n ceie+acinx a6o+, ono ncnoni:ye+cx ne(e nceio (nx 6ic+oio o6cnynnannx +oionix
na+neon, a +aie (nx inei+onnon +oionnn (e-connerce). J+a +en(ennnx iacae+cx iai
nnoc+annix, +ai n nonicinx on+onix qnx. B 2OO4 i. oiono 4 ne(nnx+nn eann:onano no(an
nee: Hn+ene+, nnnex oiono 1 ne(nnx+nn +aie nee: Hn+ene+ nonynano nna+en. Tonai,
oco6enno nac+o noiynaexie c noxomim Hn+ene+a i+o innin n ynani, cno+nnnax o(e(a,
cno+nnnoe n inei+onnoe o6oy(onanne. Konnnec+no Hn+ene+-noiyna+enen n 2OO5 i. coc+annno
oiono O,9 xnn. nenonei. B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i +onaon n ycnyi, :aia:annix nnn iynnennix n Hn+ene+e,
coc+annna non+n 36O xnn. :no+ix, a n 2OO5 i. nenicnna 1 xn(. :no+ix.
Koxe neqoxaninix :aiynonnix iynn qyninnonnym+ a:nnnnie nn(i nnc+n+ynnonaninix
coinamennn, io+oie o6e+am+ qoxy oiann:annonnon, a ne qon(onon nn+eiannn. C 2OOO i. na
inie no+e6n+enicinx +onaon qyninnonnym+ +n +nna coinamennn oiann:annonnoio
xaai+ea, io+oie no:nninn no nnnnna+nne on+onix ne(nnx+nn:
on+onie :aiynonnie iynni, o6se(nnxmmne ycnemno a6o+ammne ce(nne n iynnie
ne(nnx+nx;
o:nnnnie :aiynonnie iynni, n coc+an io+oix nxo(x+ on+onni, niammnn nn+einymmym
oni n o6se(nnennax noiyi neio iynna qnx, :annxammaxcx o:nnnnon +oionnen;
co:(annie na (o6ononinix nananax on+onie nenonin, coc+oxmne name nceio n: necioniinx
on+onix ne(nnx+nn n cnx:annix c nnxn qnx o:nnnnon +oionnn.
4on(onax nn+eiannx n nonicinx ycnonnxx c+on+cx no o6a:ny xon(nnia, ninmnammeio n ce6x
o6se(nnennx non:no(n+enen n no(annon.
Cymec+nennix o6a:ox xenxe+cx c+yi+ya +oionon ce+n. B iynnix ioo(cinx nen+ax nce
6onimax nac+i inia neexo(n+ i cynexaie+ax n innexaie+ax, co:(anaexix c (oxnnnymmnx
ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana. J+n xaia:nni, na:inaexie +aie +oionixn nen+axn,
ne(naiam+ caxie nn:ine neni n qoxnym+ nonin c+nni o:nnnnix noiynoi, ncnoni:yx cnom
nnqac+yi+yy (nnoma(i +oionix :anon, xnoioi+anie an+oc+oxnin) n oiann:annm +oionnn
(cnc+exa caxoo6cnynnannx, mnoinn acco+nxen+, y(o6nie naci a6o+i n +enenne ncen ne(enn).
B neno( 1995-2OO5 ii. nncno xaia:nnon c +oionixn :anaxn cnime 4OO x
2
ynennnnnoci n (na a:a
(o oiono 4,7 +ic. B i+on cn+yannn nce 6onimee nncno xanix n ce(nnx nac+nix +oionix qnx
na+aninnae+cx na 6aie noiyna+enicioio cnoca.
66
Hecxo+x na nicoiym (nnaxniy oc+a nonicioio nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a, (onx Honimn
n xnonox iicno+e (O,6) n c+onxoc+i iicno+a n neecne+e na o(noio n+enx (oiono 2,3 +ic.
(onnaon CHA n 2OO5 i.) nce eme ne o+nenam+ ee no+e6noc+xx n no:xonoc+xx.
Ieoiaqnneciax c+yi+ya nonicion nnemnen +oionnn na y6ee 8O-x n 9O-x io(on no(neinaci
ioennix neo6a:onannxx, cnx:annix c neeonen+annen +oionnn na :ana(noenonencine
inin. B 2OO5 i. iicno+ n a:nn+ie c+ani coc+annxn 83,6 nceio nonicioio iicno+a (n +ox nncne
n c+ani Lnonencioio com:a 77,2), n c+ani Jen+aninon n Boc+onnon Lnoni
1
1O,
a n a:nnnammnecx c+ani 6,4. Ho(o6nix o6a:ox qoxnonanaci c+yi+ya nxno+a. onx
a:nn+ix c+an coc+annxna n nex 73,3 (n +ox nncne c+an Lnonencioio com:a 65,6), c+an
Jen+aninon n Boc+onnon Lnoni 11,6, n a:nnnammnxcx c+an 15,1.
B 2OO5 i. inannixn noiyna+enxxn nonicinx +onaon 6ina Iexannx (28,2 iicno+a n nenox),
a :a+ex: 4annnx, H+annx, Bennio6n+annx, Hexnx, Poccnx, Ionnan(nx, Hnennx, Leniinx n Vianna.
B nxno+e inannie no:nnnn :annxann: Iexannx (24,7 o+ nceio nxno+a), Poccnx, H+annx,
4annnx, Kn+an, Hexnx, Ionnan(nx, Bennio6n+annx, Leniinx n Coe(nnennie H+a+i. Ho(o6nax
ieoiaqnneciax c+yi+ya nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a Honimn ne(c+annena n C+a+nc+nneciox
nnnoennn (Inana X).
Beu mopaosn (mosapooopom)
Heo6a:onanne qox co6c+nennoc+n n nonicion iionoxnie ni:nano oc+ (onn nac+noio cei+oa
n no nnemne+oionox o6oo+e n iicno+e nnxeno c 5 n 199O i. (o 87,3 n 2OO5 i., a n nxno+e
coo+ne+c+nenno c oiono 15 (o 9O,2.
O+ii+ne nonicion iionoxnin na nnemnnn xn n nonimenne ee ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n
ni:nann oc+ nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a. B 2OO5 i. c+onxoc+i iicno+a coc+annna 89,4 xn(.
(onnaon CHA, a nxno+a 1O1,5 xn(. (onnaon CHA. B nocne(nne io(i iicno+ ac+e+ 6onee
6ic+ixn +exnaxn, nex nxno+ n 2OO5 i. o6sexi ynennnnnnci coo+ne+c+nenno na 1O,8 n 4,6, n+o
nnnxe+ na cnc+exa+nnecioe ynynmenne cani(o +onaoo6xena.
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-20

Bnemne+oionin o6oo+ Honimn n 199O-2OO5 ii., n xn(. (onnaon CHA
____________________
1
O6oo+ co c+anaxn Jen+aninon n Boc+onnon Lnoni iacae+cx cne(ymmnx c+an: An6annx, Lenayci, Lonianx,
Xona+nx, Mon(ona, Poccnnciax 4e(eannx, Pyxinnx n Vianna.
67
B 2OO5 io(y, caxixn nanixn iynnaxn +onaon n noniciox nnemne+oionox o6oo+e 6inn
(no iynnax TH): xamnni, o6oy(onanne, inei+nnecioe n inei+o+exnnnecioe o6oy(onanne (38,8
c+onxoc+n iicno+a +onaon n nenox n 35,6 c+onxoc+n nxno+a), :a+ex noximnennie +onai,
inaccnqnnnonannie no nn(ax ciix (coo+ne+c+nenno 22,8 n 2O,9), no(ononic+nne, nann+in
n +a6ai (8,7 n 5,2), no(yinnx xnxnnecion n cnx:annix c nen o+acnen noximnennoc+n (6,8
n 14,5), a +aie xnneaninoe +onnnno, cxa:onnie xa+enani n nx non:no(nie (5,3 n 11,4).
B 2OO4 i. (onx n:(ennn nicoio+exnonoinnnix o+acnen (coinacno inaccnqniannn OJCP o+ 1995 i.)
no nnemne+oionox o6oo+e Honimn n nenox coc+annxna 2,3 n iicno+e n 8,3 n nxno+e.

2002-2004 . ( %)
a



2002 2003 2004 2002 2003 2004
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
14,2 9,1 14,7 5,5 2,8 7,4
10,0 4,6 10,9 24,9 17,6 23,9
38,4 44,3 27,7 32,7 42,9 33,3
5,1 4,1 4,6 10,3 10,8 10,0
- 14,2 19,0 23,0 10,7 9,4 10,2
3,6 2,8 4,1 2,5 3,1 3,2
9,3 7,3 8,0 4,0 4,3 4,2
4,1 4,3 5,5 9,0 8,4 6,8
1,1 4,5 1,5 0,6 0,7 1,0
a
1995 .
: (GUS).
B o6oo+ax nicoio+exnonoinnnixn n:(ennxxn caxon nanon iynnon xnnxm+cx inei+onnie
n +eneioxxynniannonnie n:(ennx. B iicno+e 6onimoe :nanenne nxee+ +aie nccne(ona+eniciax
annaa+ya, a n nxno+e ioxnim+ei n oqncnoe o6oy(onanne.
Bce 6onimym oni n +onaoo6oo+e c :ay6enixn c+anaxn niam+ (enc+nymmne n Honime
o6mec+na c nnoc+annix iann+anox. B 2OO4 i. nx (onx n iicno+e n nenox coc+annxna 56,7,
a n nxno+e 6O,6. ex+eninoc+i i+nx o6mec+n 6onime nceio noxnnxnaci n necioniinx +onanix
iynnax n 2OO4 i. na +n iynni nnxo(nnoci 6onee nononnni o6men c+onxoc+n iicno+a n nxno+a
o6mec+n c nnoc+annix iann+anox. J+o 6inn: xamnni n o6oy(onanne nxec+e c inei+nnecinx
n inei+o+exnnnecinx o6oy(onannex n +ancno+nixn ce(c+naxn, ne(aionennie xe+anni n n:(ennx
n: nnx (n iicno+e n n nxno+e), io+onie nnmenie no(yi+i, 6e:anioioninie nann+in, anioioninie
nann+in, yicyc, +a6ai n cyoia+i +a6aia (n iicno+e), a +aie no(yi+i xnxnnecion
noximnennoc+n (n nxno+e).
Honecc ynynmennx (onionexennon c+yi+ynon ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n iicno+a coc+on+
n (oc+nennn neeneca ianec+nennix qai+oon na( nenonixn (n +ox nncne, ni+eiammnxn n:
68
2004
. %

:







1324,5

956,9
282,9
53,5
22,4
8,8
0,03
100,0

72,2
21,4
4,0
1,7
0,7
0,0
a
-
(.. ) .
: (GUS).
n:xenennn iycon nanm+), xaai+enixn (nx +onaon c nenicoion c+enenim neea6o+in, a +aie
n nonimennn yonnx nnnonannonnoc+n na ne(nnx+nxx. Pec+yi+yn:annx nonicion noximnennoc+n
nnnocn+ e:yni+a+i. Bce 6onime non:no(nxix n Honime n:(ennn ye o+nenae+ xe(ynao(nix
c+an(a+ax, n +ox nncne enonencinx noxax 6e:onacnoc+n, n+o noc+enenno nonimae+ nx
ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+i iai na iniax (yinx c+an LC, +ai n na iniax nne LC, a +aie na
nny+ennex inie no cannennm c nxno+nyexixn +onaaxn.
B 6nnanmne io(i cymec+nennixn qai+oaxn oc+a nonicioio nnemne+oionoio o6oo+a,
n +ox nncne iicno+a n:(ennn nicoio+exnonoinnnix n ce(ne-nicoio+exnonoinnnix o+acnen,
(onno c+a+i qoxnonanne nnqoxannonnoio o6mec+na n a:nn+ne iionoxnin, onnammencx na
:nannx. J+oxy 6y(e+ cnoco6c+nona+i eann:annx xo(nqnnnonannon ncca6oncion c+a+einn
n axiax Hannonaninix c+a+einnecinx axoi o+cne+a na 2OO7-2O13 ii. Cymec+nennym oni n i+nx
noneccax niam+ iynnie qnxi c ynac+nex nnoc+annoio iann+ana, no ec+i +aie nnxei
iqqei+nnnon (ex+eninoc+n xanix n ce(nnx nonicinx nnnonannonnix qnx.
5. Tpaucnopfuue ycnyru
Lnaio(ax nonoennm Honimn n nen+e Lnoni +ancno+, oco6enno cyxony+nin, niae+
nanym oni. Hee: Honimy noxo(x+ inannie +ancno+nie xainc+ann n: 3ana(non Lnoni na
Boc+oi, cnx:inammne +ancno+nie ce+n c+an Lnonencioio com:a c Poccnen, Lenaycim n Viannon,
a +aie (yinxn c+anaxn CHI.
Bce 6onimee :nanenne nno6e+am+ noxo(xmne nee: Honimy +ancno+nie xainc+ann Cene-Ki,
coe(nnxmmne nonicine no+i na Lan+nnciox xoe co c+anaxn Knon Lnoni.
B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i (oxo(on o+ no(an +ancno+nix ycnyi n cina(cioio xo:xnc+na coc+annxna
81,7 xn(. :no+ix (25,3 xn(. (onnaon CHA), nnnex (onx nac+noio cei+oa coc+annxna oiono
7O, a ny6nnnnoio oiono 3O.
B 2OO4 io(y neeno:ia non+n 3/4 iy:on n Honime 6ina non:ne(ena an+oxo6nnxxn, a oiono 1/5
no ene:non (ooie. J+n noia:a+enn cnn(e+enic+nym+ o inmnenox :nanennn n neeno:ie iy:on
an+oxo6nninoio n ene:no(oonoio nn(on +ancno+a.
69
Honon+eninix xnnennex xnnxe+cx o+nocn+enino nicoiax (onx ene:non (ooin n neeno:iax
(n +onno-innoxe+ax), ninonnennix cyxony+nix +ancno+ox (33,5). J+o+ noia:a+eni :nann+enino
nime, nex n c+anax LC-15 (14) n LC-25 (17,6). Ho ene:non (ooie neeno:n+cx, inannix
o6a:ox yioni n ioic, y(i xe+annon, iaxeni n iannn, neq+i n neq+eno(yi+i, xe+anni n n:(ennx
n: xe+annon, a +aie xnneaninie y(o6ennx. B nocne(nne io(i o6sexi ene:no(oonix
iy:onix neeno:oi ac+y+ (c 2OO1 i. na 69), a n neno( (o 2O2O i. onn (onni ynennnn+icx eme na
21-34.
Honicine xocine no+i n 2OO4 i. neeiy:nnn non+n 57 xnn. +onn +onaon. B nnx neo6na(ann
xacconie iy:i: yioni n ioic, neq+i, :eno n y(i xe+annon, (nx o6max (onx coc+annxna 65,2);
oc+aninym nac+i coc+annnn ieneaninie iy:i n (yine +onai. O(naio n 2OO4 i. nenoe xec+o
c +onin :ennx o6sexon neeno:oi iai o+(eninax iynna +onaon :anxnn ieneaninie iy:i (28,4),
a ne iai n ne(i(ymne io(i yioni n ioic.
2004
. %

:






56 918

16 153
13 164
12 730
9 298
2 804
2 637
100,0

28,4
23,3
22,4
16,3
4,9
4,6
: (GUS).
Heenanonnie a6o+i coce(o+onnnannci n no+ax n I(anicie (42,3 nx o6mnx o6sexon), :a+ex
n I(ine (18,8), Cnnnoyncine (17,1) n Hennne (16,7), a +aie n Honnne n n Kono6eie (nxec+e
4,8). Tan:n+nie iy:i coc+annxnn oiono 1/4 neenanoi n nenox n nonicinx xocinx no+ax
n coce(o+onnnannci n I(anicie (75,2) n n xenimen c+enenn n Hennne n Cnnnoyncine (nxec+e 22,4).
Bo(nin nny+ennnn +ancno+ niae+ n neeno:iax iy:on ne6onimym oni (n 2OO4 i. eio (onx
coc+annxna +oniio O,7). O(naio on nxee+ neio+ooe :nanenne n neeno:iax (n +ox nncne
xe(ynao(nix) neio+oix xacconix iy:on, n nac+noc+n necia n iannx, iaxennoio yinx, xe+annon
n n:(ennn n: xe+anna. 3nanenne no(noio nny+enneio +ancno+a, iai nan6onee iionoinnnoio,
n 6y(ymex 6y(e+ ac+n.
C+yi+ya neeno:oi +onaon no nn(ax +ancno+a o+nnnanaci n iicno+e n n nxno+e
2
.
B noniciox iicno+e neo6na(an xocion +ancno+ (n 2OO4 i. on coc+annxn oiono 4O o6sexon
neeno:oi iy:on), a :a+ex ene:no(oonin (oiono 3O) n an+oxo6nninin (oiono 26). Hxno+
+onaon ocymec+nnxncx, inannix o6a:ox ene:no(oonix +ancno+ox (oiono 38), a +aie
an+oxo6nninix (oiono 35) n xocinx (oiono 25).
____________________
2
Le: +ancno+nonin neq+n n neq+eno(yi+on, a +aie nno(noio ia:a n (yinx ia:onix yineno(oo(on.
7O
3nanenne an+oxo6nninoio +ancno+a n naccancinx neeno:iax eme nime, nex n neeno:iax
iy:on. Banym oni no(onam+ nia+i naccancine neeno:in no ene:non (ooie, nnnex
oiann:annonnie n nanonie n:xenennx, a +aie ec+yi+yn:annx co6c+nennoc+n, no:nonxm+
a:nnna+icx ne(nnx+nxx no o6cnynnannm iai iy:onix, +ai n naccancinx neeno:oi,
oco6enno n einonaninox xacm+a6e. Tex ne xenee, n +enenne nocne(nnx 1O-2O ne+ :nanenne
naccancinx neeno:oi an+oxo6nninix n ene:no(oonix +ancno+ox cnnanoci n noni:y
nn(nnn(yaninoio an+oxo6nninoio n no:(ymnoio +ancno+a.
B nac+oxmee nexx no:(ymnin +ancno+ xnnxe+cx caxon (nnaxnnnon o+acnim +ancno+a
n Honime. B 2OO5 i. ionnnec+no naccanon n nonicinx aiono+ax coc+annno 11,5 xnn. n 6ino nime
no o+nomennm i ne(i(ymexy io(y na 28,5 (:a i+o+ neno( ce(nee ynennnenne naccancinx
neeno:oi n Lnone coc+annno 6,3). Poc+ ionnnec+na nonicinx n nnoc+annix caxone+on nxen
xec+o non+n no ncex aiono+ax. Aiono+ nxenn 4.Honena n Bamane n 2OO5 i. nnnxn 7 xnn.
naccanon (61 o+ o6meio ionnnec+na naccanon, noni:ymmnxcx nonicinxn aio(oxaxn).
nnaxnnnoe a:nn+ne neeno:oi cnx:ano c nn6eann:annen no:(ymnoio +ancno+a n nxo(ennex
na nonicinn inoi (emenix neeno:nnion, n n e:yni+a+e c eio 6onimen (oc+ynnoc+im.
Ha noniciox inie no:(ymnoio +ancno+a (enc+nye+ ceio(nx 43 neeno:nnia. Bo:(ymnin
+ancno+ coce(o+onnnae+cx na xe(ynao(nix naccancinx neeno:iax. B cnom onee(i,
a:nn+ne nac+nix (emenix no:(ymnix nnnnn ne(e+ i 6ic+oxy ynennnennm nx (onn n neeno:iax.
Lcnn eme n nanane 2OO4 i. onn o6cnynnann nceio 2-3 ncex naccanon, +o n 2OO5 i. ye cnime 31,
a ! nonyio(nn 2OO6 i. non+n nononnny.
Ho oneniax !ATA n 6nnanmne io(i Honima 6y(e+ c+anon c caxon nicoion (nnaxnion oc+a
ionnnec+na naccanon n xne. Vnannenne ia(ancion annannn noino:nye+, n+o (o 2O1O i.
ionnnec+no naccanon, noni:ymmnxcx ycnyiaxn no:(ymnoio +ancno+a, ynennnn+cx na 94.
6. Typusu
Honima xnnxe+cx c+anon, nnnneia+eninon (nx +ync+on. Hnoc+annie ioc+n nne:am+ cm(a
n+o6i ynn(e+i ne(e nceio:
6oia+in n a:noo6a:nin nen:a, n +ox nncne ynnianinie nannonaninie n nan(maq+nie
nain o6mnnie +en+onn nnc+on (enc+nennon nno(i,
2004 .
. %

:



()


1 085,5

807,3
272,2
0,6
1,4
4,0
100,0

74,3
25,1
0,1
0,1
0,4
a
.
: (GUS).
71
ncinmnn+eninie naxx+nnin axn+ei+yi n nc+onn, a +aie (yine (oc+onnxena+eninoc+n
n caxix a:nix noxnnennxx:
- ennino:nie n (yxonnie naxx+nnin, oco6enno cnx:annie c non+nqnia+ox Hoanna Hanna !!,
- naxx+nnin xa+enaninon iyni+yi na no+xennn neion cina(inammencx na iannne
nnnxnnx a:nix iyni+y,
- cnx:annie c xec+nixn o6inaxxn n +a(nnnxxn, ne +oniio cyiy6o nannonaninixn, no n nox-
nnnmnxncx ncne(c+nne nn+eiannn a:nix iyni+y,
nenocxo(nym iyxnm iai nnc+o xec+nym, +ai n nce cxenee noni:ymmymcx 6oia+c+naxn
iynnnanoio nciycc+na a:nix nac+en cne+a.
Ioc+n, nocemammne Honimy, xoiy+ nocnoni:ona+icx xoomen ioc+nnnnnon 6a:on, +oionon
nnqac+yi+yon, ec+oanaxn n iaqe, ne o+nnnammnxncx o+ ce(nen enonencion no cnoexy
yonnm, no nce eme 6onee (emenixn, nex no xnoinx c+anax Lnoni. Honnoe o+ii+ne iannn
c xoxen+a nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC 1 xax 2OO4 i. o6neinnno neecenenne iannn Honimn +ync+ax
n: oc+aninix iocy(ac+n-nnenon LC, n+o o+a:nnoci na oc+e nn+encnnnoc+n +ync+nnecioio
(nnennx iai n 2OO4 i., +ai n n 2OO5 io(y.
B 2OO5 io(y Honimy noce+nno non+n 65 xnn. nnoc+annen
(na 6onee nex 4 6onime nex n 2OO4 io(y n non+n na 24 6onime nex n 2OO3 i.),
n +ox nncne oiono 15,2 xnn. +ync+on
(oc+ na oiono 6,4 no o+nomennm i 2OO4 io(y n na oiono 11 i 2OO3 io(y).
B 2OO5 io(y o6mne nanm+nie noc+ynnennx
n cnx:n c nne:(ox nnoc+annen n Honimy coc+annnn
6 23O xnn. (onnaon CHA,
n: neio cnime nononnni i+o noc+ynnennx o+ +ync+on,
a oc+aninax nac+i o+ o(no(nennix noce+n+enen.
oxo(i, cnx:annie c +ync+nnecinx (nnennex (nne:(i) c+anonx+cx nce 6onee ceie:nix
nc+onnniox nanm+nix noc+ynnennn, a (ex+eninoc+i n +ync+nneciox cei+oe xnnxe+cx nanix
c+nxynx+oox iionoxnnecion ionsmni+yi.
Tync+nnecine qnxi, (enc+nymmne na noniciox inie, xoiy+ accnn+ina+i na nn6inn,
cnx:annie c o6cnynnannex ne +oniio nnoc+annix +ync+on. Cymec+nennix ceixen+ox inia
xnnxm+cx o+enec+nennie n :ay6enie noe:(in n+enen namen c+ani.
B 2OO5 io(y onn (oc+ninn yonnx oiono 42 xnn. noe:(oi (n +ox nncne cnime 6 xnn. :ay6enix).
H xo+x 6onimnnc+no i+nx ny+emec+nnn noncxo(n+ nne cqei (ex+eninoc+n +ync+nnecinx qnx,
+o nne ncxioio coxnennx onn xnnxm+cx cymec+nennix ceixen+ox +ync+nnecioio inia, io+oin
6y(e+ c+exn+enino ac+n.
72
7. Eauku u quuaucoeue ycnyru
29 aniyc+a 1997 i. Cenx PH nnnxn nonin 3aion o Hannonaninox noniciox 6anie (:.V. o+ 2OO5 i.,
N 1, no:. 2) n :aion Lanioncioe nano (:.V. o+ 2OO2 i., N 72, no:. 665). O6a i+nx :aiona nxec+e
c (ononnennxxn i nnx, one(enxm+ ninemnmm qoxy ncen 6anioncion cnc+exi, a +aie c+yi+yy
n qyninnn nonicioio Jen+aninoio 6ania n nonnoc+im iaxonn:nonani c :aiono(a+enic+nox
Lnonencioio com:a, eiynnymmnx i+y cqey iionoxnnecion (ex+eninoc+n.
C 1 xax 2OO4 i., coinacno o6nonnennoxy :aiony Lanioncioe nano, o+(enennx nnoc+annix
6anion, nxemmnx cnoe xec+o ne6inannx n c+anax-nnenax LC, accxa+nnam+cx iai o+(enennx
ie(n+nix nnc+n+y+on. J+o o:nanae+, n+o Koxnccnx 6anioncioio na(:oa ocymec+nnxe+ :a nnxn
na(:o +oniio n o6nac+n coxanennx nna+enon nninn(noc+n. yine nonicine nannna,
eiynnymmne (ex+eninoc+i nonicinx 6anion, i nnx ne nnxenxm+cx.
O6a 6anioncinx :aiona, co:(an nanonie axin nananmencx n 199O i. eqoxi qnnanconon
cnc+exi iocy(ac+na, no:nonnnn nonicinx 6aniax nn6nn:n+icx i xnonix c+an(a+ax n co:(ann
ycnonnx (nx nx nn+eiannn c xe(ynao(nix qnnanconix iniox.
Honnoc+im ne:anncnxin Hannonaninin nonicinn 6ani (HHL), c+exxci i coxanennm
c+a6nninoio yonnx nen n o(nonexenno oia:inax no((eiy iionoxnnecion nonn+nie
iocy(ac+na:
ocymec+nnxe+ (enenym nonn+niy, one(enxexym Cone+ox (enenon nonn+nin, n coc+an
io+ooio nxo(x+: He(ce(a+eni HHL n 9 nnenon, na:nanennix He:n(en+ox PH, Cenxox
n Cena+ox (no 3 nnena o+ ia(oio);
co:(ae+ nnc+n+ynnonaninie ycnonnx (nx o6ecnenennx neo6xo(nxoio yonnx qnnanconon
6e:onacnoc+n n c+a6nninoc+n 6anioncioio cei+oa;
one(enxe+ nnnnnni n xexann:xi, o6ecnennnammne na(neamne ycnonnx (nx (enenix
acne+on n iionoxnie.
O(nonexenno HHL, (enc+nyx n ianec+ne Jen+aninoio 6ania, ninonnxe+ +n ocnonnie
qyninnn:
nen+aninoio 6ania iocy(ac+na (6anioncioe o6cnynnanne iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a,
ynannenne nanm+nixn e:enaxn);
ixnccnonnoio 6ania (ixnccnx nannnnix (enei, oiann:annx nx o6amennx n eiynnonanne
ionnnec+na (enei);
inannoio 6ania (oiann:annx cnc+exi acne+on, eqnnancnonanne 6anion n ynannenne
ie(n+axn, na(:o :a ce+im ioxxenecinx 6anion).
Baxoscxu pmox
Bc+ynax n 2OO4 io(y n Lnonencinn com: Honima nxena nonnoc+im nn+einonannin c xe(y-
nao(nix qnnanconix iniox 6anioncinn cei+o, inoi nnnec+nnnonnix n nencnonnix qon(on,
c+axonon inoi. Tai e iai n n (yinx c+anax LC, :(eci na6nm(ae+cx noieccnymmnn nonecc
ionnen+annn iann+ana.
Honecci ionconn(annn nnnenn i +oxy, n+o ionnnec+no ioxxenecinx 6anion n Honime
coia+nnoci c 82 n 1994 i. (o 77 n 1999 i. n 54 na ionen 2OO5 i. O(nonexenno ac+e+ ionnnec+no
nnoc+annix o+(enennn ie(n+nix nnc+n+y+on, nannnammnx xe(ynao(nym (ex+eninoc+i.
C xoxen+a nc+ynnennx n LC, na +en+onn Honimn +aioio o(a (ex+eninoc+i :aeinc+nonann
1O3 ie(n+nix nnc+n+y+a (46 n 2OO5 i.).
H: o6meio ionnnec+na 54 6anion, nnoc+annie nnnec+oi ion+onnym+ 43 6ania. Kann+an,
nnecennin nnoc+annixn nnnec+oaxn n nonicinn 6anioncinn cei+o, coc+annxn na ionen 2OO5 i.
iinnnanen+ 7,7 xn(. :n. (61,4 yc+annoio iann+ana). Iocy(ac+nennax ia:na ion+onnonana neno-
73
ce(c+nenno (na 6ania, n +ox nncne Lani o+enec+nennoio xo:xnc+na (BanI Gosodaislwa Kiajowego)
e(nnc+nennoio, nxemmeio c+a+yc iocy(ac+nennoio 6ania.
Koxe ioxxenecinx 6anion na noniciox inie (enc+nonano 588 ioonea+nnnix 6anion
c yc+annix iann+anox n O,5 xn(. :no+ix.
Knnen+i o6cnynnannci n 8,4 +ic. yne(ennxx ioxxenecinx 6anion n 3,6 +ic. yne(ennxx
ioonea+nnnix 6anion.
Caxie iynnie iann+anonnoennx n nonicinn 6anioncinn cei+o nnecnn 6eniinncine (1,2 xn(. :n.),
nexenine (1,1 xn(. :n.), axeniancine (1 xn(. :n.) n qanny:cine (O,7 xn(. :n.) ioxnannn.
Bnoennx ioxnannn n: Ionnan(nn nenicnnn O,6 xn(. :n., a n: Hnan(nn, Ho+yiannn n Anc+nn
coc+annnn no O,5 xn(. :n.
onx qon(on n ai+nnon ne++o 43 (enc+nymmnx 6anion c neo6na(annex nnoc+annoio iann+ana
n qon(ax n ai+nnax nceio 6anioncioio cei+oa coc+annna na ionen 2OO5 i. 75 n 69 coo+ne+c+nenno.
J+n 6anin naionnnn 66,1 (eno:n+on neqnnanconoio cei+oa n ni(ann 68,4 ie(n+on.
Heo6na(ammee nncno nonicinx 6anion qyninnonnye+ n ianec+ne ynnnecaninix nnc+n+y+on,
ne(naiax 6oia+in acco+nxen+ ycnyi iai (nx ionoa+nnnix, +ai n (nx nn(nnn(yaninix innen+on.
Hac+i n: nnx nncy+c+nye+ +aie na qon(onix iniax, a 6anioncine 6oiecine ion+oi, ni(enennie
n qnnanconox n oiann:annonnox o+nomennn n: cnonx xa+enncinx c+yi+y, (oxnnnym+ na
inie nennix 6yxai. Heio+oie 6anin ycnemno a:nnnam+ (ex+eninoc+i n o6nac+n 6anioncinx
nnnec+nnnn, ne(naiax, nannxe, ioncan+nni n ne(oc+annenne ycnyi no iaan+nn ixnccnn ainnn
n o6nniannn. C+exn+enino ac+e+ :nanenne nno+ennix 6anion.
Lonimnnc+no iynnix 6anion n nce 6onimee ionnnec+no xanix ioonea+nnnix, ne(naiam+
cnonx innen+ax ycnyin noce(c+nox Hn+ene+a. Tn n: nnx (BRL BanI S.A., PKO BanI PolsIi S.A.
n VolIswagen BanI PolsIa) ne(y+ +ai na:inaexie nn+yaninie 6anin, oia:inammne nce cnon ycnyin
nee: Hn+ene+.
Lanin n Honime ne(naiam+ cnonx innen+ax nce nn(i nna+enix ia+onei. o ionna 2OO5 i.
nx 6ino ni(ano non+n 2O,4 xnn.
Ha Lne nennix 6yxai n Bamane n ionne 2OO5 i. io+nonannci ainnn 14 6anion, a nx (onx
n iann+ann:annn 6nn coc+annxna 41,4.
1uacosme pmxu
Jionoxnnecioxy oc+y n c+ane n 6onimon c+enenn cnoco6c+nonano (nnaxnnnoe a:nn+ne
qnnanconix inion. Ocnonnixn inexen+axn nonicioio qnnanconoio inia xnnxm+cx:
inoi (onionix 6yxai;
(enenin inoi;
eiynnyexin qon(onin inoi (Lna nennix 6yxai n Bamane);
nne6nenon inoi.
Ha inie (onionix 6yxai neo6na(am+ nac+ie ixnccnn a:noio o(a qnnanconix nnc+yxen+on,
ocymec+nnxexie nonicinx nann+enic+nox. O(naio noc+oxnno ac+e+ c+onxoc+i ixnccnn (onionix
6yxai ne(nnx+nn (connercial papers). Vnac+nymmne n i+ox inie 6anin-noce(nnin ne(oc+annxm+
ixn+en+ax no:xonoc+i nno6e+a+i iann+an nenoce(c+nenno na qnnanconox inie, a nnnec+oax
(am+ no:xonoc+i ocymec+nnx+i nn6ininie iann+anonnoennx. 3acnynnam+ nnnxannx,
nno6e+ammne nce 6onimoe :nanenne, xynnnnnaninie ixnccnn. Hnnneia+eninix inexen+ox
qnnanconoio inia Honimn c+an inoi iai o+enec+nennix, +ai n enonencinx o6nniannn.
enenin inoi xnnxe+cx eme o(nnx iniox, na io+oox conennnae+ nonicinn n nnoc+annin
6anioncinn iann+an. Ha i+ox inie ne(naiam+cx: iocy(ac+nennie o6nniannn, ninyciaexie
HHL, (eno:n+nie ce+nqnia+i, ninyciaexie xec+nixn 6aniaxn n ia+ioconnie (onionie
6yxain, ninyciaexie iynnixn ne(nnx+nxxn.
74
Caxix nanix inexen+ox n+onnnoio qnnanconoio inia n Honime xnnxe+cx Lna nennix
6yxai n Bamane, io+oax cnn+ae+cx o(non n: nan6onee (nnaxnnno a:nnnammnxcx oiann:annn
+aioio o(a n xne. V nee (onine +a(nnnn, +ai iai ona xnnxe+cx neexnnnen nenon nonicion
6nn, o+ii+on n Bamane n 1817 i. Ha 6ne, io+oax no:o6nonnna cnom (ex+eninoc+i 12 anenx
1991 i., n nac+oxmee nexx io+nye+cx 221 ainnonenoe o6mec+no (no+nn 9 o6mec+n n 1991 i.).
Ce(nxx 6nenax iann+ann:annx na ionen 2OO5 i. coc+annna 3O5,8 xn(. :no+ix (O,1 xn(. n 1991 i.),
ce(nxx inonnax c+onxoc+i ainnonenoio o6mec+na coc+annxna 1384 xnn. :no+ix (11 xnn. n 1991 i.).
Ho cannennm c 2OO4 i. oc+ iann+ann:annn 6nn coc+annn 44, a oc+ ce(nen inonnon
c+onxoc+n io+nymmnxcx o6mec+n 53. Ho cannennm c 2OO1 i. c+onxoc+i inia ynennnnnaci
n +n a:a, +ai e iai ce(nxx c+onxoc+i io+nymmnxcx o6mec+n.
Ha 6ne, ioxe ainnn n iocy(ac+nennix o6nniannn, io+nym+cx +aie ainnn Hannonaninix
nnnec+nnnonnix qon(on. B xnnae 1998 i. nanan (enc+nona+i inoi non:no(nix nnc+yxen+on,
n xa+e 1998 i. n 6nenon o6oo+ 6inn nne(eni naan+i, n cen+x6e 1998 i. nanancx o6oo+
qimnecnixn ion+ai+axn n (onnaax CHA. B 2OOO i. nanannci io+nonin ionoannonnix
o6nniannn n 6in co:(an ceixen+ nnnonannonnix +exnonoinn, ne(na:nanennin (ne:anncnxo o+
inia io+nonoi) (nx o6mec+n, nnnncnennix i cei+oy +eneioxxynniannx-nnqoxa+nia. Hanan
(enc+nona+i inoi iocy(ac+nennix o6nniannn, ne(na:nanennin (nx iynnix nnc+n+ynnonaninix
nnnec+oon, n 6nenon o6oo+ 6inn nne(eni qimnecnie ion+ai+i na ainnn a:noio o(a
o6mec+n. C qenanx 2OO5 i. xono :ainmna+i qimnecnie ion+ai+i na o6nniannn, a c oi+x6x
2OO5 i. xono noiyna+i onnnn na ainnn. C 2OOO i. (nc+n6im+oi 6nenix cenncon o+iinn
(oc+yn n Hn+ene+e i io+noniax na Lne nennix 6yxai n eaninox nexenn.
nnaxnnno a:nnnammaxcx Lna nennix 6yxai n 1999 i. nonynnna c+a+yc acconnnonannoio
nnena 4e(eannn enonencinx 6n nennix 6yxai.
C+onxoc+i non:no(nxix na 6nenox inie oneannn coc+annna n 2OO5 i. non+n 446 xn(. :n.,
n: neio 43 coc+annxnn oneannn na inie ainnn, 1 na inie o6nniannn, 53 na inie
qimnecnix c(enoi n 3 na inie onnnn.
Cmpaxosaue
Ho coc+oxnnm na 31 (eia6x 2OO5 i. a:emenne Mnnnc+a qnnancon na ne(enne c+axonon
(ex+eninoc+n n Honime nxeno 7O c+axonix ioxnannn. J+y (ex+eninoc+i ocymec+nnxno 67
ioxnannn, n +ox nncne:
32 ioxnannn c+axonannx n:nn (iynna !); noc+ynnennx o+ n:nocon innen+on i+nx ioxnannn
n ionne 2OO5 i. coc+annxnn cnime 15,3 xn(. :n., a ninnanennie c+axonie ioxnencannn
n ninna+i 7,5 xn(. :n.;
35 ioxnannn n o6nac+n nnnnoio n nxymec+nennoio c+axonannx (iynna !!); noc+ynnennx n i+n
ioxnannn coc+annnn n ionne 2OO4 i. cnime 15,5 xn(. :n., a ninnanennie ioxnencannn
n c+axonie ninna+i 8,3 xn(. :n.
B noniciox cei+oe c+axonannx (o 2OOO i. ynac+ne nnoc+annix nnnec+oon 6ino o+nocn+enino
nenennio n +oniio n 2OOO-2OO2 ii. :(eci non:omnn cymec+nennie n:xenennx. Ho cannennm
c coc+oxnnex na ionen 1999 io(a c+onxoc+i nnoc+annix nnoennn n i+o+ cei+o na ionen 2OO5 i.
niocna na 191, +.e. n nenox na 6onee nex 2 xn(. :n. onx nnoc+annoio iann+ana n o6men
nennnnne iann+ana inannix c+axonix ioxnannn coc+annna n ionne 2OO5 i. 76,2, n+o annxe+cx
cyxxe 3,65 xn(. :n. (na ionen 1999 i. 5O,1, +.e. 1,22 xn(. :n.).
Ho coc+oxnnm na 31 (eia6x 2OO5 i. nnoc+annie qnxi nnonnn n ioxnannn c+axonannx
n:nn n o6men cnonoc+n 1,72 xn(. :n., n+o n ocnonnox iann+ane !-n iynni (ae+ nennnnny 76
(na 31.12.1999 i. 52O,1 xnn. :n., n+o coo+ne+c+nonano 46,6 ocnonnoio iann+ana !-on iynni).
75
Hxxoe ynac+ne nnoc+annoio iann+ana n ocnonnox iann+ane ioxnannn, :annxammnxcx nnnnix
n nxymec+nennix c+axonannex no coc+oxnnm na 31 (eia6x 2OO5 i. coc+annno 76,3, n+o
coo+ne+c+nye+ cyxxe 1,92 xn(. :n. Ha ionen 1999 io(a o6mnn o6sex nnoc+annoio iann+ana,
:a(enc+nonannoio n i+on o6nac+n, onennnancx n 697,2 xnn. :n., n+o coc+annxno 53,2 ocnonnoio
iann+ana !!-on iynni.
Konnnec+no c+axonix ioxnannn c nnoc+annix ynac+nex na ionen 2OO4 i. annxnoci 51, nnnex
nnoc+annin iann+an neo6na(an n 47 ioxnannxx.
B e:yni+a+e nne(xexon n Honime eqoxi connaninoio c+axonannx n 1999 i. nanann
(ex+eninoc+i o+ii+ie nencnonnie qon(i (OIL). Ainnoneaxn i+nx cy6sei+on xnnxm+cx, inannix
o6a:ox, c+axonie qnxi n 6anin, nnnex (onx :ay6enoio iann+ana n ainnonenox iann+ane
o6mec+n coc+annxe+ oiono 8O. Ha ionen 2OO5 i. o+ii+ie nencnonnie qon(i nenn 12,14 xnn.
cne+on, a cyxxa noc+ynnnmnx na nnx c 1999 i. n:nocon nxec+e c nonen+axn coc+annxna 67,78 xn(. :n.
(n 2OO5 i. noc+ynnno 14,O3 xn(. :n.). C +onin :ennx y(eninoio neca o+(eninix ioxnannn, nan6onee
ceie:noe xec+o na inie :annxam+ (na iynnenmnx o+ii+ix nencnonnix qon(a, ion+onnyexix
nnoc+annix iann+anox: Commeicial \nion BPH C\ WBK (25,8 ncex n:nocon) n alionale
edeilanden PolsIa (19,3 n:nocon).
2888,2 .


100%
19948 - 27,6%
145 ./ - 2,1%
20,5% - 6%
21986 . 10,4%

(2004 .)

2219,91 .
7,3%
1. Skououueckan xapakfepucfuka nonuckux peruouoe
Jnexen+ox nonecca +ancqoxannn o6mec+nenno-iionoxnnecion cnc+exi n Honime 6ina
(enen+ann:annx n nee(ana einonaninix (xec+nix) nnac+xx nac+n ioxne+ennnn nen+a. Haiox
n i+ox nanannennn 6ina +aie a(xnnnc+a+nnnax eqoxa, nc+ynnnmax n cnny 1 xnnax 1999 i.
B ee e:yni+a+e +en+onx Honimn 6ina no(enena na 16 noeno(c+n, io+oie c+ann ne +oniio
e(nnnnaxn ocnonnoio +en+onaninoio (enennx (nx nann+enic+nennon a(xnnnc+annn, no +aie
e(nnnnaxn +en+onaninoio caxoynannennx, io+oix 6ino noyneno one(enn+i co6c+nennym
c+a+einm a:nn+nx. Caxoynannenne 6ino o6x:ano noomx+i iionoxnneciym ai+nnnoc+i n nonima+i
ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+i n nnnonannonnin no+ennnan iionoxnin noeno(c+na.
Pa:nn+ne noeno(c+n no((ennae+cx +aie nee: einonaninym nonn+niy iocy(ac+na, io+oax
nanenena na ynennnenne connaninon, iionoxnnecion n +en+onaninon cnnonennoc+n c+ani. J+a
nonn+nia ynn+inae+ a:nnnnx no nny+ennex no+ennnane o+(eninix einonon, a +aie nx manci
n 6aiei a:nn+nx, c+exxci i ynennnennm einonaninon cnennann:annn. B 2OO7-2O15 ii.
c+a+einnecion nenim einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ cosauue ycuonu ua poc1a
koukypeu1ocuocouoc1u ncex peruouon, a 1akae nmpanuunauua maucon pasnu1ua +ex +en+onn,
io+oie 6e: noxomn iocy(ac+na o6eneni na xainnann:annm nnn noc+oxnnym o+c+anoc+i
1
.
Hu+ecunescxoe soesocmso
76
____________________
1
Cx. Strategia Rozwoju Kraju 2007-2015. Hoei+, Mnnnc+ec+no einonaninoio a:nn+nx, Bamana, 28 anenx 2OO6 i.
77
Hnnecnne:cioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n mio-:ana(non nac+n Honimn na iannne c Hemcion
Pecny6nnion n 4e(ea+nnnon Pecny6nnion Iexannn. Hee: i+o+ einon noxo(n+, n nac+noc+n,
!!! Hansenonencinn +ancno+nin ion(o (n: Iexannn n Vianny), a +aie (ooia n: Cian(nnannn
n Hexnm n Anc+nm. C+onnna noeno(c+na Bonnan iynnin noximnennin, ny:oncinn, naynnin
n iyni+ynin nen+. yine 6onimne ioo(a einona i+o einnna n Ban6nx.
Boeno(c+no :annxae+ o(no n: nenix xec+ n c+ane no yonnm a:nn+nx ce+n nacenennix nyni+on
n no yonnm y6ann:annn (n ioo(ax nonnae+ 71 nacenennx). Peinon o+nocn+cx i caxix a:nn+ix
n noximnennox o+nomennn n caxix 6oia+ix n c+ane. Lnaio(ax 6oia+ix ecycax xnneaninoio
ciix :(eci a:nnnaci iono(o6inammax noximnennoc+i n neea6o+ia ciix, a +aie
non:no(c+no inei+onnoio o6oy(onannx n 6i+onon +exnnin, nnmenax, xnxnneciax n an+oxo6nninax
noximnennoc+i. Ha +en+onn noeno(c+na a:nnnam+cx +aie nicoio+exnonoinnnie o+acnn
noximnennoc+n.
O(non n: ocnonnix cqe iionoxnnecion (ex+eninoc+n xnnxe+cx +yn:x. Pa:nn+nm +yn:xa
n einone 6naionnx+c+nym+ iai :nann+eninoe ieoiaqnnecioe nan(maq+noe a:noo6a:ne ((na
nannonaninix naia Kaionomcinn n C+ononix io), naxx+nnin c+anni xnonoio :nanennx
(nannxe, Oc+yn Tyxcinn n Pinoi no Bonnane), +ai n nene6nin no+ennnan iyo+on (6oia+ie
n a:noo6a:nie nc+onnnin xnneaninix n nene6nix no(). B noeno(c+ne a:nn+a ce+i nen+on
o+(ixa n cana+onen.
Peinon cnn+ae+cx nnnneia+eninix xec+ox (nx a:xemennx nnnec+nnnn. Boeno(c+no :annxae+
nicoioe xec+o no nn+encnnnoc+n +oionix cnx:en c :ay6enixn c+anaxn. B 2OO4 i. iicno+
noeno(c+na coc+annxn 1O nonicioio iicno+a n nenox. Boeno(c+no a:nnnae+ xe(ynao(noe
co+y(nnnec+no n axiax (nyx enoeinonon: Glacensis (nonicio-nemcinn) n Hica (nonicio-
nemcio-nexeninn).
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na no o+nomennm i Hnnecnne:cioxy noeno(c+ny 6y(e+
coce(o+onnna+icx na yiennennn qyninnn Bonnana iai nen+a einona, inannix o6a:ox, ny+ex
a:nn+nx eio naynnoio n iyni+ynoio no+ennnana, a +aie ny+ex ynennnennx xe(ynao(non
+ancno+non (oc+ynnoc+n einona n eio +ancno+nix cnx:en c Bamanon. Banym oni 6y(e+
nia+i +aie ynynmenne coc+oxnnx oiyammen ce(i.
lyscxo-Uouopcxoe soesocmso
2068,3 .


100%
17970 - 24,8%
115 ./ - 4,1%
22,3% - 5,9%
19169 . 3,4%

(2004 .)

1987,62 .
2,7%
Boeno(c+no acnonoeno n ceneo-nen+aninon nac+n Honimn n iannnn+ c Hoxocinx, Baxnno-
Ma:ycinx, Ma:oneninx, o(:nncinx n Benniononicinx noeno(c+naxn. Hee: i+o+ einon noxo(x+
+an:n+nie xamy+i n: Cian(nnannn n Knym Lnony, a +aie n: nn6an+nncinx c+an n Poccnn
n 3ana(nym Lnony. C+onnnnie qyninnn n einone 6inn a:(eneni xe(y (nyxx ioo(axn:
78
m6nnncioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n noc+onnon nac+n Honimn n iannnn+ c Lenaycim
n Viannon. C 1 xax 2OO4 i. i+o+ einon oia:ancx na noc+onnon iannne LC. Ieoiaqnnecioe
nonoenne einona 6naionnx+c+nye+ a:nn+nm +oionnn n +anciannnnoxy co+y(nnnec+ny co
c+anaxn Boc+onnon Lnoni, inannix o6a:ox c Lenaycim n Viannon (n nac+noc+n, n axiax
enoeinona Lyi). Pa:nn+nm co+y(nnnec+na noxoiam+ +aie +ancno+nie xamy+i n: Lenaycn
n Vianni n 3ana(nym Lnony, noxo(xmne nee: noeno(c+no.
m6nnncioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: iynnenmnx n Honime :annxae+ +e+ie xec+o
n c+ane no +en+onn. O(naio (nx einona xaai+ena nn:iax nno+noc+i nacenennx n o+nocn+enino
nn:inn yoneni y6ann:annn (cnime 53 nacenennx nonnae+ c cenicion xec+noc+n). C+onnnen
2179,6 .


100%
25114 - 18,9%
87 ./ - 5,3%
17% - 5,7%
15019 . 1,7%

(2004 .)

2000,18 .
0,9%
Li(iom (xec+o ne6inannx noeno(i) n Toyni (xec+o ne6inannx xamana n cenxnia noeno(c+na).
O6a ioo(a xnnxm+cx nanixn noximnennixn, iyni+ynixn, ny:oncinxn n naynnixn nen+axn.
yine 6onimne ioo(a einona i+o: Iy(:en(:, Bnonnanei n Hnononnan.
Banym oni n iionoxnie einona niae+ nnmenax, inei+oxamnnoc+on+eninax, xnxnneciax,
e:nnonax, (eenoo6a6a+inammax n 6yxanax noximnennoc+i. B co:(annn (o6annennon
c+onxoc+n (ononino nicoia (onx cenicioio xo:xnc+na, 6naio(ax xoomen aianon c+yi+ye,
nno(oo(nix nonnax n nicoion iyni+ye :exne(ennx. Kec+ixncine xo:xnc+na (oc+niam+ xoomnx
iionoxnio-non:no(c+nennix e:yni+a+on n nxem+ nicoinn yoneni +exnnnecioio ocnamennx.
Peinon nxee+ +aie ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx +yn:xa n iyo+on, a nxenno: ne:aix:nennym
oiyammym ce(y, iacnnie nen:an (onnni ei, xonxi n xoennie annnni, o:ea, neca,
cocnonie 6oi (Tyxonicine 6oi n Li(iomciax nyma), a +aie nc+onnnin xnneaninix no(
(Jexonnnei, Hnononnan, Benen) n 6oia+oe iyni+ynoe nacne(ne.
B noeno(c+ne o+nocn+enino cna6o a:nn+i nnemne+oionie cnx:n. B 2OO4 i. c+onxoc+i iicno+a
einona coc+annxna 3,4 nonicioio iicno+a n nenox. B c+yi+ye iicno+a neo6na(am+
+y(oexine +onai.
B 6nnanmee io(i n axiax einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+no 6y(e+ noomx+i a:nn+ne
+ancno+non cnc+exi na ocn A-1 (I(anici iannna iocy(ac+na Oc+ana) n +ancno+nie cnx:n
c Bamanon, Hennnox, Ho:nanim n Onim+inox. B+oon nanon :a(anen 6y(e+ yiennenne
nn+eiannn Li(iomn n Toynn nee: yiennenne nx qyninnn n ianec+ne xe+ononnn, nx naynno-
ny:oncioio no+ennnana n qon(on iyni+ynoio nacne(nx Toynn. Iocy(ac+no 6y(e+ +aie
ne(nnnnxa+i xei no o6neinennm cenicioxy nacenennm (oc+yna i iniy +y(a, o6a:onannm
(oco6enno nicmexy), ycnyiax (nx 6n:neca, iyni+ye n cnennann:nonannix ycnyiax n o6nac+n
:(anooxanennx.
Pknucxoe soesocmso
79
1009,2 .


100%
13989 - 25,4%
72 ./ - 2%
23,3% - 5,2%
18396 . 3,1%

(2004 .)

1967,56 .
1,7%
noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx m6nnn caxin iynnin naynnin nen+ n noc+onnon nac+n Honimn, a +aie
nen+ a:nn+nx noximnennoc+n n ycnyi. m6nnn xnnxe+cx e(nnc+nennix ioo(ox noeno(c+na,
nacnn+inammnx cnime 1OO +ic. n+enen. K iynnenmnx ioo(ax einona o+nocx+cx: Xenx,
3axocni, Lxna-Ho(nxcia n Hynani.
Peinon nxee+ ne(e nceio aianin xaai+e cenixo:yio(nx coc+annxm+ 6onee 68 nnoma(n
noeno(c+na. Cenicioe xo:xnc+no a:nnnae+cx 6naio(ax o+nocn+enino 6naionnx+nix innxa+nnecinx
ycnonnxx, oneni nno(oo(nix nonnax n xoomexy enieqy xec+noc+n. Boeno(c+no xnnxe+cx
iynnenmnx n c+ane non:no(n+enex xxenx n caxaa, a +aie nanix noc+anmniox qyi+on.
B +o e nexx m6nnncioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx cna6o a:nn+ix n noximnennox o+nomennn.
Heo6na(ammen o+acnim noximnennoc+n xnnxe+cx cei+o cenicioxo:xnc+nennon neea6o+in,
io+oin a:nnncx, onnaxci na xec+noe cenicioe xo:xnc+no. K (yinx nanix noximnennix
o+acnxx cne(ye+ o+nec+n: non:no(c+no o(e(i n xexonix n:(ennn, non:no(c+no xamnn
n o6oy(onannx, an+oxo6nnen, nnnenon n nonynnnenon, xnxnneciym n (eenoo6a6a+inammym
noximnennoc+i. Koxe i+oio, n einone a:nnnae+cx n:(a+eniciax n nonniaqnneciax
(ex+eninoc+i, a +aie non:no(c+no cne+ono(on.
m6nnncioe noeno(c+no nnna(nen+ i nn+eecnenmnx n Honime iai c +onin :ennx (oc+onnc+n
nno(i (:(eci naxo(x+cx, n nac+noc+n, (na nannonaninix naia Honeccinn n Poc+one, nen:anie
nain n :anone(nnin, o:ea), +ai n iyni+ynix nennoc+en (ancax6ni ioo(a 3axocni, C+ain ioo(
n m6nnne, Ka:nxe-onini, ione:ano(i n nyn-Ho(nxcin n Lxnie). B einone cymec+nym+
ncinmnn+enino xoomne ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx aio+yn:xa n ai+nnnoio +yn:xa, a +aie
cana+onoio nenennx.
Ho o+nomennm i m6nnncioxy noeno(c+ny einonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+
coce(o+onnna+icx na ynynmennn +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi n cnx:en c caxixn nanixn
nen+axn n c+ane. Ly(y+ +aie yiennx+icx qyninnn m6nnna n ianec+ne nen+a einona
n +anciannnnoe co+y(nnnec+no. Peinonaninax nonn+nia 6y(e+ +aie noomx+i a:nn+ne
o6a:ona+eninon cnc+exi, oco6enno no+ennnana nicmnx yne6nix :ane(ennn n m6nnne.
Pkyucxoe soesocmso
m6ymcioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n :ana(non nac+n Honimn y iannni c Iexannen.
C+onnnnie qyninnn n einone 6inn a:(eneni xe(y (nyxx ioo(axn: Ioyn-Beniiononicin
(xec+o ne6inannx noeno(i) n 3enena-Iya (xec+o ne6inannx nnac+en caxoynannennx).
m6ymcioe noeno(c+no caxoe xaneniioe no nncnennoc+n n nno+noc+n nacenennx n Honime. J+o
cnx:ano, ne(e nceio, c nannnnex 6onimnx necnix xaccnnon (oiono 48 nnoma(n noeno(c+na),
8O
o(:nncioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n nen+aninon nac+n Honimn n iannnn+ c noeno(c+naxn:
Ma:oneninx, Cnen+oimncinx, Cnne:cinx, Ononicinx, Benniononicinx n Kyxncio-Hoxocinx.
C+onnna noeno(c+na o(:i i+o iynnin ny:oncinn nen+, a +aie ioo( c xnoione+nen +a(nnnen
noximnennoio a:nn+nx, oco6enno +eic+nninon noximnennoc+n. B X!X neie o(:i c+ana o(nnx
n: inannix nen+on i+on noximnennoc+n n Lnone, a nonicinn Mannec+e c+an ne(ymnx
noc+anmniox +ianen na occnncinn inoi. K (yinx nanix ioo(ax einona o+nocx+cx: He+iyn-
Ti6ynanicin, Cea(:, Cienennne, Lenxa+yn n Toxamyn-Ma:onenin.
o(:nncioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: nan6onee nno+no nacenennix n c+ane, nnnex 1/3
nacenennx nonnae+ n o(nox ioo(e o(:i.
C+yi+ya iionoxnin noeno(c+na (nqqeennnonana. Ocnonnym oni niae+ noximnennoc+i,
coce(o+onennax n iynnix ioo(cinx nen+ax, inannix o6a:ox n o(:nncion ioo(cion
ainoxeannn n Lenxa+ynciox noximnennox oiyie. Ta(nnnonnon o+acnim n noeno(c+ne 6ina
io+oie xnnxm+cx caxix 6onimnx 6oia+c+nox einona. Boeno(c+no nxee+ ncinmnn+enino xoomne
ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx oxo+nnnieio, ionnoio, no(noio n nenocnne(noio +yn:xa.
Peinon o+nocn+cx i ce(nea:nn+ix n noximnennox o+nomennn, a noximnennoc+i
coce(o+onena n 4 ioo(ax: Ioyn-Beniiononicin, 3enena-Iya, Xai n Cne6o(:nn. Caxixn
nanixn o+acnxxn xnnxm+cx: (eenoo6a6a+inammax, xe6eninax n 6yxanax noximnennoc+i.
nx cenicioio xo:xnc+na m6ymcioio noeno(c+na xaai+ena caxax nn:iax n c+ane (onx
cenixo:yio(nn n o6men nnoma(n. 3(eci neiacnie innxa+nnecine ycnonnx, no ne6naionnx+nie
nonnennie ycnonnx.
Lonimoe nnnxnne na a:nn+ne einona oia:inae+ eio nonoenne. Hee: +en+onm noeno(c+na
noxo(x+ +an:n+nie xamy+i n nanannennn nen+aninix einonon c+ani n noc+onnon
iannni.
Ieoiaqnnecioe nonoenne einona 6naionnx+c+nye+ a:nn+nm +oionnn n +anciannnnoio
co+y(nnnec+na c Iexannen. Ha nexeninn inoi nanannxe+cx oiono 7O iicno+nyexix
n: m6ymcioio noeno(c+na +onaon n ycnyi. Boeno(c+no ocymec+nnxe+ ai+nnnoe co+y(nnnec+no
n axiax (nyx enoeinonon Hnee Hica Ly6 n Pio Luioa Viadiina.
B o+nomennn m6ymcioio noeno(c+na iocy(ac+no n axiax einonaninon nonn+nin 6y(e+
noomx+i ne(e nceio nn+eiannm eio (nyx caxix nanix ioo(on Ioyn-Beniiononicin
n 3enena-Iya, yiennenne no+ennnana ny:on einona n ce+n yne(ennn, no((ennammnx
ne(nnnnxa+enic+no.
Posucxoe soesocmso
2577,5 .


100%
18219 - 27,2%
141 ./ - 2,7%
17,9% - 5,2%
19498 . 3,3%

(2004 .)

1993,31 .
4,1%
81
3266,2 .


100%
15190 - 22,8%
215 ./ - 2,1%
13,8% - 6,7%
18522 . 5,1%

(2004 .)

2097,97 .
4,9%
neiiax noximnennoc+i, o(naio n nocne(nne io(i ee :nanenne yxenimae+cx n noni:y ineie+nin,
(o6inn 6yoio yinx, nnmenon, xnxnnecion, inei+oxamnnoc+on+eninon noximnennoc+n
n noximnennoc+n c+on+eninix xa+enanon.
Boeno(c+no :annxae+ ne(ymee xec+o n c+ane no nnoma(n cenixo:yio(nn (cnime 5O nnoma(n
noeno(c+na). Cenicioe xo:xnc+no o+nnnae+cx o+nocn+enino nicoion non:no(n+eninoc+im. B c+yi+ye
non:no(c+na neo6na(ae+ non:no(c+no onomen, ca(ono(c+no n cnnnono(c+no. Peinon nxee+ +aie
xoomne nno(nie ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx cnennann:nonannoio n iionoinnecioio +yn:xa (n cnx:n
c nannnnex nc+onnnion no(:exnix n ieo+exaninix no().
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na no o+nomennm i o(:nncioxy noeno(c+ny 6y(e+ nanannena
na ynynmenne +ancno+non (oc+ynnoc+n (oco6enno coo6mennx c Bamanon), a +aie na noomenne
noneccon a:nn+nx o(:n iai nen+a einona.
Manononscxoe soesocmso
Manononicioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n mnon nac+n Honimn n c mia iannnn+ co Cnonainen.
Hee: i+o+ einon noxo(x+ +ancno+nie xainc+ann no nanannennm cene-mi n :ana(-noc+oi,
n +ox nncne !!! Hansenonencinn +ancno+nin ion(o. C+onnnen noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx Kaion
n+oon nocne Bamani ny:oncinn nen+ n Honime, a +aie iionoxnnecinn, naynnin n iyni+ynin
nen+ einona. K nanenmnx ioo(ax noeno(c+na o+nocn+cx +aie Tanyn. Boeno(c+no o+nnnae+cx
nicoion nno+noc+im nacenennx n o(nnx n: caxnx nn:inx noia:a+enen y6ann:annn n Honime
(n ioo(ax nonnae+ xenee nononnni nacenennx).
Hon:no(c+nennin no+ennnan einona (nqqeennnonan, nnnex +a(nnnonnie o+acnn
iono(o6inammax noximnennoc+i, xe+annyinx n +xenax xnxnx, noc+enenno +exm+ :nanenne.
3a+o a:nnnae+cx ia6eninax, +eneioxxynniannonnax, ioxnim+enax, qaxanen+nneciax, c+on+eni-
nix xa+enanon n nonniaqnneciax noximnennoc+i. Caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no nm(en a6o+ae+
n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne, io+ooe o+nnnae+cx 6onimon a:(o6nennoc+im xo:xnc+n n nx (eion-
nenannen.
Pa:noo6a:nin enieq xec+noc+n n nan(maq+a co:(am+ xoomne ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx nemeio
+yn:xa, cianona:annx n aninnnn:xa. Peinon nxee+ +aie 6onimoe nc+onnecioe, iyni+ynoe
n qoniinonoe :nanenne (na eio +en+onn naxo(x+cx ne+ie o6sei+a, :nanamnecx n cnncie
xnonoio nacne(nx Kaion, Bennnia, Ocnennnx n Kaninanx-3e6n(oncia), a +aie xnioinnxa+
c nene6nixn cnonc+naxn (Knnnna, Mymnna, Hnnnnnna, Pa6ia, Hannnna). Peinon cnn+ae+cx
nnnneia+eninix (nx nnnec+nnnn. 3(eci ocymec+nnxe+cx x( nnnnna+nn n axiax enoeinonon
Ta+i n Kana+i.
82
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na n o+nomennn Manononicioio noeno(c+na 6y(e+ iaca+icx
noxomn nn ocymec+nnennn xe no ynynmennm noc+anc+nennon oiann:annn, coxanennx
nno(nix (oc+onnc+n n ynynmennx coc+oxnnx oiyammen ce(i. Cymec+nennix inexen+ox
einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ +aie noomenne ycnnnn einona no no(nnennm eio
+ync+nnecinx n iyni+ynix ecycon.
Masosexoe soesocmso
Ma:onenioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n nen+aninon nac+n c+ani n iannnn+ c noeno(c+naxn:
Baxnno-Ma:ycinx, Ho(nxccinx, m6nnncinx, Cnen+oimncinx, o(:nncinx n Kyxncio-
Hoxocinx. C+onnnen noeno(c+na n o(nonexenno c+onnnen Honimn xnnxe+cx Bamana,
n io+oon coce(o+onena :nann+eninax nac+i iionoxnnecioio, naynnoio n iyni+ynoio no+ennnana
c+ani.
Boeno(c+no :annxae+ caxym 6onimym nnoma(i n nxee+ caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no n+enen,
a +aie caxin nicoinn yoneni (oxo(on nacenennx. K ioo(ax, io+oie niam+ :nann+eninym oni
n einone, o+nocx+cx +aie: Pa(ox, Hnoni, Ce(nine, Oc+onenia n Jexanyn. Xn+enn ioo(on
coc+annxm+ oiono 65 nacenennx noeno(c+na.
Hee: noeno(c+no noxo(x+ nanie +ancno+nie xamy+i: XenicnninBamana, Lennn
Mocina, I(aniciXnnnna. B Bamane neeceiam+cx +aie ene:no(oonie nnnnn (n +.n.
xe(ynao(nie), xnnxmmnecx ocnonon +ancno+non cnc+exi c+ani.
Jionoxnia noeno(c+na oneni (nqqeennnonana n o+acnenox o+nomennn. B einone o+nocn+enino
xoomo a:nn+a noximnennoc+i, nnnex inannin iionoxnnecinn no+ennnan coce(o+onen ne(e
nceio n namancion ainoxeannn, io+oax yiennxe+ cnom no:nnnm n ianec+ne nen+a 6n:neca,
qnnancon, c+axonon (ex+eninoc+n, ioncan+nnia n +oionnn. B e:yni+a+e caxax nicoiax (onx
:anx+oc+n nnxo(n+cx na cei+o ycnyi.
B einone acnonoen caxin iynnin n c+ane nen+ neq+exnxnnecion noximnennoc+n
(Hnoni). Xoomo a:nn+a cenicioxo:xnc+nennax neea6o+ia n caxie conexennie o+acnn
noximnennoc+n. Koxe +oio, Ma:onenioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx inannix o+enec+nennix
non:no(n+enex qyi+on, onomen, ia+oqenx, :enonix, xonoia, iynnoio oia+oio cio+a n cnnnen.
Hnnneia+enina +aie nno(nax ce(a (:anone(nie :oni, n +ox nncne: Kaxnnnoccinn
nannonaninin nai, Lenax nyma, Ko:ennniax nyma), a +aie nc+onio-iyni+ynie naxx+nnin
(C+ain ioo( n Bamane n Xenx:ona-Bonx :aneceni n cnncoi xnonoio nacne(nx), n+o
cnoco6c+nye+ a:nn+nm +yn:xa.
5157,7 .


100%
35566 - 18,8%
145 ./ - 2,5%
13,8% - 4,7%
32722 . 16,5%

(2004 .)

2909,67 .
37,2%
83
1047,4 .


100%
9412 - 26,8%
111 ./ - 4,2%
18,6% - 5,7%
17173 . 1,7%

(2004 .)

2068,27 .
1,4%
Iocy(ac+no, n axiax nono(nxon einonaninon nonn+nin no o+nomennm i Ma:onenioxy
noeno(c+ny 6y(e+ no((enna+i ne(e nceio:
a:nn+ne Bamani n ee oiyennx iai nen+a einona n c+ani, oco6enno a:nn+ne qyninnn,
nxemmnx cymec+nennoe xe(ynao(noe :nanenne;
ynynmenne noc+anc+nenno-qyninnonaninon oiann:annn (Ma:onenioe o+nnnae+cx caxon
6onimon (nqqeennnannen nny+n noeno(c+na), inannix o6a:ox ny+ex ynynmennx
nny+ennnx +ancno+nix cnx:en;
nanannanne cnx:en Bamani c (yinxn ioo(cinxn nen+axn cymec+nennoio cy6einonaninoio
:nanennx;
xei no ynynmennm (oc+yna i namancioxy iniy +y(a, i o6a:ona+eninix n iyni+ynix
ycnyiax n :(anooxanennm (nx oiyammnx Bamany o6nac+en Ma:onma;
xei no (eionnen+annn, nxemmne nenim a:xemenne iionoxnnecinx noei+on n nnnnna+nn,
cnx:annix c a:nn+nex ne(nnnnxa+enic+na, nne +en+onn iynnix ioo(on, oco6enno
nne Bamani.
Honn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ c+exn+icx +aie i ynynmennm coc+oxnnx oiyammen ce(i
n xec+ax, nxemmnx o6menannonaninoe :nanenne. Bnn(y c+onnnnix qyninnn Bamani, einonaninax
nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ noomx+i ocymec+nnenne conxec+nix noei+on nann+enic+na n xec+noio
caxoynannennx, ne(nnnnxaexix c nenim ioo(nnannn o6menannonaninix noneccon.
Ononscxoe soesocmso
Ononicioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n mio-:ana(non nac+n Honimn n c mia iannnn+ c Hexnen.
Caxix nanix +ancno+nix xamy+ox, noxo(xmnx nee: noeno(c+no, xnnxe+cx Hansenonencinn
+ancno+nin ion(o n: 3ana(non Lnoni n Vianny. C+onnnen noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx Onone
nanin iionoxnnecinn, iyni+ynin n ny:oncinn nen+, a +aie e(nnc+nennin ioo( einona,
n io+oox nonnae+ cnime 1OO +ic. n+enen. K iynnenmnx ioo(ax einona o+nocx+cx +aie:
Ken(:enn-Ko:ne, Lei n Hica.
Ononicioe noeno(c+no caxoe xaneniioe n c+ane no +en+onn n o(no n: caxix xanix no
ionnnec+ny nacenennx. V neio +aie nn:inn noia:a+eni y6ann:annn (nexnoio 6onee 52 nacenennx
nne+ n ioo(ax). Boeno(c+no xoomo a:nn+o n noximnennox o+nomennn, a nanenmne o+acnn
i+o: nnmenax, ineie+nneciax, xnxnneciax, xnneanino-ciienax, xamnnoc+on+eninax, o6a6o+in
xe+annon n xe6eninax noximnennoc+i.
Aianie xo:xnc+na n Ononiciox noeno(c+ne o+nnnam+cx caxon nicoion n c+ane iqqei+nn-
noc+im, cnx:annon c nicoion cenicioxo:xnc+nennon iyni+yon, xoomnx ocnamennex xo:xnc+n
84
n 6naionnx+nixn innxa+nnecinxn n nonnennixn ycnonnxxn. B noeno(c+ne nxem+cx +aie
xoomne ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx +yn:xa, oco6enno nemeio n nenocnne(noio, a +aie aio+yn:xa.
3(eci naxo(x+cx xnoionncnennie naxx+nnin cne+cion n caianinon axn+ei+yi, cno+nnnie
n eieannonnie o6sei+i, o:ea, neca n nan(maq+nie :anone(nnin.
Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i nncny xanoai+nnnix n o6nac+n nnemnen +oionnn. onx noeno(c+na iai
n iicno+e, +ai n n nxno+e, ne nenimae+ 2. B einone nanaeno +anciannnnoe co+y(nnnec+no
c Hexnen n axiax enoeinona Ha(:x(.
B o+nomennn Ononicioio noeno(c+na, einonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ coce(o+onnna+icx
na ynynmennn coc+oxnnx nno(non ce(i, nynmex ncnoni:onannn +ync+nnecioio no+ennnana,
a +aie na yiennennn nnqac+yi+yi 6n:neca. He(ycxa+nnae+cx +aie noxomi nn xo(enn:annn
+ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi (inannix o6a:ox na ocn noc+oi :ana() n noomenne a:nn+nx
+anciannnnoio co+y(nnnec+na c coce(nen Hexnen (ne(e nceio n o6nac+n iionoxnin).
Uoxapnamcxoe soesocmso
Ho(iana+cioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n mio-noc+onnon nac+n Honimn. C noc+oia ono
iannnn+ c Viannon, a c mia co Cnonainen. C 1 xax 2OO4 i. ono xnnxe+cx noiannnnix einonox
Lnonencioio com:a na noc+oie. Hee: noeno(c+no noxo(x+ +ancno+nie ny+n, ne(ymne n:
Iexannn n Vianny, n: nen+aninon Honimn n Cnonainm n c mia n n+ny. C+onnnen einona
xnnxe+cx Xemyn. yine nanie ioo(a i+o: Hmexicni, Tano6ei n Kocno. Ho(iana+cioe
noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx nanxenee y6ann:nonannix einonox n Honime (n ioo(ax nonnae+ oiono
4O nacenennx).
Peinon acnonaiae+ 6onimnx non:no(c+nennix no+ennnanox. Ha eio +en+onn acnonoeni
:anaci xnoinx nn(on nno(noio ciix neq+n, nno(noio ia:a, cei, c+on+eninix
:anonnn+enen n xnneaninix no(. Pemammym oni n iionoxnneciox a:nn+nn noeno(c+na
niae+ cenicioxo:xnc+nennax neea6o+ia, xnxnneciax n xamnnoc+on+eninax noximnennoc+i,
a +aie c+on+enic+no. nnaxnnno a:nnnae+cx xe6eninax n (eenoo6a6a+inammax noximnen-
noc+i.
Cenicioe xo:xnc+no onnae+cx n ocnonnox na na+yaninie xe+o(i non:no(c+na, neo6na(am+
xenine xo:xnc+na. Koxe +oio, :(eci na6nm(ae+cx n:6i+oi a6onen cnni n nn:iax +onanoc+i.
Oiannnennex (nx cenicioxo:xnc+nennoio non:no(c+na xnnxm+cx +aie ne6naionnx+nie
innxa+nnecine n nonnennie ycnonnx.
Boeno(c+no ne(naiae+ cnonx ioc+xx +ync+nnecine n iyni+ynie 6oia+c+na, n nac+noc+n, (na
nannonaninix naia Lema(cinn n Maiycinn n xnoionncnennie nennie naxx+nnin axn+ei+yi
2098,3 .


100%
17844 - 27,7%
118 ./ - 2,3%
18,4% - 5,5%
15436 . 3,4%

(2004 .)

1940,50 .
1,7%
85
n aniny+e, Kacnnnne n Laanyne-Can(oxeciox. K (oc+onnc+nax einona xono o+nec+n
o+nocn+enino nnc+ym nno(nym ce(y n e(nnc+nennie n Honime no(i, nxemmne ! inacc nnc+o+i.
B axiax enoeinona Kana+i noeno(c+no a:nnnae+ co+y(nnnec+no co Cnonainen,
Beninen, Viannon n Pyxinnen.
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ coce(o+onnna+icx na xeax no n:xenennm aianon
c+yi+yi Ho(iana+cioio noeno(c+na, na co:(annn +ax nonix a6onnx xec+ n na ynynmennn
cnc+exi o6a:onannx. Ly(e+ +aie noomx+icx +anciannnnoe co+y(nnnec+no n xo(enn:annx
+ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi (inannix o6a:ox na ocn noc+oi :ana(; no(onenne c+on+enic+na
an+oc+a(i A-4).
Uonccxoe soesocmso
1199,7 .


100%
20187 - 19,1%
59 ./ - 6,2%
15,5% - 6,0%
16105 . 1,4%

(2004 .)

2005,14 .
1,0%
Ho(nxccioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n ceneo-noc+onnon nac+n Honimn. C noc+oia ono iannnn+
c Lenaycim, c ceneo-noc+oia c n+non. C i+nxn iocy(ac+naxn ono a:nnnae+ co+y(nnnec+no
n axiax enoeinona Hexan. C 1 xax 2OO4 i. noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx noiannnnix einonox
Lnonencioio com:a na noc+oie. C+onnnen noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx Lenoc+oi iynnenmnn no-
ximnennin, naynnin n iyni+ynin nen+. yine 6onimne ioo(a i+o: Cynanin, oxa, Aniyc+on,
Lenici-Ho(nxcin, Iaeno, Xannynia, 3ax6yn n Coiynia. Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i nan6onee cna6o
nacenennix einonax c+ani n nan6onee cna6o y6ann:nonannix (n ioo(ax nne+ xenee 6O
nacenennx). Ce+i ioo(on e(ia, a cenicine nocenennx accexnnie n a:(o6nennie.
Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i cna6o a:nn+ix einonax. V(eninin nec eio cei+oa noximnennoc+n,
c+on+enic+na n inonnix ycnyi n co:(annn BBH o(nn n: caxix nn:inx n Honime. Heo6na(ammnx
cei+oox iionoxnin xnnxe+cx cenicioe xo:xnc+no, io+ooe o+nnnae+cx nn:ion non:no-
(n+eninoc+im, nicoion :anx+oc+im n cii+on 6e:a6o+nnen. Koxe +oio, :exnn :(eci n ocnonnox
nn:ioio ianec+na, a innxa+ neyc+onnnnin. B +o e nexx, nn:inn yoneni :aix:nennx nonni
n iionoinnecin nnc+ie anoni, co:(am+ xoomne ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx iionoinnecioio cenicioio
xo:xnc+na.
Ce(n o+acnen noximnennoc+n caxym nanym oni niae+ non:no(c+no n neea6o+ia
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix no(yi+on, non:no(c+no xamnn n o6oy(onannx, +ianen n n:(ennn n:
(eena. He+io niaennon cnennann:annen Ho(nxcx xnnxe+cx c+on+eninax o+acni n cnx:annie
c nen ne(nnx+nx (eenoo6a6a+inammen noximnennoc+n (nannxe, non:no(n+enn oion
n (neen).
B axiax einonaninon nonn+nin iocy(ac+no naxeenae+cx nonicn+i +ancno+nym
(oc+ynnoc+i einona (oco6enno na nn+onciox nanannennn Via Ballica, Rail Ballica), a +aie
86
Hoxocioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n cenenon nac+n Honimn y Lan+nncioio xox. C+onnnen
einona xnnxe+cx I(anici, io+oin nxec+e c I(inen n Cono+ox o6a:ye+ xnoioqyninnonaninym
ainoxeannm, coce(o+onnnammym cnime 4O n+enen noeno(c+na.
Hee: einon noxo(x+ +ancno+nie ny+n cene-mi n noc+oi-:ana(. Caxixn nanixn
inexen+axn +ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi xnnxm+cx xocine no+i n I(anicie (neenania
xacconix iy:on) n n I(ine (+exnnan ion+enneon).
Jionoxnia einona nxxo nnn iocnenno cnx:ana c xoex. 3(eci a:nnnae+cx cy(oc+oenne,
no+onax n neq+exnxnneciax noximnennoc+i, a +aie +ancno+nie n iicne(nnnonnie ycnyin
n cnennann:nonannie ycnyin, cnx:annie c i6ononc+nox. Cymec+nennym oni n a:nn+nn
noeno(c+na, n +ox nncne nnxocinx nacenennix nyni+on, niae+ +yn:x. Pa:nn+nm +yn:xa
cnoco6c+nye+ nnnneia+eninax nno(nax ce(a (Cnonnnicinn nannonaninin nai, Hannonaninin
nai Tyxonicine 6oi, nan(maq+nie nain), xnoionncnennie yionin ne+ony+on nno(i,
a +aie naxx+nnin c+anni (oco6enno na Xynanax n Kamy6ax) iai cne+cioio, +ai n caianinoio
xaai+ea (n nac+noc+n, ioo( I(anici n :axoi iec+onocnen n Mani6oie).
Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i einonax c 6onimnx nnnec+nnnonnix no+ennnanox. 3annxae+
o+nocn+enino nicoioe xec+o no nn+encnnnoc+n +oionix cnx:en c :ay6enixn c+anaxn. B 2OO4 i.
(onx noxocioio noeno(c+na n o6mex iicno+e n nxno+e Honimn coc+annna no 8,4. Peinon
nnnnxae+ ynac+ne n xe(ynao(nox co+y(nnnec+ne 6an+nncinx c+an.
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ noomx+i a:nn+ne no+onix qyninnn, conexennoio
cei+oa ycnyi, cnx:annix c o6cnynnannex no+on, oc+ xe(ynao(non ioniyen+ocnoco6noc+n
ainoxea+a +ex ioo(on, a +aie xo(enn:annm +ancno+nix ny+en na ocn cenemi n noc+oi:ana(.
Koxe +oio, i+a nonn+nia (onna cnoco6c+nona+i coxanennm iyni+ynoio nacne(nx n no(non
cnc+exi Xynan, a +aie no(nnennm iyni+ynix n nno(nix 6oia+c+n einona.
noomx+i acmnenne n xo(enn:annm noiannnnix neexo(on. J+a nonn+nia nn:nana +aie
cnoco6c+nona+i a:nn+nm qyninnn Lenoc+oia nen+a einona, a +aie a:nn+nm cenicinx anonon
n ne6onimnx ioo(on einona. Banoe xec+o n i+on nonn+nie 6y(e+ :annxa+i +aie a:nn+ne
+yn:xa. Ho(nxccioe noeno(c+no nnna(nen+ i caxix nnc+ix einonax n Honime n nxee+
ynnianinie nno(nie ycnonnx, n +ox nncne caxin 6onimon n Lnone ioxnneic (enc+nennix 6ono+
n nym Lenoneciym nymy. J+o co:(ae+ nennionennie ycnonnx (nx a:nn+nx inannqnnnonannoio
n iaene(necioio +yn:xa, aio+yn:xa, a +aie iyo+noio nenennx (Aniyc+on, Cynacni).
Uouopcxoe soesocmso
2199 .


100%
18293 - 24,5%
120 ./ - 2,3%
19,3% - 6,1%
20929 . 8,4%

(2004 .)

2231,05 .
8,4%
87
Cunescxoe soesocmso
4685,8 .


100%
12331 - 32,5%
380 ./ - 1%
15,4% - 5,9%
23718 . 19,8%

(2004 .)

2344,91 .
11,2%
Cnne:cioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n mnon nac+n Honimn, na neeiec+ie +ancno+nix ny+en
nannonaninoio n enonencioio :nanennx. C mia ono iannnn+ c Hexnen n Cnonainen. C+onnnen
einona xnnxe+cx ioo( Ka+onnne nanin ny:oncinn, qnnanconin n iyni+ynin nen+. yine
6onimne ioo(a i+o: Henc+oxona, Cocnonen, Innnnne, Li+ox, 3a6e, Lenicio-Lxna, Py(a-Cnencia,
Pi6nni, ox6ona-Iynnna, Xoyn, Tixi n c+mex6e-3(yn.
Cnne:cioe noeno(c+no xaai+en:ye+cx caxon 6onimon n Honime nno+noc+im nacenennx, 6onee
nex n +n a:a nenimammen ce(nmm no c+ane. J+o+ einon nan6onee y6ann:nonan (oiono 8O
nacenennx nne+ n ioo(ax, inannix o6a:ox n ia+onnnion n i6nnnion ainoxeannxx) n
noximnenno a:nn+. B +o e nexx noeno(c+no o+nnnae+cx caxax nn:iax (onx :anx+ix n ceniciox
xo:xnc+ne.
Cnne:cioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx noximnennix nen+ox Honimn. Hoximnennoc+i a:nnnanaci
:(eci n :nann+eninon xee na 6a:e xec+noio ciix iaxennoio yinx, a +aie y( nnnia n cnnnna.
B nocne(nne io(i :nanenne +a(nnnonnoio ciienoio cei+oa (iono(o6inammax noximnennoc+i,
xe+annyinx, ioiconax noximnennoc+i) n iionoxnie einona noc+enenno yxenimae+cx n noni:y
inei+oxamnnoc+on+eninon noximnennoc+n, ineie+nin, +ennoqniannn, nnmenon noximnennoc+n
n an+oxo6nninon noximnennoc+n. Pac+ymee :nanenne (nx einona nno6e+am+ o+acnn,
a6o+ammne na 6a:e nonenmnx +exnonoinn.
Peinon nxee+ nnnneia+eninie nno(nie ycnonnx (Kaioncio-nenc+oxonciax no:nimennoc+i,
Cnne:ciax no:nimennoc+i n 3ana(nie Lecin(i), a +aie nc+onnecine n iyni+ynie (oc+onnxe-
na+eninoc+n (a:nannni c+annnix :axion, naiono-(nononie ioxnneici, xaxi), a +aie
6oia+ym 6a:y (nx :anx+nn ionnix cno+ox. Tync+nneciax n ioc+nnnnnax 6a:a xoomo a:nn+a.
Caxie 6onimne nen+i o+(ixa n noeno(c+ne i+o: Vc+oni, Bncna n Hni, a nene6nie nen+i
Ionanionnne-3(yn, Vc+oni n c+mex6e-3(yn.
Cnne:cioe noeno(c+no accxa+nnae+cx nnoc+annixn ne(nnnnxa+enxxn iai anon, nn-
nneia+eninin (nx nnnec+nonannx. Ono :annxae+ o(no n: ne(ymnx xec+ no o6sexax nnemnen
+oionnn n xnnxe+cx nanix xec+ox nic+anoi n xxaoi. Ixnni cnne:cioio noeno(c+na
co+y(nnnam+ n axiax enoeinonon Lecin(i (c Hexnen n Cnonainen) n Jemnnciax Cnne:nx
(c Hexnen).
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na no o+nomennm i cnne:cioxy noeno(c+ny 6y(e+ nanannena
na oiannnenne 6aieon n a:nn+nn conexennix cei+oon iionoxnin, oco6enno n nen+aninon
nac+n einona, cnnino (eia(nonannon n:-:a xnoione+nen noximnennon iicnnya+annn. Lonimoe
:nanenne nno6e+e+ +aie a:nn+ne cei+oa ycnyi, oco6enno nicoiocnennann:nonannix, a +aie
88
Cnen+oimncioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n nen+aninon nac+n Honimn no coce(c+ny c noe-
no(c+naxn: Ma:oneninx, o(:nncinx, Cnne:cinx, Manononicinx, Ho(iana+cinx n m6nnncinx.
C+onnnen noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx ioo( Kenine. yine 6onimne ioo(a i+oio einona: Oc+onen-
Cnen+oimncin, C+aaxonnne, Ciancio-Kaxenna n Can(oxn.
Cnen+oimncioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: caxix xanix n Honime no ionnnec+ny nacenennx
n nnoma(n, a +aie o+nocn+cx i nanxenee y6ann:nonannix (+oniio nexnoinx 6onee 45
nacenennx nne+ n ioo(ax).
Ono nnna(nen+ +aie i nan6onee cna6ix n iionoxnneciox o+nomennn. Xaai+en-
:ye+cx nn:inx y(eninix necox n noximnennox no+ennnane Honimn, a xnoine eio ioo(a
neennam+ +y(noc+n, cnx:annie c ec+yi+yn:annen iynnix noximnennix ne(nnx+nn.
Ocnonnixn o+acnxxn non:no(c+na xnnxm+cx xe+annyinx n inei+oxamnnoc+on+eninax
noximnennoc+i. Lonimoe :nanenne nxee+ +aie c+on+eninax noximnennoc+i, onnammaxcx
na nxemmnecx n einone :anen xnneaninoio ciix (necnanni, inann+, xaxo, innc,
n:nec+nxi, xeieni). Ho xnoinx nn(ax non:no(c+na c+on+eninix xa+enanon (nannxe:
innconax cnx:ia, n:nec+i, nexen+, c+on+eninie :anonnn+enn), einon :annxae+ o(no n: ne(ymnx
xec+ n c+ane.
B aianox cei+oe noeno(c+na neo6na(am+ ne6onimne nn(nnn(yaninie xo:xnc+na, iai
nannno co cna6on nnqac+yi+yon n ocnamennex. Ha nynmnx nonnax (mio-noc+onnax nac+i
noeno(c+na) a:nnnae+cx ca(ono(c+no n oioo(nnnec+no. onx :anx+oc+n n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne non+n
n (na a:a nenimae+ ce(nnn yoneni no c+ane, nxee+cx nicoiax cii+ax 6e:a6o+nna.
Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i caxnx iionoinnecin nnc+ix +en+onxx Honimn. Ono nnnneia+enino
iai +ync+nnecinn einon :nann+eninym eio nac+i :annxam+ nnonncnie Cnen+oimncine ioi.
Ha +en+onn noeno(c+na naxo(x+cx n:nec+nie iyo+i: Lycio-3(yn n Conen-3(yn.
B axiax iocy(ac+nennon einonaninon nonn+nin no((eia (nx Cnen+oimncioio noeno(c+na
6y(e+ nanannena na:
ynynmenne +ancno+non (oc+ynnoc+n;
ynynmenne coc+oxnnx oiyammen ce(i. Honn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ +aie noomx+i xei no
ynynmennm +exnnnecion nnqac+yi+yi, n +ox nncne +ancno+non, na inannix xainc+anxx
cene-mi (n nanannennn Jemnna) n :ana(-noc+oi (ion(o A-4).
Csemoxuucxoe soesocmso
1285 .


100%
11708 - 22,9%
110 ./ - 5,8%
20,6% - 7,1%
16911 . 1,2%

(2004 .)

1991,63 .
0,8%
89
1428,6 .


100%
24192 - 23,1%
59 ./ - 4,4%
27,5% - 5,1%
16504 . 2,2%

(2004 .)

1967,23 .
1,1%
nynmee ncnoni:onanne +ync+nnecioio no+ennnana (inannix o6a:ox Cnen+oimncinx io),
n nac+noc+n, 6naio(ax no(nnennm einona n nannonaninox n xe(ynao(nox xacm+a6ax;
a:nn+ne o6a:ona+eninon cnc+exi.
Bapuuo-Masypcxoe soesocmso
Baxnno-Ma:ycioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n ceneo-noc+onnon nac+n Honimn y iannni
c Poccnen (Kannnnnia(ciax o6nac+i). C 1 xax 2OO4 i. xnnxe+cx noiannnnix einonox Lnonencioio
com:a. C+onnnen einona xnnxe+cx Onim+in. yine 6onimne ioo(a i+o: Jni6noni, Jni, Ken+mnn
n Innnio.
Baxnno-Ma:ycioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: caxnx 6onimnx n c+ane no +en+onn
n o(nonexenno nanxenee nacenennix.
Caxix 6onimnx 6oia+c+nox noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx nnc+ax nno(a. Baxnx n Ma:yi xnnxm+cx
nac+im 3enenix neiinx Honimn, io+oie oxna+inam+ anoni, o+nnnammnecx 6oia+c+nox
n iaco+on nen:aa. Oioxnix nenxymec+nox xnnxe+cx a:noo6a:nin enieq xec+noc+n
xnoionncnennie o:ea (n +.n. ce+i Lonimnx xa:ycinx o:e), necnie xaccnni (Hncciax nyma)
n nen:anie nain. Peinon :annxae+ o(no n: ne(ymnx xec+ n c+ane no ionnnec+ny ioc+nnnnnix
o6sei+on, a +yn:x xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: ocnonnix nc+onnnion :anx+oc+n n einone.
B noeno(c+ne a:nnnae+cx noximnennoc+i, onnammaxcx ne(e nceio na xec+nie nno(nie
ecyci, +.e. cenicioxo:xnc+nennax neea6o+ia n (eenoo6a6a+inammax noximnennoc+i.
Cymec+nennym oni n iionoxnie einona niae+ +aie e:nnonax noximnennoc+i. Peinon
:annxae+ nicoiym no:nnnm n o6nac+n non:no(c+na mnn, no +aie +ne(ix cion, n+nni, nnna
n xacna.
Hecxo+x na o+cy+c+nne 6naionnx+nix nonnennix n innxa+nnecinx ycnonnn, iqqei+nnnoc+i
aianix xo:xnc+n o+nocn+enino nicoia, n+o n emammen c+enenn o6ycnonneno 6onimon (onen
nicoio+onanix xo:xnc+n (iynnie xo:xnc+na coc+annxm+ 32 o+ o6meio nncna).
Toionie cnx:n noeno(c+na c :ay6enixn c+anaxn o+nocx+cx i caxix cna6ix ce(n nonicinx
noeno(c+n, a :nanenne einona 6onime n iicno+e, nex n nxno+e.
B cnynae Baxnno-Ma:ycioio noeno(c+na einonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ nanenena na
ynynmenne +ancno+non (oc+ynnoc+n (n nac+noc+n, n occnnciox nanannennn Kannnnnia(ciax
o6nac+i), a +aie na a:nn+ne o6a:ona+eninon cnc+exi, naynno-nccne(ona+enicioio n ny:oncioio
no+ennnana, na yiennennn :nanennx Onim+ina iai nny+n einona, +ai n :a eio ne(enaxn. Banoe
xec+o :annxam+ +aie :a(ann oxani nno(i n nonimennx +ync+nnecion nnnneia+eninoc+n
einona.
9O
Benuxononscxoe soesocmso
3372,4 .


100%
29826 - 27,8%
113 ./ - 4,8%
14,5% - 6,5%
22256 . 12%

(2004 .)

2095,33 .
10,9%
Benniononicioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n nen+anino-:ana(non nac+n Honimn no coce(c+ny
c Kyxncio-Hoxocinx, Hoxocinx, o(:nncinx, Ononicinx, Hnnecnne:cinx, m6ymcinx
n 3ana(nonoxocinx noeno(c+naxn. C+onnnen noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx Ho:nani ioo(cion nen+
nannonaninoio :nanennx, (nnaxnnnin iionoxnnecinn, naynnin n iyni+ynin nen+, a +aie xec+o
none(ennx xxaoi n nic+anoi. Ioo(a einonaninoio :nanennx i+o: Kannm, Konnn, Hnna, emno,
Oc+yn-Beniiononicin n Ine:no. Hee: nen+ einona noxo(x+ ny+n, coe(nnxmmne nen+aninym
Honimy c noc+onnon n :ana(non Lnonon.
Boeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i caxix iynnix n c+ane iai no nnoma(n, +ai n no ionnnec+ny n+enen.
Benniononicioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx +aie o(nnx n: caxix cnninix iionoxnnecin n caxix
6oia+ix einonon c+ani. B iionoxnie einona cymec+nennym oni niae+ noximnennoc+i,
coce(o+onennax n iynnix ioo(cinx nen+ax, oco6enno n Ho:nann n ee oiec+noc+xx. C+yi+ya
noximnennoc+n (nqqeennnonana n o+acnenox nnane, o(naio n nen neo6na(ae+ cenicio-
xo:xnc+nennax neea6o+ia. Pa:nnnam+cx +aie +aine o+acnn noximnennoc+n iai: an+oxo-
6nninax, qaxanen+nneciax, xe6eninax, ocne+n+eninon n 6i+onon +exnnin, ieaxnneciax,
c+eioninax, n:(ennn n: nnac+xacc, +eic+nninax n mnennax. Koxe i+oio, nanym oni n iionoxnie
einona niae+ (o6ina 6yoio yinx, xe+annyinx n non:no(c+no inei+oineinn.
B c+yi+ye iionoxnin o6amae+ na ce6x nnnxanne (ononino nicoiax (onx cenicioio xo:xnc+na
n co:(annn (o6annennon c+onxoc+n. Benniononicine noeno(c+no o+nocn+cx i einonax,
acnonaiammnx 6onimnxn ecycaxn cenicioxo:xnc+nennix :exeni (oiono 2/3 nnoma(n
coc+annxm+ cenixo:yio(nx). Hecxo+x na ne6onimoe ionnnec+no nno(oo(nix nonn, noeno(c+no
nn(nye+ n o6nac+n non:no(c+na no(ononic+nnx 6naio(ax nicoion :exne(eninecion iyni+ye
n xoomexy yonnm xo:xnc+nonannx. Hcinmnn+enino 6onimoe :nanenne nxee+ cnnnono(c+no
n onomeno(c+no.
3nann+eninax nac+i noeno(c+na nnnneia+enina (nx nnoc+annix nnnec+oon. B Ho:nann
oiann:ym+cx caxie 6onimne n Honime xe(ynao(nie xxain n nic+anin, n +ox nncne
Me(ynao(nax aiano-noximnennax xxaia Honiaia. Benniononicioe noeno(c+no
nnna(nen+ i einonax c caxon nicoion (onen n +oionox o6xene Honimn c :ay6enixn
c+anaxn.
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ no((enna+i oc+ xe(ynao(noio :nanennx
Ho:nann, n nac+noc+n, ny+ex ynynmennx ioxxynniannonnon cnc+exi einona n acmnennx
+ancno+non nnqac+yi+yi. Koxe i+oio, noeno(c+no 6y(e+ noni:ona+icx no((eion
iocy(ac+na n o6nac+n no(nnennx iyni+yi einona, n +ox nncne na xe(ynao(non aene.
91
1694,2 .


100%
22896 - 18,4%
74 ./ - 3,5%
25,6% - 5,9%
20357 . 4%

(2004 .)

2068,66 .
2,6%
3anaonouopcxoe soesocmso
3ana(nonoxocioe noeno(c+no acnonoeno n ceneo-:ana(non nac+n Honimn. Lio cenenax
iannna noxo(n+ no 6an+nncioxy 6eeiy, a c :ana(a ono coce(c+nye+ c Iexannen. C+onnnen
noeno(c+na xnnxe+cx Hennn nanin iionoxnnecinn n ny:oncinn nen+. yine 6onimne ioo(a
einona i+o: Komannn, C+aia(-Hennnicin, Cnnnoyncine n Kono6ei. Hee: noeno(c+no noxo(x+
+an:n+nie ny+n xe(ynao(noio :nanennx. Banixn inexen+axn eio nnqac+yi+yi xnnxm+cx
+aie no+i n Hennne, Cnnnoyncine n Kono6eie.
3ana(nonoxocioe noeno(c+no xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: caxix 6onimnx noeno(c+n n Honime no
nnoma(n n :annxae+ nicoioe xec+o no c+enenn y6ann:annn (non+n 7O nacenennx nne+ n ioo(ax).
B +o e nexx ono xnnxe+cx o(nnx n: nanxenee nacenennix noeno(c+n.
C+yi+ya iionoxnin (nqqeennnonana, nnnex nnn(y nnxocioio nonoennx einona n nex
neo6na(ae+ xocioe xo:xnc+no. Pa:nnnae+cx +aie non:no(c+no xnneaninix y(o6ennn,
inei+o+exnnneciax, (eenoo6a6a+inammax, +eic+nninax noximnennoc+i n cenicioxo:xnc+nennax
neea6o+ia. Tan:n+noe, noiannnnoe n nnxocioe nonoenne einona cnoco6c+nye+ a:nn+nm
6n:neca n o6nac+n ycnyi. B noeno(c+ne a:nnnae+cx +aie eieannonnin +yn:x, naccancioe
cy(oxo(c+no n cana+onie ycnyin. K nncny n:nec+nix iyo+on nnna(nea+: Kono6ei, Honnnn-
3(yn, Cnnnoyncine n Kaxeni Hoxocin. Pa:nn+nm cenicioio xo:xnc+na cnoco6c+nye+ nicoiax (onx
iynnix xo:xnc+n (:(eci caxin nicoinn n Honime nonen+ xo:xnc+n nnoma(im cnime 5O iei+aon).
Boeno(c+no ne(e+ xe(ynao(noe co+y(nnnec+no n 6accenne Lan+nncioio xox n axiax
conxec+non nnnnna+nni iocy(ac+n i+oio einona VASAB 2O1O (Visions and Slialegies aiound lle
Ballic Sea), a +aie n axiax enoeinona Hoxeannx (c Iexannen n Hnennen).
Peinonaninax nonn+nia iocy(ac+na 6y(e+ noomx+i xei, nanannennie na oc+ ion-
iyen+ocnoco6noc+n a6o+i no+on n nx oiyennx, inannix o6a:ox n cqee qnnanconix
n iicne(nnnonnix ycnyi. Banym oni 6y(e+ nia+i +aie ynynmenne +ancno+noio (oc+yna
i Hennny (na ocn cene mi, a +aie no (yinx nanannennxx, ne(e nceio na Ho:nani n Bamany)
n ianec+na cymec+nymmnx +ancno+nix cnx:en. Mei, ne(nnnnxaexie n axiax einonaninon
nonn+nin (onni cnoco6c+nona+i ynynmennm coc+oxnnx oiyammen ce(i, coxanennm 6oia+c+n
nno(i n no(nnennx einona ne +oniio nny+n c+ani, no n :a iannnen.
2. Ocoue skououueckue souu
Oco6ie iionoxnnecine :oni (OJ3) xnnxm+cx ni(enennixn n a(xnnnc+a+nnnox nnane,
nenacenennixn nac+xxn +en+onn Honimn, ne(na:nanennixn (nx ne(ennx xo:xnc+nennon
92
,



1999 35, . 328
2004 222, . 2250; 254, . 2539



2005 32, . 268; 81, . 708; 131, . 1096; 247, . 2095
1998 70, . 459
2004 222, . 2251; 254, . 2540

2005 32, . 269; 129, . 1078; 186, . 1550
1999 86, . 960
2004 220, . 2232; 254, . 2542


2005 32, . 270; 129, . 1079; 182, . 1529
1998 43, . 258
2004 222, . 2252; 254, . 2541
-
2005 56, . 488; 181, . 1501; 182, . 1534; 211,
. 1761; 214, . 1788
1997 153, . 1003
2004 219, . 2217; 254, . 2543

2005 32, . 271; 86, . 735
1998 139, . 900
2004 215, . 2183; 254, . 2544
2005 32, . 272; 81, . 709; 158, . 1326; 205, . 1730

2006 5, . 27; 84, . 581
1996 154, . 749
2004 218, . 2209; 254, . 2538
-
2005 32, . 273; 81, . 710; 129, . 1080; 182, . 1532
2004 224, . 2270; 254, . 2545
2005 32, . 274; 81, . 707; 158, . 1327; 205, . 1731
1998 43, . 259
2004 218, . 2210; 254, . 2546

2005 32, . 275; 81, . 711; 189, . 1593
1998 135, . 879
2004 222, . 2253; 254, . 2547

2005 56, . 489; 181, . 1502
1997 17, . 92
2004 224, . 2271; 254, . 2548

2005 32, . 276; 81, . 712; 131, . 1093; 182, . 1531;
214, . 1789
2000 2, . 23
2004 226, . 2286; 254, . 2549
-

2005 8, . 58; 32, . 277; 171, . 1429; 200, . 1649;
205, . 1732
1997 153, . 1004
2000 62, . 727
2004 218, . 2211; 254, . 2550; 257, . 2574
2005 32, . 278; 81, . 706; 81, . 713; 181, . 1503;
182, . 1533
-
2006 8, . 45; 84, . 582
1998 70, . 460
2004 215, . 2184; 254, . 2551
-
2005 8, . 59; 33, . 292; 214, . 1782
: .
93
(ex+eninoc+n na cnennaninix ycnonnxx. He(nnnnxa+enn, nannnammne (ex+eninoc+i n OJ3, xoiy+
noni:ona+icx iocy(ac+nennon noxomim n nn(e +ainx nnnnneinn iai: ocno6o(enne o+ nanoia na
nn6ini (C!T nnn P!T), ocno6o(enne o+ xec+nix (ixnnnix) nanoion n c6oon, n +ox nncne o+
nanoia na ne(nnnxoc+i, ioniyen+nie neni na ynac+in, nonnoc+im no(io+onnennie no( nonie
nnnec+nnnn nnn 6ecnna+nax noxomi nn oqoxnennn (en, cnx:annix c nnnec+nnnen.
Caxixn nanixn (oiyxen+axn, n io+oix 6inn one(eneni nnnnnni n nox(oi oia:annx
noxomn (nx nonix nnnec+nnnn n oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax, xnnxm+cx:
:aion o+ 2O oi+x6x 1994 i. o6 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax (:.V. o+ 1994 i., N123, no:. 6OO),
:aion o+ 16 nox6x 2OOO i. o6 n:xenennn :aiona o6 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax n o6
n:xenennn neio+oix :aionon; i+o+ :aion iaxonn:nye+ nonicine yeiynnonannx
o+nocn+enino OJ3 c enonencinxn nannnaxn. 3aion iacae+cx ne(nnnnxa+enen, io+oie
nonynnnn a:emenne nocne 1 xnnax 2OO1 i. (:.V. o+ 2OOO i., N 117, no:. 1228),
:aion o+ 2 oi+x6x 2OO3 i. o6 n:xenennn :aiona o6 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax n o6
n:xenennn neio+oix :aionon; i+o+ :aion nno(n+ noc+anonnennx (oionoa o nc+ynnennn n LC
(:.V. o+ 2OO3 i., N 188, no:. 184O),
:aion o+ 3O anenx 2OO4 i. o none(yax ne(oc+annennx iocy(ac+nennon noxomn (:.V. o+
2OO4 i., N 123, no:.1291),
x( acnoxennn Cone+a xnnnc+on n xnnnc+a iionoxnin, n io+oix no(o6no 6inn
yeiynnonani nonoci, iacammnecx o+(eninix OJ3.
Ka(on OJ3 yiono(n+ ynannxmmee o6mec+no (cx. inana X! Hone:nie a(eca), io+ooe
o+nenae+ :a ne(oc+annenne nxymec+na :oni (enc+nymmnx n nen cy6sei+ax, ynannenne
nxymec+nox :oni, oia:anne ycnyi xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+ax n ocymec+nnenne xe no no(nnennm
:oni. Koxe +oio, ynannxmmee o6mec+no ny+ex +oion nnn neeionoon ni6nae+ cy6sei+i,
io+oix ni(ae+ a:emennx na (ex+eninoc+i n :one. Taioe a:emenne cnyn+ ocnonannex (nx
noni:onannx iocy(ac+nennon noxomim n nn(e ocno6o(ennx o+ nanoion
2
.
He(nnnnxa+enn nxem+ nano noni:ona+icx nanoionixn niio+axn, ecnn ocymec+nnennie nxn
nnnec+nnnonnie acxo(i nenicx+ 1OO +ic. eno nnn ecnn ne(oc+anx+ a6o+y one(enennoxy
ionnnec+ny nnn (n :anncnxoc+n o+ :oni o+ 4O (o 1OO nenonei).
He(nnnnxa+enn, io+oie nonynnnn a:emenne na ne(enne (ex+eninoc+n n OJ3 nocne 1 xnnax
2OO1 i., xoiy+ noni:ona+icx nanoionixn niio+axn nn ycnonnn ninonnennx one(enennix
+e6onannn, iacammnxcx nnnec+nnnonnix acxo(on n co:(annx nonix a6onnx xec+.
He(nnnnxa+eni, ne+en(ymmnn na noxomi n cnasu c uunec1uuuouumnu pacxoanu, o6x:an:
nec+n xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i n +enenne ne xenee 5 ne+,
6i+i co6c+nennniox coc+annix nac+en nxymec+na, c io+oixn 6inn cnx:ani nnnec+nnnonnie
acxo(i, n +enenne 5 ne+ co (nx noc+anonin nx na 6ananc ne(nnx+nx; +o e iacae+cx
nexa+enaninix n nanonix nennoc+en, one(enenne io+oix (ae+cx n :aione o nanoie na
nn6ini. B i+ox cnynae xaicnxaninin o6sex noxomn accnn+inae+cx iai non:ne(enne
noia:a+enx nn+encnnnoc+n noxomn n nnnec+nnnonnix :a+a+, io+oie xoiy+ 6i+i oxnaneni
noxomim
3
.
Hn acne+e o6sexon noxomn ynn+inae+cx nena nno6e+ennx :exnn, acxo(i na noc+onin
n :(annx, acxo(i na ocnamenne o6sei+on, a +aie acxo(i na iynnm nexa+enaninix n nanonix
nennoc+en ((o yonnx xaicnxanino 25 na:nannix nime n:(eei).
____________________
2
Ha +en+onn :on xono +aie nono(n+i xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i 6e: a:emennx, no n +aiox cnynae (oxo(i o+
i+on (ex+eninoc+n ne no(nea+ ocno6o(ennm o+ no(oxo(noio nanoia.
3
One(enenne n:(eei, io+oie (am+ nano na nonynenne noxomn co(en+cx n acnoxennn Cone+a Mnnnc+on
no nonocy o6 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax.
94
B cnom onee(i ne(nnnnxa+eni, noni:ymmnncx noxomim n cnasu c cosauuen uonmx paouux
nec1 na (annon nnnec+nnnn, (onen coxanx+i nonie a6onne xec+a n +enenne ne xenee 5 ne+. O6sex
noxomn accnn+inae+cx iai non:ne(enne noia:a+enx nn+encnnnoc+n noxomn n (nyxne+nnx
acxo(on 6y++o na :aa6o+nym nna+y (nx nonix a6o+nnion, c yne+ox ncex o6x:a+eninix nna+een,
nonecennix nnnec+oox n cnx:n c ne(oc+annennex a6o+i.
o ionna 2OO6 i. noia:a+eni nn+encnnnoc+n noxomn (nx 6onimen nac+n +en+onn Honimn
6y(e+ coc+annx+i 5O. Hcinmnennex 6y(y+ nonx+i: ioo( Bonnan, ioo( Kaion, ioo( I(anici,
ioo( I(inx n ioo( Cono+, i(e i+o+ noia:a+eni coc+ann+ 4O, a +aie ioo( Bamana n ioo(
Ho:nani 3O. B cnynae xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn (:a ncinmnennex cei+oa +ancno+a)
xaicnxaninin o6sex oia:inaexon noxomn 6y(e+ ynennnen na 15 nonen+nix nyni+on, +.e.
n :anncnxoc+n o+ nonx+a 6y(e+ ione6a+icx n ne(enax o+ 45 (o 65 c+onxoc+n eann:onannix
nnnec+nnnn. Maicnxaninie o6sexi noxomn, oia:inaexon 6onimnx nnnec+nnnonnix noei+ax
(cnime 5O xnn. eno), 6inn one(eneni n acnoxennxx Cone+a xnnnc+on, iacammnxcx o+(eninix
OJ3. Iocy(ac+nennax noxomi n nn(e nanoionix niio+ (nx nnnec+nnnonnix noei+on, c+onxoc+i
io+oix nenimae+ 1OO xnn. eno, +e6ye+ nn(nnn(yaninon no+nqniannn Lnonencion ioxnccnn.
C 1 xnnax 2OO7 i. n cnx:n c ocymec+nnennex nonoennn oionoa o nncoe(nnennn i Lnonencioxy
com:y, a +aie neo6xo(nxoc+im nne(ennx eioxen(annn LC no nonocy nannonaninon
einonaninon noxomn na 2OO7-2O13 ii. (O1 LC C 54 o+ 4.O3.2OO6)
4
, o6mne o6sexi iocy(ac+nennon
noxomn n OJ3 6y(y+ nne, xo+x n:xenennx n o+(eninix :onax 6y(y+ n(+n n a:nix nanannennxx.
Koxe +oio, ynennnn+cx (nqqeennnannx nn+encnnnoc+n noxomn n ne(enax o+(eninix OJ3, n+o
6y(e+ nec+n i (nqqeennnannn nx nnnneia+eninoc+n (nx nonix nnnec+oon. B e:yni+a+e n oco6ix
iionoxnnecinx :onax 6y(y+ qyninnonnona+i iai qnxi, io+oie noni:ym+cx 6onee nn6eaninixn
____________________
4
Bimeynoxxny+ie (nei+nni 6y(y+ iaca+icx ncinmnn+enino nonix nnnec+oon, io+oie 6y(y+ c+aa+icx nonynn+i
a:emenne na (ex+eninoc+i n oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax nocne 31 (eia6x 2OO6 i.
Oco6ie iionoxnnecine :oni
nennnnna :oni
95





1 2001 .
,
50% 31 2011 .
1 2001 .
31 2006 .
65% ,
55%

31 2006 . 50% 70%
1 2001 .
,
50% 31 2010 .
1 2001 .
31 2006 .
65% ,
55%

31 2006 . 40% 60%
1 2000 . 75% ( 1 2001 .)
1 2000 .
31 2000 .
50%
a
( 1 2001 .)
1 2001 .
31 2006 .
50% ,
40%

31 2006 . 30% 50%
a
30%.
niio+axn, yc+anonnennixn na neexo(nin neno(, +ai n qnxi, io+oie cxoiy+ a6o+a+i +oniio
no 6onee ec+inx nannnax.
Ha +en+onn Honimn qyninnonnye+ 14 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :on. o ionna 2OO5 i.
ne(nnx+nx, (enc+nymmne n OJ3, c(enann iannnoennn na oiono 26 xn(. :no+ix n co:(ann cnime
82 +ic. nonix a6onnx xec+. O6max nnoma(i oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :on coc+annxe+ 7625,6 ia
(no coc+oxnnm na 31.12.2OO5 i.) n xoe+ 6i+i ynennnena na 1675 ia, nn ycnonnn, n+o (ononnn+eninax
nnoma(i 6y(e+ ne(na:nanena ncinmnn+enino (nx 6onimnx nnnec+nnnonnix noei+on c :a+a+axn
ne xenee 4O xnn. eno nnn :anx+oc+im ne xenee 5OO nenonei.
B ionne 2OO5 i. ce(nee ocnoenne oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :on n Honime coc+annxno non+n 7O,
nnnex n cnynae ne+iex :on: iaxennoiycion, iaioncion, ioc+mnncio-cny6nnion n neinnnion,
yoneni ocnoennx 6in caxix nn:inx (:axe+no nne ce(neio). Honon+enino c +onin :ennx
ocnoennx ni(enxm+cx :oni nan6nxciax, +ano6eiciax, xeneniax , c+aaxonnniax n noxociax.
Vxenimammnecx a:nnnnx n yonnxx ocnoennx o+(eninix :on xnnxm+cx e:yni+a+ox cnc+exa-
+nnecioio nncnoco6nennx +en+onn :on i no+e6noc+xx nnnec+oon, n +ox nncne ny+ex
ncinmnennx nennnneia+eninix :exeni n ninmnennx ynac+ion, xoomo no(io+onnennix (nx
nnnec+nnnn. Hnannye+cx +aie ncnoni:onanne qon(on LC (nx ynynmennx +ancno+no-
ioxxynniannonnon nnqac+yi+yi n :onax.
96


3
1


2
0
0
5

.
)

.
)


2
4
0
,
8

1
2
3

6
0
6
,
0

2
3
2
9


1
1
5
6
,
0

4
1
8

7
7
1
3
,
9

2
1
6
9
0


1
2
2
,
1

6
0

4
6
3
,
1

3
8
2
3


8
0
5
,
0

3
6
0

1
0
3
9
,
4

7
2
4
1


4
1
6
,
7

1
8
1

2
7
8
0
,
6

5
3
8
5


3
8
3
,
5

1
2
0

3
3
5
3

5
9
0
3


7
0
8
,
0

1
6
0

2
3
6
3
,
2

1
1
0
0
3


3
8
2
,
8

1
0
3

1
4
2
8
,
8

1
0
1
5
2


2
1
0
,
0

8
3

1
3
5
,
6

1
5
4
1


3
2
9
,
8

8
2

3
7
2
,
5

4
8
3
2


2
8
8
,
9

9
3

4
7
8
,
1

3
7
3
9



1
1
0
5
,
2

1
9
0

1
0
7
0
,
6

1
0
3
0
0


8
1
2
,
0

1
1
9

4
5
9
8
,
5

1
8
7
8
8


5
2
4
,
1

2
0
2

5
9
7
,
2

5
9
6
0

.

97


T
A
K
A
T
A

P
E
T
R
I

P
A
R
T
S


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

S
O
P
P

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

C
E
R
A
M
I
K
A

M
A
R
C
O
N
I


o
.
o

(

)
,

C
M
3
-
P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

B
D
N


o
.
o
.


B
A
U
E
R

(

)
,

L
U
B
A
T
E
X


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

A
U
T
O
C
A
M

P
O
L
A
N
D


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

P
A
L
G
E
T
R
A
N
S

H
A
N
D
E
L
-
T
R
A
N
S
P
O
R
T


o
.
o
.

(

e
)
,

W
E
B
E
R
-
H
Y
D
R
A
U
L
I
K
A


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

L
O
V
I
N
K

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

D
R
.
S
C
H
N
E
I
D
E
R

A
U
T
O
M
O
T
I
V
E

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(


O
p
e
l

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
G
e
n
e
r
a
l

M
o
t
o
r
s

(

)
,

D
e
l
p
h
i

P
o
l
s
k
a

A
u
t
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

S
y
s
t
e
m
s


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

E
k
o
c
e
m


o
.
o
.
/
H
e
i
d
e
l
b
e
r
g
C
e
m
e
n
t

(

)
,

F
I
A
T
-
G
M

P
o
w
e
r
t
r
a
i
n

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

G
u
a
r
d
i
a
n

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
e
s

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

I
s
u
z
u

M
o
t
o
r
s


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

B
r
e
m
b
o

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

R
o
c
a

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
R
W

V
a
r
i
t
y

B
r
a
k
i
n
g

S
y
s
t
e
m
s

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
T
R
W

I
n
c
.

(

)
,

N
G
K

C
e
r
a
m
i
c
s

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
N
G
K

I
n
s
u
l
a
t
o
r
s

(

)
,

M
a
r
t
i
f
e
r

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

L
e
a
r

C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

P
o
l
a
n
d

I
I


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

M
a
n
u
l
i

A
u
t
o

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
M
a
n
u
l
i

R
u
b
b
e
r

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
e
s

S
p
A

(

)
,

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
l
u
x

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
e
n
n
e
c
o

A
u
t
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

E
a
s
t
e
r
n

E
u
r
o
p
e

(


M
o
t
o
r
o
l
a

I
n
c
.

(

,

I
T
/
R
&
D
)
,

R
R

D
o
n
n
e
l
l
e
y

(

)
,

A
M
S

(

,

I
T
/
R
&
D
)
,

B
e
c
k
e
r


o
.
o
.
/

A
l
c
r
o
-
B
e
c
k
e
r
s

A
B

(


F
a
u
r
e
c
i
a

G
o
r
z


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

V
W

P
o
z
n
a

)
,

H
o
m
a
n
i
t

(

)
,

T
e
l
e
s
k
o
p


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

P
o
d
r
a
v
k
a

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

I
C
T

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
e

C
a
r
t
a
i
r
e

T
r
o
n
c
h
e
t
t
i

)
,

R
o
b
i
n
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

B
r
i
n
k
h
a
u
s

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

K

n
e
c
k
e


o
.
o
.

(

)


98


V
o
l
k
s
w
a
g
e
n

M
o
t
o
r

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
V
o
l
k
s
w
a
g
e
n

A
G

(

)
,

S
i
t
e
c
h


o
.
o
.
/
S
i
t
e
c
h

S
i
t
z
t
e
c
h
n
i
k

G
m
b
H

(

)
,

V
i
e
s
s
m
a
n


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

G
a
t
e
s

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
B
M
e
c
a

(

)
,

R
o
y
a
l

E
u
r
o
p
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

F
a
u
r
e
c
i
a

L
e
g
n
i
c
a


o
.
o
.
/

F
a
u
r
e
c
i
a

(

)
,

B
r
u
g
m
a
n


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

C
+
P


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

S
a
n
d
e
n

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

V
o
s
s

A
u
t
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

w
e
z
i
-
t
e
c


o
.
o
.

(


B
S
H


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

G
i
l
l
e
t
t
e

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

I
n
d
e
s
i
t

C
o
m
p
a
n
y

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

C
e
b
a
l

T
u
b
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

D
S

S
m
i
t
h

.

(

)
,

C
h
i
p
i
t
a

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

K
o
f
o
l
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

H
T

L
a
n
c
e
t


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

H
a
e
r
i
n
g

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

F
u
j
i

S
e
a
l

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(


K
r
o
n
o
f
l
o
o
r
i
n
g

M
i
e
l
e
c


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

K
r
o
n
o
s
p
a
n

M
i
e
l
e
c


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

L
e
a
r

A
u
t
o
m
o
t
i
v
e

/
E
E
D
S
/

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

F
o
r
m
a
p
l
a
n

M
i
e
l
e
c


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

K
i
r
c
h
h
o
f
f

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

O
n
d
u
l
i
n
e

P
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

M
o
n
d
i

B
a
g
s

M
i
e
l
e
c


o
.
o
.

(


A
l
l

T
e
c
h


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

A
m
h
i
l

E
u
r
o
p
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

F
l
e
x
t
r
o
n
i
c
s

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

G
e
m
p
l
u
s

P
o
l
o
g
n
e


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

H
u
b
n
e
r

+

S
u
h
n
e
r


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

L
e
m
a
h
i
e
u

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

M
B
F


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

M
o
l
e
x

P
r
e
m
i
s
e

N
e
t
w
o
r
k
s


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l

P
a
p
e
r

K
w
i
d
z
y
n

.

(

)
,

J
a
b
i
l

C
i
r
c
u
i
t

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

N
e
f
a
b

P
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
a
p
f
l
o


o
.
o
.

(

)


99


A
t
h
l
e
t
i
c

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g


o
.
o

(

)
,

E
I
W

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
a
l

D
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

E
l
f
a

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

F
a
s
e
r
-
P
l
a
s
t

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

K
A
P
E
N
A

.

(

)
,

K
R
O
N
O
T
E
X

B
I
S


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

"
P
l
a
s
t

T
e
a
m

P
o
l
a
n
d
"


o
.
o
.

(


B
a
u
m
a

S
y
s
t
e
m

.

(

)
,

B
i
e
l
l
a

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
B
i
e
l
l
a
-
N
e
h
e
r

A
G

(

)
,

E
C

S
t
a
r
a
c
h
o
w
i
c
e


o
.
o
/
C
a
t
e
r
p
i
l
l
a
r

I
n
c
.

(

)
,

M
A
N

S
t
a
r

T
r
u
c
k
s

&

B
u
s
e
s


o
.
o
.
/
M
A
N

N
u
t
z
f
a
h
r
z
e
u
g
e

G
r
u
p
p
e

(

)
,

O
r
i
z
z
o
n
t
e

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

P
o
l
i
g
r
a
f
i
a
-
B
i
s


o
.
o
.
/
R
R

D
o
n
n
e
l
l
e
y

(

)
,

S
t
a
r
f
a
m


o
.
o
.
/
G
r
o
u
p
e

C
h
a
n
t
e
l
l
e

(

)
,

P
R
O
V
O
S
T

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.
/
P
R
O
V
O
S
T

.

(


"
M
a
s
a

D
e
c
o
r

P
o
l
s
k
a
"


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

"
M
A
L
O
W
"


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

"
3
E
"


o
.
o
.

(


S
t
a
h
l
s
c
h
m
i
d
t

&

M
a
i
w
o
r
m


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
O
O
R
A

P
o
l
a
n
d

.

(

)
,

U
n
i
w
h
e
e
l
s

P
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

P
o
l
d
e
c


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

T
o
h
o

P
o
l
a
n
d


o
.
o
.

(


T
o
y
o
t
a

M
o
t
o
r

M
a
n
u
f
a
c
t
u
r
i
n
g

P
o
l
a
n
d

(

)
,

T
o
y
o
t
a

M
o
t
o
r

I
n
d
u
s
t
r
i
e
s

P
o
l
a
n
d

(

)
,

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
l
u
x

P
o
l
a
n
d

(

)
,

W
r
o
z
a
m
e
t

(

)
,

P
o
l
a
r
/
W
h
i
r
p
o
o
l

(

)
,

B
r
i
d
g
e
s
t
o
n
e

D
i
v
e
r
s
i
f
i
e
d

P
r
o
d
u
c
t
s

P
o
l
a
n
d

(

)
,

W
A
B
C
O

P
o
l
s
k
a

(

)
,

F
a
u
r
e
c
i
a

W
a

b
r
z
y
c
h

(

)
,

N
S
K

S
t
e
e
r
i
n
g

S
y
s
t
e
m
s

E
u
r
o
p
e

(

)
,

G
e
n
e
r
a
l

E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

P
o
w
e
r

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
s

(

)
,

H
e
n
k
e
l

C
e
r
e
s
i
t

(


M
i
c
h
e
l
i
n

P
o
l
s
k
a

.

(

)
,

L
G

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c
s

M

a
w
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

B
R
U
S
S

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

A
t
i
s


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

C
e
t
c
o

P
o
l
s
k
a


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

M
a
z
u
r
-
L
o
o
k

I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

"
D
o
r
a
d
c
a

K
o
m
p
l
e
x
"


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

D
F
M


o
.
o
.

(

)
,

.

1OO
B 2OO5 i. oco6enno 6onimon oc+ c+onxoc+n nnnec+nnnonnix :a+a+ n OJ3 6in o+xenen n :onax
c caxix nn:inx yonnex ocnoennx, n +ox nncne oco6enno n: naxnno-xa:ycion, no(:nncion,
iaxennoiocion n +ano6eicion. Ho c+onxoc+n nnnec+nnnn :axe+no ni(enxnoci nx+i :on:
ia+onnniax, nan6nxciax n neinnniax, i(e noxnnnaci iann+anoexiax an+oxo6nninax noximnennoc+i,
a +aie no(:nnciax OJ3 n Lno-Hai Menen. B cnom onee(i, o6sex nnnec+nnnn n :onax: cnyncion,
c+aaxonnnion, iaioncion n cynanicion, 6in :nann+enino nne. Bo xnoiox i+o ni+eiano n: +oio
qai+a, n+o n i+nx :onax o6ocnonannci inannix o6a:ox xanie n ce(nne ne(nnnnxa+enn,
(enc+nymmne n xenee iann+anoexinx o+acnxx, co:(ammnx o(nonexenno o+nocn+enino 6onimoe
ionnnec+no nonix a6onnx xec+.
O+(eninie :oni nxem+ cnom o+acnenym cnennann:annm. B ia+onnnion, nan6nxcion,
neinnnion n +ano6eicion :onax neo6na(ae+ an+oxo6nninin cei+o. B iaxennoiocion,
iaioncion, ioc+mnncio-cny6nnion :onax o6ocnonannci qnxi n: 6yxanoio cei+oa, a n Lno-
Haie Menen neo6na(am+ qnxi (eenoo6a6a+inammen o+acnn. o(:nnciax OJ3 nnnneina
6onime nceio nnnec+nnnn n: o6nac+n 6i+onon +exnnin n n:(ennn n: oc+aninix nn(on
nexe+annnnecioio ciix, a noxociax OJ3 inei+nnecioio n on+nnecioio o6oy(onannx.
C nenim ycioennx nn+oia nonix nnnec+nnnn n Honimy, oco6enno n oco6ie iionoxnnecine
:oni, Mnnnc+ec+no iionoxnin no(io+onnno x( n:xenennn n :aionax, eiynnymmnx
xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i na i+nx +en+onxx. J+n n:xenennx iacam+cx, n nac+noc+n:
ynennnennx (onyciaexon o6men nnoma(n OJ3 (o 12 +ic. ia n yna:(nennx ycnonnn,
iacammnxcx xnnnxaninix o6sexon nnnec+nnnn n :anx+oc+n,
ynennnennx no:xonoc+n ncnoni:onannx ce(c+n n: +ai na:inaexoio 3onaninoio qon(a,
ne(na:nanennoio na no((eiy nonix nnnec+nnnn (6ina co:(ana no:xonoc+i noi+annon
no((ein nnnec+nnnn, n io(onix +anmax),
coiamennx nexenn, :a+annnaexoio na ne(oc+annenne :exnn no( nnnec+nnnn,
ynomenne ycnonnn cxeni inannqniannn cenicioxo:xnc+nennix n necnix :exeni,
ocno6o(ennx o+ ynna+i iocnomnnni n cnx:n c ynac+nex n c+on+enic+ne nnenenix
ioxxynniannn,
coiamennx none(yi nonynennx nnnec+oox a:emennx na c+on+enic+no nnqac+yi-
+yi.
Oco6ie iionoxnnecine :oni 6inn yne(eni na neno( 2O ne+, a i+o o:nanae+, n+o nocne(nne n:
nnx neia+x+ qyninnonnona+i n 2O17 io(y. Hecxo+x na noc+enenno nno(nxie oiannnennx,
iacammnecx o6sexon iocy(ac+nennon noxomn, oia:inaexon ne(nnx+nxx n OJ3, onn nce eme
xnnxm+cx nnnneia+eninixn xec+axn (nx ne(ennx xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n n Honime.
1O1
1. Oue npuuunu
Xo:xnc+nennax (ex+eninoc+i n Honime ne(e+cx na ocnonannn noc+ix n ynnnecaninix nannn.
Banenmne n: nnx i+o:
cno6o(a nanana xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n;
anenc+no xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+on iocy(ac+nennix n nac+nix, o+enec+nennix n :ay-
6enix;
eiynnonanne (ex+eninoc+n xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+on c noxomim inonnix xexann:xon;
oiannnenne nxema+enic+na iocy(ac+na (o neo6xo(nxoio xnnnxyxa.
J+n nnnnnni :aienneni n iaan+nonani n iionoxnneciox :aiono(a+enic+ne, coo+ne+c+nymmex
c+an(a+ax (exoia+nnecioio nanonoio iocy(ac+na.
2. Rpaeoeue ocuoeu
Hanonie ocnoni xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n n Honime :anncani n Ia(anciox io(eice,
Ko(eice +oionix o6mec+n n n 3aione o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n o+ 2 nmnx 2OO4 i.,
io+oin :axennn 3aion o xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n o+ 1999 i.
Ipaaaucku koekc (IK) eiynnye+ nxymec+nennie o+nomennx xe(y qn:nnecinxn nnnaxn,
mn(nnecinxn nnnaxn, xe(y qn:nnecinxn nnnaxn n mn(nnecinxn nnnaxn, a +aie oxany
nnnnix 6nai. 3aionox o+ 28 nmnx 199O i. i+o+ Ko(eic 6in nnne(en n coo+ne+c+nne c noncxo(xmen
n Honime +ancqoxannen iocy(ac+nennoio n iionoxnnecioio yc+onc+na. B Ko(eice co6nm(am+cx
+aine nnnnnni, iai nnnnnn anenc+na cy6sei+on ynac+nnion (annix nanonix o+nomennn
ne:anncnxo o+ qoxi co6c+nennoc+n, nnnnnn iinnnanen+noc+n n:anxnix o6x:a+enic+n (o6x:a+enic+no
o(non c+ooni o+nenae+ o6x:a+enic+ny n+oon c+ooni), nnnnnn cno6o(i (oionoon. B IK one-
(eneni, n nac+noc+n: nxymec+nennie nana nxnea+nnnoio xaai+ea iqqei+nnnie erga onnes;
ncnonnenne n neiamenne o6x:a+enic+n; nn(i (oionoon (nannxe, iynnn-no(an, ion+ai+annn,
na ninonnenne ionie+nix a6o+, no(x(a, aien+cinn, ioxnccnn, neeno:in, iicne(nnnn, nanxa,
aen(i, :anxa, 6anioncioio cne+a); nana, (enc+nn+eninie +oniio xe(y c+oonaxn (annoio
ia(ancio-nanonoio o+nomennx inter partes; nacne(onanne no :aiony n no :anemannm (:anemannx
n neia+i). 3aionox o+ 26 nmnx 2OOO i. n Ia(ancinn io(eic 6inn nneceni n:xenennx, io+oie
eiynnym+ (oiono nn:nnia, a coinacno n:xenennxx o+ 14 qenanx 2OO3 i. o(no:nanno yc+anonneno,
n+o ionneccnn, nnnen:nn n a:emennx xnnxm+cx coc+annon nac+im ne(nnx+nx n n xoxen+ eio
no(an neexo(x+ i noiyna+enm ne(nnx+nx. Onee(nie n:xenennx Ia(ancioio io(eica o+
1O2
2OO4 i. nnenn nonie nnnnnni o+ne+c+nennoc+n iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni (:.V. N 162, no:. 1692).
J+n yeiynnonannx iacam+cx co6i+nn n nanonix cn+yannn, no:nnimnx nocne 1 cen+x6x 2OO4 i.
Bce 6onee annne no(nnnxm+cx (annnx nannnax.
Koxe Ia(ancioio io(eica nanonoe yeiynnonanne xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n co(en+cx
+aie n Ko(eice +oionix o6mec+n, 3aione o6 an+ociox nane, o nane noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n
n +.n. Hn nnxenennn a:nnnnix nanonix ai+on (enc+nye+ nnnnnn nxcioio nana: nac+noe
nano nxee+ nenxymec+no nee( o6mnx.
C 1 xnnax 2OO1 i., coinacno :aiony o+ 15 cen+x6x 2OOO i. Koekc 1opronmx omec1n (K.T.O.),
(enc+nym+ nonie nannna (ex+eninoc+n +oionix o6mec+n. J+o+ :aion :axennn Toionin io(eic o+
1934 i. (c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn). Honin Ko(eic eiynnye+ yne(enne, oiann:annm,
qyninnonnonanne, :aii+ne, a +aie (enenne n neo6a:onanne +oionix o6mec+n. Linn ni(eneni
cne(ymmne nn(i +oionix o6mec+n: nonnoe +onanmec+no, na+necioe +onanmec+no, ioxxan(n+noe
+onanmec+no, ioxxan(n+noe-ainnonenoe o6mec+no, o6mec+no c oiannnennon o+ne+c+nennoc+im
n ainnonenoe o6mec+no. K.T.O. (ae+ one(enenne (oionoa +oionoio o6mec+na, coinacno io+ooxy
na+nei nnn ainnonei o6x:ym+cx c+exn+icx i (oc+nennm o6men nenn ny+ex nnecennx nina(on,
a +aie, ecnn coinamenne nnn yc+an o6mec+na i+o ne(ycxa+nnam+, noce(c+nox (yinx
conxec+nix (enc+nnn.
3aion nnocn+ +aie coo+ne+c+nymmne n:xenennx n (enc+nymmne noxa+nnnie ai+i, nnno(x nx
n coo+ne+c+nne c K.T.O. 3(eci nxem+cx n nn(y, n nac+noc+n, n:xenennx n 3aione o 6anio+c+nax,
Ia(anciox noneccyaninox io(eice, 3aione o no+ana+e, 3aione o 6yxian+eciox yne+e,
Hanoionox io(eice, 3aione o 6anionciox nane n +.(. O(naio oc+am+cx n cnne nac+nie nannna,
iacammnecx:
nannonaninix nnnec+nnnonnix qon(on;
o6mec+n, ne(ymnx 6anionciym (ex+eninoc+i;
o6mec+n, ne(ymnx 6nn nnn nne6nenie inin;
o6mec+n, ne(ymnx 6oiecine ion+oi;
O+enec+nennoio (eno:n+a nennix 6yxai A.O.;
c+axonix ioxnannn;
ioxnannn nnnec+nnnonnix qon(on;
nencnonnix ioxnannn;
o6mec+n nannonaninoio +enenn(ennx n a(nonemannx;
o6mec+n, no:nnimnx n e:yni+a+e ioxxennann:annn n nnna+n:annn iocy(ac+nennix
ne(nnx+nn;
(yinx +oionix o6mec+n, yeiynnonannix n o+(eninix :aionax.
B (eia6e 2OO3 i. n K.T.O. 6inn nneceni n:xenennx iacammnecx, n nac+noc+n, o6x:annoc+n
neo6a:onannx noc+oio +onanmec+na n nonnoe +onanmec+no, ecnn io(onon o6oo+ ne(nnx+nx
n +enenne (nyx onee(nix ne+ nenicn+ cyxxy n 4OO +ic. eno (i+o+ nnxn+ 6in :a+ex nonimen (o
8OO +ic. eno). Lino +aie yc+anonneno, n+o nnnx+ne o6mec+nox qnnanconix o6x:a+enic+n, io+oie
6onee nex n (na a:a nenimam+ a:xe ocnonnoio iann+ana o6mec+na, 6e: coo+ne+c+nymmeio
noc+anonnennx ynac+nnion, ne 6y(e+ cnn+a+icx ne(enc+nn+eninix (3aion o+ 12 (eia6x 2OO3 i. o6
n:xenennn :aiona Ko(eic +oionix o6mec+n n neio+oix (yinx :aionon :.V. N 229, no:. 2276).
3akou o cnooe xosac1neuuo ea1euuoc1u o+ 2 nmnx 2OO4 i. (:.V. N 173, no:. 18O7) nxec+e
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn eiynnye+ nanano, none(enne n :anemenne xo:xnc+nennon
(ex+eninoc+n, a +aie :a(ann oianon ny6nnnnon a(xnnnc+annn n i+on o6nac+n. 3aion one(enxe+
nonx+ne ne(nnnnxa+enx, io+oix xnnxe+cx qn:nnecioe, mn(nnecioe nnno, a +aie oiann:annonnax
e(nnnna ne xnnxmmaxcx mn(nnecinx nnnox, ocymec+nnxmmax o+ co6c+nennoio nxenn xo:xnc+nennym
(ex+eninoc+i. B ianec+ne ne(nnnnxa+enen :aion nn:nae+ +aie na+neon noc+oio +onanmec+na
n o6nac+n ocymec+nnxexon nxn xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
1O3
B :aione one(eneni in+enn, no:nonxmmne nn:na+i ne(nnnnxa+enx n ianec+ne xnio,
xanoio nnn ce(neio. J+o ce(neio(onax xaicnxaninax nennnnna :anx+oc+n, a +aie xaicnxaninax
io(onax niynia ne++o o+ no(an +onaon, n:(ennn, ycnyi, a +aie qnnanconix oneannn nnn
xaicnxaninax cyxxa ai+nnon 6ananca, coc+annennoio na ionen o(noio n: (nyx nocne(nnx o+ne+nix ne+.
Ha ocnonannn i+nx in+enen ne(nnnnxa+enex xnio cnn+ae+cx cy6sei+: (i) n io+oox :anx+o
n ce(nex n io( xenee 1O-+n a6o+nnion, a +aie (ii) nonynammnn io(onym niyniy ne++o, ne
nenimammym iinnnanen+a 2 xnnnnonon eno nnn y io+ooio cyxxa ai+nnon ne nenicnna
iinnnanen+a 2 xnnnnonon eno.
Manix ne(nnnnxa+enex cnn+ae+cx cy6sei+: (i) c nncnox :anx+ix xenee 5O nenonei n (ii) nony-
nammnn nnc+ym io(onym niyniy o+ no(a ne 6onee iinnnanen+a n 1O xnnnnonon eno nnn ecnn
cyxxa 6ananconix ai+nnon ne nenicnna iinnnanen+a 1O xnnnnonon eno.
Ce(nnx ne(nnnnxa+enex cnn+ae+cx cy6sei+: (i) c nncnox :anx+ix xenee nex 25O nenonei
n (ii) nonynammnn nnc+ym io(onym niyniy o+ no(a ne nenimammym iinnnanen+a n 5O xnnnnonon
eno nnn ecnn cyxxa 6ananconix ai+nnon ne nenicnna iinnnanen+a 43 xnnnnonon eno.
3aion one(ennn +aie nnnnnni (ex+eninoc+n na +en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima o+(enennn n
ne(c+ann+enic+n nnoc+annix ne(nnnnxa+enen. Hnoc+annie ne(nnnnxa+enn xoiy+
ocymec+nnx+i xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i nnn n nn(e o+(enennn, nnn n nn(e ne(c+ann+enic+n.
nana:on (ex+eninoc+n o+(enennx ne xoe+ o+nnna+icx o+ ne(xe+noio (nana:ona nnoc+annoio
ne(nnnnxa+enx. nana:on (ex+eninoc+n ne(c+ann+enic+na xoe+ oxna+ina+i ncinmnn+enino
ocymec+nnenne (ex+eninoc+n n o6nac+n einaxi n no(nnennx nnoc+annoio ne(nnnnxa+enx.
Ha ne(nnnnxa+enx no:naiae+cx o6x:annoc+i nec+n (ex+eninoc+i, co6nm(ax nannna nec+non
ioniyennnn, ynaax o6inan n :aionnie nn+eeci no+e6n+enen. On (onen ninonnx+i
one(enennie :aionox ycnonnx ne(ennx i+on (ex+eninoc+n (nannxe, n o6nac+n :(anooxanennx,
ny6nnnnon nanc+nennoc+n, oxani oiyammen ce(i, noqeccnonaninon a++ec+annn). Bce 6e:
ncinmnennx ne(nnnnxa+enn o6x:ani noxema+i na +onaax nnn nx ynaioniax nnqoxannm na
noniciox x:iie, iacammymcx na:nannx non:no(n+enx no(yi+a n eio +onnin a(ec, na:nanne
+onaa, a +aie (yiym nnqoxannm, ecnn i+oio +e6ym+ oco6ie ne(nncannx. 3a neninonnenne
i+nx qoxaninix ycnonnn ne(ennx xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n yioae+ (enenin m+aq.
3aion o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n no:nonn na oiani ny6nnnnon a(xnnnc+annn
o6x:annoc+i no((enna+i ne(nnnnxa+enic+no. B nac+noc+n, i+n oiani (onni nnnnnnona+i
n:xenennx nanonoio eiynnonannx, cnoco6c+nymmne a:nn+nm ne(nnnnxa+enic+na, no((enna+i
yne(ennx, qnnancnymmne xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i, nec+n nnqoxannonnym n nocne+n-
+eniciym (ex+eninoc+i, oiann:onina+i yne6y n o6nac+n a:nn+nx ne(nnnnxa+enic+na,
no(nnia+i co+y(nnnec+no xe(y ne(nnnnxa+enxxn.
Honom rocyapc1na ua upeupua1u, one(enxexax iai nnamenne qnnanconix niio(
one(enennoxy ne(nnnnxa+enm n o6nac+n eio xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, n noniciox
:aiono(a+enic+ne +ai e iai n n :aiono(a+enic+ne LC cnn+ae+cx no+nnoenamen n(ee
iionoxnnecion cno6o(i n nannnax cno6o(noio inia, +ai iai (ae+ nnnnneinn o(nnx
xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+ax :a cne+ (yinx. 3ane+ na oia:anne +aion noxomn cxxinae+cx nee:
ncinmnenne n: neio +ai na:inaexon ne:nann+eninon noxomn, nennnnna io+oon n neno(
onee(nix +ex ne+ ne nenimae+ 1OO +ic. eno (nnnnnn de nininis) n ne(na:nanennon (nx
ne(nnnnxa+enen, (enc+nymmnx ncinmnn+enino na xec+nix iniax, c +ex ycnonnex, n+o i+a
noxomi ne iacae+cx iicno+a. Veiynnonannx, o+nenammne c+an(a+ax Lnonencioio com:a, 6inn
nne(eni n Honime Jarono oo yc:oeux onycnuocnu u nasopa sa nyo:u:nou nootm :
npenpunuane:eu (:.V. N 6O o+ 27 nmnx 2OOO i., no:. 7O4). J+o+ :aion c neio+oixn n:xenennxxn
(enc+nonan (o xax 2OO4 i., +.e. (o xoxen+a nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC. On 6in o+xenen co (nx
nc+ynnennx n cnny Jarona o nopre noeeenu e eonpocax, racamuxc nyo:u:nou noou (:.V. N 123
o+ 3O anenx 2OO4 i., no:. 1291). B nac+oxmee nexx nnnnnni n in+enn ne(oc+annennx ny6nnnnon
noxomn n Honime, ioxe i+oio :aiona, eiynnym+cx nenoce(c+nenno nannnaxn Lnonencioio
com:a n oionoox o nc+ynnennn.
1O4
Bc+ynnenne Honimn n LC o:nanae+ nxxoe nnxenenne nannn LC, eiynnymmnx nonoci
o (onyc+nxoc+n ny6nnnnon noxomn, n oco6enno c+a+in 88 n 89 oionoa n (nei+nn Cone+a LC
(WL N 659/1999 i. o+ 22 xa+a 1999 i.), one(enxmmnx none(yy nnxenennx nannn oionoa LC
n o6nac+n ny6nnnnon noxomn. Oianox, ocymec+nnxmmnx na(:o :a oia:annex noxomn
ne(nnnnxa+enxx, ne xnnxe+cx, iai anime, ne(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn
n no+e6n+enen, a Lnonenciax ioxnccnx. Ona o6x:ana ocymec+nnx+i na(:o :a cnc+exon noxomn,
oia:inaexon ne(nnnnxa+enxx iocy(ac+naxn-nnenaxn n onennna+i ee coo+ne+c+nne c oionoox
n (yinxn nonoennxxn :aiono(a+enic+na LC. B cnom onee(i, :a(anen Vnannennx no :amn+e
ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen, coinacno nonoennxx 3aiona o nox(ie none(ennx n nonocax
iacammnxcx ny6nnnnon noxomn o+ 2OO4 i., xnnxe+cx noce(nnnec+no xe(y cy6sei+axn,
oia:inammnxn noxomi n Koxnccnen, a +aie noxomi n no(io+onie no+nqniannn :axnnennn (iai
noiaxx noxomn, +ai n nn(nnn(yaninon noxomn).
H:xenennx n cnc+exe ny6nnnnon noxomn iacannci +aie (enc+nymmnx nnnnnnon no+nqniannn
noxomn, a nx noxnnennex 6ina :axena qaiyni+a+nnnoio nnqoxnonannx Lnonencion ioxnccnn
o6x:a+eninon no+nqniannen. Coinacno :aiono(a+enic+ny LC ne(e nex oia:a+i ny6nnnnym
noxomi (iai noiaxxi noxomn, +ai n nn(nnn(yaninym noxomi), neo6xo(nxo nonynn+i
ainen+annm Lnonencion ioxnccnn. J+o iacae+cx nonix cnynaen oia:annx no((ein xo:xnc+nymmnx
cy6sei+ax. B cnom onee(i, o6x:a+eninon no+nqniannn ne no(nen+ noxomi, cymec+nymmax
n nonnxannn c+a+in 88.1 oionoa (nnnoenne !V oionoa o nc+ynnennn, inana 3 nyni+ 1)
1
. K nen
o+nocx+cx:
nce (enenie ce(c+na, nanannennie na noxomi (o 1O (eia6x 1994 i.,
(enenie ce(c+na, na:nannie n (ononnennn i nnnoennm !V, +.e. no+nqnnnonannie
Koxnccnn (o :anemennx a6o+i no no(io+onie oionoa o nc+ynnennn (7 ce(c+n),
ce(c+na noxomn, io+oie n axiax neexo(non none(yi nomnn (nonnoe +ec+nonanne
6inn nn:nani ne(ce(a+enex Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen n ianec+ne
o+nenammnx acquis, a Lnonenciax ioxnccnx ne ni(nnnyna no+nn nnx no:aennn. B +aiox
cnynae, noxomi 6y(e+ nnxenx+icx neio+ooe nexx nocne nc+ynnennx.
O+ i+nx eiynnonannn 6inn c(enani +oniio (na ncinmnennx. Onn iacam+cx qnnanconon noxomn
(nx xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnnnxa+enen (coo+ne+c+nenno (o ionna 2O11 i. n (o ionna 2O1O i.),
a +aie (nx n:6annix cei+oon (+ancno+a n (ex+eninoc+n, cnx:annon c non:no(c+nox,
neea6o+ion nnn no(aen cenicioxo:xnc+nennix no(yi+on, :a ncinmnennex i6ononc+na
n non:no(nix no(yi+on)
2
.
3. Paspeueuun ua eepeuue xosncfeeuuo
penfenuuocfu u koueccuu
Heio+oie nn(i (ex+eninoc+n +e6ym+ nonynennx ionneccnn. Onn +onno one(eneni 3aionox
o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n nxec+e c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn i nexy.
____________________
1
K cymec+nymmen noxomn 6ina o+necena: noxomi, oia:inaexax n oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax ((enc+nye+ (o 2O17 i.),
in+enn na:nanennx n o+ne+noc+n, iacammnecx ce(c+n n: iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a na nayiy, noiaxxa einonaninon
noxomn (nx ne(nnnnxa+enen, (enc+nymmnx n oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax, no:xemenne :a+a+ na :aa6o+nym nna+y (nx
neconemennone+nnx a6o+nnion, ce(c+na na o6ynenne n c+a6nninoe +y(oyc+onc+no, a +aie noxomi (nx ne(nnnnxa+enen,
ne(oc+annxmmnx a6o+y :ainmnennix.
2
Coinacno oionoy o nc+ynnennn nn(nnn(yaninax noxomi n noiaxxi noxomn, oia:inaexie n cei+oe +ancno+a
n cenicioio xo:xnc+na, ne 6y(y+ +e6ona+i no+nqniannn Lnonencion ioxnccnn n neno( (o ionna +e+ieio io(a nocne
nc+ynnennx. B i+o+ neno( Honima (onna iaxonn:nona+i nannna ne(oc+annennx noxomn n i+nx cei+oax c (nei-
+nnaxn LC.
1O5
C 1 xnnax 2OO5 io(a ionneccnx neo6xo(nxa nn ne(ennn xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n n o6nac+n:
noncia nnn a:ne(in :aneen none:nix ncionaexix; n:nnenennx none:nix ncionaexix n: :aneen,
cina(nonannx cy6c+annnn n o+xo(on n ionix noo(ax, oiyammnx ionie nia6o+in;
n:io+onnennx n +oionnn n:inna+ion, oynex n 6oennnacaxn, a +aie n:(ennxxn n +exnonoinxxn
(nx axnn n nonnnnn; n:io+onnennx, neea6o+in, cina(nonannx, nee(ann, acne(enennx
n o6oo+a +onnnnox n ineinen; oxani nm(en n nxymec+na; no:(ymnoio +ancno+a; acno-
c+anennx a(no- n +enenoiaxx (c+a+ix 46).
Konneccnn n (yinx o6nac+xx xoiy+ 6i+i ne(oc+anneni +oniio ny+ex n:xenennx i+oio 3aiona
n +oniio +oi(a, ioi(a i+o cnx:ano c neo6xo(nxoc+im o6ecnenennx 6e:onacnoc+n nnn
o6oonocnoco6noc+n iocy(ac+na, nnn (yinx nanix o6mec+nennix nn+eecon.
Konneccnn ne(oc+annxe+ ynonnoxonennin (nx i+oio oian. J+o+ oian nnane o+ia:a+i
n ni(ane ionneccnn, ecnn ona xoe+ yioa+i nn+eecax o6oonocnoco6noc+n n 6e:onacnoc+n
iocy(ac+na n ia(an. Xo:xnc+nymmnn cy6sei+, ne(e nex nana+i one(enennym ne(nnnnxa-
+eniciym (ex+eninoc+i, xoe+ xo(a+anc+nona+i o nonynennn noxecci (ne(nan+eninoe a:e-
menne) na ionneccnm. B noxecce ne(oc+annenne ionneccnn c+ann+cx n :anncnxoc+i o+ ninonnennx
ycnonnn ocymec+nnennx xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, +e6ymmen ee nonynennx. Lcnn ionnnec+no
ne(nnnnxa+enen, o+nenammnx ycnonnxx, neo6xo(nxix (nx nonynennx ionneccnn n (ammnx
iaan+nm nannninoio ocymec+nnennx (ex+eninoc+n, io+oym ona oxna+inae+, 6onime nex
ionnnec+no ionneccnn, +o oian, ni(ammnn ionneccnn o6sxnnxe+ +oi na ne(oc+annenne
ionneccnn. Konneccnx ne(oc+annxe+cx na one(enennoe nexx, no ne ioone nex na 5 ne+ n ne
(onime nex 5O ne+, ecnn ne(nnnnxa+eni ne ne(naiae+ 6onee ioo+ioio nexenn.
Heio+oie nn(i xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n (cnime 2OO) xnnxm+cx eiynnyexon (ex+eninoc+im,
(nx ne(ennx io+oon neo6xo(nxo ninonnenne coo+ne+c+nymmnx ycnonnn n nnecenne n eec+
ne(nnx+nn, ne(ymnx eiynnyexym (ex+eninoc+i. O(naio no xnoinx o6nac+xx cymec+nye+
o6x:annoc+i nonynennx a:emennn. Heeneni nn(on (ex+eninoc+n (26), +e6ymmnx a:emennn,
naxo(n+cx n nac+nix :aionax, nannxe o 6anionciox nane, o6 nnnec+nnnonnix qon(ax,
o nocnn+annn n +e:noc+n n no+nno(enc+nnn anioionn:xy. nnen:nx +e6ye+cx nn ocymec+nnennn
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n n o6nac+n, one(enennon :aionaxn o (oonox n ene:no(oonox
+ancno+e.
B :aione nonncani cnynan, ioi(a oian a(xnnnc+annn xoe+ o+ia:a+i n ni(ane ionneccnn
(nnn oiannnn+i ee (nana:on) nnn o+ia:a+i n :anecennn n eec+ eiynnyexon (ex+eninoc+n. Koxe
+oio, n nex yia:ani nnnnnni ocymec+nnennx ion+onx :a xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+im, a +aie
ycnonnx o+xeni ionneccnn.
4. Perucfpaun xosncfeykux cyLekfoe
He(nnnnxa+eni xoe+ nana+i xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i nocne einc+annn n eec+e
ne(nnnnxa+enen Honicioio cy(e6noio eec+a (Krajowy Rejestr Suowy) nnn nocne einc+annn
n eec+e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n (wiuencja Lzialalnosci Gospouarczej) n (annon ixnne. O6mec+no
+oionoio nana n c+a(nn oiann:annn xoe+ nana+i (ex+eninoc+i (o einc+annn.
B coo+ne+c+nnn c :aionox o+ 2O aniyc+a 1997 i. o Honiciox cy(e6nox eec+e (:.V. o+ 2OOO i.,
N 6O, no:. 7O2, N 114, no:. 1193), Honicinn cy(e6nin eec+ oxna+inae+: 1) eec+ ne(-
nnnnxa+enen; 2) eec+ acconnannn, (yinx o6mec+nennix n noqeccnonaninix oiann:annn,
qon(on, a +aie ny6nnnnix yne(ennn :(anooxanennx; 3) eec+ necoc+ox+eninix (onnnion.
Peec+ ne(e+cx no nnnnnny iai qoxaninon (ia(in nxee+ nano o:naioxn+icx c (annixn
eec+a), +ai n xa+enaninon (oc+ynnoc+n (neni:x onan(ina+icx ne:nannex (annix eec+a),
a +aie (oc+onenoc+n :anncen. He(nnnnxa+enn o6x:ani ai+yann:nona+i (annie eec+a.
1O6
Peec+ ne(nnnnxa+enen oxna+inae+, n nac+noc+n, cne(ymmne cy6sei+i: +onanmec+na n o6mec+na
(nonnie, na+necine, ioxxan(n+nie, c oiannnennon o+ne+c+nennoc+im, ainnonenie),
ioonea+nni n iocy(ac+nennie ne(nnx+nx, yne(ennx HHOKP, nnoc+annie ne(nnx+nx
n o+(enennx nnoc+annix ne(nnx+nn, a +aie o6mec+na n:anxnoio c+axonannx.
Vne+ xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n qn:nnecinx nnn ne(e+ ixnna no xec+y n+enic+na
ne(nnnnxa+enx. Vne+y no(nea+ ne(nnnnxa+enn, xnnxmmnecx qn:nnecinxn nnnaxn.
Hn einc+annn nce cy6sei+i o6x:ani ne(oc+ann+i coo+ne+c+nymmexy oiany nnqoxannm
o ne(nnx+nn. Te6onannx n i+on o6nac+n yeiynnonani n Honiciox cy(e6nox eec+e n n :aione
o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
He(nnnnxa+eni, nannnammnn (ex+eninoc+i, nxec+e c :axnnennex o :anecennn n eec+ ne(nn-
nnxa+enen nnn n ixnnnin eec+ xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n, xoe+ no(a+i :axnnenne c noci6on
o(nonexenno:
:aeinc+nona+i eio n nannonaninox oqnnnaninox eec+e cy6sei+on nao(noio xo:xnc+na
(RLGO),
:aeinc+nona+i nnn ai+yann:ona+i (annie, iacammnecx yne+a n n(en+nqniannn nano-
ionna+enimnion n nniacca+oon (!P),
:aeinc+nona+i eio n yne(ennn connaninoio c+axonannx n ianec+ne nna+enimnia n:nocon
nnn :ac+axonannoio nnna.
Hnnnnni einc+annn ne(c+ann+enic+n nnoc+annix ne(nnnnxa+enen eiynnym+cx n 3aione
o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n. He(c+ann+enic+no (onno 6i+i nneceno n eec+
ne(c+ann+enic+n nnoc+annix ne(nnnnxa+enen, io+oin ne(e+ xnnnc+, iynymmnn nonoci
iionoxnin. K :axnnennm o nnecenne n eec+ cne(ye+ nnnon+i: (i) yne(n+eninin ai+ ((oiono,
yc+an) nnoc+annoio ne(nnnnxa+enx, (ii) ninnciy n: +oionoio eec+a, (iii) :axnnenne
ne(nnnnxa+enx o6 yne(ennn ne(c+ann+enic+na n Honime, (iv) (oiyxen+, no(+ne(ammnn
nano ncnoni:ona+i (annin mn(nnecinn a(ec (nx ne(ennx (ex+eninoc+n.
C 1 xnnax 2OO7 i. nanne+ a6o+y Jen+aninax nnqoxannx o xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
Le 6y(e+ nec+n xnnnc+, iynymmnn nonoci iionoxnin. B :a(ann JHX 6y(e+ nxo(n+i:
a) ynannenne 6aniox nnqoxannn o6o ncex ne(nnnnxa+enxx, 6) ne(oc+annenne nnqoxannn
o ne(nnnnxa+enxx, n) ni(ana coo+ne+c+nymmnx cnanoi o+nocn+enino co(eannx eec+a.
Jenim co:(annx nen+aninon nnqoxannn xnnxe+cx o6ecnenenne 6onimen no:annoc+n iionoxnnecion
n:nn.
5. Koufponu sa npepnpuuuuafeneu
Honoennx :aiona o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n nxec+e c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn
i nexy, ne+io one(enxm+ nnnnnni ion+onx (ex+eninoc+n ne(nnnnxa+enx oianaxn ny6nnnnon
a(xnnnc+annn. Lin nnnx+ nnnnnn, no io+ooxy o(nonexenno neni:x nannna+i n nono(n+i
6onime nex o(ny noneiy. O(naio i+o ne iacae+cx cn+yannn, ioi(a:
a+nqnnnonannie xe(ynao(nie (oionoi noc+anonnxm+ nnane,
none(enne ion+onx neo6xo(nxo (nx nono(nxoio n o+nomennn ne(nnnnxa+enx cne(c+nnx
nnn (o:nannx,
ion+oni iacae+cx o6ocnonannoc+n noci6i o no:na+e nanoia c +onaon n ycnyi (HC) (o
conemennx i+oio no:na+a,
none(enne ion+onx o6ocnonano yio:on (nx n:nn, :(oonix nnn oiyammen ce(i,
ion+oni nono(n+cx n axiax ninonnennx o6x:a+enic+n, ni+eiammnx n: :aiono(a+enic+na
LC o :amn+e ioniyennnn nnn n o6nac+n :amn+i qnnanconix nn+eecon Lnonencioio
coo6mec+na.
1O7
Bexx none(ennx ion+onx n cnynae xnio, xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnnnxa+enen ne xoe+
nenima+i 4-x ne(eni, a 6onimnx 8-xn ne(eni. O(naio i+o oiannnennx ne (enc+nym+ n cn+yannxx,
ioi(a (onyciae+cx no:xonoc+i o(nonexennoio none(ennx 6onime nex o(noio ion+onx.
Bimena:nannie nnnnnni ion+onx ne nnxenxm+cx no o+nomennm i ne(nnnnxa+enxx,
oxnanennix: a) oco6ix nanoionix na(:oox, 6) na(:oox :a qon(onix n +onanix iniaxn,
n) 6anioncinx na(:oox, i) c+axonix na(:oox, () nencnonnix na(:oox n e) ne+ennanix
na(:oox.
6. Cocfeeuuocfu ua seunk u uepeuuuocfu
Honoennx, eiynnymmne nano na :exeninie ynac+in (:exnm) co(ea+cx, ne(e nceio,
n Ia(anciox io(eice, a +aie n 3aione o+ 19 oi+x6x 1991 i. o6 ynannennn cenicioxo:xnc+nennon
ne(nnnxoc+im Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni. Hano na nna(enne :exnen xoe+ nno6e+a+i cne(ymmne
qoxi: nano co6c+nennoc+n, nano nennoio noni:onannx, aen(a, ne(oc+annenne n 6e:no:xe:(noe
noni:onanne, nee(ana n noc+oxnnoe ynannenne.
Hano co6c+nennoc+n ne(oc+annxe+ nna(eniny, n ne(enax nana (:a ncinmnennex nonnx nnn),
no:xonoc+i noni:ona+icx nemim n coo+ne+c+nnn c ee na:nanennex, n nac+noc+n, c nenim n:nnenennx
niio(i n noni:onannx nemim. J+o o+ny(aexoe nano, neexo(xmee no nacne(c+ny, no(neamee
ncnonnennm. Hno6e+enne n o+ny(enne i+oio nana noncxo(n+ n qoxe no+ananinoio
ai+a.
Hano nennoio noni:onannx iacae+cx iocy(ac+nennix n xynnnnnaninix :exeni, acnonoennix
na +en+onn ioo(on n nacenennix nyni+on, a +aie/nnn ne(na:nanennix, coinacno nnany
ncnoni:onannx :exeni, na necenicioxo:xnc+nennie nenn. Ono yc+anannnnae+cx n qoxe no+ananinoio
ai+a na 99 ne+ (no ne xenee nex na 4O ne+) c no:xonoc+im no(nennx na cne(ymmne 4O-99 ne+
n xnnxe+cx o+ny(aexix nanox, neexo(xmnx no nacne(c+ny, no(neamnx ncnonnennm.
Coc+annie nac+n ne(nnnxoc+n, +.e. nonno cnx:annie c i+nx :exeninix ynac+iox (:(annx,
xo:xnc+nennie noc+onin, cooyennx, (eenix, nocennie nnoma(n), xnnxm+cx co6c+nennoc+im
nennoio noni:ona+enx. On o6x:an nnocn+i +e6yexym nna+y :a noni:onanne, a +aie c6oi n nanoin,
cnx:annie c i+nx :exeninix ynac+iox.
Ka(ax :exeninax ne(nnnxoc+i (onna nxe+i nno+ennym inniy, naxo(xmymcx n ne(ennn
anonnoio cy(a, n io+oon o+aae+cx mn(nnecinn c+a+yc i+on ne(nnnxoc+n. B a:(ene ! innin
yia:inae+cx nn( ne(nnnxoc+n (xec+o, acnonoenne, nnoma(i), no !! ee nna(enen nnn nennin
noni:ona+eni, n !!! oiannnennie nemnie nana, n !V nno+eia.
Ho(o6nie ycnonnx, na io+oix (annax oiann:annonnax e(nnnna, ne nxemmax mn(nnecioio
nnna (iocy(ac+nennax n xynnnnnaninax) n nxemmax ne(nnnxoc+i n cnoex noc+oxnnox
ynannennn, xoe+ noni:ona+icx i+on ne(nnnxoc+im, yc+anannnnam+cx c+aoc+on no o+nomennm
i ne(nnnxoc+n, io+oax naxo(n+cx n co6c+nennoc+n iocy(ac+na, nnn nannennex nonx+a, nnn
non+ox ixnni n cnynae ne(nnnxoc+n, xnnxmmencx coo+ne+c+nenno co6c+nennoc+im nonx+a nnn
ixnni. 3exnn n: ecycon cenicioxo:xnc+nennon co6c+nennoc+n Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni xoiy+ 6i+i
nee(ani n noc+oxnnoe ynannenne no emennm ne(ce(a+enx Aien+c+na cenicioxo:xnc+nennon
co6c+nennoc+n Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni.
3aion o noni:onannn cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+im Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni o+ 19 oi+x6x
1991 i. a:emae+ no(ay, nee(any n nennoe noni:onanne, a +aie noni:onanne n aen(y
iocy(ac+nennix :exeni nnoc+annaxn. B (nyx nenix cnynaxx neo6xo(nxo nonynenne coinacnx
Mnnnc+a nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn. On o6x:an eeio(no ne(c+annx+i Cenxy (annie
o no(ae :exnn nnoc+annax. Cymec+nymmax nai+nia noia:ana, n+o i+o cioee qoxaninax
none(ya, xo+x n +e6ymmax nnoi(a xnoio nexenn, +ai iai nce nnnec+oi, xo(a+anc+nymmne
1O8
o nonynenne a:emennx na iynnm :exnn nnn ne(nnnxoc+n c nenim ne(ennx xo:xnc+nennon
(ex+eninoc+n (necenicioxo:xnc+nennon), +aioe coinacne nonynnnn. Ho(aa nnn nee(ana n nennoe
noni:onanne :exeni, xnnxmmnxcx co6c+nennoc+im Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni nnn co6c+nennoc+im
ixnni, xoe+ noncxo(n+i ncinmnn+enino na ycnonnxx +en(ea.
Honx+ne nnoc+anna n nonnxannn 3aiona o+ 13 nmnx 2OO3 i. o6 nnoc+annax (:.V. N 128,
no:. 1175), coinacno c+a+ie 2 :aiona, nno6eno cne(ymmee one(enenne nnoc+annex cnn+ae+cx
ia(oe nnno, ne nxemmee nonicioio ia(anc+na.
O6mec+na +oionoio nana xnnxm+cx nnoc+annaxn, ecnn nx mn(nnecinn a(ec naxo(n+cx
:a ne(enaxn Honimn. Hnoc+annaxn xnnxm+cx +aie o6mec+na, nxemmne mn(nnecinn a(ec
n Honime, n io+oix nnoc+anni nxem+ (oxnnnymmym no:nnnm.
Honoennx 3aiona o+ 192O i. o nno6e+ennn ne(nnnxoc+n nnoc+annaxn (:.V. N 54 o+
1996 i., no:. 245 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn), iacam+cx ncex cnynaen nno6e+ennx ne(nnnxoc+n
ne:anncnxo o+ eio qoxi, +o ec+i (oionoi o6 o6xene, no(ae, (aennn, coinamennx o non:nennox
noni:onannn, nnecennx ainnoneaxn ano+a n o6mec+no (xnnxmmeecx no :aiony nnoc+annex)
n nno6e+a+enicion (annoc+n. Cne(ye+ nn i+ox noxnn+i, n+o +e6onanne nonynennx a:emennx
iacae+cx ne +oniio ne(nnnxoc+n, nnna(neamen Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ne nnn ixnne, no n nac+non
ne(nnnxoc+n.
Mnnnc+, iynymmnn nny+ennne (ena, ni(ae+ coinacne na nno6e+enne ne(nnnxoc+n
nnoc+annex, ecnn co c+ooni xnnnc+a nannonaninon o6ooni ne 6y(e+ no:aennn. B cnynae
cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+n, ecnn ne 6y(e+ no:aennn co c+ooni xnnnc+a, iynymmeio
cenicioe xo:xnc+no n a:nn+ne cena (c+a+ix 1 a6:an 1 n 1a 3aiona o6 n:xenennn :aiona o nno6e+ennn
ne(nnnxoc+n nnoc+annaxn :.V. N 49 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 466).
He +e6ye+ nonynennx a:emennx, n nac+noc+n, nno6e+enne nnoc+annex:
o+(eninon ina+ni;
o+(eninoio noxemennx, ne(na:nanennoio no( iaa;
ne(nnnxoc+n, ecnn nnoc+anen nonnae+ n Honime ne xenee 5-+n ne+ co (nx nonynennx nn(a
na n+enic+no;
n+ooio (oxa, ecnn noiyna+eni na :aionnox ocnonannn n neneinno nonnae+ ne xenee
ne+iex ne+ na +en+onn Honimn;
ne(nnnxoc+n ecnn nnoc+anen xnnxe+cx cynyiox/cynyion nonicioio ia(annna n nonnae+
n Honime ne xenee 2 ne+ co (nx nonynennx nn(a na n+enic+no, a ne(nnnxoc+i nno6e+ae+cx
n conxec+nym co6c+nennoc+i (c cynyiox/on);
ne(nnnxoc+n, ecnn nnoc+anen n xoxen+ nno6e+ennx nxee+ nano na nacne(c+no no :aiony,
a no(ammnn xnnxe+cx nna(eninex (nnn nennix noni:ona+enex) ne(nnnxoc+n ne xenee 5-+n
ne+;
ne:ac+oennix ynac+ion nnoma(im ne 6onee O,4 ia na +en+onn ioo(on (no ncen Honime),
nno6e+aexix mn(nnecinx nnnox, nxemmnx xec+o naxo(ennx n Honime n ion+onnyexix
nnoc+annex, na eio yc+annie nenn;
ne(nnnxoc+n, ecnn nnoc+anen xnnxe+cx ia(annnox nnn ne(nnnnxa+enex iocy(ac+n-
nnenon Lnonencioio iionoxnnecioio noc+anc+na, :a ncinmnennex cenicioxo:xnc+nennix
n necnix ne(nnnxoc+en (nnoma(im ne xenee nex 1 ia), n +enenne 12 ne+ co (nx nc+ynnennx
Honimn n LC n :a ncinmnennex n+ooio (oxa n +enenne 5 ne+ co (nx nc+ynnennx;
cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+n (n :ana(nix n cenenix noeno(c+nax), ecnn nnoc+anen
xnnxe+cx ia(annnox c+ani nnena LC n Lnonencioio iionoxnnecioio noc+anc+na,
nocne nc+enennx 7 ne+ co (nx :ainmnennx (oionoa o6 aen(e, ecnn n +enenne i+oio nexenn on
nnnno nen na i+on ne(nnnxoc+n cenicioxo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i (n +ox nncne n ianec+ne
na+nea nnn ainnonea o6mec+na) n na :aionnix ocnonannxx nonnan na +en+onn
Honimn;
1O9
cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+n (n nen+aninix, noc+onnix n mnix noeno(c+nax), ecnn
nnoc+anen xnnxe+cx ia(annnox c+ani nnena LC n Lnonencioio iionoxnnecioio
noc+anc+na, no nc+enennn 3 ne+ co (nx :ainmnennx (oionoa o6 aen(e, ecnn n +enenne i+oio
nexenn on nnnno nen na i+nx yio(ixx cenicioxo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i (n +ox nncne
n ianec+ne na+nea nnn ainnonea o6mec+na) n na :aionnix ocnonannxx nonnan na
+en+onn Honimn.
Bimena:nannie a:emennx ne acnoc+anxm+cx na ne(nnnxoc+i, acnonoennym n nn-
iannnnon :one.
Coinacno acnoxennm Mnnnc+a nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn o+ 26 anenx 2OO4 i.
no nonocy o no(o6non nnqoxannn n nn(e (oiyxen+on, ne(oc+annxexix nnoc+annex,
xo(a+anc+nymmnx o ni(ane a:emennx na nno6e+enne ne(nnnxoc+n (:.V. N 94, no:. 925),
a:emenne (enc+nn+enino n +enenne coia, yia:annoio n a:emennn, ni(ae+cx no :axnnennm,
n io+oox (onna co(ea+icx nnqoxannx o noiyna+ene n no(anne ne(nnnxoc+n, ee no(o6nax
xaai+enc+nia n no(+ne(enne nannnnx qnnanconix ce(c+n, (oc+a+onnix (nx ocymec+nnennx
noiynin. K :axnnennm cne(ye+ nnnon+i +aine (oiyxen+i iai: ninnciy n: coo+ne+c+nymmeio
eec+a (nnn eec+a qn:nnecinx nnn) noiyna+enx, :axnnenne no(anna o naxeennn conemn+i
no(ay ne(nnnxoc+n, ai+yaninym ninnciy n: no:exeninon innin, ninnciy n: eec+a :exeninix
ynac+ion, cnaniy n: ynannennx ixnni o c+a+yce ne(nnnxoc+n coinacno nnany a:nn+nx
ixnni.
Iocnomnnna n ia:nanencinx xaiax, ynnannnaexax nn no(ane :axnnennx, coc+annxe+: 5 :n.
:a :axnnenne, O,5 :n. :a ia(oe nnnoenne n 15 :n. :a (oneennoc+i. Ho(o6nym nnqoxannm
o+nocn+enino +e6yexix (oiyxen+on xono nonynn+i n ena+axen+e a:emennn n ionneccnn
Mnnnc+ec+na nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn (+en. 48 (22) 6O15998 (no nonocy o a:emennxx,
iacammnxcx nno6e+ennx ne(nnnxoc+n nnoc+annaxn) nnn 48(22) 6O14188 (no nonocy
o ionneccnxx); qaic 48 (22) 848 97 81) nnn n Honiciox aien+c+ne nnqoxannn n nnoc+annix
nnnec+nnnn (+en. 48 (22) 334 98 OO; qaic 48 (22) 334 99 99).
Hocne ni(ann a:emennx (noxecci) cne(ye+ neenec+n na cne+ Hanoionoio ynannennx
Bamana-Moio+yn iocnomnnny, coc+annxmmym 14OO :n. :a a:emenne n 83 :n. :a noxeccy.
Pa:emenne +e6ye+cx +aie na nno6e+enne ainnn nnn naen nnoc+annex n o6mec+ne,
xnnxmmexcx nna(eninex nnn nennix noni:ona+enex ne(nnnxoc+n (coinacno ynoxxny+oxy
acnoxennm Mnnnc+a nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn). O(naio i+o ne iacae+cx o6mec+n,
ainnn io+oix io+nym+cx na 6ne.
Honynenne coinacnx na nno6e+enne ne(nnnxoc+n ne ocno6o(ae+ nnoc+annen o+ ninonnennx
(yinx +e6onannn, ne(sxnnxexix :aionox i nna(eninax ne(nnnxoc+n n :exeninix ynac+ion.
B nac+noc+n, cne(ye+ nonynn+i nce +e6yexie a:emennx a(xnnnc+a+nnnix nnac+en, ynn+inammne
nnani a:nn+nx +en+onn, oxany naxx+nnion iyni+yi, oxany oiyammen ce(i n nanno-
naninix naion, c+on+eninin :aion, nano noni:onannx n ioncenannn nny+ennnx no(.
Ho+ennnaninin noiyna+eni (onen nonen+i, xoiy+ nn :exnn nnn ne(nnnxoc+i 6i+i
ncnoni:onani (nx +ex nenen, io+oie on naxeen eann:onina+i.
11O
7. Rpofueopecfeue uouononucfuecko npakfuke
u uepopocoeecfuo koukypeuuu
He(nnnnxa+enn, ne(ymne xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i na noniciox inie, nona(am+ no(
(enc+nne o(nonexenno (nyx cnc+ex :aiono(a+enic+na o ioniyennnn nonicioio 3aiona o :amn+e
ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen (na:inaexoio +aie an+nxonononinix :aionox) n enonencinx
:aionon: a(econannix ne(nnnnxa+enxx nannn ioniyennnn n: oionoa o Lnonenciox
coo6mec+ne (LC) c+a+ix 81, :anemammax coinamennx xe(y ne(nnnnxa+enxxn, nanannennie
no+nn ioniyennnn, c+a+ix 82, :anemammax :noyno+e6nenne (oxnnnymmen no:nnnen na inie
n Pacnoxenne N 139/2OO4/LC o+ 2O xnnax 2OO4 i. no nonocy o ion+one ionnen+annn
ne(nnnnxa+enen (EC Merger Regulation).
Pa:iannnenne nonnoxonnn xe(y Lnonencion ioxnccnen (enonencinx oianox no nonocax
ioniyennnn) n ne(ce(a+enex Vnannennx no (enax :amn+i ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen (\OKiK)
(coo+ne+c+nymmnx nonicinx oianox), ni+eiae+ n: Pacnoxennx Cone+a LC N 1/2OO3, io+ooe
nc+ynnno n cnny c 1 xax 2OO4 i. J+o acnoxenne naxo(n+ nnxenenne n Honime na ocnonannn
oionoa o nc+ynnennn n LC n coinacno c+a+ixx 91 n 92 Konc+n+ynnn PH. Pacnoxenne coxannno
nnnnnn nnxa+a Lnonencion ioxnccnn n cnc+exe oianon no :amn+e ioniyennnn n Coo6mec+ne.
He(ce(a+eni nonicioio Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen xoe+ no:6y(a+i
an+nxonononinoe non:no(c+no na ocnonannn :aionon LC, ecnn one(enennax nai+nia 6y(e+
oia:ina+i nnnxnne na +oionnm xe(y Honimen n (yinxn c+anaxn LC, nnnex Koxnccnx 6y(e+
na(neamnx oianox (nx nonocon o coinamennxx nnn nai+niax, io+oie oia:inam+ nnnxnne na
ioniyennnm n 6onime nex +ex iocy(ac+nax-nnenax (+ai na:inaexin nnnnnn 3+). Lcnn +aiax
nai+nia ne 6y(e+ oia:ina+i nnnxnnx na +oionnm c (yinxn iocy(ac+naxn-nnenaxn, +o non:no(c+no
6y(e+ nono(n+icx coinacno o+enec+nennix :aionax (an+nxonononinin :aion).
Koxnccnx xnnxe+cx +ex oianox, io+oin emae+, iaine cnynan (onni 6i+i nccne(onani
na nannonaninox yonne, a iaine na yonne LC. Bo:6y(enne non:no(c+na Koxnccnen c nenim
no+nno(enc+nnx naymennxx c+a+in 81 n 82 oionoa o Lnonenciox coo6mec+ne, nnmae+
Vnannenne no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen nana na nnxenenne i+nx c+a+en. Lcnn
Vnannenne no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen ne(e+ non:no(c+no no i+oxy (eny, Koxnccnx
(onna y:na+i xnenne i+oio oiana nee( no:6y(ennex non:no(c+na.
He(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen o6x:an n:anxo(enc+nona+i
nn nnxenennn nannn ioniyennnn LC c an+nxonononinixn oianaxn n (yinx iocy(ac+nax-
nnenax n c Lnonencion ioxnccnen n axiax +ai na:inaexon Lnonencion ce+n ioniyennnn.
3akou o samu1e koukypeuuuu u upan uo1peu1eue eiynnye+ nox(oi n nnnnnni
no+nno(enc+nnx oiannnennm ioniyennnn n naymennm ionnei+nnnix nn+eecon no+e6n+enen,
a +aie no+nno(enc+nnx ionnen+annn ne(nnnnxa+enen, nanannennon no+nn ioniyennnn,
ecnn ona nnene+ :a co6on (nnn xoe+ nonneni) nocne(c+nnx na +en+onn Honimn. K (enc+nnxx,
oiannnnnammnx ioniyennnm (n :aione ne+ nonx+nx xonononnc+cine (enc+nnx) o+neceni
coinamennx, nanannennie no+nn ioniyennnn n :noyno+e6nenne (oxnnnymmen no:nnnen.
B nac+noc+n, :anemeno :ainmna+i coinamennx, n io+oix nxxo nnn iocnenno yc+anannnnam+cx
neni n (yine ycnonnx iynnn n no(an +onaon, nno(x+cx oiannnennx nnn ion+oni :a
non:no(c+nox, c6i+ox nnn nnnec+nnnxxn; non:no(n+cx a:(en inia iynnn nnn no(an,
oiannnnnae+cx (oc+yn i iniy nnn ni+ecnxm+cx n: neio ne(nnnnxa+enn, ne nncoe(nnnnmnecx
i coinamennm. 3ane+ oxna+inae+ ion:on+aninie coinamennx (xe(y ne(nnnnxa+enxxn,
(enc+nymmnxn na +ox e caxox yonne o6oo+a) n ne+nianinie (xe(y ne(nnnnxa+enxxn,
(enc+nymmnxn na a:nix yonnxx o6oo+a).
3ane+ na coinamennx, oiannnnnammne ioniyennnm, ne nxee+ a6conm+noio xaai+ea. On ne
oxna+inae+ +ai na:inaexix ne:nann+eninix coinamennn, ynac+nnin io+oix ion+onnym+ ne
111
6onee 5 inia. Lcnn ne(nnnnxa+enn (enc+nym+ na a:nix yonnxx o6oo+a i+a (onx xoe+
(oc+nia+i n 1O. Bo:xoni +aie +ai na:inaexie iynnonie ncinmnennx, nne(ennie ny+ex
acnoxennx Cone+a xnnnc+on (nannxe, nino(xmne n:-no( :ane+a neio+oie ne+nianinie
coinamennx n cei+oe an+oxo6nnen nnn neio+oie coinamennx, iacammnecx +ancqe+a
+exnonoinn).
oxnnnymmen cnn+ae+cx +aiax no:nnnx ne(nnnnxa+enx, io+oax no:nonxe+ exy ne (onycia+i
no:nninonennx iqqei+nnnon ioniyennnn na inie ny+ex co:(annx ycnonnn (ex+eninoc+n,
n :nann+eninon xee ne :anncxmnx o+ ioniyen+on, xo:xnc+nennix na+neon nnn nonyna+enen.
He(nonaiae+cx, n+o ne(nnnnxa+eni nxee+ (oxnnnymmym no:nnnm, ecnn eio (onx n inie
nenimae+ 4O. Hannnne (oxnnnymmen no:nnnn ne no+nnoenn+ :aiony, no :noyno+e6nenne
i+on no:nnnen c+oio :anemeno. 3noyno+e6nenne xoe+ nac+ynn+i, n nac+noc+n, ny+ex nxxoio
nnn iocnennoio nanx:inannx nenec+nix nen (nannxe, ne:xeno nicoinx nnn ne:xeno nn:inx),
nanx:inannx +xenix ycnonnn coinamennn, oiannnennx non:no(c+na, c6i+a nnn +exnnnecioio
noiecca, nanocxmnx ne( na+neax nnn no+e6n+enxx, nnn no+nno(enc+nnx qoxnonannm
ycnonnn, neo6xo(nxix (nx no:nninonennx nnn a:nn+nx ioniyennnn.
B Honime nm6oe naxeenne ionnen+annn, o+nenammen one(enennix n :aione +e6onannxx,
(onno 6i+i :axnneno He(ce(a+enm Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen.
Konnen+annx ne xoe+ ocymec+nn+icx 6e: ne(nan+eninon ainen+annn i+oio oiana. B cnynae,
ecnn ionnen+annx 6ina ocymec+nnena 6e: coinacnx He(ce(a+enx Vnannennx no :amn+e
ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen, a nocc+anonnenne ioniyennnn ne xnnxe+cx no:xonix (yinx ny+ex,
an+nxonononinin oian xoe+ no+e6ona+i, n nac+noc+n, no(enn+i ne(nnx+ne nnn no(a+i nce
nnn nac+i eio nxymec+na. He(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen ni(ae+
emenne, a:emammee ionnen+annm, ecnn ona ne ni:one+ no:nninonennx nnn yiennennx
(oxnnnymmen no:nnnn.
Hone(yi, nanenennie no+nn (enc+nnn, oiannnnnammnx ioniyennnm, nono(x+cx n a(xn-
nnc+a+nnnox nox(ie. He(e nex ni(a+i noc+anonnenne o no:6y(ennn an+nxonononinon
none(yi nnn emenne o6 o+ia:e, ne(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen
xoe+ nonec+n nixcnxmmym none(yy. Ha(neamax none(ya no:6y(ae+cx +aie no :axnnennm
ne(nnnnxa+enx nnn com:a ne(nnnnxa+enen, io+oie (oiay+ cnon nanonon nn+eec, oianon
+en+onaninoio caxoynannennx n iocy(ac+nennoio ion+onx, ne(c+ann+enx no+e6n+enen
n oiann:annn no+e6n+enen.
H:xenennx i 3aiony o :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen, nnecennie n 2OO2 i., :nann+enino
ynynmnnn nonoenne no+e6n+enen 6naio(ax noxnnennm no:xonoc+n no(a+i nci o :amn+e
ionnei+nnnix nn+eecon no+e6n+enen. B ianec+ne (enc+nnn, naymammnx i+n nn+eeci, 6inn
nn:nani +aine ne:aionnie (enc+nnx ne(nnnnxa+enx, iai:
nene(oc+annenne no+e6n+enxx (oc+onenon, nan(nnon n nonnon nnqoxannn;
ne(o6oconec+nax nnn nno(xmax n :a6ny(enne einaxa;
ninmnenne n (oionoa ne(o:nonennix oionooi, eec+ io+oix ne(e+cx ne(ce(a+enex
Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen.
Hone(ya no (eny naymennx ionnei+nnnix nn+eecon no+e6n+enen xoe+ 6i+i no:6y(ena
no (oniy cny6i nnn no :axnnennm He(c+ann+enx no :amn+e ia(ancinx nan, He(c+ann+enx
:ac+axonannix nnn, ne(c+ann+enen no+e6n+enen n oiann:annn no+e6n+enen, n +.n. :ay6enix
(nnecennix n cnncoi coo+ne+c+nymmnx oiann:annn n iocy(ac+nax Lnonencioio com:a).
Hone(ya cno6o(na o+ ynna+i iocnomnnni; ona ne xoe+ no(ona+icx (onime, nex (na xecxna
c xoxen+a no:6y(ennx none(yi (no ncinmnn+enino cnonoxy (eny ne (onime, nex +n xecxna).
Pemenne nnnnxae+ ne(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen. On xoe+
ni(a+i emenne o :ane+e (enc+nnn, nn:nannix naymammnxn ionnei+nnnin nn+eec no+e6n+enen,
a :a ia(in (eni noconin n ninonnennn emennx, on xoe+ nanon+i (enenin m+aq
n iinnnanen+e o+ 1O (o 1OOO eno.
112
He(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen (\OKiK) xoe+ nnxenx+i
nexennie xei. B one(enennix cn+yannxx on xoe+ n nox(ie ncinmnennx, (o +oio iai none(ya
n Vnannennn :aionnn+cx, o6x:a+i ne(nnnnxa+enx neia+n+i nnxenenne one(enennon
nai+nin, io+oax xoe+ nnnec+n i neo6a+nxix nocne(c+nnxx na inie.
He(ce(a+eni \OKiK nonynnn nano nono(n+i ion+oni, n +ox nncne n qoxe o6icia, no
:axnnennm Lnonencion ioxnccnn nnn oianon (yioio iocy(ac+na-nnena 6e: no:6y(ennx
o+(eninon none(yi.
B Honime cymec+nye+ nnc+n+y+ leniency, coo+ne+c+nymmnn Hnqoxannn Lnonencion ioxnccnn
o+ 2OO2 i. no nonocy o6 ocno6o(ennn o+ naia:annx (enenix m+aqox n o cnnennn a:xea
(enenoio m+aqa n (enax o ia+ene. He(nnnnxa+eni, nnnnxammnn ynac+ne n ia+eninox
cionoe, io+oin nenix noc+ann+ n n:nec+noc+i \OKiK o cymec+nonannn :anemennoio
coinamennx nnn ne(c+ann+ (oia:a+enic+no, no:nonxmmee ne(ce(a+enm \OKiK ni(a+i emenne,
nn:nammee (annym nai+niy iai oiannnnnammym ioniyennnm (ecnn ne(ce(a+eni ne acnonaian
n i+o nexx +ainxn (oia:a+enic+naxn nnn nnqoxannen), 6y(e+ ocno6o(en o+ naia:annx (o(naio
on (onen ninonnn+i eme x( (yinx ycnonnn).
3a (enc+nnx, oiannnnnammne ioniyennnm n ne(ymne i ne:xenon ionnen+annn iann+ana,
yioam+ nicoine naia:annx, a:nnnnie n :anncnxoc+n o+ +xec+n naymennx. 3a naymenne
xa+enaninix nox an+nxonononinoio :aiona yioae+ (enenin m+aq n a:xee (o 1O
niynin :a ne(i(ymnn io(. Haia:annx :a naymenne none(yi, iacammencx ionnen+annn,
na:nanam+cx ncei(a, a :a oc+aninie naymennx qaiyni+a+nnno.
Pemenne ne(ce(a+enx \OKiK xono o6anona+i n cy(e no :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen,
io+oin ninonnxe+ qyninnn cy(a nenon nnc+annnn.
B noniciox :aiono(a+enic+ne ioxe :aiona o :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen, (enc+nye+
+aie n+oon :aion, nenim io+ooio xnnxe+cx :amn+a ioniyennnn. J+o 3akou o1 16 aupeua 1993 r.
o ope c ueopoconec1uo koukypeuuue, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn i nexy. Lcnn 3aion
o :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen nanannen ne(e nceio na :amn+y cno6o(i ioniyennnn, +o
neni :aiona o 6oi6e c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen coc+on+ n o6ecnenennn nec+non
ioniyennnn xe(y ne(nnnnxa+enxxn. O6a :aiona xnnxm+cx ai+axn, (ononnxmmnxn (yi (yia,
no:nonxmmnxn :amnma+i nn+eeci ne(nnnnxa+enen iai o+ an+nioniyen+nix (enc+nnn co
c+ooni 6onee cnninix ynac+nnion inia, +ai n o+ nn(nnn(yaninix (enc+nnn ne(nnnnxa+enen.
B o+nnnne o+ (enc+nnn, nanenennix no+nn ioniyennnn, c io+oixn cne(ye+ 6oo+icx c noxomim
a(xnnnc+a+nnnix xe, 6oi6a c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen (onna 6i+i o6ecnenena
c noxomim ce(c+n, ne(ycxo+ennix ia(ancinx n yiononnix nanox.
3aion o 6oi6e c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen one(enxe+ none(yi, ne(o+namammne
n 6ommnecx c noxnnennxxn ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn n xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n,
oco6enno n noximnennox n cenicioxo:xnc+nennox non:no(c+ne, c+on+enic+ne, +oionne n ycnyiax.
J+a 6oi6a ne(e+cx n nn+eecax nceio o6mec+na: ne(nnnnxa+enen, innen+on n oco6enno
no+e6n+enen.
He(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen, n nonnxannn :aiona, xnnxe+cx (enc+nne, no+nnoenamee
:aiony nnn nnnx+ix noxax, naymammee nn+eeci (yioio ne(nnnnxa+enx nnn innen+a.
K (enc+nnxx ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn o+neceni, n nac+noc+n: nno(xmee n :a6ny(enne
o6o:nanenne ne(nnx+nx, nonoe nnn nno(xmee n :a6ny(enne o6o:nanenne ieoiaqnnecioio
noncxo(ennx +onaon n ycnyi, naymenne +anni ne(nnx+nx, yionoi ac+oiny+i nnn ne
ninonnn+i coinamenne, ionnonanne no(yinnn, nonie o6nnnennx nnn ne(o6oconec+noe
:axnannnanne, ocnonenne (oc+yna i iniy, no(iyn nnna, ninonnxmmeio ny6nnnnym qyninnm,
a +aie ne(o6oconec+nax nnn :anemennax einaxa n oiann:annx cnc+exi nannnoo6a:non
no(an. C 2OOO i. ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen n o6nac+n einaxi nn:nano acnoc+anenne
cannn+eninon einaxi, no+nnoenamen nnnx+ix noxax. Bnecennie n :aion n 2OO2 i. n n 2OO4 i.
n:xenennx acmnnnn cnncoi (enc+nnn, nn:nannix n ianec+ne ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn.
113
H+ai, :aionox :anemeno:
nnnn+i nenx+c+nnx xanix noc+anmniax n (oc+yne na inoi ny+ex no(an +onaon nnn
ycnyi n o6sei+ax c +oionon nnoma(im cnime 4OO x
2
no nene 6e: +oionon nanenin
(ne(ycxo+eni o+inonennx o+ i+oio nannna);
nec+n no(ay +onaon nnn ycnyi, ne(oc+annxx ncex nnn neio+oix noiyna+enxx 6ecnna+nym
nexnm n nn(e +onaon nnn ycnyi, o+nnnammnxcx o+ ne(xe+a no(an ((onyciae+cx, o(naio,
(o6annenne +onaa ne6onimon c+onxoc+n nnn o6a:na +onaa, nannxe, iocxe+nin i nne+noxy
ynany);
n o6nac+n einaxnix no+een qoxynnona+i ne(noennx +ai, n+o6i co:(a+i y no+e6n+enx
yneennoc+i n niniime;
oiann:onina+i cnc+exy nannnoo6a:non no(an;
nno(n+i n o6oo+ noce(c+nox ce+n xaia:nnon (ncion+nix +onaon, nxemmnx xaiy nna(enina
ce+n nnn :anncnxix cy6sei+on, n ionnnec+ne, nenimammex 2O c+onxoc+n nceio o6oo+a;
nec+n xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i no +ai na:inaexon aien+nncion cnc+exe (ionconnyxa),
io+oax coc+on+ n ynannennn nxymec+nox, naiannnnaexix n axiax iynni c ynac+nex
no+e6n+enen, co:(annon c nenim qnnancnonannx noiynin nan, (nnnxix nemen,
ne(nnnxoc+n nnn ycnyi n noni:y ynac+nnion iynni;
oiann:onina+i iynni c ynac+nex no+e6n+enen c nenim qnnancnonannx noiynoi n cnc+exe
ionconnyxa.
He(nnnnxa+eni, nn+eeci io+ooio 6inn naymeni nnn oia:annci no( yio:on ncne(c+nne
ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn, xoe+ +e6ona+i neiamennx ne(o:nonennix (enc+nnn,
yc+anennx nocne(c+nnn ne(o:nonennix (enc+nnn, ny6nniannn :axnnennx coo+ne+c+nymmeio
co(eannx, ioxnencannn nnnnnennoio yme6a, no:na+a neo6ocnonanno nonynennon niio(i,
ynna+i coo+ne+c+nymmen (enenon cyxxi na o6mec+nennie nenn, cnx:annie c no((eion
nonicion iyni+yi. Cy(, no :axnnennm ynonnoxonennoio nnna, xoe+ +aie ninec+n emenne o6
n:(ennxx, nx ynaionie, einaxnix xa+enanax n (yinx ne(xe+ax, nenoce(c+nenno cnx:annix
c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen. B nac+noc+n, cy( xoe+ ninec+n emenne o6 nx ynnn+oennn nnn
:anncnennn n cne+ no:xemennx yme6a.
Lcnn ai+ ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn yioae+ nn+eecax no+e6n+enen, c +e6onannex
ne(nnnx+i coo+ne+c+nymmne xei xoe+ nic+ynn+i ne(ce(a+eni Vnannennx no :amn+e
ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen, nannonaninie nnn einonaninie oiann:annn, yc+annon nenim
io+oix xnnxe+cx :amn+a nn+eecon no+e6n+enen n ne(c+ann+enn no+e6n+enen.
Hannna, :amnmammne no+e6n+enen, ne(e nceio :anemam+ nno(n+i no+e6n+enen
n :a6ny(enne. 3a nenannninoe o6o:nanenne +onaon (nnn o+cy+c+nne +aioio o6o:nanennx),
io+ooe xoe+ nnec+n innen+on n :a6ny(enne o+nocn+enino noncxo(ennx, ionnnec+na, ianec+na,
ioxnonen+on, cnoco6a n:io+onnennx, nnio(noc+n, no:xonoc+n nnxenennx, exon+a, ioncenannn
nnn (yinx cymec+nennix cnonc+n +onaon nnn ycnyi, a +aie :a coii+ne ncia, cnx:annoio c nx
ncnoni:onannex, yioae+ naia:anne n nn(e aec+a nnn (enenin m+aq. Taioxy e naia:annm
no(nen+ +o+, i+o ne(o6oconec+no ioniynye+ n o6nac+n einaxi, einaxnix no+een nnn
non:no(n+ no(ay c 6ecnna+non nexnen. 3a a:inamenne ceie+non nnqoxannn ne(nnx+nx
ne(ycxa+nnae+cx naia:anne n nn(e (enenoio m+aqa, oiannnennx nnn nnmennx cno6o(i coiox
(o 2 ne+. Taioxy e naia:annm no(nen+ nnno, io+ooe, ne:aionno nonynnn ceie+nym
nnqoxannm ne(nnx+nx, aciinae+ ee (yioxy nnny nnn ncnoni:ye+ i+n cne(ennx n co6c+nennon
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n. 3a (ex+eninoc+i n aien+nncion cnc+exe yioae+ naia:anne n nn(e
nnmennx cno6o(i o+ 3 xecxnen (o 8 ne+.
3aion o 6oi6e c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen nocn+ ncnoxoia+eninin n (ononnxmmnn
xaai+e no o+nomennm i (yinx nanonix eiynnonannxx n o6nac+n :amn+i xo:xnc+nymmnx
cy6sei+on (Ko(eic +oionix o6mec+n, 3aion o +onanix :naiax, o6 n:o6e+a+enic+ne n +.n.).
114
8. Oxpaua uufennekfyanuuo cocfeeuuocfu
3a nocne(nne io(i n Honime non:omnn cymec+nennie neexeni n nanonon cqee, iacammencx
oxani nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n (noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n, a +aie an+ocioio nana
n cxenix nan). Onn 6inn naneneni na iaxonn:annm (enc+nymmeio nana c conexennixn
xnonixn c+an(a+axn n xnnxnnci e:yni+a+ox :ainmnennix Honimen xe(ynao(nix
coinamennn. K nanenmnx (enc+nymmnx noxa+nnnix ai+ax o+nocn+cx 3aion o6 an+ociox nane
n cxenix nanax (o+ 1994 i. c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn), a +aie 3aion o noximnennon
co6c+nennoc+n (o+ 2OOO i. c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn). 3aion o noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n,
io+oin nc+ynnn n cnny 22 aniyc+a 2OO1 i., nxee+ xaai+e io(eica.
Honima no(nncana inannie xe(ynao(nie (oionoi, eiynnymmne nonoci, cnx:annie
c oxanon noximnennon n nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n:
Hanciym ionnennnm o6 oxane noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n (o+ 1975 i.);
Lenciym ionnennnm o6 oxane nn+ea+ynix n xy(oec+nennix non:ne(ennn (o+ 199O i.);
Pnxciym ionnennnm o6 oxane nan ncnonnn+enen, non:no(n+enen qonoiaxx n nema+eninix
oiann:annn (o+ 1997 i.);
Coinamenne o +oionix acnei+ax nan nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n (TR!PS/WTO) o+ 2OOO i.;
Konnennnm o ni(ane enonencinx na+en+on (o+ 2OO4 i.).
B axiax oxani n:o6e+ennn n none:nix o6a:non Honima no(nncana +aie Bamnni+oncinn
(oiono o na+en+nox co+y(nnnec+ne ((enc+nye+ c 199O i.), C+ac6yicioe coinamenne o xe(y-
nao(non na+en+non inaccnqniannn (c 1997 i.), a no +onanix :naiax n nac+noc+n, Ma(n(cioe
coinamenne o xe(ynao(non einc+annn +onanix :naion (c 1991 i.), Hnnnioe coinamenne
o xe(ynao(non inaccnqniannn +onaon n ycnyi (nx einc+annn :naion (c 1997 i.), Bencioe
coinamenne o xe(ynao(non inaccnqniannn n:o6a:n+eninix inexen+on :naion (c 1997 i.).
Oxpaa npoumuneo cocmseocmu
Hoximnennax co6c+nennoc+i n Honime (n:o6e+ennx, none:nie o6a:ni, noximnennie
o6a:ni, +onanie :nain, ieoiaqnnecioe o6o:nanenne, +onoiaqnx nn+einonannix cxex)
oxanxe+cx :aionox. Ia(ane :ay6enix c+an n nnoc+annie mn(nnecine nnna noni:ym+cx
nanaxn oxani noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n na ocnonannn :ainmnennix Honimen xe(ynao(nix
(oionoon nnn na ocnone n:anxnoc+n, ecnn i+o ne naymae+ xe(ynao(nix coinamennn.
An+oi n:o6e+ennn, none:nix n noximnennix o6a:non, +onoiaqnn nn+einonannix cxex
nxem+ nano na:
nonynenne na+en+a, nana na oxany nnn nana n cnx:n c einc+annen;
no:naia(enne;
cciniy na nx an+oc+no n onncannxx, eec+ax n (yinx (oiyxen+ax n ny6nniannxx.
B axiax iaxonn:annn nonicioio :aiono(a+enic+na c :aiono(a+enic+nox Lnonencioio com:a
n Honime 6inn nne(eni nannna, iacammnecx (ononnn+eninix :amn+nix nan (nx nene6nix
no(yi+on n no(yi+on :amn+i ac+ennn. Onn nanann (enc+nona+i co (nx nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC.
Hano na nonynenne na+en+a na n:o6e+enne, nano na oxany none:noio o6a:na nnn n cnx:n
c einc+annen noximnennoio o6a:na xono no(ana+i n nacne(ona+i.
He:anncnxo o+ +exnnnecion o6nac+n, n Honime ua1eu1m ni(am+cx na nonie n:o6e+ennx,
io+oie nxem+ n:o6e+a+enicinn yoneni (+.e. ne ni+eiam+ ec+ec+nennix o6a:ox n: coc+oxnnx
+exnnin) n xoiy+ nan+n noximnennoe nnxenenne. Honynenne na+en+a (ae+ nano na iicinm:nnnoe
ncnoni:onanne n:o6e+ennx na +en+onn c+ani c ioxxenecion nnn noqeccnonaninon nenim
n +enenne 2O-+n ne+ c xoxen+a no(ann :axnin na n:o6e+enne n Ha+en+noe ynannenne. Bna(enen
na+en+a xoe+ nee(a+i (yioxy nnny nnnen:nm na ncnoni:onanne eio n:o6e+ennx. H+o6i
115
nonynn+i na+en+, cne(ye+ no(a+i :axniy nxec+e c onncannex n:o6e+ennx n oionoiaxn
(co(eamnxn, n nac+noc+n, o6nac+i +e6yexon na+en+non oxani) n Ha+en+noe ynannenne.
B Honime ne(xe+ox :amn+i xnnxe+cx +aie enonencinn na+en+, ni(annin Lnonencinx na+en+nix
ynannennex na ocnonannn Konnennnn o ni(ane enonencinx na+en+on.
B 2OO4 i. e:n(en+i no(ann :axniy n Ha+en+noe ynannenne PH na na+en+nym :amn+y 2381
n:o6e+ennx. Hx ionnnec+no n nocne(nne io(i coxanxnoci na nn6nn:n+enino o(nnaionox
yonne. B cnom onee(i, naxe+nnaci ac+ymax +en(ennnx n cnynae :axnoi nonicinx n:o6e+a+enen
na na+en+nym :amn+y cnonx n:o6e+ennn :a y6eox (n 199O-2OO2 ii. c 154 (o 9O39).
Bicoiax (nnaxnia xaai+en:ye+ +aie ionnnec+no nnoc+annix n:o6e+ennn :axnnennix
i na+en+non :amn+e n Honime (n 199O-2OO4 ii. ono ynennnnnoci c 1316 (o 5359). B 2OO4 i. nononnna
:axnoi noncxo(nna n: (nyx c+an: CHA (27) n Iexannn (23). J+n c+ani nn(nonann +aie
no ionnnec+ny ni(annix na+en+on. B 2OO4 i. (onx Iexannn n o6mex ionnnec+ne na+en+on,
ni(annix nee:n(en+ax, coc+annna 29, a (onx CHA 21.
Caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no o+enec+nennix n nnoc+annix :axnoi, a +aie ni(annix na+en+on,
iacanoci xnxnn n xe+annyinn (coo+ne+c+nenno 18 n 24), +ancno+a (no 18), a +aie
ocnonnix nenonenecinx no+e6noc+en (15 n 2O).
Houesum opaseu xono :amn+n+i ny+ex no(ann :axnin n Ha+en+noe ynannenne, io+ooe
ni(ae+ cnn(e+enic+no o6 oxane. Lio nonynenne (ae+ nano na ncinmnn+eninoe noni:onanne
o6a:nox na +en+onn Honimn. Oxana (enc+nye+ n +enenne 1O ne+ co (nx no(ann :axnin
n Ha+en+noe ynannenne.
B Honime oxane xoe+ no(nea+i +aie uponmmueuum opaseu. Cnn(e+enic+no o einc+annn,
ni(annoe Ha+en+nix ynannennex, no(+ne(ae+ co6c+nennoc+i noximnennoio o6a:na
n ne(oc+annxe+ iicinm:nnnoe nano na eio ncnoni:onanne n +enenne 25 ne+ co (nx no(ann :axnin
n Ha+en+noe ynannenne. Hoximnennie o6a:ni, nonynnnmne nano na einc+annm, nnocx+cx
n eec+ noximnennix o6a:non. Hano na einc+annm ne ni(ae+cx na +aine noximnennie
o6a:ni, nnxenenne io+oix no+nnoennno 6i o6mec+nennoxy nox(iy nnn nnnx+ix noxax.
Peinc+annn n oxane no(nen+ +oniio +aion 1onapum suak, io+oin o+nnnae+ +onai nnn
ycnyin, non:no(nxie nnn nno(nxie n o6oo+ one(enennix ne(nnx+nex, o+ +aioio e o(a
+onaon n ycnyi, non:no(nxix nnn nno(nxix n o6oo+ (yinxn qnxaxn. B Honime o6innin
+onanin :nai oxanxe+cx c xoxen+a einc+annn. O6men:nec+nin +onanin :nai noni:ye+cx
oxanon ((ae 6e: einc+annn), ecnn on nannnino acconnnye+cx :nann+eninon nac+im
no+ennnaninix noiyna+enen c (annoio o(a +onaox nnn ycnyion. Ha :aeinc+nonannin :nai
ni(ae+cx cnn(e+enic+no o6 eio oxane. Hano noni:onannx +onanix :naiox (enc+nye+ n +enenne
1O ne+. Hano na oxany ne ne(oc+annxe+cx +onanix :naiax, noni:onanne io+oixn:
naymae+ nnnnie n nxymec+nennie nana +e+inx nnn;
no+nnoenn+ :aiono(a+enic+ny, o6mec+nennoxy nox(iy nnn nnnx+ix noxax;
xoe+ nnec+n n :a6ny(enne noiyna+enen, n nac+noc+n, o+nocn+enino xaai+ea +onaa, eio
ianec+na, cnonc+n nnn eio noncxo(ennx.
B Honime oxane no(nea+ reorpaquueckue oosuaueuua, uasnauua u oosuaueuua ceucko-
xosac1neuumx u uumenmx upoyk1on, 1ouorpaquu uu1erpauumx cxen, na io+oie ni(am+cx nana
o einc+annn.
116
mupna qnxennoe nanxenonanne ne(nnx+nx, oxanxe+cx na ocnonannn nonoennn
Ia(ancioio io(eica.
Hanonie eiynnonannx ncnoxoia+eninoio xaai+ea n: o6nac+n oxani noximnennon
co6c+nennoc+n co(ea+cx n 3aione o 6oi6e c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen (o+ 1993 i.
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn) n n 3aione o :amn+e ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enen (o+ 2OOO i.
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn).
Oxpaa asmopcxux npas u cue+mx npas
B Honime no(nen+ oxane +aie an+ocioe nano n cxenie nana. 3aion o6 an+ociox nane
n cxenix nanax o+ 1994 i. (c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn) eiynnye+ nonoci, iacammnecx
+nonecion (ex+eninoc+n. Lio ne(xe+ox xnnxm+cx, n nac+noc+n, non:ne(ennx n o6nac+n nn+ea+yi,
ny6nnnnc+nin, nayin, xy:iin, +ea+a, non:no(c+na c+ynnix nnc+yxen+on, xoeoiaqnn, nan+oxnxi,
a +aie ay(nonn:yaninie n ia+oiaqnnecine a6o+i, ioxnim+enie noiaxxi, non:ne(ennx
n:o6a:n+eninoio n qo+onciycc+na, noximnennoio (n:anna, axn+ei+ynie n ia(oc+on+eninie
o6sei+i, a +aie o6a6o+ia nyoio non:ne(ennx (oco6enno neeno(i, neea6o+ia, nncnennonia),
co6annx, an+onoinn, c6onnin, 6a:i (annix, nxemmne ne+i non:ne(ennx.
3aion oxanxe+ nnnnie n nxymec+nennie an+ocine nana. nnnie nana (nannxe, nano na
nenniocnonennoc+i co(eannx n qoxi non:ne(ennx n eio nannninoe ncnoni:onanne) xnnxm+cx
neo+ny(aexixn n ne no(nea+ nacne(onannm. Onn oxanxm+cx 6e: nexennix oiannnennn.
Hxymec+nennoe nano (na ncinmnn+eninoe ncnoni:onanne non:ne(ennx n acnoxenne nx,
a +aie na no:naia(enne :a ncnoni:onanne non:ne(ennx) no(nen+ nacne(onannm n xnnxe+cx
o+ny(aexix na ocnonannn (oionoa. Ono neiamae+cx no nc+enennn 7O-+n ne+ nocne cxe+n
an+oa nnn (a+i nenoio acnoc+anennx.
3aion o6 an+ociox nane co(en+ oco6ie eiynnonannx, o+nocxmnecx i ay(nonn:yaninix
non:ne(ennxx n ioxnim+enix noiaxxax. On eiynnye+ +aie nonoci, cnx:annie co
cxenixn nanaxn, io+oie o+nocx+cx i +nonec+ny, ne nocxmexy ne+ non:ne(ennx, no
oxanxexoxy, iai non:ne(enne (nannxe, nano na xy(oec+nennoe ncnonnenne, na qonoiaxxi
n nn(eoiaxxi, na a(no- n +enenn:nonnie noiaxxi, na nenie n:(annx non:ne(ennx, a +aie
naynnie n in+nnecine n:(annx). B :aione co(ea+cx oco6ie nonoennx, iacammnecx :amn+i
n:o6aennx, a(eca+a neenncin n +anni nc+onnnion nnqoxannn.
9. Tpypoeue ofuoueuun
Ocosme npasosme peaynuposau
Ty(onie o+nomennx eiynnym+cx :aionox o+ 26 nmnx 1974 i. Ty(onon io(eic (TK)
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn. Ty(onon io(eic one(enxe+ nana n o6x:annoc+n a6o+nnion
n a6o+o(a+enen. Ko(eic eiynnye+, ne(e nceio, no:nninonenne, co(eanne n neiamenne
+y(onix o+nomennn, nana n o6x:annoc+n c+oon +y(onoio (oionoa, onna+y +y(a, o+nycia
n ocno6o(ennx o+ a6o+i, +y(oyc+onc+no n eio oxany, +y(oyc+onc+no enmnn n necone-
mennone+nnx, a:emenne cnoon, ni+eiammnx n: +y(onoio o+nomennx. Hoc+anonnennx Ko(eica
o+nocx+cx io ncex +y(onix o+nomennxx, ecnn coinacno oco6ix nonoennxx ne ne(ycxa+nnae+cx
nnoe. B nac+noc+n, onn iacam+cx +y(oyc+onc+na nonicioio ia(annna :a y6eox n noniciox
ne(c+ann+enic+ne, xnccnn n +.n., a +aie n nnoc+annox ne(c+ann+enic+ne, (enc+nymmex na
+en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima, ecnn xe(ynao(nie (oionoa nnn coinamennx ne ne(ycxa+nnam+
nnoe.
117
3aiono(a+eni ne ne(ycxo+en n nonoennxx TK cymec+nonanmeio anee nox(ia coinaconannx
ncnonnn+eninix ai+on c coo+ne+c+nymmen oiann:annen. Co 2 nmnx 1996 i. noqcom:i n oiann:annn
a6o+o(a+enen nn no(io+onie ncnonnn+eninix ai+on i TK n (yinx nonoennxx +y(onoio
:aiono(a+enic+na xoiy+ nnmi nia:n+i cnoe xnenne.
3axnkveue mpyosoao oaosopa
Ty(oyc+onc+no a6o+nnia noncxo(n+ na ocnonannn +y(onoio (oionoa. Pa6o+o(a+eni
o6x:an n cnny c+. 29 TK no(+ne(n+i o( :ainmnennoio (oionoa n eio ycnonnx ne no:e nex n (eni
nanana a6o+i. Pa6o+o(a+eni, nnnnxammnn a6o+nnia, o6x:an yia:a+i xec+o ninonnennx a6o+i
n n nncixennon qoxe nonnqoxnona+i a6o+nnia o nexenn ninonnennx a6o+i (n iaine (nn
n n iaine naci), o no(onn+eninoc+n eio a6oneio (nx, no(onn+eninoc+n o+nycia n coie
ne(yne(ennx o6 ynoninennn. Ka(oe n:xenenne xec+a ninonnennx a6o+i +e6ye+ coinacnx
a6o+nnia, a n cnynae o+cy+c+nnx eio coinacnx neo6xo(nxo coc+ann+i (oiyxen+, ne(yne(ammnn
o6 n:xenennn ycnonnn (oionoa.
Ko(eic ne one(enxe+, iaioio o(a +y(onon (oiono (onen 6i+i :ainmnen. O(naio n: ncen
conoiynnoc+n yeiynnonannn ni+eiae+, n+o +y(onon (oiono :ainmnae+cx na ncni+a+eninin coi
(ne 6onee 3-x xecxnen), na one(enennin nnn neone(enennin coi, nnn na nexx ninonnennx
one(enennon a6o+i. C 1 xax 2OO4 i. (enc+nye+ nonoenne, io+ooe oiannnnnae+ nncno
:ainmnaexix c o(nnx a6o+nniox (oionoon na one(enennoe nexx (o (nyx (oionoon. Coinacno
c+a+ie 25 TK a6o+o(a+eni nxee+ nano :ainmnn+i onee(non (+e+nn) (oiono +oniio na
neone(enennoe nexx, ecnn neein xe(y ac+oennex ne(i(ymeio (oionoa n :ainmnennex
onee(noio ne nenicnn o(noio xecxna.
Pacmop+eue mpyosoao oaosopa
Coi ne(yne(ennx o ac+oennn +y(onoio (oionoa, :ainmnennoio na neone(enennin
coi, :anncn+ o+ c+aa a6o+i na (annox ne(nnx+nn. Pa6o+o(a+eni ne(yne(ae+ o ac+oennn
(oionoa :a 2 ne(enn, ecnn (annin a6o+nni noa6o+an y neio xenee 6 xecxnen, :a 1 xecxn ecnn
noa6o+an ne xenee 6 xecxnen n :a 3 xecxna ecnn noa6o+an ne xenee 3-x ne+. Lcnn ac+oenne
(oionoa noncxo(n+ no nnnnna+nne a6o+nnia, on o6x:an ne(yne(n+i a6o+o(a+enx n +e e
coin.
B cnynae ac+oennx +y(onoio (oionoa no nnnnna+nne ne(nnx+nx, a6o+o(a+eni nnane
coia+n+i n o(noc+oonnex nox(ie 3-x xecxnnin coi ne(yne(ennx ((ae (o o(noio xecxna)
n nn i+ox on o6x:an ynna+n+i a6o+nniy ioxnencannm :a oc+anmnncx coi ne(yne(ennx
n nixo(noe noco6ne, cnx:annoe c no+een a6o+i.
Cymec+nym+ +aie nonoennx, no:nonxmmne ac+oiny+i +y(onon (oiono 6e: ne(yne(ennx
n cnynae noc+ynia a6o+nnia. C+. 52 TK no:nonxe+ a6o+o(a+enm caxoc+ox+enino onenn+i, nocn+
nn noc+ynoi a6o+nnia xaai+e ceie:noio naymennx ocnonnix o6x:annoc+en a6o+nnia.
Pa6o+nni nxee+ nano ac+oiny+i +y(onon (oiono 6e: ne(yne(ennx (c+. 55 , 1 TK), ecnn
a6o+o(a+eni noxnnn no o+nomennm i nexy ceie:noe naymenne o6x:annoc+en. Pac+oenne
(oionoa n +aiox nox(ie (ae+ a6o+nniy nano nonynn+i ioxnencannm n a:xee eio
no:naia(ennx :a ne(ycxo+ennin coi ne(yne(ennx. O(naio, ecnn a6o+nni ne ne(c+ann+
(oc+a+onnoio o6ocnonannx, a6o+o(a+eni xoe+ no(a+i na neio n cy( no +y(onix cnoax
n no+e6ona+i no:xemennx cnoeio yme6a.
ononnn+eninie o6x:a+enic+na (nx a6o+o(a+enen ni+eiam+ +aie n: n:xenennoio nonoennx
c+. 3O TK. Coinacno i+oxy nonoennm, coin ne(yne(ennx o ac+oennn +y(onoio (oionoa,
ncnncnxexie ne(enxxn nnn xecxnaxn, (onni :aiannnna+icx n cy66o+y nnn n nocne(nnn (eni
118
xecxna. Taioe o6mee yeiynnonanne xoe+ nxe+i nonon+eninie nocne(c+nnx (nx a6o+nnia,
c io+oix ac+oiae+cx (oiono c 2-x ne(eninix coiox ne(yne(ennx.
Coinacno Ty(onoxy io(eicy ac+oenne +y(onoio (oionoa, :ainmnennoio na neone(enennin
coi, +e6ye+ nncixennoio o6ocnonannx. B cnynae accxo+ennx (ena n cy(e a6o+o(a+eni ne xoe+
ccina+icx na nnie nnnnni ynoninennx a6o+nnia, ioxe +ex, io+oie 6inn yia:ani
n ne(yne(ennn o6 ynoninennn. Ty(onie cnoi emam+cx cy(ox no +y(onix (enax.
Bosaapa+eue sa mpy
B +y(onix (oionoax no:naia(enne ncnncnxe+cx no nexennon, c(eninon, nexnanino-
nexennon nnn cxemannon cnc+exe onna+i +y(a. Hn cnnennn no:naia(ennx cne(ye+
ne(yne(n+i a6o+nnia o6 n:xenennn ycnonnn +y(a. Honimenne no:naia(ennx +e6ye+
no(+ne(ennx n nncixennox nn(e.
Hannna nny+enneio +y(onoio einaxen+a xoiy+ no(o6no one(enx+i o6x:annoc+n
a6o+o(a+enx n a6o+nnia, o(naio onn ne xoiy+ yxy(ma+i ne(ycxo+ennoio n TK nonoennx
a6o+nnia.
Vc+anonnennax :aionox no(onn+eninoc+i a6oneio nexenn, :a ncinmnennex oco6o
oionoennix cnynaen, ne xoe+ nenima+i 8 nacon n cy+in n 4O nacon n ne(enm n nnnx+in
acne+nin neno(. Ho(onn+eninoc+i a6oneio nexenn neconemennone+nnx (c+ame 16,
no xonoe 18 ne+) coiamena. Cnexyonnax a6o+a (onna onnannna+icx (ononnn+enino. Pa6o+nni
nxee+ nano na o+nyci no(onn+eninoc+im o+ 2O (o 26 a6onnx (nen n :anncnxoc+n o+ c+aa
a6o+i n :annxaexoio noc+a. Pa6o+nni nonynae+ nano na nenin o+nyci nocne ia(oio xecxna
a6o+i n a:xee 1/12 nac+n o+nycia, io+oin nonaiae+cx exy nocne o+a6o+in o(noio io(a. Hano
na onee(nie o+nycia a6o+nni nno6e+ae+ n ia(ox nocne(ymmex ianen(anox io(y. Coinacno
nonoxy TK, n o+nyci ne nxo(x+ nea6onne cy66o+i.
Oxpaa mpya
Jenim oxani +y(a xnnxe+cx no+nno(enc+nne yio:e n:nn nnn :(oonim a6o+nnia, io+oax
xoe+ no:nniny+i n xo(e ninonnennx nx cnoen a6o+i. J+o o+nocn+cx, ne(e nceio, i 6e:onacnoc+n
n ininene +y(a, oco6on oxane +y(a enmnn n neconemennone+nnx, na(:oy :a ycnonnxxn +y(a
(+y(onax nncneinnx). O6ecnenenne 6e:onacnix ycnonnn +y(a n inineni +y(a nxo(n+ n o6x:annoc+n
ne(nnx+nx. 3anemae+cx nnxenx+i +y( enmnn (6eexennix n nocnn+inammnx (e+en (o 3-x
ne+neio no:ac+a) n neconemennone+nnx n nonnoe nexx, n oco6enno ne(nix (nx nx :(oonix
ycnonnxx n n cnexyonnie naci. Xenmnni nxem+ nano na (eie+nin o+nyci (o+ 16 (o 26 ne(eni)
n o+nyci na nocnn+anne e6enia ((o 3-x ne+), a neconemennone+nne nxem+ nano na coiamennin
a6onnn (eni.
Ha(:o :a oxanon +y(a ocymec+nnxe+ Iocy(ac+nennax +y(onax nncneinnx, yne(ennax
:aionox o+ 6 xa+a 1989 i. Le :a(ana :ainmnae+cx n ion+one :a co6nm(ennex ne(nnx+nex
+y(onoio :aiono(a+enic+na, oco6enno +exnnin 6e:onacnoc+n n inineni +y(a.
Cmpaxosaue mpyuxc
Ty(xmnecx nonynam+ (enenoe o6ecnenenne n cnynae 6one:nn n o(ennx e6enia n: ce(c+n
connaninoio c+axonannx. Ono nxee+ qoxy noco6nn no 6one:nn, no yxo(y :a 6oninix nnenox
cexin, niannnnammnx noco6nn, noco6nn no xa+ennc+ny, a +aie no cnynam cxe+n. J+n noco6nx
ninnannnae+ Vnannenne connaninoio c+axonannx (Z\S). Hcinmnennex xnnxe+cx noco6ne no
6one:nn, io+ooe nn ne+y(ocnoco6noc+n no(onn+eninoc+im (o 33 (nen n io(y onnannnae+
119
a6o+o(a+eni. Vnannenne connaninoio c+axonannx ninnannnae+ +aie nencnn no c+aoc+n
n nnnann(noc+n.
Pa6o+o(a+eni o6x:an ynna+n+i n Vnannenne connaninoio c+axonannx n:noci iai o+ cnoeio
nxenn, +ai n o+ nxenn a6o+nnia n a:xee:
na nencnm no no:ac+y (19,52 :aa6o+non nna+i 6y++o) n:noc ynnannnae+cx nononax
a6o+nniox n a6o+o(a+enex;
na nencnm no nnnann(noc+n (13) n:noc ynnannnae+cx nononax a6o+nniox n a6o-
+o(a+enex;
na noco6nx no 6one:nn n xa+ennc+ny (2,45) n:noc ynnannnae+cx a6o+nniox;
na noco6nx n cnx:n c necnac+nixn cnynaxxn n:noc ynnannnae+cx a6o+o(a+enex coinacno
3aiony o+ 13.1O 2OO2 i. o connaninox c+axonannn n cnx:n c necnac+nixn cnynaxxn na a6o+e
n noqeccnonaninixn :a6onenannxxn. C 1 xnnax 2OO3 i. a:xe c+anin :anncn+ o+ o+acnn
n o+ ionnnec+na nm(en, :anx+ix na ne(nnx+nn;
xe(nnnncioe c+axonanne (8,75) n:noc ynnannnae+cx a6o+nniox; 6a:on nanncnennx
xnnxe+cx :anna+a 6y++o, yxenimennax na nimena:nannie connaninie n:noci (7,75
ninn+ae+cx n: no(oxo(noio nanoia a6o+nnia, a oc+aninym nac+i n:noca a6o+o(a+eni
o+nncnxe+ o+ :aa6o+non nna+i ne++o).
Pa6o+o(a+eni ynnannnae+ 2,45 n ianec+ne n:noca n 4on( +y(a n O,15 n 4on(
iaan+nonannix noco6nn (nx +y(xmnxcx.
Pa6o+o(a+enn, y io+oix ionnnec+no :anx+ix nenimae+ 25 nenonei, o6x:ani (:a neio+oixn
ncinmnennxxn, ne(ycxo+ennixn n 3aione o +y(oyc+onc+ne n ea6nnn+annn nnnann(on) nnocn+i
eexecxnnie n:noci n Iocy(ac+nennin qon( ea6nnn+annn nnnann(on. Pa6o+o(a+enn
ocno6o(eni o+ i+nx n:nocon, ecnn a6o+ammne y nnx nnnann(i coc+annxm+ ne xenee 6 ncex
:anx+ix. Pa6o+o(a+enn, y io+oix i+o+ noia:a+eni coc+annxe+ 7 n 6onime, noni:ym+cx +aie
niio+axn n ynna+e nanoia na nn6ini n a:xee, :anncxmex o+ (onn nnnann(on n o6mex nncne
a6o+nnion, nnno+i (o nonnoio ocno6o(ennx o+ nanoia na nn6ini.
10. Hanoroean cucfeua
O6mne nnnnnni nanoionon cnc+exi one(eneni n Hanoionox io(eice, io+oin nc+ynnn n cnny
1 xnnax 1998 i. (:.V. N 137, no:. 926, n:xenennin c+a+ien 142 3aiona o+ 24 nmnx 1998 i. o6
n:xenennn neio+oix :aionon, one(enxmmnx ioxne+ennnn oianon ny6nnnnon a(xnnnc+annn
iocy(ac+na :.V. N 1O6, no:. 668 nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn). Hanoionin io(eic eiynnye+,
n nac+noc+n, nanoionie o6x:a+enic+na, nanoionym nnqoxannm, nanoionoe non:no(c+no n ion+oni.
Honoennx i+oio :aiona nnxenxm+cx i nanoiax, c6oax n (yinx nenanoionix o6x:a+enic+nax
n noni:y iocy(ac+nennoio 6m(e+a n 6m(e+on e(nnnn +en+onaninoio caxoynannennx.
Hnc+n+ynnonaninax c+yi+ya cnc+exi xnnxe+cx +exc+ynenna+on n coc+on+ n: nanoionix
ynannennn (nanoionix nncneinnn), iai nenon nanoionon nnc+annnn, ia:nanencinx nana+
n Mnnnc+ec+na qnnancon. Ten+onaninax ioxne+ennnx nanoionix oianon one(enxe+cx no
xec+y n+enic+na nnn xec+y naxo(ennx nanoionna+enimnia. Hanoionin io(eic o6x:inae+
nanoionna+enimnion xann+i 6yxian+ecine innin n nennnnie (oiyxen+i na no+xennn nx+n
ne+. Ho nc+enennn nx+n ne+ c ionna ianen(anoio io(a, n io+oox nc+ei coi ynna+i nanoia,
nanoionie o6x:a+enic+na neiamam+cx :a (annoc+im.
Honiciax nanoionax cnc+exa ninmnae+ n ce6x, n nac+noc+n, nanoi na nn6ini c mn(nnecinx nnn
n ne(ycxo+ennie n nex niio+i, nanoi na +onai n ycnyin (HC), a +aie ainn:nin nanoi,
no(oxo(nin nanoi c qn:nnecinx nnn n nanoi na ne(nnnxoc+i. Koxe +oio, x( ia(ancio-
nanonix (enc+nnn o6noen iocy(ac+nennon nomnnnon. J+o (oionoi o no(ae n o6xene nemen
n nxymec+nennix nan, (oionoi o nanxe n aen(e, (oionoi o :anxe, (oionoi o6mec+n, (oionoi
12O
o noynn+enic+ne. Inannon n(een qncianinon nonn+nin xnnxe+cx noc+enennoe cnnenne c+anoi
no(oxo(noio nanoia c qn:nnecinx n mn(nnecinx nnn nn o(nonexennon o+xene nnn oiannnennn
(enc+nonanmnx anee niio+ n o+nncnennn.
Hanoa a npumns c kpuuvecxux nu
Kn(nnecine nnna ynnannnam+ nanoi na nn6ini coinacno 3aiony o+ 15 qenanx 1992 i.
(c xnoionncnennixn nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn). Hanoionna+enimniaxn xoiy+ 6i+i +aie
6n:nec-iynni, coc+oxmne no iannen xee n: (nyx +oionix o6mec+n, cnx:annix (yi c (yiox
noce(c+nox iann+ana. Hanoionym 6n:nec-iynny o6a:ym+ +oniio o6mec+na c oiannnennon
o+ne+c+nennoc+im nnn ainnonenie o6mec+na, ecnn yc+annon (ainnonenin) iann+an, nnxo(xmnncx
n ce(nex na o(no o6mec+no, coc+annxe+ ne xenee 1 xnn. :n. O6mec+na, co:(ammne 6n:nec-iynny,
(onni :ainmnn+i no+ananinin (oiono na coi ne xenee +ex ne+ n o6x:ani co6nm(a+i x(
ne(ycxo+ennix :aionox (ononnn+eninix ycnonnn.
Hanoionin io( anen ianen(anoxy io(y. B cnynae, ecnn ne(nnx+ne +oniio nannnae+ cnom
(ex+eninoc+i, nenin nanoionin io( (nn+cx co (nx nanana (ex+eninoc+n (o ionna ianen(anoio
io(a nnn (o nocne(neio (nx n:6annoio nanoionoio io(a, o(naio ne (onime nex 12 ianen(anix
xecxnen.
La:on nanoioo6noennx xnnxe+cx nn6ini, yxenimennax na c+onxoc+i 6e:no:xe:(no nee(annoio
nxymec+na ((aennx) na nenn, one(enennie n c+a+ie 4 3aiona o+ 24 anenx 2OO3 i. o6 o6mec+nenno-
none:non (ex+eninoc+n n o nonon+ana+e, oiann:annxx, ne(ymnx o6mec+nenno-none:nym
(ex+eninoc+i n axiax :a(an, one(enennix i+nx :aionox. O6max cyxxa nine+on n: 6a:i
nanoioo6noennx no i+nx c+a+ixx ne xoe+ nenima+i 1O nanonon nn6inn.
Lme o(non c+a+ien nine+on n: nanonon nn6inn xnnxm+cx (aennx na ennino:nie nenn ((o 1O
nanonon nn6inn). O6max cyxxa nine+on no ncex i+nx c+a+ixx ne xoe+ nenima+i 1O nanonon
nn6inn. He xnnxm+cx ocnonannex (nx nine+on (aennx n noni:y qn:nnecinx nnn, a +aie n noni:y
mn(nnecinx nnn n oiann:annonnix e(nnnn, ne nxemmnx mn(nnecioio nnna, ne(ymnx
xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i n o6nac+n inei+onnon, +onnnnnon, +a6annon, nnnno-no(onnon,
nnnonaennon noximnennoc+n, a +aie (aennx ne(nnx+nxx, non:no(xmnx anioioninie
nann+in c co(eannex anioionx nime 1,5 n n:(ennx n: (aionennix xe+annon nnn c ynac+nex
i+nx xe+annon, nnn +oiymmnx i+nxn n:(ennxxn.
C+ania nanoia na nn6ini n 2OO6 i. coc+annna 19. Kn(nnecine nnna, mn(nnecinn a(ec nnn
nannenne io+oix naxo(n+cx na +en+onn Honimn, no(nea+ nanoioo6noennm no i+on c+anie
o+ conoiynnix (oxo(on. Lcnn xec+onaxo(enne nanoionna+enimnia naxo(n+cx :a ne(enaxn
c+ani, nanoiox o6naiae+cx +oniio nac+i eio (oxo(on, nonynaexax n Honime. C+ania nanoia
c mn(nnecinx nnn c xec+ox naxo(ennx n Honime na (nnn(en(i n (yine (oxo(i o+ ynac+nx
n nn6inxx coc+annxe+ 19 nonynennoio (oxo(a. O(naio i+o+ nanoi xoe+ 6i+i nin+en n: nanoia
na nn6ini o+ o6men xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
C nanana 2OOO i. c+ann 6onee in6inxn nannna ninmnennx n ce6ec+onxoc+i axo+n:annonnix
o+nncnennn. Henonananinax c+onxoc+i ocnonnix qon(on (o cyxxi 35OO :n. no:nonxe+ o+nec+n na
axo+n:annonnie n:(ein 1OO c+onxoc+n ocnonnoio ce(c+na e(nnonexenno n c(ena+i i+o
n xecxne nne(ennx ocnonnoio ce(c+na n iicnnya+annm nnn n cne(ymmnn xecxn. B 2OO6 io(y
nanoionna+enimnin nxem+ nano ni6na+i y(o6nin (nx nnx xe+o( axo+n:annn ocnonnix qon(on.
Bo:xonie cnoco6i axo+n:annn n c+anin onncani n c+a+ie 16l 3aiona o nanoie na nn6ini.
Ha nonynenne niio+ n nanoie na nn6ini coinacno coo+ne+c+nymmnx nonoennxx nxem+ nano
cy6sei+i, io+oie eann:ym+ cenicioxo:xnc+nennie nnnec+nnnn nnn (enc+nym+ n oco6ix
iionoxnnecinx :onax.
121
Hanoionna+enimnin nxem+ nano na nine+ acxo(on, nonecennix na nno6e+enne nonix
+exnonoinn, (o nennnnni n na ycnonnxx, io+oie one(eneni n acnoxennn xnnnc+a,
iynymmeio nonoci ny6nnnnix qnnancon, ynn+inammnx (nei+nni LC o+nocn+enino
o+enec+nennon einonaninon noxomn (O1 LC C 74 o+ 1O.O3.1998 n O1 LC C 258 o+ O9.O9.2OO2).
Honixn +exnonoinxxn, n nonnxannn :aiona, cnn+am+cx +exnonoinnecine :nannx n nn(e
nexa+enaninix n nanonix nennoc+en, oco6enno e:yni+a+i nccne(onannn n a6o+, nanenennix na
a:nn+ne, nno6e+ennie nanoionna+enimniox o+ naynnix yne(ennn. Hano na nine+ ne (ae+cx
cy6sei+y, ecnn n nanoionox io(y nnn n ne(mec+nymmex io(y, on nen (ex+eninoc+i na +en+onn
oco6on iionoxnnecion :oni.
B cnynae nannnnx qnnanconix y6i+ion :aion (onyciae+ no:xonoc+i cnncannx cyxxi y6i+ia
nn acne+e nanoia na nn6ini na no+xennn nx+n onee(nix nanoionix ne+, no xaicnxaninax
cyxxa nine+on n o(nox io(y ne xoe+ nenicn+i nononnni cyxxi y6i+ion.
3aion no:naiae+ na nanoionie cny6i o6x:annoc+i yc+anannnna+i a:xe nn6inn ny+ex eio
onenin n cnynae, ecnn no:nniae+ o6ocnonannoe no(o:enne, n+o nanoionna+enimni :ann:nn cnom
nn6ini. nx onenin xono nnxenx+i xe+o( conoc+annxon neioniyen+non neni, neni
neeno(an nnn +ai na:inaexon a:yxnon nanenin.
Hxxie nanoin n +ox nncne c+anin no(oxo(noio nanoia c qn:nnecinx nnn n nanoia na nn6ini
c mn(nnecinx nnn n Lnonenciox com:e ne no(nea+ iaxonn:annn n noi+oxy nc+ynnenne
Honimn n LC ne no+e6onano n:xenennn n i+on cqee. C+anin nanoia c ne(nnx+nn
(nqqeennnonani n o+(eninix c+anax LC-15, xo+x iai nannno ione6nm+cx n ne(enax 3O.
Tainx o6a:ox, nnxenxexax n Honime c+ania 19 xnnxe+cx (nx ne(nnnnxa+enen oneni
niio(non.
Hanoa a mosapm u ycnyau (HBC) u axusm anoa
8 xnnax 1993 i. 6in nne(en nanoi na no(ay +onaon n nna+nix ycnyi, oia:inaexix na
+en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima, +ai na:inaexin VAT (HC) (:.V. N 11 o+ 1993 i., no:. 5O
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn). J+nx nanoiox o6naiae+cx: nna+nax noc+ania +onaon n nna+noe
oia:anne ycnyi na +en+onn c+ani, iicno+ n nxno+ +onaon, nno6e+enne n axiax LC
+onaon c onna+on na +en+onn Honimn. Hanoioo6noennm ne no(nen+ no(aa ne(nnx+nx
nnn o+(enennx, naxo(xmeiocx na caxoc+ox+eninox 6anance.
C 1 xnnax 2OO1 i. o+ HC ocno6o(eni nanoionna+enimnin, y io+oix c+onxoc+i no(an
+onaon n ycnyi (ninmnax iicno+) ne nenicnna n ne(i(ymex nanoionox io(y cyxxy,
iinnnanen+nym 1O OOO eno. O6x:annoc+i ynna+i nanoia no:nniae+ c xoxen+a ni(ann, nee(ann,
:axeni, 6e:no:xe:(non nee(ann +onaa nnn ninonnennx ycnyin. Hanoionna+enimnin o6x:ani
nee( ocymec+nnennex nenoio (enc+nnx, no(neameio nanoioo6noennm, no(a+i n nanoionoe
ynannenne :axnnenne o einc+annn. Ha qai+yax, a +aie n oqe+ax, cne(ye+ yia:ina+i noxe
nanoionon n(en+nqniannn (!P). Lexecxnno cne(ye+ :anonnx+i n nee(ana+i n nanoionoe
ynannenne nanoionym (einaannm.
3aion o HC ne(ycxa+nnae+ cne(ymmne nanoionie c+anin: ocnonnym n a:xee 22,
cnnennie n a:xeax 7 n 3 n c+aniy O. C+ania O o+nocn+cx i iicno+y +onaon n ycnyi
nn ycnonnn ne(ennx yne+a n nonynennx (oiyxen+a, no(+ne(ammeio nino: +onaon :a iannny.
B axiax noc+anoi nny+n LC c+ania nanoia coc+annxe+ O.
Heeneni +onaon n ycnyi, ocno6o(ennix o+ HC n oxnanennix cnnennon c+anion,
co(en+cx n nnnoennxx i :aiony (cx. 3aion o+ 11 xa+a 2OO4 i. o nanoie na +onai n ycnyin,
:.V. N 54, no:. 535 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn).
122
Mnnnc+, iynymmnn nonoci ny6nnnnix qnnancon, xoe+ ni(a+i noc+anonnenne,
cnnammee c+anin nanoia (o a:xea O, 3 nnn 7 (nx noc+anoi neio+oix ycnyi nnn (nx nac+n
i+nx noc+anoi, nnn nac+n oia:annx ycnyi, a +aie one(enn+i ycnonnx nnxenennx cnnennix
c+anoi.
Ka+eionn +onaon n ycnyi, oxnanennix o+(eninixn c+aniaxn, xoiy+ xenx+icx n noi+oxy
n ionie+nix cnynaxx cne(ye+ o6a+n+icx i (enc+nymmnx ne(nncannxx.
Ce(n no:nnnn, oxnanennix n 2OO6 i. cnnennon c+anion 7, naxo(x+cx n nac+noc+n, c neio+oixn
ncinmnennxxn, no(yi+i nno+nono(c+na, xononnoe ciie, no(yi+i oioo(nnnec+na, no(yi+i
i6ononc+na n neea6o+in i6i, no(yi+i necnoio n oxo+nnnieio xo:xnc+na, xnneaninie
y(o6ennx, nec+nnn(i, qaxanen+nnecine nenaa+i, neio+oie n:(ennx nnmenon noximnennoc+n,
a +aie neio+oie ycnyin. Vcnyin n o6nac+n :(anooxanennx, connaninoio o6ecnenennx
n o6a:onannx 6inn ocno6o(eni o+ HC. Banix n:xenennex c 1 xnnax 2OO6 i. xnnxe+cx nne(enne
22 HC na ycnyin n o6nac+n nccne(onannn n a:nn+nx.
Hanoionna+enimni nxee+ nano yxenimn+i cyxxy nnnn+ammeiocx iocy(ac+ny nanoia na
nennnnny nanoia, ynnanennoio nn :aiynie +onaon n ycnyi.
3aion o+ 23 xnnax 2OO4 i. o6 ainn:nox nanoie (:.V. N 29, no:. 257) one(ennn ycnonnx,
n io+oix no:nniae+ o6x:annoc+i ynna+i nanoia n qoxe ainn:a. Hanoioo6noennex n qoxe
ainn:a no(nea+: non:no(c+no iaxonn:nonannix ainn:nix n:(ennn, nino( iaxonn:nonannix
ainn:nix n:(ennn n: nanoionoio cina(a, no(aa ainn:nix n:(ennn na +en+onn c+ani, iicno+
n nxno+ ainn:nix +onaon, a +aie nno6e+enne n noc+anin +onaon n axiax LC. Ainn:nix
nanoiox o6naiam+cx, n nac+noc+n: neq+eno(yi+i, cnn+e+nnecioe n(ioe +onnnno, inei+onnoe
o6oy(onanne xacconoio noni:onannx, oxo+nnnie n ia:onoe oyne, anioioninie n +a6annie
n:(ennx, nnno n nnno, naqmxenx, inei+onnie nionie an+oxa+i n an+oxa+i (nx a:a+nix ni,
naycnie n xo+onie no(in, xocine xx+i (anineio nnanannx, neiionie an+oxo6nnn, xexa, coni,
ynaiononnie xa+enani n: nnac+xacc, ia: (nx an+oxo6nnen n +ync+nnecinx 6annonon.
C+anin ainn:noio nanoia one(enxm+cx n nonen+ax nnn ino+ax. C+ania ainn:a one(enxe+cx
n nonen+ax no o+nomennm i nene no(an y non:no(n+enen nnn i +axoennon c+onxoc+n
y nxno+eon. C+anin ainn:a xoiy+ n:xenx+icx +aie n xo(e ianen(anoio io(a n i+n n:xenennx
ny6nniym+cx n nnnoennxx i acnoxennm xnnnc+a qnnancon.
Mnnnc+, iynymmnn nonoci ny6nnnnix qnnancon, xoe+ n:(a+i acnoxenne o cnnennn
ainn:nix c+anoi nnn ocno6o(ennn neio+oix n:(ennn o+ ainn:a.
B nxno+e ainn:nix +onaon ocnonon o6noennx ainn:nix nanoiox xnnxe+cx +axoennax
c+onxoc+i, ynennnennax na +axoennym nomnnny, accnn+annym no ocnonnon c+anie. Lcnn
ocnonnax +axoennax c+ania ne one(enena, +o nnxenxe+cx an+onoxnax c+ania. Ho(aa ainn:nix
n:(ennn na iicno+ ne no(nen+ ainn:noxy nanoioo6noennm :a ncinmnennex n:(ennn, ye
o6o:nanennix :naiox ainn:a. Mnnnc+ qnnancon one(enxe+, ny+ex acnoxennx, ycnonnx
n nox(oi no:na+a ainn:a nn iicno+e.
Honiciax cnc+exa iocnennix nanoion (HC n ainn:nin nanoi) 6ina (ononino xoomo
nncnoco6nena i +e6onannxx :aiono(a+enic+na LC eme (o nc+ynnennx iai n nnane nn(on n c+anoi
nnxenxexix nanoion, +ai n cnoco6on nx ncnncnennx. Hxenno noi+oxy neeneni +onaon, na
io+oie n cnx:n co nc+ynnennex Honimn n LC nanoionie c+anin n:xennnnci, ne cnnmiox o6mnen,
xo+x n nex naxo(x+cx no:nnnn, nxemmne 6onimoe :nanenne (nx 6m(e+on (oxamnnx xo:xnc+n.
Honimenne c+anoi HC non:omno, n nac+noc+n, n o+nomennn a:nnnnix +onaon (nx (e+en,
c+on+eninix xa+enanon n ycnyi ocnonnoio :nanennx (nannxe, c+on+eninix, ec+oannix
n neio+oix mn(nnecinx ycnyi), a nonimenne (nnn nne(enne) ainn:noio nanoia n cnynae +onnnna,
cniae+ n (yinx +a6annix n:(ennn. O(naio nocne(c+nnx nonimennx c+anoi 6y(y+ cxxineni
6naio(ax neexo(nix neno(ax na nx nne(enne, io+oie 6inn :aqnicnonani n oionoe
o nc+ynnennn.
123
Heexo(nie neno(i oxna+inam+:
coxanenne (o ionna 2OO7 i. nonnennon 7 c+anin HC n nnnmnox c+on+enic+ne na nonie
ina+ni, a +aie na c+on+eninie n exon+nie ycnyin (i+o ne iacae+cx c+on+eninix xa+enanon),
coxanenne (o ionna 2OO7 i. nonnennon 7 c+anin HC na ycnyin ec+oanon,
coxanenne (o ionna 2OO7 i. nynenon c+anin HC na innin n cnennann:nonannie ynani,
4-ne+nnn neexo(nin neno( na nnxenenne nonnennon c+anin 3 HC na neio+oie
ce(c+na (nx cenicioxo:xnc+nennoio non:no(c+na, cenicioxo:xnc+nennie no(yi+i, a +aie
cenicioxo:xnc+nennie ycnyin,
neexo(nin neno( (o ionna 2OO8 i. na noc+enennoe (oc+nenne xnnnxaninoio yonnx ainn:a
na cniae+i, (enc+nymmeio n Lnonenciox com:e,
io(nnnin +exnnnecinn neexo(nin neno( na nnxenenne nynenon c+anin ainn:a na
iionoinnecine ioxnonen+i n cnnennon c+anin na iionoinnecine +onnnno (c no:xonoc+im
no(nennx neno(a nnxenennx i+on c+anin).
Koxe +oio, LC ne(oc+annn Honime neexo(nie neno(i na nonnoe nne(enne xnnnxaninix
c+anoi ainn:a na +onnnno, cnx:annix c nne(ennex n LC ineie+nnecioio nanoia. Ho(onn+eninoc+i
i+nx neexo(nix neno(on cne(ymmax: na (n:eninoe +onnnno (o nanana 2O12 i., na 6eccnnnnonin
6en:nn (o nanana 2OO9 i., na +xenoe ianoe xacno n na neiioe xacno (nx o+onnennx o6sei+on
o6mec+nennoio noni:onannx (o nanana 2OO8 i., na yioni n ioic (o nanana 2O12 i., na a:nie nn(i
annannonnoio n cy(onoio +onnnna (o ionna 2OO6 i. Honima ocno6o(ena o+ o6x:annoc+n nne(ennx
ainn:a na nno(nin ia: (o nanana 2O14 i., ecnn anime (onx ia:a n o+enec+nennox no+e6nennn
ineinn ne nenicn+ 25.
Uooxom anoa c qusuvecxux nu
4n:nnecine nnna, nonnammne na +en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima, no(nea+ nanoionon
o6x:annoc+n o+ ncex cnonx (oxo(on, ne:anncnxo o+ xec+a acnonoennx nc+onnnion (oxo(on
(neoiannnennax nanoionax o6x:annoc+i).
Hanoiox o6naiam+cx (oxo(i qn:nnecinx nnn, noc+oxnno nonnammnx n Honime, a +aie nnn,
io+oie naxo(x+cx n c+ane 6onime nonyio(a. Hanoioo6noennm no(nea+ +aie (oxo(i nnn,
nonnammnx :a y6eox, ecnn nc+onnni i+nx (oxo(on naxo(n+cx n Honime.
B 2OO6 i. (enc+nym+ +n nanoionie c+anin n n:xenennax no cannennm c nomnix io(ox cnc+exa
niio+ n nine+on. Iannnnie cyxxi (oxo(a, o6naiaexie o+(eninixn c+aniaxn, oc+am+cx
nen:xennixn ye mec+on io( no(x( (c 2OO1 io(a).
,

( )


37.024 19% 530,08 .
37.024 74.048 6.504,48 + 30% ,
37.024 .
74.048 17.611,68 . + 40% ,
74.048 .

124
C+anion n 19 o6naiam+cx (nnn(en(i n nonne (oxo(i o+ ynac+nx n nn6inn mn(nnecinx nnn.
C 1 xa+a 2OO2 i. na ocnonannn o+(eninix nanonix ai+on no(oxo(nix nanoiox n a:xee 19
o6naiam+cx nonen+i o+ 6anioncinx nina(on, a +aie (yine noc+ynnennx o+ (enenix ce(c+n,
naionnennix na cne+y nanoionna+enimnia nnn o+ (yinx nn(on c6eeennn.
C 2OO6 io(a yna:(nxe+cx niio+a n cnx:n none(ennex exon+a n xo(enn:annn nnix
noxemennn, :a+o oc+ae+cx niio+a (nx nnn, noni:ymmnxcx Hn+ene+ox. Ha i+ox ocnonannn 6y(e+
xono ninec+i n: nanoia 76O :n. n io(.
B 2OO6 io(y nnxn+ nine+on n cnx:n c (aennxxn coc+annxe+ 6 (oxo(a nanoionna+enimnia.
Toniio (aennx (nx nenen ennino:noio iyni+a xoiy+ nenima+i 6 (oxo(a (xaicnxaninax
nennnnna 1O).
Ho(onae+ (enc+nona+i nano na o+nncnenne (o 1 nanoia n noni:y oiann:annn, ne(ymnx
o6mec+nenno-none:nym (ex+eninoc+i.
nx one(enennx 6a:i nanoioo6noennx n: (oxo(a ninn+am+cx n:noci na nencnonnoe
o6ecnenenne (nencnn no c+aoc+n n nnnann(noc+n) n n:noci na c+axonanne o+ 6one:nn n necnac+nix
cnynaen, io+oie ne(ycxo+eni n 3aione o cnc+exe connaninoio c+axonannx.
Hanoaoono+eue esu+uuocmu
Hanoioo6noenne ne(nnnxoc+n n Honime ocymec+nnxe+cx c noxomim +ex nn(on nanoion:
nanoia na ne(nnnxoc+i, cenicioxo:xnc+nennoio n necnoio nanoion.
Pa:xe c+anoi nanoia na ne(nnnxoc+i, coinacno 3aiony o+ 3O oi+x6x 2OO2 i. o6 n:xenennn
:aiona o nanoiax n xec+nix c6oax, one(enxe+ cone+ ixnni, nnnex n 2OO6 i. io(onon n:noc ne
xoe+ nenicn+i O,56 :n. :a 1 x
2
none:non nnoma(n nnix (oxon, 18,43 :n. :a 1 x
2
none:non
nnoma(n xo:xnc+nennix noc+oei n 8,58 :n. :a 1 x
2
oc+aninix none:nix nnoma(en. Cone+i ixnn
nxem+ nano cnna+i i+n c+anin nnn ocno6o(a+i o+ nanoion.
Hanoiox na ne(nnnxoc+i o6naiam+cx qn:nnecine n mn(nnecine nnna, a +aie
oiann:annonnie e(nnnni, ne nxemmne mn(nnecioio nnna.
O6noennm cenicioxo:xnc+nennix nanoiox no(nea+ :exnn, o+necennie i ia+eionn
cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn nnn yio(nn c :enenixn naca(ennxxn n :anncannix iai +aionie
n ixnnnin eec+ :exeninix ynac+ion n noc+oei. O+ nanoionon o6x:annoc+n ocno6o(am+cx
xo:xnc+na c nnoma(im nne 1 ia n c nnoma(im cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn, ne nenimammen
o(noio yne+noio iei+aa.
La:on o6noennx cenicioxo:xnc+nennix nanoiox xnnxe+cx ionnnec+no yne+nix iei+aon,
ynn+inammnx (nqqeennnannm cenicioxo:xnc+nennix yio(nn no inaccax, a +aie nnna(nenoc+i
xo:xnc+na i o(noxy n: ne+iex nanoionix oiyion (1 iei+a eaninon nnoma(n cenicio-
xo:xnc+nennix yio(nn 1-io inacca n !-x nanoionox oiyie annxe+cx 1,95 yne+noio iei+aa).
B nac+oxmee nexx cenicioxo:xnc+nennin nanoi c 1 yne+noio iei+aa one(enxe+cx n a:xee
iinnnanen+a 2,5 nen+neon n no ce(nen :aiynonnon nene n :a +n nenix ina+ana
ne(i(ymeio io(a.
O+ nanoia ocno6o(eni, n nac+noc+n, :exnn caxoio nn:ioio inacca. Mono nonynn+i +aie
nexennoe ocno6o(enne o+ nanoia (o+ 1 (o 15 ne+) nnn cnnenne nanoionon c+anin (n ionix
anonax).
B coo+ne+c+nnn c 4 c+a+ien 3aiona o necnox nanoie o+ 3O oi+x6x 2OO2 i. necnon nanoi c o(noio
yne+noio iei+aa coc+annxe+ (nx 2OO6 nanoionoio io(a (enenin iinnnanen+ O,22O x
3
(enecnni,
accnn+annin no ce(nen nene no(an (enecnni, nonynennon necnnnec+nox :a +n nenix
ina+ana ne(i(ymeio nanoionoio io(a.
125
Coanaueu o use+auu sooao anoaoono+eu
Honima :ainmnnna coinamennx o6 n:6eannn (nonnoio nanoioo6noennx c 81 iocy(ac+nox.
B coo+ne+c+nnn c nnnnnnaxn OJCP n i+nx coinamennxx co(en+cx nonoenne, coinacno io+ooxy
nanoi na nn6ini n:nxae+cx c ne(nnx+nx +oniio n c+ane eio xec+onaxo(ennx, :a ncinmnennex
cnynax, ioi(a (annoe ne(nnx+ne nxee+ cnon o+(enennx n c+ane na+nea, n+o no:nonxe+ +ax
o6non+i nanoiox nn6ini, nonynennym i+nxn o+(enennxxn. enc+nye+ +aie nannno ocno6o(ennx
o+ nanoia y nc+onnnia nn6inen, nonynaexix o+ xe(ynao(noio +ancqe+a.
Lonimnnc+no :ainmnennix Honimen (oionoon one(enxe+ xaicnxaninym c+aniy nanoion na
(nnn(en(i n a:xee 5-15. Cnnenne i+oio nanoia (o 5 xoe+ non:on+n +oi(a, ioi(a
nnoc+annin nonyna+eni nxee+ neio+oym xnnnxaninym (onm (1O nnn 25) n iann+ane
ne(nnx+nx c xec+onaxo(ennex n Honime.
Hac+i :ainmnennix Honimen (oionoon ne(nonaiae+ ocno6o(enne o+ nanoion 6anioncinx
nonen+on y nc+onnnia. J+o o:nanae+, n+o nanoioo6noenne noncxo(n+ n c+ane xec+onaxo(ennx
nnna, n noni:y io+ooio onn ninnannnam+cx. B oc+aninix (oionoax neo6na(am+ 1O-nonen+nie
c+anin. 3ainmnennie Honimen coinamennx o6 n:6eannn (nonnoio nanoioo6noennx (onyciam+
+aie o6noenne nanoiox nnnen:nonnix c6oon.
11. Tpeoeauun e onacfu oxpauu okpyake cpepu
Ocnonnixn ai+axn, eiynnymmnxn nannna oxani oiyammen ce(i, xnnxm+cx: 3aion o+
27 anenx 2OO1 i. o6 oxane oiyammen ce(i (:.V. N 62, no:. 627) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn
n 3aion o6 o+xo(ax (:.V. N 62, no:. 628) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn. J+n :aioni ne +oniio
one(enxm+ nnnnnni qoxnonannx, oxani n noni:onannx ce(on, no ne(e nceio y+onnxm+
+e6onannx n i+on o6nac+n no o+nomennm i ne(nnnnxa+enxx, n +ox nncne nannna oxani
oiyammen ce(i n cnx:n c nnnec+nnnonnon (ex+eninoc+im. Honi:onanne ce(on, io+ooe ne
nxee+ xaai+ea nceo6meio noni:onannx, cnx:ano c neo6xo(nxoc+im nonynennx a:emennx,
ni(anaexoio coo+ne+c+nymmnx oianox oxani oiyammen ce(i, n io+oox 6y(y+ one(eneni
(nana:on n ycnonnx i+oio noni:onannx.
3aion o6 oxane oiyammen ce(i no:naiae+ na cy6sei+i, noni:ymmnecx oiyammen ce(on,
o6x:annoc+i n:xex+i yoneni n o6sexi ixnccnn nemec+n (nnn ineinn), nec+n c6o n o6a6o+iy
(annix n ne(oc+annx+i nx iocy(ac+nennix oiann:annxx, nono(xmnx xonn+onni oiyammen
ce(i (c+a+ix 28). Koxe +oio, n nex one(enxe+cx none(ya onenin no:(enc+nnx na oiyammym
ce(y, nono(nxax coo+ne+c+nymmnx oianox a(xnnnc+annn (nxemmnx nonnoxonnx (nx
nnnx+nx emennn), a +aie eiynnym+cx nonoci c6oon :a noni:onanne ce(on n m+aqon :a
neco6nm(enne nonoennn :aiona.
Xo:xnc+nymmne cy6sei+i o6x:ani nnnnxa+i xei no yc+anennm nnnnn ne(noio no:(enc+nnx
na oiyammym ce(y. Binecenne coo+ne+c+nymmnx emennn no i+nx nonocax noyneno
noeno(ax, io+oie one(enxm+ o6sex n nox(oi ncnonnennx nimeyia:annon o6x:annoc+n, ncxo(x
n: :a6o+i o6 o6mec+nennix nn+eecax, a:xeon nnnnnennoio ne(a nnn nannnnx yio:i (nx
oiyammen ce(i, a +aie ynn+inax eaninie no:xonoc+n ninonnennx i+oio :a(annx. Boeno(a
xoe+ no:non+i na cy6sei+ o6x:annoc+i ynna+i n qon( oxani oiyammen ce(i (nannonaninin,
noeno(cinn nnn ixnnnin) (enenix cyxx, o+nenammnx a:xey yme6a, no:nnimeio n e:yni+a+e
naymennx ee coc+oxnnx. Xo:xnc+nymmne cy6sei+i o6x:ani nec+n yne+ nn(a n ionnnec+na ni6ocon
n a+xocqey, a +aie ne(c+annx+i noeno(ax eeio(nin (oina(, co(eamnn nnqoxannm
o :aix:nennn no:(yxa n ynnanennix :a i+o :aix:nenne cyxxax.
3a ncnoni:onanne n xo:xnc+nennix nenxx oiyammen ce(i n n:xenenne oiyammen ce(i
ne(ycxo+eni onna+i. C+anin onna+ (nqqeennnonani n :anncx+ o+ nn(a n ionnnec+na nemec+n,
126
ni6acinaexix n a+xocqey. Ho i+oxy :aiony Cone+ xnnnc+on na(enen nanox ni(ann
noc+anonnennx c yia:annex cnncia :aix:nxmmnx nemec+n, :a io+oie n:nxam+cx c6oi n a:xea
e(nnnnnix c+anoi.
Bne(enne n:xenennn n 3aion o :amn+e oiyammen ce(i necne(onano neni yc+ann+i
coxnennx o+nocn+enino eio +onionannx n nnec+n n:xenennx, nne(xmmne (nei+nni LC, nannxe,
no nonocy ny6nnnnoio (oc+yna i nnqoxannn, iacammencx oiyammen ce(i nnn ion+onx
yio:i ceie:nix anann, cnx:annix c onacnixn nemec+naxn.
ononnn+eninie nanonie eiynnonannx n o6nac+n oxani oiyammen ce(i nnen 3aion o6
o+xo(ax. B i+ox :aione one(enxm+cx nannna o6amennx c o+xo(axn, a nxenno: nannna
ne(o+namennx no:nninonennx o+xo(on nnn xnnnxn:annn nx ionnnec+na, y(anenne o+xo(on c xec+
nx naionnennx, ncnoni:onanne nnn o6e:nennanne nx +ainxn xe+o(axn, io+oie o6ecnena+ oxany
n:nn n :(oonix nm(en, a +aie oxany oiyammen ce(i.
3aion o6 o+xo(ax nno(n+ +aie :ane+ na nno: n:-:a iannni onacnix o+xo(on n nanaiae+
o6x:annoc+i nonynennx a:emennx Inannoio nncnei+oa no oxane oiyammen ce(i na nno:
n:-:a iannni (yinx o+xo(on, ne xnnxmmnxcx onacnixn.
He(nnnnxa+enn, (ex+eninoc+i io+oix ne(e+ i no:nninonennm o+xo(on (ne xnnxmmnxcx
onacnixn) o6x:ani nonnqoxnona+i o6 i+ox xec+nie nnac+n. B :anncnxoc+n o+ ionnnec+na
o+xo(on ne(nnnnxa+eni nnqoxnye+ o nnx coo+ne+c+nymmne oiani nnac+n (non+a nnn c+aoc+y)
:a (na xecxna (o nanana non:no(c+na. Boeno(y cne(ye+ yne(oxn+i n cnynae, ioi(a o6sei+, io+oin
c+on+ nnn co(en+ ne(nnnnxa+eni, oco6o ne(en (nx oiyammen ce(i n :(oonix nm(en.
Ha non:no(c+no onacnix o+xo(on ne(nnnnxa+eni (onen nonynn+i a:emenne. Lio ni(ae+
c+aoc+a nocne nonynennx :ainmnennx non+a n noeno(cioio cann+anoio nncnei+oa (n cnynae oco6o
ne(nix (nx oiyammen ce(i nnnec+nnnn a:emenne ni(ae+ noeno(a).
B cnynae neco6nm(ennx ne(nnnnxa+enex :aionon (n +ox nncne n cnynae ne(oc+annennx
nonon nnqoxannn) oian a(xnnnc+annn xoe+ o6a+n+icx i nexy c +e6onannex n:xenn+i cnoe
none(enne. Lcnn co c+ooni ne(nnnnxa+enx ne nocne(ye+ nonon+eninon eainnn, a(xnnnc+annx
xoe+ :ane+n+i (ex+eninoc+i, nneiymym :a co6on non:no(c+no o+xo(on.
H:xenennx, nnecennie n i+o+ :aion, necne(onann neni nne(ennx (nei+nn Lnonencinx
coo6mec+n.
Hoxone nonoci n o+nomennn nny+ennnx no( (ein, o:ea, ianani, ec+ec+nennie no(oexi
n no(:exnie no(i) ne:anncnxo o+ qoxi nx co6c+nennoc+n eiynnye+ 3aion o+ 18 nmnx 2OO1 i.
Bo(nin :aion (:.V. N 115, no:. 1229) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn. B nex ne(ycxa+nnam+cx
oiannnennx n :ane+i na c6oc no nny+ennne no(i c+onnix no( n o+xo(on. He(e nceio,
:anemae+cx a:xema+i ne(nnx+nx, oco6o ne(nie (nx :(oonix n n:nn nm(en nnn io:xmne
yxy(mn+i coc+oxnne oiyammen ce(i, a +aie naiannnna+i c+onnie no(i, cina(nona+i
n ncnoni:ona+i o+xo(i n xnxnnecine ce(c+na na +en+onxx, naxo(xmnxcx no( nenoce(c+nennon
yio:on nano(ion n nano(nennn (n 6onee annnx nanonix ai+ax i+oio :ane+a ne 6ino). Bce
nna(enini no( o6x:ani :a6o+n+icx o6 nx iionoinneciox coc+oxnnn n co(enc+nona+i nocc+anonnennm
(eia(nonannix iiocnc+ex. Onn (onni ne +oniio o6ecnenn+i cno6o(nin no+oi nano(ionix no(
n ni(a, no +aie eiynnona+i no+oin, no:no(x coo+ne+c+nymmne in(ocooyennx. Hn
c+on+enic+ne no(onono(on ne(nnx+nx o6x:ani noc+on+i +aie ianann:annonnym cnc+exy
n cooyennx no onnc+ie c+onnix no( (anime +aion o6x:annoc+n ne 6ino). Ho( oxanon oc+am+cx
nc+onnnin n no(o:a6oi (nx cna6ennx nacenennx, a +aie nnoma(n ec+ec+nennix n nciycc+nennix
nonexnoc+nix n no(:exnix no(, nn6enie ynac+in :exnn (na i+nx nnoma(xx xono 6y(e+
niamnna+i +oniio one(enennie iyni+yi, n+o6i n no(y ne nona(ann nciycc+nennie y(o6ennx).
Bo(nie cooyennx, noc+oennie 6e: na(neameio a:emennx, 6y(y+ cnocn+icx.
Koxe +oio, :aion eiynnye+ nonoci no(noio c+on+enic+na, no(nix o6mec+n, ion+onn :a
no(nix xo:xnc+nox. B :aione co(ea+cx +aie nonoennx o naia:annxx. Hec+ynnenne conemae+
127
+o+, i+o nenx+c+nye+ ncnoni:onannm no( (nx 6oi6i co c+nxnnnixn 6e(c+nnxxn nnn n cnynae nnix
yio: (nx oiyammen ce(i. 3a i+o yioae+ m+aq, oiannnenne nnn nnmenne cno6o(i coiox
(o o(noio io(a, a n cnynae noxnnennx e+n, (ae (o 5 ne+. Bo(i n :exnn no( nnxn, xnnxmmnecx
co6c+nennoc+im iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni, neemnn no( noc+oxnnoe ynannenne coo+ne+c+nenno
xocinx ynannennn, einonaninix nannennn no(noio xo:xnc+na n nannonaninix naion.
12. Cypeuan cucfeua u apufpa
ex+eninoc+i cy(e6non cnc+exi n Honime eiynnye+cx 3aionox o6 yc+onc+ne o6mnx cy(on o+
27 nmnx 2OO1 i (:.V. N 98, no:. 1O7O). Cy(i n Honime ne:anncnxi. Hn nnnx+nn emennn cy(in
no(nnnxm+cx +oniio :aionax. Ha(:o n o6nac+n cy(onon:no(c+na ocymec+nnxe+ Bexonnin cy(.
Cy(e6nax cnc+exa nxee+ (ne nnc+annnn cy(e6noe emenne n+oon nnc+annnn xnnxe+cx nc+ynnnmnx
n :aionnym cnny n ne no(nen+ o6anonannm n o6innox nox(ie. O6mne cy(i emam+ cnoi
n o6nac+n nana: ia(ancioio, yiononnoio, cexennoio, +y(onoio. Bi(enennie o+(enennx o6mnx
cy(on xo:xnc+nennie cy(i accxa+nnam+ cnoi n o6nac+n ia(ancio-nanonix o+nomennn
xe(y cy6sei+axn, ne(ymnxn xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i. K xo:xnc+nennix (enax o+nocx+cx
+aie cnoi, cnx:annie c :amn+on oiyammen ce(i, nnxenennex xonononnc+nnecion
nai+nin, c +oionix nanox, a +aie cnx:annie c coinacn+eninixn none(yaxn n 6anio+c+nox.
B c+yi+ye cy(e6non cnc+exi cne(ye+ ni(enn+i, ne(e nceio, o6mne cy(i (anonnie, oiynie
n anennxnnonnie), a +aie oco6ie cy(i a(xnnnc+a+nnnie.
Panonnie cy(i o6cnynnam+ +en+onm o(non nnn 6onee ixnn. B nx axiax qyninnonnym+
o+(eni: ia(ancinn, yiononnin (n +ox nncne no nonocax a(xnnnc+a+nnnix nanonaymennn),
cexennin, +y(a n nno+ennix inni. B c+yi+ye anonnix cy(on n ianec+ne o+(enennn xoiy+
cymec+nona+i ioo(cine cy(i nnn nx xec+nie o+(enennx. Onn accxa+nnam+ (ena o6 a(xn-
nnc+a+nnnix nanonaymennxx (n nenon nnc+annnn), n +ox nncne o nanoionix nanonaymennxx
n nec+ynnennxx, o nec+ynnennxx no nac+noxy nciy n (yine, accxa+nnaexie n axiax
ynomennon none(yi.
Oiynie cy(i co:(am+cx na +en+onn, no(nnnennon, no iannen xee, (nyx anonnix cy(ax
n nxem+ o+(eni: ia(ancinn, yiononnin, nenn+ennnanin n na(:oa :a ninonnennex nnionoon
no yiononnix (enax, +y(a (nnoi(a nxec+e c connaninix c+axonannex) n xo:xnc+nennin.
Anennxnnonnin cy(, n cnom onee(i, co:(ae+cx (nx +en+onn, no(nnnennon no iannen xee (nyx
oiynix cy(ax. B eio axiax qyninnonnym+ o+(eni: ia(ancinn, yiononnin, +y(a
n connaninoio c+axonannx. Ho xee neo6xo(nxoc+n xnnnc+ mc+nnnn xoe+ co:(ana+i n yna:(nx+i
(yine o+(eni n cy(ax ncex nnc+annnn. Oianaxn cy(on xnnxm+cx: n anone ne(ce(a+eni cy(a,
n oiynox n anennxnnonnox ne(ce(a+eni n ionneinx.
1 xnnax 2OO4 i. n Honime nomna eqoxa a(xnnnc+a+nnnix cy(on. Peqoxa nnena
(nyxc+ynenna+oe cy(e6noe non:no(c+no ((ne nnc+annnn), a +aie n:xennna oiann:annonnym
c+yi+yy (Pacnoxenne He:n(en+a PH, :.V. N 72, no:. 652). Bxec+o 11 nnemnnx o+(enennn Inannoio
a(xnnnc+a+nnnoio cy(a (SA) o6a:onanoci 14 (n nomnox 16) noeno(cinx a(xnnnc+a+nnnix
cy(on (! nnc+annnx). K :a(anax i+nx cy(on o+nocn+cx onenia :aionnoc+n a(xnnnc+a+nnnix
emennn. B cnom onee(i, SA n ianec+ne !! nnc+annnn accxa+nnae+ iaccannonnie ano6i,
a +aie nac+nie ano6i na emennx noeno(cinx a(xnnnc+a+nnnix cy(on.
Koxe cy(e6noio ny+n (noce(c+nox o6mnx cy(on), cymec+nye+ no:xonoc+i a:emennx
xo:xnc+nennix cnoon c noxomim +e+encinx cy(on n a6n+aa (nny+enneio nnn :ay6enoio).
Te+encine cy(i xoiy+ 6i+i noc+oxnnixn, xoiy+ yc+anannnna+icx n yc+anax o6se(nnennn
n acconnannn (a6n+anie cy(i) n xoiy+ yne(a+icx ad hoc (nx emennx e(nnnnnix cnoon.
Hx o+nnnn+eninon ne+on xnnxe+cx (o6ononinin xaai+e, nannnne o(non nnc+annnn nn
cy(onon:no(c+ne, a +aie emenne cnoon o6 nxymec+nennix nanax cy(axn, n io+oix a6n+i
128
ni6nam+cx c+oonaxn. Pemennx, ninocnxie +e+encinxn n a6n+anixn cy(axn, nxem+ cnny
emennn o6mnx cy(on nenon nnc+annnn. H:xenennx n ia(anciox io(eice o+ 2OO4 i. cnoxann
cymec+nymmnn (o cnx no nnnnnn o(non nnc+annnn (nx +e+encinx cy(on. O(naio i+n n:xenennx
oc+annnn c+oonax cno6o(y ni6oa cnoco6a accxo+ennx (ena no n+oon nnc+annnn.
C+oona, io+oax :ann+eeconana n nnny(n+eninox ncnonnennn emennx n Honime na
ocnonannn nnionoa a6n+anoio cy(a, (onna nonynn+i cy(e6noe no(+ne(enne no:xonoc+n
eio ninonnennx. Lcnn emenne 6ino nnnx+o :a y6eox, no:xonoc+i eio ninonnennx
no(+ne(ae+ noeno(cinn cy( no xec+y nonnannx nnn naxo(ennx (onnnia, a n cnynae
o+cy+c+nnx +aioio cy(a noeno(cinn cy(, n oiyie io+ooio (onno nxe+i xec+o nnny(n+eninoe
ncnonnenne.
Hoc+oxnnin a6n+anin cy(, io+oin emae+ cnoi, ni+eiammne n: xe(ynao(nix
+oionix o+nomennn, (enc+nye+ nn O+enec+nennon xo:xnc+nennon nana+e.
C nenim :amn+i nn+eecon Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni, coinacno :aiony o+ 8 nmnx 2OO5 i. 6ina
yne(ena Ieneaninax noiya+onx iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni (:.V. N 169, no:. 1417). Ona
xnnxe+cx iocy(ac+nennon oiann:annonnon e(nnnnen, na(:o :a io+oon ocymec+nnxe+ xnnnc+
iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni. Le ocnonnon :a(anen xnnxe+cx o6ecnenenne e(nnoio ne(c+ann+enic+na
iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni nee( o+enec+nennixn n :ay6enixn cy(axn. He(c+ann+enic+no iacae+cx
(en, n io+oix Iocy(ac+nennax ia:na xnnxe+cx nnn (onna 6i+i c+oonon (nc+nox nnn
o+ne+nniox), nnn ynac+nniox none(yi nee( cy(ox, +n6ynanox nnn (yinx oianox, emammnx
(ena. J+o ne(c+ann+enic+no ne oxna+inae+ (en no nno+ennix inniax, no nnecennm n eec+, (en
o 6anio+c+ne n ncnann+eninon none(ye n (en no none(ye nnny(n+eninoio ncnonnennx.
K :a(anax Ieneaninon noiya+onn o+nocn+cx +aie ne(c+ann+enic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
nee( cy(axn, +n6ynanaxn n (yinxn oianaxn, accxa+nnammnxn cnoi nee( xe(ynao(nixn
oianaxn, a +aie no(io+onia, no :axnnennm xnnnc+a iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni, noei+on
noxa+nnnix ai+on, cnx:annix c ynannennex nxymec+nox Iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni.
He(c+ann+enic+no Ieneaninon noiya+onn xnnxe+cx o6x:a+eninix n (enax, n io+oix
c+onxoc+i ne(xe+a cnoa nenimae+ 1 xnn. :n.
13. Huqopuauouuue u peknauuue ycnyru
B Honime iionoxnneciax nnqoxannx xnnxe+cx o6me(oc+ynnon. Caxon o6mnnon 6a:on
coo+ne+c+nymmnx (annix acnonaiae+ Jen+ c+a+nc+nnecion nnqoxannn Inannoio c+a+nc+nnecioio
ynannennx (G\S, Warszawa, Al. Niepouleglosci 208).
Bo nnemneiionoxnnecinx o+nomennxx Honimn :a(ann no ne(oc+annennm nnqoxannn,
no(nnennm n no((eie ninonnxm+ iionoxnnecine o+(eni, o+(eni no no(nnennm +oionnn
n nnnec+nnnn, a +aie ioncynic+na Hoconic+n PH. nx nonicinx ne(nnx+nn onn xnnxm+cx
nc+onnniox nnqoxannn o nnemnnx iniax, a nnoc+annix 6n:necxenax n nnnec+oax,
:ann+eeconannix nonicinx iniox, ne(oc+annxm+ nnqoxannm o6 ycnonnxx ne(ennx 6n:neca
n Honime n noxoiam+ n yc+anonnennn cnx:en c nonicinxn na+neaxn. A(eca iionoxnnecinx
o+(enon, o+(enon no no(nnennm +oionnn n nnnec+nnnn, a +aie ioncynic+n n o+(eninix c+anax
xono nonynn+i n Hoconic+nax PH, a(eca io+oix nnne(eni n inane X!.
Honicine +oiono-iionoxnnecine ne(c+ann+enic+na :a y6eox o6inno xnnxm+cx xec+ox
nenoio ion+ai+a c nonicinx iniox. Mnoionncnennie 6anin (annix o nonicinx ne(nnx+nxx,
ioncan+nnionie qnxi n nyni+i iionoxnnecion nnqoxannn o6ecnennnam+ nnqoxannonnoe
o6cnynnanne iai nonix, +ai n ye cymec+nymmnx qnx. B nac+oxmee nexx n Honime cymec+nye+
xnoio iocy(ac+nennix n nac+nix yne(ennn, io+oie ne(y+ n ncnoni:ym+ 6a:i (annix
o nonicinx xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+ax.
129
J+o, ne(e nceio, cne(ymmne yne(ennx:
Lmo iionoxnnecion nnqoxannn Hannonaninon xo:xnc+nennon nana+i, n ne(ennn io+ooio
naxo(n+cx, oxna+inammax ncm Honimy, cnc+exa iionoxnnecion nnqoxannn,
Honicioe aien+c+no nnqoxannn n nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn,
Jen+ inonnon nnqoxannn Hnc+n+y+a ionsmni+yi n nen nnemnen +oionnn,
Hoximnenno-+oionax nana+a nnoc+annix nnnec+oon,
Com: nac+nix ioxxecan+on n noximnennnion,
Kon+ai+nin nen+ Luio-!nlo nn Honiciox aien+c+ne a:nn+nx ne(nnnnxa+enic+na,
6a:a (annix Teleadieson,
nnoc+annie ne(c+ann+enic+na na noniciox inie, n +ox nncne, ne(e nceio ne(c+a-
nn+enic+no Lnonencioio 6ania (annix.
Hnoinn (nana:on nnqoxannonnix, xaie+nnionix, qnnanconix n mn(nnecinx ycnyi ne(naiam+
nac+nie ioncan+nnionie qnxi. Hx a(ecaxn acnonaiae+ Acconnannx iionoxnnecinx ioncyni+an+on.
B nonicion cnc+exe co(enc+nnx a:nn+nm iionoxnin nanoe xec+o :annxae+ Hnc+n+y+ ionsmni+yi
n nen nnemnen +oionnn (nstytut Koniunltur i Cen Hanulu Zagranicznego - KCHZ). Pa6o+i Hnc+n+y+a
+ecno cnx:ani c xo:xnc+nennon nai+nion. Koxe a:a6o+oi n iicne+n: (nx nann+enic+nennix
yne(ennn Hnc+n+y+ oia:inae+ ycnyin n o6nac+n xaio- n xnioiionoxnnecion no6nexa+nin
n qoxe anann:a inia, qnnancono-iionoxnnecinx anann:on, o+ne+on n +.n. enc+nymmnn nn
Hnc+n+y+e Jen+ nnqoxannn o Lnonenciox com:e, a +aie Jen+ inonnon nnqoxannn
acnonaiam+ ioxnim+enixn 6a:axn (annix o nonicinx n nnoc+annix xo:xnc+nymmnx cy6sei+ax,
o ne(noennxx co+y(nnnec+na xe(y nnxn (6a:a Ha+ne), nnqoxannen o :aiono(a+enic+ne
Honimn n Lnonencioio com:a, eiynnymmex +onaoo6oo+ n o6oo+ ycnyiaxn c +e+inxn
c+anaxn. Jen+i acnonaiam+ +aie (yion nanon nnqoxannen, iacammencx ycnonnn ne(ennx
6n:neca n Honime.
Hnc+n+y+ xnnxe+cx nnenox Acconnannn enonencinx nnc+n+y+on iionoxnnecion ionsmni+yi
(A!LCL) n ye xnoine io(i co+y(nnnae+ c an+on+e+nixn nccne(ona+enicinxn nen+axn
n Lnone, A:nn n n Coe(nnennix H+a+ax.
Hn:nannon qoxon nnqoxannn na noniciox inie xnnxe+cx a(no- n +eneeinaxa, einaxa
n nena+n n na nic+aniax.
Honynxnoc+i a(no- n +eneeinaxi n Honime ac+e+. Ho oneniax CR Media Consulling
n ! ina+ane 2OO6 i. (oxo(i einaxnix a(noc+annnn ynennnnnnci na oiono 13, no cannennm
c +ex e neno(ox 2OO5 i. Tenenn:nonnix c+annnxx caxin 6onimon oc+ (oxo(on o+ einaxi
o6ecnennnam+ +exa+nnecine ianani. nx nnxea TV :aa6o+ana na nnx n 2OO5 i. na 6O 6onime,
nex n ne(i(ymex io(y.
B 2OO6 i. ce(nxx nena +eneeinaxi (6e: HC) coc+annxe+ o+ 9OO :n. (o 8O.OOO :n. :a 3O ceiyn(
iqnnoio nexenn n :anncnxoc+n o+ +enenn:nonnon c+annnn n nexenn ixnccnn. Lonee (emenon
xnnxe+cx einaxa n +eneia:e+ax a:nnnnix +enenn:nonnix c+annnn nannonaninoio n einonaninoio
xacm+a6a. B ! n !! noiaxxe +enenn(ennx nena a:xemennx einaxi n +enenne ne(enn na 1 iiannon
c+annne coc+annxe+ o+ 6O (o 2OO :n. n :anncnxoc+n o+ o+acnn.
Ce(nxx nena einaxnoio o6sxnnennx n o+enec+nennix nena+nix n:(annxx cnonnaci na yonne
o+ 35O :n. (o 5.66O :n. :a xo(yni nonexnoc+n (o+ 1O :n. (o 9O :n. :a 1 cx
2
). Jena einaxi :anncn+ o+
a:xeon :annxaexon nonexnoc+n, a +aie o+ c+annni, na io+oon ona 6y(e+ noxemena, n o+ +oio,
6y(e+ nn ona nena+a+icx n nne+nox n:o6aennn nnn ne+.
B Honime nanym oni niae+ nnemnxx einaxa (outdoor). Ve n 2OO3 i. o6sex inia
nnemnen einaxi nenicnn nonxnnnna(a :no+ix. H: nccne(onannn TS OBOP ni+eiae+, n+o
einaxnie mn+i ne(c+annxnn co6on +o+ nn( einaxi, na io+oin ny6nnia name nceio o6amana
nnnxanne.
13O
Heio+oie xxain n nic+anin n Honime n 2OO6 i.
24-27.01.2006 Hosuau
B\DMA Me(ynao(nax c+on+eninax xxaia; n 2OO5 i. 111O iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 283
nnoc+annix; 53 175 noce+n+enen.
15-17.01.2006 Bapmana
PS! WARSZAWA 2OO6 Me(ynao(nax xxaia einaxnix n:(ennn, n 2OO5 i. 68 iicnonen+on;
n +ox nncne 29 nnoc+annix. Mec+o nic+anin: noen iyni+yi n nayin, Haa(nax nnoma(i 1.
28.02-02.03.2006 Hosuau
Ho:nancine (nn xo(i; n 2OO4 i. 383 iicnonen+a, n +ox nncne 76 nnoc+annix, 12 4O5 noce+n+enen.
10-12.03.2006 Keuue
IAS-LXPO 6. xaia (eenoo6a6a+inammen noximnennoc+n n necnoio xo:xnc+na; n 2OO5 i.
27 iicnonen+on, 25 725 noce+n+enen.
16-18.03.2006 Kpakon
TLRMO 2OO6 1O. xaia can+exnnnecioio, o+onn+eninoio, ion(nnnonnoio n xono(nninoio
o6oy(onannx; n 2OO5 i. 39 iicnonen+on, 89O noce+n+enen.
17-19.03.2006 Bpouuan
TARB\D 19. C+on+eninax xxaia; n 2OO5 i. 24O iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 2 nnoc+annix,
11 172 noce+n+enx.
22-24.03.2006 os
!TLRTLILCOM 17. Me(ynao(nax xxaia cnx:n; n 2OO5 i. 198 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne
39 nnoc+annix; 17 2O7 noce+n+enen.
31.03-02.04.2006 Iauck
xaia n:(ennn xne6oneianoio n ion(n+ecioio non:no(c+na n xooenoio; n 2OO5 i.
85 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 7 nnoc+annix, 4 O52 noce+n+enx.
30.05-02.06.2006 Hosuau
Tiani, c+on & iyxnx, cne+, nn+eie ina+ni, n 2OO5 i. 155 iicnonen+on.
131
06-07.06.2006 Bapmana
GLOIOG!A 2OO6 4. Me(ynao(nax ieonoinneciax xxaia; n 2OO5 i. 46 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne
4 nnoc+annix.
19-22.06.2006 Hosuau
!IOSYSTLM xaia n qoyx nnxenennn nnqoxa+nin n +eneioxxynniannn; n 2OO5 i.
136 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 18 nnoc+annix, 19 2O5 noce+n+enen.
01-03.09.2006 Iauck
AMBLRMARKT Me(ynao(nax xxaia xn+ax; n 2OO4 i. 119 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne
3 nnoc+annix, 3 346 noce+n+enen.
18-20.09.2006 Hosuau
TAROPAK Me(ynao(nin canon +exnnin ynaionoi n noinc+nin; n 2OO4 i. 692 iicnonen+a, n +ox
nncne 273 nnoc+annix, 39 17O noce+n+enen.
27-29.09.2006 Bapmana
AITA ! GAZ 11. Me(ynao(nax xxaia neq+xnon n ia:onon noximnennoc+n; n 2OO4 i.
1O9 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 48 nnoc+annix.
25-28.10.2006 Hosuau
TO\R SAIO Me(ynao(nin +ync+nnecinn canon; n 2OO4 i. 662 iicnonen+a, n +ox nncne
27O nnoc+annix, 19 456 noce+n+enen.
09-12.11.2006 Bpouuan
KAMN 2006 16. Me(ynao(nax xxaia iaxnx n o6oy(onannx (nx o6a6o+in iaxnen; n 2OO4 i.
27O iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne 138 nnoc+annix, 7 281 noce+n+eni.
22-24.11.2006 Bapmana
Me(ynao(nax xxaia ene:no(oonoio +ancno+a; n 2OO4 i. 47 iicnonen+on, n +ox nncne
7 nnoc+annix.
Lonee no(o6nym nnqoxannm o xxaiax n nic+aniax, noxo(xmnx n 15 ioo(ax Honimn, xono
nonynn+i n Honicion ionoannn xxaoi, ul. Glogowsla 26, 60-734 Poznan, +en. (+48 61)866 15 32,
869 22 45, qaic: (+ 48 61) 866 1O 53, e-mail: inloollaii.com.l; lll://www.ollaii.com.l.
132
B Honime a:nnnae+cx nobiling narketing, ncnoni:ymmnn no:xonoc+i nee(ann nnqoxannn no
xo6nninoxy +eneqony. O(naio, coinacno nonicioxy :aiony, nonyna+eni (onen (a+i cnoe coinacne
na nonynenne +aion nnqoxannn.
Pac+ymym oni n xaie+nnie niam+ xeonnx+nx no( o+ii+ox ne6ox. J+o xoomo nn(no na
nnxee a(nonema+enen, io+oie nn(yxinam+ nce nonie ynnnnie einaxnie ioxnannn.
C anenx 2OO6 i. n Honime nc+ynnn n cnny Ko(eic i+nin einaxi. J+o+ io(eic xnnxe+cx ne
c6onniox oqnnnaninix ne(nncannn, a nny+ennnx caxoeiynnonannex i+on o+acnn,
coinaconannix c ne(c+ann+enxxn co:(a+enen einaxi, einaxnix aien+c+n n CMH, nxo(xmnx
n Com: acconnannn Cone+ einaxi. 3a(ana Cone+a coc+on+ n co6nm(ennn nnnnnnon io(eica.
Lina +aie yne(ena Koxnccnx i+nin einaxi, :a(anen io+oon xnnxe+cx accxo+enne ano6
no+e6n+enen, qnx n ne(nnnnxa+enen. Tai e iai n n (yinx iocy(ac+nax, n Honime xono
no(a+i n Koxnccnm :axnnenne c noci6on onenn+i einaxy na ne(nan+eninox i+ane ee
no(io+onin. J+o no:nonxe+ qnxax n:6ea+i n:(eei na co:(anne einax, io+oie n nocne(c+nnn
(onni 6inn 6i 6i+i y6ani c inia.
Oiann:a+oi xxaoi o6se(nneni n Honicion ionoannn oiann:a+oon iionoxnnecinx
xxaoi n nic+anoi. H:nec+nix oiann:a+oox xxaoi n nic+anoi n Honime xnnxe+cx
Me(ynao(nax no:nanciax xxaia (MTP). K nncny nan6onee nec+nnix xeonnx+nn,
oiann:onannix n Ho:nann, nnna(nea+: +exnnio-nnnec+nnnonnax xxaia, io+oax noxo(n+
ia(in io( n nmne, a +aie aiano-noximnennax xxaia POIAGRA, noxo(xmax ocenim
ia(oio io(a. Oiann:ym+cx +aie xxain xe6enn n (yinx n:(ennn n: (eena. Ce(nxx nena 1 x
2
ne:ac+oennon nic+anonnon nnoma(n n nannnione MTP coc+annxna n 2OO5 i. o+ 25 (o 1OO eno, a na
o+ii+on nnoma(ie o+ 21 (o 4O eno. Bce 6onimen nonynxnoc+im noni:ym+cx xxain n Bamane,
Me(ynao(nax no(:nnciax xxaia, Me(ynao(nax i(aniciax xxaia, Me(ynao(nax
ia+onnniax xxaia, a +aie xaia noiannnnon nonoci Boc+oi-3ana( n Lxna-Ho(nxcia.
14. Baueuue npaeoeue akfu
Kn(nnecine ocnoni xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n:
- Ko(eic +oionix o6mec+n, :aion o+ 15 cen+x6x 2OOO i.; :.V. N 94, no:. 1O37 c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn (nocne(nne n :.V. N 229 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 2276 , a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 132,
no:. 11O8, N 183, no:. 1538, N 184, no:. 1539);
- Ia(ancinn io(eic, :aion o+ 23 anenx 1964 i.; :.V. o+ 1964 i. N 16, no:. 94 c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn (nocne(nne n :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 48,
no:. 462, N 157, no:. 1316, N 172, no:. 1438);
- 3aion o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n o+ 2 nmnx 2OO4 i.; :.V. N 173 o+ 2OO4 i.,
no:. 18O7 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- 3aion o+ 2 nmnx 2OO4 i. nonoennx, nno(xmne :aion o cno6o(e xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n,
:.V. N 173 o+ 2OO4 i. no:. 18O8;
- 3aion o 6anio+c+ne n canannn o+ 28 qenanx 2OO3 i.; :.V. o+ 2OO3 i. N 6O, no:. 535; :.V. o+
2OO5 i. N 94, no:. 785, N 183, no:. 1538, N 184, no:. 1539;
- 3aion o Honiciox cy(e6nox eec+e o+ 2O aniyc+a 1997 i.; :.V. N 121, no:. 769 c nocne-
(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 1 o+ 2OO2 i., no:. 2; :.V. N 92 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, :.V. o+
2OO5 i. N 62, no:. 551, N 86, no:. 732);
- 3aion o6 nnoc+annax o+ 13 nmnx 2OO3 i., :.V. N 128, no:. 1175 c n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 96 o+
2OO4 i., no:. 959, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 9O, no:. 757, N 94, no:. 788, N 132, no:. 11O5,
N 163, no:. 1362);
- 3aion o none(yax, iacammnxcx ny6nnnnon noxomn o+ 3O anenx 2OO4 i. (:.V. N 123 o+ 2OO4 i.,
no:. 1291);
133
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 659/1999 i. o+ 22 xa+a 1999 i. yc+anannnnammee none(yy
nnxenennx oionoa o nc+ynnennn n LC n o6nac+n ny6nnnnon noxomn (O1 LC N 83
o+ 27 xa+a 1999 i.);
- 3aion o iocy(ac+nennix :aia:ax o+ 29 xnnax 2OO4 i.; :.V. N 19 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 177, :.V. o+
2OO5 i. N 163, no:. 1362, N 184. no:. 1539;
- 3aion o6 oco6ix iionoxnnecinx :onax o+ 2O oi+x6x 1994 i.; :.V. N 123, no:. 6OO c nocne-
(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 188 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 184O, :.V. N 167 o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 1398);
- 3aion o qnnanconon no((eie nnnec+nnnn o+ 2O xa+a 2OO2 i., :.V. N 41, no:. 363
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 159 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 1537, :.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 179,
no:. 1484, N 249, no:. 21O4).
- 3aion o Hannonaninox nnane a:nn+nx o+ 2O anenx 2OO4 i.; :.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 116, no:. 12O6.
Co6c+nennoc+i na :exnm n ne(nnnxoc+i:
- 3aion o+ 21 aniyc+a 1997 i. o6 ynannennn ne(nnnxoc+im, :.V. N 115 o+ 1997 i., no:. 741
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn, :.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 13O, no:. 1O87 N 169, no:. 142O, N 175,
no:. 1459;
- 3aion o+ 19 oi+x6x 1991 i. o6 ynannennn cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+im
iocy(ac+nennon ia:ni (e(nnin +eic+ :aiona :.V. N 57 o+ 1995 i., no:. 299) c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn n nocne(nne nexx :.V. N 69 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 624, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V.
N 132, no:. 111O, N 163, no:. 1362, N 167, no:. 1398, N 169, no:. 142O, N 175. no:. 1459;
- 3aion o nno6e+ennn ne(nnnxoc+n nnoc+annaxn o+ 24 xa+a 192O i.; :.V. N 54 o+ 1996 i.,
no:. 245 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn ( n nocne(nee nexx :.V. N 49 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 466,
a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 94, no:. 788, N 183. no:. 1538);
- Pacnoxenne Mnnnc+a nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn o+ 26 anenx 2OO4 i. o no(o6non
nnqoxannn n nn(ax (oiyxen+on, io+oie o6x:an ne(c+ann+i nnoc+anen, xo(a+anc+nymmnn
o ni(ane a:emennx na nno6e+enne ne(nnnxoc+n (:.V. N 94, no:. 925).
Ho+nno(enc+nne xonononnc+nnecion nai+nie n ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnn:
- 3aion o+ 15 (eia6x 2OOO i. o :amn+e ioniyennnn n nan no+e6n+enen; :.V. N 122, no:. 1319;
n nocne(nee nexx n:xenen: 3aionox o+ 5 nmnx 2OO2 i. o6 n:xenennn 3aiona o :amn+e
ioniyennnn n nan no+e6n+enen, :.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 163, no:. 1362, N 184, no:. 1539, :aion
Ia(ancinn noneccyaninin io(eic, a +aie 3aion o no+nno(enc+nnn ne(o6oconec+non
ioniyennnn (:.V. N 129, no:. 11O2) n 3aion o+ 16 anenx 2OO4 i. o6 n:xenennn 3aiona
o :amn+e ioniyennnn n nan no+e6n+enen n o6 n:xenennn neio+oix :aionon (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i.
N 93, no:. 891), a +aie :aion o+ 16 anenx 2OO4 i. o6 n:xenennn :aiona o :amn+e neio+oix
nan no+e6n+enen n o6 o+ne+c+nennoc+n :a yme6 nanecennin onacnix no(yi+ox (:.V.
N 116 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 12O4);
- 3aion o 6oi6e c ne(o6oconec+non ioniyennnen o+ 16 anenx 1993 i.; :.V. N 47, no:. 211,
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 126, no:. 1O71 , :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, :.V.
N 162 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 1693, :.V. N 1O o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 68).
Oxana nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n:
- C+oiionixcinn ai+, n:xenxmmnn Hanciym ionnennnm o6 oxane noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n
o+ 2O xa+a 1883 i. c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn, coc+annennin n C+oiionixe 14 nmnx 1967 i.
(:.V. N 9 o+ 1975, no:. 51 ((enc+nye+ c 24 xa+a 1975 i.);
- Hancinn ai+ Lencion ionnennnn o+ O9 cen+x6x 1886 i. o6 oxane nn+ea+ynix n xy(o-
ec+nennix non:ne(ennn c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn, coc+annennin 24 nmnx 1971 i. (:.V.
N 82 o+ 199O i., no:. 474, (enc+nye+ c 4 aniyc+a 199O i. n :.V. N 1O4 o+ 1994 i., no:. 5O6, 5O7
((enc+nye+ c 22 oi+x6x 1994 i.);
134
- Pnxciax ionnennnx o+ 26 oi+x6x 1961 i. o6 oxane nan ncnonnn+enen, non:no(n+enen
qonoiaxx n nema+eninix oiann:annn (:.V. N 125 o+ 1997 i., no:. 8OO n 8O1 ((enc+nye+
c 13 nmnx 1997 i.);
- C+ac6yicioe coinamenne o xe(ynao(non na+en+non inaccnqniannn, conemeno n C+ac6yie
24 xa+a 1971 i. n n:xeneno 28 cen+x6x 1989 i., :.V. N 63 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 579;
- Coinamenne o +oionix acnei+ax nan nn+ennei+yaninon co6c+nennoc+n (TR!PS), ne(c+annxmmee
co6on nnnoenne i Coinamennm o6 yne(ennn Bcexnnon +oionon oiann:annn,
coc+annennoxy n Maaieme 15 anenx 1994 i., nnnoenne i :.V. N 32 o+ 1996, no:. 143
(nc+ynnno n cnny c 1 xnnax 2OOO i.);
- 3aion o6 an+ociox nane n cxenix nanax o+ 4 qe6anx 1994 i., e(nnin +eic+ :.V. N 8O o+
2OOO i., no:. 9O4 ((enc+nye+ c 23 xax 1994 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (n nocne(nee nexx
:.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959);
- 3aion o noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n o+ 3O nmnx 2OOO i.; :.V. N 49 o+ 2OO1 i., no:. 5O8
((enc+nye+ c 22 aniyc+a 2OO1 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn.
Ty(onie o+nomennx:
- Ty(onon io(eic (:.V. N 24 o+ 1996 i., no:. 11O), c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (nocne(nne
n :.V. N 135 o+ 2OO2 i., no:. 1146, :.V. N 213 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 2O81, :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i.,
no:. 959, a +aie :.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 1O, no:. 71, N 68, no:. 61O, N 86, no:. 732, N 167,
no:. 1398).
Hanoionax cnc+exa:
- Hanoionin io(eic, :aion o+ 29 aniyc+a 1997 i.; :.V. N 137, no:. 926; N 16O, no:. 1O83;
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (n nocne(nne nexx, nannxe, :.V. N 91 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 868,
:.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 85, no:. 727, N 86, no:. 732, N 143, no:. 1199); e(nnin +eic+ :aiona :.V.
N 8 o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 6O;
- 3aion o+ 13 oi+x6x 1995 i. o nnnnnnax yne+a n n(en+nqniannn nanoionna+enimnion; :.V.
N 142 o+ 1995 i., no:. 7O2, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 173 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 18O8;
:.V. N 14 o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 113); e(nnin +eic+ :aiona :.V. N 269 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 2681;
- 3aion o nanoie na nn6ini c mn(nnecinx nnn. L(nnin +eic+ :aiona o+ 13 nmnx 2OOO i.; :.V.
N 54, no:. 654 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (nocne(nne n :.V. N 2O2 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 1957,
a +aie :.V. o+ 2OO5 i. N 25, no:. 2O2, N 57, no:. 491, N 78, no:. 684, N 143, no:. 1199, N 155,
no:. 1298, N 169. no:. 1419, N 169, no:. 142O, N 179, no:. 1484, N 18O, no:. 1495, N 183,
no:. 1538).
- 3aion o no(oxo(nox nanoie c qn:nnecinx nnn, o+ 3 xa+a 2OOO i.; :.V. N 14, no:. 176
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- 3aion o nanoie na +onai n ycnyin o+ 11 xa+a 2OO4 i.; :.V. N 54, no:. 535; e(nnin +eic+
:aiona n :.V. N 14 o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 113, N 9O, no:. 756, N 143, no:. 1199. N 179. no:. 1484;
- 3aion o6 ainn:nox nanoie o+ 23 xnnax 2OO4 i :.V. N 29, no:. 257 c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 68 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 623, :.V. N 16O o+ 2OO5 i., no:. 1341);
- 3aion o iocy(ac+nennon nomnnne o+ 9 cen+x6x 2OOO i.; :.V. N 86, no:. 96O, c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn; e(nnin +eic+ :aiona :.V. N 253 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 2532, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V.
N 14, no:. 115, N 48, no:. 447, N 62, no:. 55O, N 9O. no:. 757, N 94. no:. 788, N 113, no:. 954,
N 143, no:. 1199, N 153, no:. 1272, N 169, no:. 1418, N 175, no:. 1458, N 179, no:. 1485;
- 3aion o+ 2 (eia6x 1993 i. o xainonie n:(ennn ia:nanencinxn ainn:nixn :naiaxn; :.V.
N 127, no:. 584, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Mnnnc+a qnnancon o+ 22 (eia6x 2OOO i. no nonocy o ninonnennn neio+oix
nonoennn 3aiona o nanoie na +onai n ycnyin n o6 ainn:nox nanoie; :.V. N 121, no:. 1296;
135
- 3aion o6 n:xenennn :aiona o nanoiax n xec+nix c6oax n o6 n:xenennn neio+oix (yinx
:aionon o+ 3O oi+x6x 2OO2 i.; :.V. N 2OO, no:. 1683, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn
(n nocne(nee nexx :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959);
- 3aion o ec+yi+yn:annn neio+oix 6m(e+nix :a(onennoc+en ne(nnnnxa+enen o+
3O aniyc+a 2OO2 i., :.V. N 155, no:. 1287;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a xnnnc+on o+ 21 anenx 2OO1 i. no nonocy o no(o6nix ycnonnxx
oia:annx noxomn (nx xanix n ce(nnx ne(nnx+nn n o6nac+n nanoionix niio+; :.V. N 95
o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 954;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a xnnnc+on o+ 21 anenx 2OO4 i. no nonocy o no(o6nix ycnonnxx
oia:annx noxomn nn +y(oyc+onc+ne n nn(e neio+oix nanoionix niio+; :.V. N 95 o+
2OO4 i., no:. 956.
Oxana oiyammen ce(i:
- 3aion o6 oxane oiyammen ce(i o+ 27 nmnx 2OO1 i.; :.V. N 62 o+ 2OO1 i., no:. 627,
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 19O o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 1865, :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959,
:.V. N 281 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 2784, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :V N 25, no:. 2O2, N 62, no:. 552, N 113,
no:. 954, N 13O, no:. 1O87, N 132, no:. 111O, N 163, no:. 1362, N 167, no:. 1399, N 169, no:. 142O,
N 175, no:. 1458, 1462, N 18O, no:. 1495, N 249, no:. 21O4);
- 3aion o no(nox nane o+ 18 nmnx 2OO1 i.; :.V. N 115 o+ 2OO1 i., no:. 1229, c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 165 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 1592, :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i.
:.V. N 85. no:. 729, N 13O, no:. 1O87, N 163. no:. 1362, N 169, no:. 142O, N 175, no:. 1462);
- 3aion o6 o+xo(ax o+ 27 nmnx 2OO1 i.; :.V. N 62 , no:. 628, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn
(:.V. N 7 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 78, :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, :.V. N 116 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 12O8,
a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 25, no:. 2O2, N 9O. no:. 758, N 13O, no:. 1O87, N 175, no:. 1458, 1462,
N 18O, no:. 1495);
- 3aion o6 o6x:annoc+xx ne(nnnnxa+enen n o6nac+n ncnoni:onannx neio+oix o+xo(on
n o no(yi+onox n (eno:n+nox c6oax o+ 11 xax 2OO1 i.; :.V. N 63, no:. 638 n 639,
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, :.V. N 121 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 1263,
a +aie o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 33, no:. 291, N 175, no:. 1458, N 18O, no:. 1495);
- 3aion o+ 2O anenx 2OO4 i. o nemec+nax, o6e(nxmmnx o:ononin cnon; :.V. N 121 o+ 2OO4 i.,
no:. 1263.
Cy(e6nax cnc+exa n a6n+a:
- 3aion o6 yc+onc+ne o6mnx cy(on o+ 27 nmnx 2OO1 i.; :.V. N 98, no:. 1O7O, N 154, no:. 1787,
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 153 o+ 2OO2 i., no:. 1271; :.V. N 188 o+ 2OO3 i.,
no:. 1838; :.V. N 228 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 2256; :.V. N 96 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 959, a +aie o+ 2OO5 i.
:.V. N 13, no:. 98, N 131, no:. 11O2, N 167, no:. 1398, N 169, no:. 141O, N 169, no:. 1413, 1417,
N 178. no:. 1479, N 249. no:. 21O4);
- 3aion o nannnax, nno(xmnx 3aion o6 yc+onc+ne a(xnnnc+a+nnnix cy(on n 3aion
o non:no(c+ne nee( a(xnnnc+a+nnnixn cy(axn o+ 3O aniyc+a 2OO2 i.; :.V. N 153, no:. 1271,
c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn (:.V. N 228 o+ 2OO3 i., no:. 2261, :.V. N 169 o+ 2OO5 i.,
no:. 1417);
- Pacnoxenne He:n(en+a PH o+ 25 anenx 2OO3 i. o6 yne(ennn noeno(cinx a(xnnnc+a+nnnix
cy(on; :.V. N 72, no:. 652;
- Ia(ancinn noneccyaninin io(eic o+ 17 nox6x 1964 i. c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn
(:.V. N 43 o+ 1964 i., no:. 296; nocne(nne n:xenennx o+ 2OO5 i. :.V. N 13, no:. 98, N 22,
N 185, N 86, no:. 732, N 122, no:. 1O24, N 143, no:. 1199, N 15O, no:. 1239, N 167, no:. 1398,
N 169, no:. 1413, 1417, N 172, no:. 1438, N 178, no:. 1478, N 183, no:. 1538, N 267, no:. 2258).
136
Honima, iai iocy(ac+no nnen Lnonencioio com:a, n o+nomennxx c +e+inxn c+anaxn
nnxenxe+ nce nnc+yxen+i conxec+non +oionon nonn+nin LC, n +ox nncne o6mnn +axoennin
+anq n ne+anqnie nnc+yxen+i. Ona xnnxe+cx +aie c+oonon xe(ynao(nix coinamennn,
no(nncannix LC, eiynnymmnx +oionnm c i+nxn c+anaxn. Toionin o6xen c 24 c+anaxn LC
(+ai na:inaexin o6xen nny+n LC) non:no(n+cx no nnnnnnax e(nnoio nny+enneio inia LC, na
io+oox nxee+ xec+o cno6o(noe nee(nnenne +onaon, +.e. ne cymec+nym+ iannni n (enc+nym+
iaxonn:nonannie (cxone) nannna, iacammnecx +exnnnecinx +e6onannn no o+nomennm i n:(ennxx.
4oxnonanne n ocymec+nnenne o6men +oionon nonn+nin noncxo(n+ na yonne Coo6mec+na.
Toionie nannna yc+anannnnae+ Cone+ Lnonencioio com:a nnn Lnonenciax ioxnccnx ny+ex
nxxoio nne(ennx noxa+nnnix ai+on. Oianox, o+nenammnx :a ocymec+nnenne i+on nonn+nin,
n +ox nncne, :a non:no(c+no an+n(exnnnionix, an+n(o+annonnix n :amn+nix none(y, xnnxe+cx
Lnonenciax ioxnccnx. B ne(ennn nonicinx nnac+en oc+anaci +oniio ni(ana a:emennn na nno:,
nino: n yc+anonnenne oiannnennn n o6nac+n nno:a n nino:a no neiionoxnnecinx nnnnnax. K nnx
o+nocx+cx, n nac+noc+n, oxana :(oonix nm(en n nno+nix, a +aie yc+anonnenne +oionix nannn
n o6nac+n nino:a c nenim ninonnennx coinamennn, no+oionon nnn (yinx xe(ynao(nix
(oionoon, ne no+nnoenamnx oionoy o Lnonenciox coo6mec+ne.
H: o+enec+nennix :aiono(a+eninix ai+on nanenmee :nanenne nxee+ 3aion Taxoennoe nano
n 3aion o6 a(xnnnc+nonannn o6oo+ox c :ay6enixn c+anaxn, io+oin nc+ynnn n cnny co (nx
nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC.
1. Ycnoeun foproeoro oueua e paukax Eeponeckoro
coksa
C 1 xax 2OO4 i. Honima c+ana nac+im e(nnoio enonencioio inia. B +oionne co c+anaxn
Lnonencioio com:a i+o o:nanae+ cne(ymmee:
Vna:(nenne +axoennoio ion+onx na iannnax (cno6o(noe nee(nnenne +onaon).
O(nnaionie +exnnnecine +e6onannx na ncen +en+onn LC.
Be(enne xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n +e6ye+ nannnnx noxea, n(en+nqnnnymmeio
nanoionna+enimnia (!P) c nnc+anion PI; neo6xo(nxo +aie :aeinc+nona+i (ex+eninoc+i
n coo+ne+c+nymmex qnnanconox ynannennn.
nx ne(nnx+nn, ne(ymnx +oionnm c qnxaxn n: LC, o6x:annoc+i coc+annx+i eexecxnnie
c+a+nc+nnecine (einaannn !TRASTAT, co(eamne cno(nie (annie o+nocn+enino
eann:onannoio nno:a n nino:a +onaon. J+n (einaannn, oqoxnennie na +a(nnnonnix nnn
inei+onnix nocn+enxx, (onni nicina+icx n coo+ne+c+nymmne +axoennie nana+i (o 1O nncna
137
cne(ymmeio nocne o+ne+noio xecxna. einaannm !TRASTAT xoe+ no(nnca+i ynonnoxonennoe
nnno nnn eio ne(c+ann+eni. Anann: nannninoc+n (einaannn !TRASTAT nono(n+cx
ny+ex conoc+annennx c nanoionon (einaannen VAT (HC).
Toionie c(enin co c+anaxn Lnonencioio com:a ne cnn+am+cx iicno+nixn nnn nxno+nixn
c(eniaxn. Honx+nx iicno+ n nxno+ o+nocx+cx ncinmnn+enino i c(eniax c cy6sei+axn n: +e+inx
c+an. Toionie c(enin xe(y cy6sei+axn n: a:nix c+an-nnenon one(enxm+cx +exnnox
nno6e+enne n axiax LC n noc+anin n axiax LC.
Co (nx nc+ynnennx n LC Honima nnxenxe+ enonencine nnnnnni nn (onycie no(yi+on
i o6oo+y. Bce +onai, non:ne(ennie n Honime coinacno +e6onannxx LC, xoiy+ cno6o(no
nniynnona+i na e(nnox enonenciox inie
1
. Cymec+nymmne n LC +exnnnecine +e6onannx,
iacam+cx, ne(e nceio, 6e:onacnoc+n +onaon.
Ha e(nnox enonenciox inie (enc+nye+ nnnnnn n:anxnon ainen+annn, io+oin o:nanae+, n+o
nm6on no(yi+, io+oin :aionno non:no(n+cx n no(ae+cx n o(non n: c+an-nnenon Lnonencioio
com:a, xoe+ 6i+i (onymen i no(ae n (yion c+ane-nnene. 3ane+ na no(ay +aioio no(yi+a
na inie n (yion c+ane xoe+ 6i+i nne(en +oniio nocne +oio, iai 6y(e+ (oia:ano, n+o (annoe
n:(enne ne ninonnxe+ ocnonnix +e6onannn, iacammnxcx 6e:onacnoc+n. Ha nai+nie cax nnnnnn
n:anxnon ainen+annn ne(oc+a+onen, n+o6i (annoe n:(enne xoino cno6o(no nniynnona+i na e(nnox
inie, +ai iai 6onimnnc+no nonyna+enen +e6ye+ ne(sxnnennx (enc+nn+eninoio n (annon c+ane
+ec+a nnn ce+nqnia+a.
Texuuueckue 1peonauua no o+nomennm i neio+oix iynnax no(yi+on 6inn iaxonn:nonani
na yonne LC. Henonananino i+n +e6onannx one(enxnnci oneni no(o6no (+ai na:inaexin c+ain
no(xo(). Taioio o(a iaxonn:annx oxna+inana, n nac+noc+n, nnmenie no(yi+i, qaxanen+niy,
xnxnnecine nemec+na n xexannnecine ce(c+na nee(nnennx. Bnn(y oioxnoio ionnnec+na (nei+nn,
onncinammnx +exnnnecine +e6onannx (nx o+(eninix no(yi+on (+oniio n cnynae an+oxo6nninon
noximnennoc+n nx 6ino oiono 9O!), n 1985 i. 6in nne(en +ai na:inaexin nonin no(xo( i iaxo-
nn:annn +exnnnecinx nannn. He(xe+ox iaxonn:annn c+ann ncinmnn+enino nannna, cnx:annie
c 6e:onacnoc+im, :(ooniex n :amn+on oiyammen ce(i. B o+nnnne o+ (nei+nn c+aoio no(xo(a,
nonie one(enxm+ +oniio ocnonnie +e6onannx, enaexie e:yni+a+i nnn yio:i, io+oie nyno
ne(o+na+n+i, no ne y+onnxm+, iaine +exnnnecine ce(c+na cne(ye+ yno+e6n+i (nx i+on nenn.
Hon:no(n+eni n:(ennx, oxnanennoio nonix no(xo(ox i +exnnnecion iaxonn:annn, xoe+ cax
ni6a+i xe+o(, io+oin no:nonn+ exy (oc+nni +e6yexix e:yni+a+on. Moe+ +aie nocnoni:ona+icx
no(o6nixn noxaxn LC, io+oie ny6nniym+cx n Ollicial 1ouinal ol lle Luioean Communilies
(O1 LC) (onn co(ea+ cnxnon L)
2
. J+n noxi nno(x+cx n nonicioe :aiono(a+enic+no noce(c+nox
ny6nniannn n Monn+oe Honiciox n:nemennx He(ce(a+enx Koxn+e+a no noxann:annn. Onn
o6o:naneni cnxnonox L-PI. H:(enne, non:ne(ennoe n coo+ne+c+nnn c iaxonn:nonannixn
noxaxn, co:(ae+ +ai na:inaexym ne:yxnnnm coo+ne+c+nnx (nei+nne, +.e. :aneenne, n+o ono
ninonnxe+ ocnonnie +e6onannx (nei+nni.
Lonimnnc+no no(yi+on, oxnanennix (nei+nnaxn nonoio no(xo(a, (onno 6i+i o6o:naneno
:naiox CE. J+o n nac+noc+n: xamnni, ineie+nnecioe o6oy(onanne nn:ioio nanxennx,
nnenxa+nnecioe o6oy(onanne, xe(nnnncine n:(ennx, niymin, ce(c+na nn(nnn(yaninon :amn+i.
____________________
1
B nnnnnnax cno6o(noio neexemennx +onaon cymec+nym+, o(naio, neio+oie ncinmnennx. Iocy(ac+na-nneni xoiy+
nno(n+i oiannnennx n neexemennn +onaon, ecnn i+o o6ocnonano +e6onannxxn co6nm(ennx o6mec+nennix nannn,
nox(ia n 6e:onacnoc+n, :amn+i :(oonix n n:nn nm(en, nno+nix nnn ac+ennn, a +aie :amn+i nannonaninix
iyni+ynix, xy(oec+nennix, nc+onnecinx nnn axeonoinnecinx nennoc+en, nnn +oionon n noximnennon co6c+nennoc+n.
3ane+i n oiannnennx ne xoiy+ 6i+i, o(naio, ce(c+naxn caxononinon (ncinxnnannn nnn :axacinonannoio oiannnennx
n +oionne xe(y iocy(ac+naxn-nnenaxn.
2
Hoxi LC i+o +ai na:inaexie iaxonn:nonannie noxi, io+oie a:a6a+inam+cx enonencinxn oiann:annxxn
no noxann:annn: CL, CLLILC nnn LTS!. CL :annxae+cx noxann:annen n a:nix o6nac+xx, CLLILC n o6nac+n
inei+o+exnnin, a LTS! n o6nac+n +eneioxxynniannn.
138
Hone(yi o6o:nanennx CL necixa a:noo6a:ni n :anncx+ o+ nennnnni no+ennnaninon yio:i,
co:(anaexon (nx :(oonix n 6e:onacnoc+n (annix n:(ennex. nx +oio n+o6i ni6a+i coo+ne+c+nymmym
(nx (annoio n:(ennx none(yy CL, cne(ye+ onenn+i nci, cnx:annin c eio ncnoni:onannex. Tainx
o6a:ox, n:(enne nnnncinae+cx i coo+ne+c+nymmen ia+eionn, na:nannon n (nei+nne. Ho(yi+i,
c io+oixn cnx:an ne:nann+eninin nci, oxnaneni caxon noc+on none(yon, n io+oon
non:no(n+eni cax :axnnxe+ o coo+ne+c+nnn no(yi+a +e6onannxx (nei+nni. Hex 6onee onacen
no(yi+, +ex 6onee cnona none(ya. B none(ye ce+nqniannn no+ennnanino onacnix n:(ennn
ynac+nym+ nnemnne, +ai na:inaexie no+nqnnnonannie e(nnnni. J+n e(nnnni onennnam+ n:(ennx
c +onin :ennx nx coo+ne+c+nnx +e6onannxx (nei+nni na i+ane noei+nonannx n:(ennx n/nnn
na(:oa non:no(c+na. Heeneni ncex no+nqnnnonannix e(nnnn ny6nniye+cx n Ollicial 1ouinal ol
lle Luioean \nion (O1 L\) (O1 L\ C 3O2 o+ 12/12/2OO3). Hon:no(n+eni xoe+ ni6a+i nm6ym
no+nqnnnonannym e(nnnny na +en+onn Coo6mec+na ne:anncnxo o+ xec+a non:no(c+na n xec+a
naxo(ennx non:no(n+enx.
Koxe +oio, (nei+nni o6x:inam+ non:no(n+enx no(io+onn+i +exnnneciym (oiyxen+annm,
(oia:inammym coo+ne+c+nne n:(ennx ocnonnix +e6onannxx.
Cep1uquka1m, io+oie cnn(e+enic+nym+ o 6e:onacnoc+n n:(ennx, non:no(n+eni (nnn nxno+e,
ecnn n:(enne nno:n+cx na +en+onm LC) (onen nonynn+i (o noxnnennx no(yi+a na inie.
Hon:no(n+eni nece+ o+ne+c+nennoc+i :a nm6on yme6, nnnnnennin nxymec+ny nnn noni:ona+enm
((nei+nna 85/374/LJC, n:xenennax (nei+nnon 1999/34/LC, neenecena n nonicioe :aiono(a+enic+no
3aionox o :amn+e neio+oix nan no+e6n+enen n o+ne+c+nennoc+n :a yme6, nanecennin onacnix
no(yi+ox).
Ka(oe n: iocy(ac+n-nnenon ocymec+nnxe+ na(:o :a 6e:onacnoc+im n:(ennn, ninyciaexix na
inoi n (annon c+ane. B Honime o6mnn na(:o :a iniox ocymec+nnxe+ Vnannenne no :amn+e
ioniyennnn n no+e6n+enx.
Koxe o6x:a+eninix +e6onannn, io+oie (onen co6nm(a+i non:no(n+eni, cymec+nym+
(ononnn+eninie, neo6x:a+eninie, io+oie non:no(n+eni xoe+ nnxenx+i (+ai na:inaexax
(o6ononinax ce+nqniannx). Onn no(+ne(am+, iai nannno, nicoioe ianec+no nnn co6nm(enne
iionoinnecinx nox.
Honicine non:no(n+enn xoiy+ +aie ce+nqnnnona+i cnon n:(ennx :naiaxn na ocnonannn
coo+ne+c+nymmnx :aionon LC. B Lnonenciox com:e oco6on oxane no(nea+ n:(ennx, cnn+ammnecx
cnennqnnecinxn, nannxe noncxo(xmne n: one(enennoio ieoiaqnnecioio einona nnn
non:no(nxie +a(nnnonnix cnoco6ox (ne(e nceio nnmenie no(yi+i). Taine no(yi+i xoiy+
nonynn+i :nai Piolecled Designalion ol Oiigin (PDO), Piolecled Geogialical !ndicalion (PG!) nnn
Tiadilional Secialily Guaianleed (TSG).
C 1 xnnax 2OO6 i., coinacno Peinaxen+y (LC) N 852/2OO4 Lnonencioio nanaxen+a n Cone+a
o+ 29 anenx 2OO4 i. o ininene nnmenix no(yi+on, nce qnxi, :annxammnecx non:no(c+nox
n acne(enennex no(ononic+nnx, (onni nne(x+i n nnxenx+i nnnnnni 7-6aninon cnc+exi
HACCP (Hazaid Analysis and Ciilical Conliol Poinls). Co6nm(enne nannn i+on cnc+exi no:nonxe+
iaan+nona+i, n+o no(ononic+nennie no(yi+i ne 6y(y+ :aaeni nnn :aix:neni n 6y(y+
6e:onacni (nx no+e6n+enx.
2. Tauoeuuue npaeuna u rnaeuue uefapuquue
orpauueuun e foproene co cfpauauu,
ue exopnuuu e Eeponecku coks
H:xenennx nannn, eiynnymmnx +oionin o6xen Honimn c +e+inxn c+anaxn +.e. co c+anaxn,
ne xnnxmmnxncx nnenaxn LC (nocne nc+ynnennx n LC 1 xax 2OO4 i.), xnnxm+cx cne(c+nnex nnnx+nx
139
Honimen ncex nnc+yxen+on n nnnnnnon o6men +oionon nonn+nin LC no o+nomennm i +e+inx
c+anax. J+o iacae+cx, n nac+noc+n, o6meio +axoennoio +anqa n a:nnnnix ne+anqnix
nnc+yxen+on, a +aie mnoion cnc+exi (oionoon c +oionixn na+neaxn, ne xnnxmmnxncx
nnenaxn LC.
Hn nno:e n Honimy (enc+nye+ o6mnn +axoennin +anq LC.
Ou seuu mauo+em mapuq
Omu 1anoaeuum 1apuq (WTC) u TARIC
Taxoennin +anq LC co(en+ +oniio o(ny iononiy c+anoi i+o +ai na:inaexie ion-
nennnonnie c+anin (ni+eiammnx n: enxa nan6onimeio 6naionnx+c+nonannx PHL). Onn
(enc+nym+ n nxno+e +onaon, io+oie ne noni:ym+cx iainxn-nn6o +axoennixn neqe-
ennnxxn na inie LC. Tainx o6a:ox, onn iacam+cx nceio nxno+a n: +ainx c+an, iai CHA,
Kana(a, nonnx, Anc+annx, Honax 3enan(nx n (yinx, io+oie ne nxem+ +axoennix neqe-
ennnn n LC, a +aie neio+oix +onaon, ncinmnennix n: neqeennnaninix cnncion (nx c+an,
noni:ymmnxcx i+nxn neqeennnxxn. Tanq co(en+ 9842 nocixn:nannix io(on iox6nnno-
nannon +anqno-c+a+nc+nnecion noxenina+yi (C).
Taxoennin +anq ny6nniye+cx n ,Ollicial 1ouinal ol Luioean \nion (O1), oqnnnaninox
nec+nnie Lnonencioio com:a. On noxnnxe+cx n ionne oi+x6x ia(oio io(a na cne(ymmnn
ianen(anin io(. Tanq, co(eamnn c+anin na 2OO6 i., 6in ny6nnionan n acnoxennn
Koxnccnn (LC) N 1719/2OO5 o+ 27 oi+x6x 2OO5 i. n O1 cenn I N 286 o+ 28 oi+x6x 2OO5 i.
Lonee no(o6nax nnqoxannx o c+aniax +axoennon nomnnni, oco6enno o6 yonne niio+nix
c+anoi, a +aie o (yinx nnc+yxen+ax +oionon nonn+nin (nannxe, an+n(exnnnionie
nomnnni), co(en+ Hn+einonannin +axoennin +anq, +.e. TARIC. TAR!C (oc+ynen n nn(e
ee(nenno o6nonnxexon 6a:i (annix, naxo(xmencx na can+e lll://euioa.eu.inl/comm/laxalion-
cusloms/dds/en/lailome.llm.
Hocne nne(ennx io(a C noxnnxe+cx c+ania +axoennon nomnnni, a +aie ncx nnqoxannx na
+exy +anqnix n ionnnec+nennix ino+, nnoc+anonnennx +axoennix nomnnn, an+n(exnnnio-
nix n ioxnencannonnix +axoennix nomnnn, cenicioxo:xnc+nennix c6oon, ce(c+n na(:oa
n (yinx ne+anqnix ce(c+n +oionon nonn+nin, (enc+nymmnx n nxno+e (annoio no(yi+a.
TAR!C ne co(en+ nnqoxannn na +exy VAT (HC) n ainn:a.
Bce +axoennie c+anin cnx:ani. Hynenon c+anion oxnaneno cnime 24 +onaon (+anqnix
nnnnn). Ce(nxx (ne n:nemennax nxno+ox) c+ania PHL na noximnennie +onai (HS 25 97)
coc+annxe+ 3,7, a na cenicioxo:xnc+nennie +onai 16,2. Cnime 17OO +onaon (+anqnix nnnnn)
oxnaneno cnc+exon nnoc+anonnennx +axoennix nomnnn. Ho(annxmmee 6onimnnc+no (oiono 99)
nnoc+anonnennix c+anoi naxo(n+cx na yonne O.
C+ania CHL (enc+nye+ no o+nomennm i nno:y n: (enx+n c+an: Anc+annx, Kana(a, Tannani,
Ionioni, nonnx, Knax Koex, Honax 3enan(nx, Cnniany n Coe(nnennie H+a+i. Hxno+ n:
oc+aninix c+an nxee+ niio+nie c+anin. iio+i ne(oc+annxm+cx a:nnnammnxcx c+anax (AKT)
na ocnonannn (nyc+oonnnx coinamennn nnn n o(noc+oonnex nox(ie, a +aie n axiax cnc+exi
14O
Caxie nicoine c+anin (enc+nym+ no o+nomennm i nync+nn+eninix +onaax, +ainx iai o(e(a,
+eic+nninie xa+enani, o6yni, +ancno+noe o6oy(onanne, nnac+xacci.
GSP. B o6mex +axoennox +anqe caxoe 6onimoe ionnnec+no +axoennix c+anoi (coinacno
+anqnix nnnnxx) naxo(n+cx n ne(enax o+ O (o 5 (non+n 41). 3nann+eninax nac+i (cnime 31)
naxo(n+cx n ne(enax o+ 5 (o 1O.
, (HS 25 97)
( %)
3,7


( % )
24,3
non ad valorem ( )
45
(. 1)

( % )
3,2
(. 2)

( % )
0,4

( % )
7,7

non ad valorem.

(.1): , 3
.

(.2): 15%.

2%, 0%.
: .
24,4%
40,9%
31,4%
2,8%
0,2% 0,2% 0% 0%
0 >0-5 >5-10 >10-15 >15-20 >20-25 >25-50 >50
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Pacina( +axoennix c+anoi n o6nac+n noximnennix +onaon
n o6mex +axoennox +anqe LC
Hcno:nur. Hnc+n+y+ ionsmni+yi n nen nnemnen +oionnn.
141
Topaosme npeqepeuu EC
Lnonencinn com: nnxenxe+ mnoiym cnc+exy (nyc+oonnnx, einonaninix n o(noc+oonnnx
+axoennix neqeennnn (nx a:nnnammnxcx c+an (neqeennnn (nx c+an Aqnin, Kaan6on
n Tnxoio oieana (AKT)
3
, na ocnonannn Coinamennx Ko+ony n Ieneaninon cnc+exi neqeennnn
(Generali:ed Systen of Preferences GSP), noi+oxy +axoennax naiy:ia na nonicinn nxno+ n: i+nx
c+an :nann+enino nne, nex i+o ni+eiano 6i n: c+anoi o6meio +axoennoio +anqa.
Heqeennnn nno6e+am+ qoxy +anqnix ino+ (nynenax nnn nonnennax c+ania nny+n
ino+i), nonnennon +axoennon c+anin nne ino+i n/nnn nonnoio nnoc+anonnennx +axoennon
nomnnni 6e: nnxn+on.
Tauo+eme npeqepeuu n cmpa Aqpuxu, lapauos
u Tuxoao oxeaa
Taxoennie neqeennnn (nx c+an AKT :nann+enino mne, nex neqeennnn GSP. Onn
ne(ycxa+nnam+ nxno+ 6e: +axoennix nomnnn (nx 6onimnnc+na noximnennix n:(ennn
____________________
3
B coc+ane i+on iynni 79 iocy(ac+n. Hx neeneni xono nan+n na can+e lll://www.acsec.oig/en/ac_slales.llm

HS

HS

%
V 0,9
VI 4,7
VII 4,6
VIII 3,2
IX 2,7
X , , 0,0
XI 7,0
XII 6,6
XIII , , 3,4
XIV , 1,3
XV 2,8
XVI 2,4
XVII 4,4
XVIII , 2,3
XIX 2.4
XX 2,6
XXI , 0,0
3,7
: .
142
n oneni niio(nie ycnonnx nxno+a cenicioxo:xnc+nennix no(yi+on. Lnaio(ax nnnnneinonannix
ycnonnxx (oc+yna na inoi LC cnime 97 iicno+a noncxo(xmeio n: c+an AKT noni:ye+cx
(oc+ynox na enonencinn inoi 6e: +axoennix nomnnn.
Coinamenne Ko+ony 6y(e+ (enc+nona+i (o ionna 2OO7 i. C 1 xnnax 2OO8 i. coi coinamennx
nc+eiae+, a +aie :aiannnnae+cx neno( (eoiannn, (annin Bcexnnon +oionon oiann:annen na
nnxenenne i+nx +oionix neqeennnn. LC naxeenae+cx :axenn+i Coinamenne Ko+ony Coina-
mennxxn o6 iionoxnneciox na+nec+ne (Econonic Partnership Agreenents), io+oie o6cy(am+cx
na neeionoax c x(ox iocy(ac+n AKT. LC xo+en 6i neenec+n cymec+nymmne +oionie
neqeennnn n nonie coinamennx. Coinamennx o6 iionoxnneciox na+nec+ne (onni 6i+i nex-+o
6onimnx, nex coinamenne o +anqnix ionneccnxx; onn (onni cnoco6c+nona+i yiny6nennm eino-
naninon nn+eiannn.
Vcnonnx +oionnn co c+anaxn AKT (onni coo+ne+c+nona+i o6mnx nnnnnnax xe(ynao(non
+oionnn, (enc+nymmnx na ocnonannn cnc+exi BTO. J+o 6y(e+ (oc+niny+o noc+enenno, c oco6ix
yne+ox n:anxnix no:xonoc+en iionoxnnecinx na+neon. Tainx o6a:ox, (o ionna 2OO7 i. nxno+
6onimnnc+na +onaon n: iocy(ac+n AKT 6y(e+ eann:ona+icx na 6onee niio(nix ycnonnxx, nex
nxno+ n: oc+aninix a:nnnammnxcx c+an.
leepansa cucmeua mauo+emx npeqepeu GSP
Bne(ennax c 1 xnnax 2OO6 i. xo(nqnnnonannax cnc+exa +axoennix neqeennnn GSP oxna+inae+
178 c+an n a:nnnammnxcx +en+onn (Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 98O/2OO5 o+ 27 nmnx 2OO5 i.,
co(eamee nnan ieneaninix +anqnix neqeennnn, O1 3O.O6.2OO5). C nanana 9O-+ix io(on
i nncny c+an-noni:ona+enen cxexon GSP, nax(y c a:nnnammnxncx c+anaxn, nnna(nea+ nneni
Co(yec+na He:anncnxix Iocy(ac+n (CHI), a +aie An6annx n neio+oie iocy(ac+na 6inmen
Kiocnannn. Heqeennnn oxna+inam+ noximnennie n:(ennx n cenicioxo:xnc+nennie no(yi+i,
xo+x nac+i no(yi+on (nan6onee nync+nn+eninix (nx LC) 6ina n: nee ncinmnena. Hac+i c+an-
noni:ona+enen GSP, noni:ye+cx 6onee niio+nixn ycnonnxxn (oc+yna i iniy LC na ocnonannn
cnc+exi neqeennnn (nx c+an AKT.
Cnc+exa GSP 6y(e+ (enc+nona+i (o ionna 2OO8 i. Mo(nqniannn, nne(ennie n i+y cnc+exy
n nanane 2OO6 i., 6inn naneneni na +o, n+o6i ninmnn+i n nee nan6onee o+c+anie c+ani, oco6enno
xanie, acnonoennie na oc+onax, 6e: (oc+yna i xom n c nn:inx yonnex iionoxnnecion
(nnecnqniannn. Koxe +oio, 6in nne(en ynomennin xexann:x ncinmnennn (graduation) n: cnc+exi
+oionix neqeennnn. J+o+ xexann:x iacae+cx iynn no(yi+on n: +ex a:nnnammnxcx c+an,
io+oie c+ann nac+oniio ioniyen+ocnoco6nixn na inie LC, n+o nx ye ne+ neo6xo(nxoc+n
noni:ona+icx niio+axn GSP. Cymec+nonanmne anee in+enn ncinmnennn, noc+oennie na
(nqqeennnonannix noia:a+enxx ((onx niio+noio nxno+a, noia:a+eni a:nn+nx n noia:a+eni
iicno+non cnennann:annn) 6inn :axeneni o(nnx in+enex n nn(e (onn nxno+a n: c+an-
noni:ona+enen GSP n inie LC. Lcnn nxno+ one(enennon iynni no(yi+on n: o(non c+ani
nenimae+ 15 nxno+a n nenox n: ncex c+an, oxnanennix GSP, +o no(nen+ ncinmnennm, +.e.
neiamae+ noni:ona+icx niio+nix (oc+ynox i iniy LC. B cnynae +eic+nninix +onaon n o(e(i
nooi (nx ncinmnennn cnnen (o 12,5. B axiax nonoio xexann:xa, 8O iicno+a n: Kn+ax na
inoi LC nona(ae+ no( ncinmnennx, necxo+x na +o, n+o Kn+an qoxanino nce eme xnnxe+cx
c+anon-noni:ona+enex GSP. B cnynae Hn(nn ncinmnenne ee iicno+a n: cnc+exi +axoennix
neqeennnn (nenimen nooi), iacae+cx +eic+nnx, no ne iacae+cx o(e(i.
Cnc+exa ne(ycxa+nnae+ (ononnn+eninie neqeennnn (GSP Plus) (nx c+an, io+oie
a+nqnnnonann n iqqei+nnno nne(xm+ xe(ynao(nie ionnennnn, o6x:inammne c+ani,
nanenennie na yc+onnnnoe a:nn+ne, co6nm(a+i nannna :amn+i oiyammen ce(i (+ai na:inaexax
iionoinneciax oionoia), :amn+i nan nenoneia n nan +y(xmnxcx (+ai na:inaexax connaninax
oionoia), a +aie nnnnnni xoomeio ynannennx (good governance). Hoiaxxa GSP Plus
143
o6ecnennnae+ (oc+yn na inoi LC 6e: +axoennix nomnnn no(yi+ax n: 91 +anqnon nnnnn. B nenox
i+on noiaxxon oxnaneno 15 iocy(ac+n: 5 an(nncinx c+an (Lonnnnx, Jina(o, Konyx6nx, Hey
n Benecyina), 6 c+an Jen+aninon Axenin (Ina+exana, Ion(yac, Koc+a-Pnia, Hniaaiya, Hanaxa
n Canina(o), Iy:nx, Mon(ona, Monionnx n Hn-ania (Hoc+anonnenne Koxnccnn o+ 21 (eia6x
2OO5 i., O1 \L I o+ 22.12.2OO5).
Inannie nnnnnni, iacammnecx xacm+a6a neqeennnn n axiax (enc+nymmen cnc+exi,
ne(c+annxe+ nnecne(ymmax +a6nnna:
ououuu1euume upeqepeuuuu ua 1onapm, oxnaueuume cuc1eno GSP:
- Henync+nn+eninie n:(ennx (nannxe, xnneaninoe +onnnno, ioa, (enecnna, neio+oie
n:(ennx n: ene:a n c+ann, nnieni n n:(ennx n: neio, caxone+i n :annac+n (nx nnx, xy:i-
ianinie nnc+yxen+i, xe6eni, niymin, cno+nnnoe o6oy(onanne) +axoennie
nomnnni 6inn nnoc+anonneni (:a ncinmnennex +axoennix nomnnn na cenicio-
xo:xnc+nennie ioxnonen+i).
- Hync+nn+eninie n:(ennx (nannxe, xnoine cenicioxo:xnc+nennie no(yi+i, an+oxo6nnn
neiionie, iy:onie, cnennaninoio na:nanennx, naci, ocne+n+eninoe o6oy(onanne) +axo-
ennie nomnnni ad valoren cnneni na 3,5 nonen+nix nyni+a, a (nx +onaon n: ceinnn 5O
(o 63 (+eic+nni n +eic+nninie n:(ennx) na 2O. nx cnennqnnecinx +axoennix nomnnn (:a
ncinmnennex xnnnxaninix nnn xaicnxaninix c+anoi) nomnnni cnneni na 3O.
Hcno:nur. Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 98O/2OO5 o+ 27 nmnx 2OO5 i., nno(xmee cxexy ieneaninix
+anqnix neqeennnn (O1 I 169 o+ 3O.O6.2OO5).
He(c+annennie nime in+enn ne iacam+cx caxix 6e(nix c+an (1east Developed Countries
IDC), oxnanennix noiaxxon Bce :a ncinmnennex oynx (Everything but Arns LBA). J+a
noiaxxa o6ecnennnae+ (oc+yn ncex no(yi+on n: ynoxxny+ix c+an na inoi LC 6e: +axoennix
nomnnn n 6e: ino+, :a ncinmnennex oynx n 6oennnacon (cnc+exa GSP ne oxna+inae+ ceinnn
93 HS), a +aie neio+oix cenicioxo:xnc+nennix no(yi+on (caxaa, nca, 6ananon), na io+oie
+axoennie nomnnni coiamam+cx noc+enenno. B 2OO6 i. 6inn yna:(neni ionnnec+nennie
oiannnennx n nxno+e 6ananon.
nx +oio n+o6i nocnoni:ona+icx +axoennixn neqeennnxxn, +e6ye+cx co6nm(ennx upanuu
upoucxoaeuua. Lonee no(o6nym nnqoxannm na i+y +exy xono nan+n n cnanonnnie, (oc+ynnox
na can+e: lll://ec.euioa.eu/laxalion_cusloms/common/uLlicalions/inlo_docs/cusloms/index_en.llm
Coanaueu o csooo mopaosne
C+an nnenox Lnonencioio com:a, Honima nncoe(nnnnaci i coinamennxx o cno6o(non
+oionne xe(y LC n (yinxn c+anaxn, io+oie (enc+nonann nnn naxo(nnnci na i+ane a:a6o+in
n LC (o nc+ynnennx n neio Honimn.
K nan6onee nanix n: nnx o+nocx+cx:
Coinamennx o Lno-ce(n:exnoxocion acconnannn (c Annox, Linn+ox, H:annex,
Ho(annen, nnanox, Maoiio, Hanec+nncion an+onoxnen, Cnnen, Tynncox, n Tynnen;
na6nm(a+enex xnnxe+cx nnnx), nenim io+oix xnnxe+cx no(io+onia (o 2O1O i. coinamennn
144
o cno6o(non +oionne n o6nac+n noximnennix n:(ennn n neio+oix ionneccnn n +oionne
cenicioxo:xnc+nennixn no(yi+axn n no(yi+axn i6ononc+na.
Coinamennx o c+a6nnn:annn n acconnannn (:ainmnaexie co c+anaxn 6inmen Kiocnannn),
io+oie necne(ym+ neni c+a6nnn:nona+i ycnonnx iionoxnnecioio co+y(nnnec+na n n:anxnie
+oionie neqeennnn (nx no((ein (exoia+nnecinx neo6a:onannn n i+nx c+anax.
LC :ainmnnn +aie (yine coinamennx o noc+enennox yna:(nennn +oionix 6aieon,
(ononnennie nnoi(a (ononnn+eninixn cxxinennxxn, n +ox nncne iacammnxncx +oionnn ycnyiaxn,
ioniyennnn n +.n. C 1 nmnx 2OO2 io(a (enc+nye+, nannxe, coinamenne o cno6o(non +oionne
c Meicnion, yna:(nxmmee 6aiei n +oionne noximnennixn n:(ennxxn n nno(xmee :nann+eninym
nn6eann:annm +oionnn cenicioxo:xnc+nennixn no(yi+axn n no(yi+axn i6ononc+na. C 1 nmnx
2OO5 i. (enc+nye+ coinamenne o6 acconnannn Hnnn c Lnonencinxn coo6mec+naxn, ne(nonaiammee
co:(anne :oni cno6o(non +oionnn noximnennixn +onaaxn n noc+enennym nn6eann:annm
+oionnn cenicioxo:xnc+nennixn no(yi+axn. H(y+ neeionoi no nonocy 6nn:ioio no co(eannm
(oionoa c MLRCOS\R.
Tauo+em loexc Esponecxoao coksa
Honiciax cnc+exa +axoennoio nana ninmnae+ n ce6x nnxenxexie nenoce(c+nennix o6a:ox
:aioni LC n nny+ennee :aiono(a+enic+no: 3aion +axoennoe nano n ncnonnn+eninie ai+i
i i+oxy :aiony. Bonoci, iacammnecx +axoennoio ion+onx n cnc+exi +axoennix oianon,
yeiynnonani n 3aione o +axoennon cny6e. Hnxenenne nny+ennnx nannn, nxemmnx
(ononnxmmnn n y+onnxmmnn xaai+e, (onyciae+ Taxoennin Ko(eic LC ocnonnon nanonon
ai+ LC n o6nac+n +axoennoio nana.
C 1 xax 2OO4 i. nno: +onaon na +en+onm Coo6mec+na no:xoen n Honime +oniio n ncinm-
nn+enino nee: annannonnie n xocine neexo(i, a +aie nee: cyxony+nie noiannnnie neexo(i
c Lenaycim, Viannon n Poccnen (Kannnnnia(ciax o6nac+i). Ha neexo(ax c n+non, Cnonainen,
Hexnen n Iexannen +axoennoio ion+onx ye ne+.
Tonai, nne:ennie na +axoennym +en+onm Honimn (LC), c xoxen+a nx nno:a no(nea+
1anoaeuuony uasopy. J+n +onai, :a ncinmnennex one(enennix cnynaen, (onni 6i+i
ne(sxnneni +axoennix oianax na +axoennox nyni+e nnn n (yiox xec+e, nn:nannix nnn
na:nanennix +axoennix oianox, c +ex, n+o6i nonynn+i +axoennym inaccnqniannm. Tonai,
io+oie (onni 6i+i oxnaneni +axoennon none(yon, (onni 6i+i :axnneni i +axoennoxy
oqoxnennm. Tonnie +e6onannx, io+oie (onni 6i+i co6nm(eni nn ne(sxnnennn +onaa
i 1anoaeuuony oqopnueuum, co(ea+cx n acnoxennn Mnnnc+a qnnancon o+ 22 anenx 2OO4 i.
einanonanne +onaa non:no(n+cx n nncixennox nn(e, na 6nanie L(nnoio a(xnnnc+a+nnnoio
(oiyxen+a SAD, coinacno nnnoennm N 37 n 38 i Hcnonnn+eninoxy acnoxennm N 2454/93
c yne+ox e(ainnn, (annon n nnnoennn !V i acnoxennm Koxnccnn (LC) N 2286/2OO3.
B one(enennix cnynaxx xono i+o c(ena+i n (yion qoxe, nannxe, yc+no nnn no inei+onnon
non+e. Tonai xoiy+ 6i+i +aie ne(sxnneni no ynomennon none(ye. B !V nac+n Taxoennoio
Ko(eica LC yeiynnonani cne(ymmne +axoennie none(yi:
nnemnnn +an:n+;
+axoennin cina( nannna LC ne(ycxa+nnam+ mnoioe a:noo6a:ne qox +axoennix
cina(on +nni A, B, C, I, D n L ((na nocne(nnx i+o nac+nie +axoennie cina(i,
no:nonxmmne 6onee in6io nec+n xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i);
ai+nnnoe o6naioannanne;
neea6o+ia no( +axoennix ion+onex;
nexennin +axoennin (ocxo+;
naccnnnoe o6naioannanne.
145
Hemapuqme oapauveu
Hncoe(nnenne Honimn i o6men +oionon nonn+nie LC o:nanano nnnx+ne nannn Lnonencioio
com:a n o6nac+n ne+anqnix ce(c+n, +ainx iai an+n(exnnnionie n ioxnencannonnie ce(c+na,
ionnnec+nennie ino+i, cnc+exa na(:oa, a +aie :ane+i na iicno+ n nxno+. Veiynnonannx,
iacammnecx a(xnnnc+nonannx o6oo+ox c +e+inxn c+anaxn, yc+anannnnam+cx LC, a ne
o+(eninixn c+anaxn-nnenaxn. B +o e nexx o6meenonencine :aioni ne ncinmnam+ nnxenennx
c+anon-nnenox :ane+on, oiannnennn nnn ce(c+n na(:oa n nxno+e, iicno+e n +an:n+e, ecnn
onn nn:nani cnyn+i :amn+e nanc+nennoc+n, ny6nnnnon 6e:onacnoc+n, :amn+e :(oonix n n:nn
nm(en, nno+nix n ac+ennn, :amn+e nannonaninix coionnm, ne(c+annxmmnx co6on xy(oec+nen-
nym, nc+onneciym nnn axeonoinneciym nennoc+i, nnn :amn+e +oionon n nn+ennei+yaninon
co6c+nennoc+n. O(naio i+n :ane+i n oiannnennx ne xoiy+ 6i+i ce(c+nox non:noninon
(ncinxnnannn nnn cii+ix oiannnennn n +oionne xe(y iocy(ac+naxn-nnenaxn LC.
Aomaexaaoeoeme a roxaeocaaaooome maxoxeoome aomaaom. B Lnonenciox com:e, i(e
(enc+nym+ oneni nn6eaninie nannna (oc+yna (nx noximnennix +onaon, o+nocn+enino nac+o
nnxenxm+cx ne+anqnie nnc+yxen+i, nanannennie ne(e nceio no+nn ne(o6oconec+non
ioniyennnn (exnnnia (name nceio) n cy6cn(nonannx (ee). Ho coc+oxnnm na 31 xa+a 2OO6 i.
nn nno:e n LC, +.e. +aie n Honimy, (enc+nonann 133 an+n(exnnnionix nannna (n 6onimnnc+ne
cnynaen na xnxnnecine n c+aninie no(yi+i), a +aie 12 ioxnencannonnix nannn (n 6onimnnc+ne
cnynaen na xnxnia+i n: Hn(nn). B +enenne nenoio io(a nnenc+na Honimn n LC ne 6ino nne(eno nn
o(non nonon none(yi, nanannennon no+nn cy6cn(nonannx. Heeneni (enc+nymmnx an+n(ex-
nnnionix n ioxnencannonnix ce(c+n (oc+ynen na can+e: lll://ec.euioa.eu/comm/liade/issues/
iesecliules/anli_duming/slals.llm
An+n(exnnnionie +axoennie nomnnni no o+nomennm i nxno+y n: +e+ien c+ani xono
nnxenn+i +oniio +oi(a, ioi(a n e:yni+a+e nixcnxmmen none(yi 6y(e+ (oia:ano, n+o:
nxen xec+o nxno+ no (exnnnionix nenax;
non:no(n+enn noxoeio +onaa n: LC nonecnn (enc+nn+eninin yme6 nnn nx io:n+ nanecenne
+aioio yme6a, nnn xoe+ 6i+i cymec+nennix o6a:ox :axe(neno a:nn+ne (annoio cei+oa n LC;
cymec+nye+ nnnnnno-cne(c+nennax cnx:i xe(y i+nxn (nyxx xnnennxxn;
nanoenne +axoennon nomnnni nen+ n nn+eece LC.
Ani+ena+nnon (nx an+n(exnnnionon +axoennon nomnnni xoe+ 6i+i +ai na:inaexoe
nenonoe o6x:a+enic+no. Bo nexx nixcnxmmen none(yi iicno+e, o6nnnennin n (exnnnie,
xoe+ n:x+i na ce6x o6x:a+enic+no co6nm(a+i coinaconannin c Koxnccnen xnnnxaninin yoneni
iicno+nix nen (nenonoe o6x:a+enic+no price undertaking) nnn xaicnxaninin o6sex iicno+a
(+oniio n cnynae c+an, ne xnnxmmnxcx nnenaxn BTO). C +ainx ne(noennex iicno+e xoe+
nic+ynn+i +oniio nocne +oio, iai 6ino yc+anonneno nannnne (exnnnia n yme6a. Koxnccnx
nnnnxae+ nenonie o6x:a+enic+na +oniio o+ +ex iicno+eon, io+oie co+y(nnnann c nen n xo(e
nixcnxmmen none(yi. Ona ynn+inae+ +aie ninonnenne (annix iicno+eox n:x+ix na ce6x
n nomnox o6x:a+enic+n (i+o iacae+cx qnx, io+oie n nomnox ynac+nonann n an+n(exnnnionon
none(ye). Vcnonnex ainen+annn o6x:a+enic+n xnnxe+cx nannnne no:xonoc+n ocymec+nnx+i
iqqei+nnnin xonn+onni eio ninonnennx.
Jicno+ei (a +aie nxno+ei n non:no(n+enn, io+oie 6inn c+oonon a:6na+enic+na)
xoiy+ o6a+n+icx c noci6on neecxo+e+i emenne, nnnx+oe Koxnccnen nnn Cone+ox n a(xn-
nnc+a+nnnox (n Koxnccnn) nnn n cy(e6nox (n Cy(e nenon nnc+annnn n n Lnonenciox +n6ynane
no nanax nenoneia) nox(ie.
Hee: io( nocne nanoennx an+n(exnnnionon +axoennon nomnnni, iicno+ei xoiy+
nic+ynn+i c noci6on nonec+n none(yy neecxo+a nanoennix an+n(exnnnionix ce(c+n
(interin review). B e:yni+a+e a:6na+enic+na xoe+ 6i+i n:xenen a:xe an+n(exnnnionoio
naia:annx.
146
Jicno+ei, io+oie ne iicno+nonann (annin +ona n anann:nyexin Koxnccnen neno(,
a nanann nino: ye nocne no:6y(ennx a:6na+enic+na nnn :ainmnnnn iicno+nie ion+ai+i,
xoiy+ o6a+n+icx c noci6on nonec+n neecxo+ n ycioennox nox(ie (new coners review).
B e:yni+a+e a:6na+enic+na xoiy+ 6i+i yc+anonneni nn(nnn(yaninie c+anin an+n(exnnnionon
+axoennon nomnnni na ocnonannn nn(nnn(yaninix nonen (exnnnia nnn cnx+o o6nnnenne
n (exnnnie. O(nonexenno c nananox none(yi, an+n(exnnnionax +axoennax nomnnna n o+nomennn
+onaon, nno:nxix nonix iicno+eox, neiamae+ cnoe (enc+nne, Koxnccnx o(nonexenno
yc+anannnnae+ cnc+exy yne+a, no:nonxmmym nanon+i an+n(exnnnionym +axoennym nomnnny :a
nome(mnn neno(.
Lcnn nxno+ei neec+ann nnxenx+i (exnnnionie neni nnn none (exnnnia coia+nnoci, onn
xoiy+ o6a+n+icx c noci6on no:na+n+i ynnanennym +axoennym nomnnny. Bo:na+ non:no(n+cx
ne no:e nex nee: 21 xecxn (emenne ni(ae+cx n +enenne io(a, no ne no:e nex nee: 18 xecxnen,
a ninna+a n +enenne 9O (nen c xoxen+a nnnx+nx i+oio emennx).
Hxno+ei nac+en (nx nenocnne(on in+ancioio noncxo(ennx xoiy+ o6a+n+icx c :axnnennex
o cnx+nn o6x:annoc+n ynna+i an+n(exnnnionon +axoennon nomnnni, ecnn nx qnxa nno:n+ xenee
3OO m+yi o(noio +nna nac+en n +enenne xecxna. B cnynae, ecnn qnxa acxo(ye+ cnime 299 m+yi
nac+en o(noio +nna, Lnonenciax ioxnccnx xoe+ coinacn+icx na i+o+ o+xen, ecnn (o6annennax
i nac+xx c+onxoc+i nenimae+ 25 n:(eei non:no(c+na, a c+onxoc+i nxno+nyexix nac+en
coc+annxe+ xenee 6O c+onxoc+n ncex nac+en ionennoio no(yi+a.
Cxonn nox(oi cymec+nye+ nn none(yax, nanannennix no+nn cy6cn(nonannx iicno+a.
Pa:nnnnx coc+ox+, inannix o6a:ox, n +ox, n+o n none(ye, nanannennon no+nn cy6cn(nonannx,
a:6na+enic+no (nx nonix iicno+eon ocymec+nnxe+cx n ycioennox nox(ie (+ai na:inaexoe
accelerated investigation review), a ioxnencannonnax +axoennax nomnnna oc+ae+cx n cnne (o
:anemennx a:6na+enic+na, n +o nexx iai nn an+n(exnnnionon none(ye +axoennax nomnnna
c xoxen+a no:6y(ennx +aioio a:6na+enic+na neiamae+ cnoe (enc+nne. Koxe +oio, n cnynae
none(yi no+nn cy6cn(nonannx, ani+ena+nnon (nx ioxnencannonnon +axoennon nomnnni
xoe+ 6i+i nnnx+oe iicno+nymmen c+anon o6x:a+enic+no yc+ann+i nnn oiannnn+i
cy6cn(nonanne.
Koaauecmeeoome oepaoaueoau. Hnxenxm+cx +oniio nn nxno+e n: c+an ne nnenon BTO n no
o+nomennm i Kn+am, na ocnonannn no+oiona o nc+ynnennn i+on c+ani n BTO. Hn nxno+e
neio+oix c+aninix n:(ennn n: Ka:axc+ana, Poccnn n Vianni (enc+nym+ ionnnec+nennie ino+i,
yc+anannnnaexie na ocnonannn cei+onix (nyc+oonnnx coinamennn LC c i+nxn c+anaxn. Konn-
nec+nennie ino+i yc+anonneni +aie na nno: neio+oix nn(on o(e(i n +eic+nninix n:(ennn n:
Henoionn, Kocona, Cenenon Koen (yc+anonneni an+onoxno) n Lenaycn ((nyc+oonnee coinamenne),
a +aie Kn+ax (na ocnonannn Mexoan(yxa, no(nncannoio Lnonencion ioxnccnen c i+on c+anon;
ino+i n o+nomennn Kn+ax (onni (enc+nona+i (o ionna 2OO7 i.). nx nxno+a n: i+nx c+an
nnxenxm+cx +ai na:inaexie nnxn+i na naccnnnoe o6naioannanne +eic+nninix n:(ennn
n o(e(i.
Vnannenne ino+axn oc+ae+cx n ne(ennn Lnonencion ioxnccnn. Poni nonicion a(xnnnc+annn
coc+on+ n ni(ane a:emennn na nno: nocne nonynennx o+ Koxnccnn nnqoxannn o ne(oc+annennox
nnxn+e. Cnc+exa ynannennx ino+axn co(en+cx n Pacnoxennn Cone+a (LC) N 52O/94
4
.
Pacne(enenne ino+ xoe+ noncxo(n+i no necioniinx cxexax: no onee(noc+n :axnoi (nenix
nnmen, nenix 6y(e+ o6cnyen), c yne+ox cnonnmnxcx +oionix no+oion, a +aie no-
nonnonanino :axnnennix :aia:ax.
B cnynae ino+ na c+ani n +eic+nninie n:(ennx (enc+nye+ nenax cxexa.
____________________
4
Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 52O/94 o+ 7.O3.1994 i. (O1. LC I 66 o+ 1O.O3.1994 i., c+.1), Pacnoxenne Koxnccnn (LC)
N 2O44/2OO3 o+ 2O.11.2OO3 i.
147
Kno+i ne(oc+annxm+cx ne c+anax, a nxno+eax coinacno xononoinnecioxy nox(iy
nonynennx Koxnccnen nnqoxannn o+ iocy(ac+n-nnenon o c(enannix :axniax. Koxnccnx, nocne
nonein (oc+ynnoc+n ino+i, yne(oxnxe+ c+ani-nneni o no:xonoc+n ni(ann nxno+non nnnen:nn
na na:nannoe n :axnie ionnnec+no +onaa (ne nenimammee, o(naio, yc+anonnennix nnxn+on (nx
o(noio nxno+ea). Koxnccnx nnnnxae+ emennx ia(in (eni n :anncnxoc+n o+ :axnnennix
o6sexon; n cnynae nenimennx nnxn+a noncxo(n+ coiamenne pro rata, +.e. nononnonanino
:axnnennix o6sexax. Hxno+ei xoiy+ nonynn+i nnqoxannm o6 ncnoni:onannn ionnnec+nennix
ino+ c noxomim Hn+einonannon cnc+exi ynannennx nnnen:nxxn (Systene Integre de Gestion
de 1icenses S!GI: lll://sigl.cec.eu.inl), io+oax coe(nnxe+ Lnonenciym ioxnccnm c yne(ennxxn,
ni(ammnxn nxno+nie nnnen:nn n iocy(ac+nax-nnenax, n +ox nncne c nonicinx Mnnnc+ec+nox
iionoxnin.
Cacmexa oasopa. Ha(:o xoe+ iaca+icx ye ocymec+nnennoio nxno+a (nocne(ymmnn na(:o
retrospective surveillance) nnn nnannyexoio (ne(nan+eninin na(:o prior surveillance, nnane
an+oxa+nnecioe nnnen:nonanne). B nenox cnynae, n e:yni+a+e einc+annn o6oo+a +axoennixn
oianaxn, Koxnccnx 6ic+ee nex o6inno nonynae+ nnqoxannm o6 nxno+e iocy(ac+nnnenon.
B cnynae ne(nan+eninoio na(:oa ycnonnex (onymennx i o6oo+y na +en+onn LC xnnxe+cx
nonynenne nxno+eox e(nnoio nxno+noio (oiyxen+a (surveillance docunent) o+ ioxne+en+nix
nnac+en n iocy(ac+naxnnenax (n Honime a:emenne na nno: cx. nne). B neio+oix cnynaxx
nonynenne a:emennx c+ann+icx n :anncnxoc+i o+ ne(sxnnennx oninnana iicno+non nnnen:nn,
ni(annon c+anonnoc+anmniox (double-checking surveillance).
Hxaopmome aaaeosaa )paspemeoau oa eeos). Onn xnnxm+cx o6x:a+eninixn n cnynae nxno+a
noximnennix +onaon, oxnanennix ino+axn n an+oxa+nnecion einc+annen (ecnn +aiax
o6x:annoc+i nxena xec+o). Mnnnc+ iionoxnin ni(ae+ nx an+oxa+nnecin, 6ecnna+no, na :axnnennoe
ionnnec+no, n +enenne 5 a6onnx (nen c xoxen+a no(ann :axnnennx ((nx cenicioxo:xnc+nennix
n nnmenix no(yi+on +aioio o(a a:emennx ni(ae+ ne(ce(a+eni Aien+c+na aianoio inia).
B cnynae o+cy+c+nnx (yinx (oia:a+enic+n cnn+ae+cx, n+o oian, ynonnoxonennin ni(ana+i nxno+nin
(oiyxen+, nonynnn :axnnenne n +enenne 3 a6onnx (nen co (nx eio no(ann. O6a:en :axnnennx na
ni(any a:emennx na nno: (a +aie nino:) 6in ony6nnionan n Pacnoxennn Mnnnc+a iionoxnin
n +y(a o+ 14 xax 2OO4 i. no nonocy a:emennn na nno: nnn nino: +onaon, ni(anaexix n axiax
ce(c+n a(xnnnc+nonannx o6oo+ox +onaaxn c :ay6enixn c+anaxn (:.V. N 131 o+ 2OO4 i.,
no:. 14O2). Tonai, ocno6o(ennie o+ ynna+i +axoennix c6oon na ocnonannn o+(eninix
ne(nncannn, ne ny(am+cx n nonynennn a:emennx.
Bi(ana a:emennx xoe+ 6i+i noc+annena n :anncnxoc+i o+ ynna+i sauora (n nn(e n:noca
nannnnixn nnn iaan+nn). 3anoi n:nxae+cx n nonicion nanm+e, no iycy Hannonaninoio nonicioio
6ania, (enc+nymmeio n a6onnn (eni nee( (nex nnecennx :anoia. Bo:na+ :anoia, nnecennoio n nn(e
ynna+i nannnnixn, ocymec+nnxe+cx ny+ex nna+enoio noynennx na yia:annin n :axnnennn cne+,
a n cnynan iaan+nn, ny+ex no:na+a (oiyxen+a, no(+ne(ammeio ne(oc+annenne i+on iaan+nn.
Lcnn o6sex a:emennx 6in nne nex n :axnnennn, neennanennin :anoi no(nen+ no:na+y
n +enenne 14 (nen co (nx nonynennx a:emennx. Hox(oi n:nxannx :anoia n eio no:na+a
one(enxe+cx n Pacnoxennn Mnnnc+a iionoxnin n +y(a o+ 18 xax 2OO4 i. no nonocy o :anoie,
yc+anonnennox n axiax ce(c+n a(xnnnc+nonannx o6oo+ox c :ay6enixn c+anaxn (:.V.
N 131 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 14O3).
Ha nai+nie na(:o nnxenxe+cx nn nno:e nync+nn+eninix +onaon: c+ann, +eic+nninix n:(ennn,
o(e(i. Cnc+exa (nonnoio ion+onx (enc+nye+ n nxno+e o(e(i n +eic+nninix n:(ennn n:
V:6einc+ana, c+ann n: Mon(oni, Pyxinnn n Maie(onnn, a +aie n axiax ino+ (nx nno:a n: Poccnn,
Vianni n Ka:axc+ana. B cnom onee(i, nn nxno+e neio+oix c+aninix n:(ennn n: oc+aninix
+e+inx c+an (:a ncinmnennex Hnennann, Honeinn, nx+enm+enna, Hcnan(nn n Tynnn) (enc+nye+
ne(nan+eninin na(:o (+e6ye+cx +oniio nxno+nie nnnen:nn cnc+exa single-checking).
148
Jaapemm oa srcaopm a axaopm. 3ane+i na o6oo+ (na nxno+/iicno+) yc+anannnnam+cx LC
+oniio n ncinmnn+eninix cnynaxx. Vc+anonnennie n :aiono(a+enic+ne LC :ane+i na nxno+,
iacam+cx, n nac+noc+n:
nno:a n LC +onaon, naymammnx neio+oie nana na nn+ennei+yaninym co6c+nennoc+i;
nxno+a n iicno+a naicinx iyni+ynix nennoc+en;
no(an, 6ecnna+non nee(ann nnn noc+anin +exnnnecion noxomn, nxemmen noennoe
na:nanenne, iainx-nn6o cy6sei+ax n n6enn, nxno+a neo6a6o+annix anxa:on n: n6enn,
(enecnni n n:(ennn n: (eena nn6enncioio noncxo(ennx;
nxno+a ion n (yinx +onaon, non:no(nxix n: neio+oix nn(on (ninx nno+nix,
noncxo(xmnx n: iocy(ac+n, n io+oix onn o+nannnnam+cx c noxomim ianianon nnn
xe+o(on, ne o+nenammnx xe(ynao(nix noxax iyxannoio o+nona.
Ha ocnonannn nny+ennnx nanonix ai+on (acnoxennn Cone+a xnnnc+on) n Honime
(enc+nye+ :ane+ na nno:: n: +e+inx c+an ion xono(nxia neio+oix nn(on +mnenen n n:(ennn n:
i+on ion, iy:on n: Poccnncion 4e(eannn n Ka:axc+ana, co(eamnx nyx n cioe neo, iy:on n:
Pyxinnn n Tynnn, co(eamnx nnym (oxamnmm n (yiym nnym n+nny, xnna n no(yi+i n:
n+nni 6e: +ennonon o6a6o+in, a +aie ac6ec+a n n:(ennn, co(eamnx ac6ec+.
Hxaopm/srcaopm aaxasooeo cmpou. Kynnx/no(aa anxa:noio ciix eiynnye+cx cnennaninixn
nannnaxn (anxa:, neo6a6o+annin nnn +oniio neennnennin, a:e:annin nnn nome(mnn
nananinym o6a6o+iy). Hn iicno+e n nxno+e +e6ye+cx ne(e nceio ne(sxnnenne +ai na:i-
naexoio xe(ynao(noio Knx6enncioio ce+nqnia+a, io+oin Lnonencioe coo6mec+no o6x:anoci
nnxenx+i n o6oo+e nemnnqonannixn anxa:axn c 1 xnnax 2OO3 i na ocnonannn Hn+enaiencion
einaannn, coinacno (oiyxen+y, na:inaexoxy Kinberley Process Certification Schene. Jicno+nie
ce+nqnia+i LC xono nonynn+i n Leniinn, 4PI n Bennio6n+annn; +ax e xono c(ena+i
noneiy nxno+nix iy:on, co(eamnx anxa:noe ciie. Honicine nnac+n ne ni(am+ a:emennn
na nno: nnn nino: anxa:noio ciix, ne ni(am+ +aie iicno+nix ce+nqnia+on.
Toeapm a mexooaoeaa eoaooeo oasoaueoau. Kon+oni na( iicno+ox +onaon (nonnoio
na:nanennx na ncen +en+onn Lnonencioio com:a ocymec+nnxe+cx na ocnonannn e(nnoio neennx
+onaon n +exnonoinn (nonnoio na:nanennx. J+o+ neeneni co(en+cx n Pacnoxennn Cone+a (LC)
N 394/2OO6 o+ 27 qenanx 2OO6 i., (ononnxmmnx n ioei+nymmnx Pacnoxenne (LC) N 1334/2OOO.
J+o+ ai+ co(en+ nannna cnc+exi ion+onx iicno+a no(yi+on n +exnonoinn (nonnoio na:nanennx.
Bnemne+oionin o6oo+ +onaaxn, +exnonoinxxn n ycnyiaxn, nxemmnxn c+a+einnecioe :nanenne
(nx 6e:onacnoc+n iocy(ac+na, a +aie (nx coxanennx xe(ynao(noio xna n 6e:onacnoc+n,
nnnnnni ion+onx n yne+a i+oio o6oo+a n o+ne+c+nennoc+n :a naymennx n o6oo+e i+nxn
+onaaxn, +exnonoinxxn n ycnyiaxn, eiynnye+ :aion o+ 29 nox6x 2OOO i., iaxonn:nonannin
c :aiono(a+enic+nox LC. Hannna LC ne ne(ycxa+nnam+ ion+onx nxno+a +onaon (nonnoio
na:nanennx. Toniio nxno+ inn+oiaqnnecioio o6oy(onannx no(nen+ xonn+onniy co c+ooni
Aien+c+na nny+ennen 6e:onacnoc+n, nnn(y +e6onannn, iacammnxcx o6ecnenennx 6e:onacnoc+n
iocy(ac+na.
Jicno+ n nxno+ oynx n noennoio o6oy(onannx n Honimy +e6ye+ nonynennx
coo+ne+c+nymmeio nn(nnn(yaninoio a:emennx. K :axnnennm o ni(ane nn(nnn(yaninoio
a:emennx na iicno+ nooyennx :axnn+eni (onen nnnon+i :axnnenne ionennoio noni:ona+enx.
B cnom onee(i, i :axnnennm o ni(ane a:emennx na iicno+ +onaon (nonnoio na:nanennx xoe+
6i+i nnnoen nxno+nin ce+nqnia+ nnn :axnnenne ionennoio noni:ona+enx. Jicno+ +onaon,
nxemmnx c+a+einnecioe :nanenne (nx 6e:onacnoc+n iocy(ac+na, n neio+oie c+ani :anemen nnn
+e6ye+ coo+ne+c+nymmeio a:emennx Cone+a xnnnc+on. Hnqoxannm na +exy nannn o6oo+a
+onaaxn (nonnoio na:nanennx xono nan+n na can+e: lll://dIe.mg.gov.l
Hnqoxannm na noniciox n aninnnciox x:iiax o+nocn+enino ycnonnn +oionoio o6xena
c +e+inxn c+anaxn xono nan+n na can+e Mnnnc+ec+na iionoxnin: lll://mg.gov.l/Clo nnn na
can+e Lnonencion ioxnccnn: lll://www.eu.inl.
149
Hnqoxannm o+nocn+enino ycnonnn nno:a na inoi LC xono +aie nan+n na no+ane:
LXPAD!G LXPORTS HLIPDLSK, co:(annox Lnonencion ioxnccnen (nx ny( iicno+eon n:
a:nnnammnxcx c+an. Ha no+ane naxo(n+cx +aie qoyx, noce(c+nox io+ooio ne(nnnnxa+enn
xoiy+ nana(n+i ion+ai+ n nan+n noc+anmnia nnn noiyna+enx cnonx +onaon.
3. Bankfuoe npaeo
B nmne 1995 i. Honima nnnxna o6x:a+enic+na, ni+eiammne n: c+a+in V!!! Vc+ana
Me(ynao(noio nanm+noio qon(a; 6ina o6sxnnena ionne+nyexoc+i o+enec+nennon nanm+i
coinacno c+an(a+ax MB4.
enc+nymmnn n nac+oxmee nexx 3aion Banm+noe nano o+ 27 nmnx 2OO2 i., io+oin nc+ynnn
n cnny 1 oi+x6x 2OO2 i. (:.V. N 141, no:.1178), 6in no(io+onnen n coo+ne+c+nnn c +e6onannxxn
Lnonencioio com:a. B nex co(en+cx nnnnnn cno6o(noio neexemennx iann+ana n nna+een,
(onyciam+cx +oniio +e oiannnennx, io+oie a:emeni n oionoe o Lnonenciox com:e.
3aion eiynnye+ nanm+nin o6oo+
5
(nanm+nie oneannn c :ay6enixn c+anaxn, a +aie
nanm+nie oneannn nny+n c+ani) n (ex+eninoc+i nyni+on no o6xeny nanm+i
6
. B nex one(enxm+cx
+aie o6x:annoc+n: 1) cnx:annie c nino:ox :a y6e, nno:ox n c+any, o+nanion :a iannny
nanm+nix nennoc+en n o+enec+nennix nna+enix ce(c+n, a +aie c (enenixn neeno(axn :a
iannny n acne+axn n c+ane c nee:n(en+axn; 2) iacammnecx ne(oc+annennx (annix o nanm+nox
o6oo+e c :ay6enixn c+anaxn. Koxe +oio, n :aione nonncani ion+oninie (enc+nnx,
ocymec+nnxexie n cnx:n c ne(ycxo+ennixn :aionox oiannnennxxn n o6x:annoc+xxn.
Oiannnennxx, yc+anonnennix n 3aione, ne no(nea+ nanm+nie oneannn, ecnn o(non n: c+oon
xnnxe+cx Iocy(ac+nennax ia:na, Hannonaninin Honicinn Lani (HHL), ny6nnnnin oian n xo(e
yiononnoio, ia(ancioio n a(xnnnc+a+nnnoio non:no(c+na, 6ani n (yine qnnanconie
nnc+n+y+i, naxo(xmnecx no( na(neamnx na(:oox. Tai na:inaexie oco6ie oiannnennx ne
nnxenxm+cx i +ex nenix n: na:nannix c+oon, o(naio onn iacam+cx 6anion n (yinx
ion+onnyexix qnnanconix nnc+n+y+on.
Oc+anmnecx n :aione nexnoionncnennie oiannnennx iacam+cx ne(e nceio +e+inx c+an.
Te+in c+ani i+o c+ani, ne nxo(xmne n LC. C+ani, nxo(xmne n Lnonenciym iionoxnneciym
:ony n Oiann:annm iionoxnnecioio co+y(nnnec+na n a:nn+nx (OJCP), accxa+nnam+cx n +aiox
e ianec+ne, iai c+ani LC.
Oiannnennxx no(nen+, +.e. ne xoe+ conema+icx 6e: nanm+noio a:emennx, yc+anonnenne n
nonynenne e:n(en+axn nnnn+ammnx cyxx o+ nee:n(en+on n nanm+e, nnon nex ionne+nyexax
nnn noniciax nanm+a
7
. Oiannnennx iacam+cx +aie nino:a n o+nannennx :a iannny nanm+noio
:ono+a, nanm+non nna+nni, a +aie nannonaninix n nnoc+annix nna+enix ce(c+n
8
. Koxe +oio,
____________________
5
O6oo+ o+enec+nennixn nna+enixn ce(c+naxn xe(y nee:n(en+axn ne xnnxe+cx nanm+nix o6oo+ox n, +ainx
o6a:ox, naxo(n+cx nne (enc+nnx 3aiona Banm+noe nano.
6
ex+eninoc+i nyni+on no o6xeny nanm+i ne(c+annxe+ co6on xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i, io+oax coc+on+ n iynne
n no(ae nanm+nix nennoc+en, a +aie n noce(nnnec+ne nn nx iynne n no(ae. O6oo+ nanm+nixn nennoc+xxn na
co6c+nennie ny(i ne einaxen+nye+cx.
7
Me(y :no+ix n ionne+nyexixn nanm+axn nxee+cx qoxanino-nanonoe anenc+no. Oiannnenne ne iacae+cx
o(noc+oonnnx ninna+ n nna+een, ne cnx:annix c xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+im.
8
Ho o+nomennm i nee:n(en+ax 6inn ne(ycxo+eni neio+oie ncinmnennx. Onn iacam+cx cnynaen, ioi(a nanm+noe
:ono+o, nanm+nax nna+nna, o+enec+nennie n nnoc+annie nna+enie ce(c+na 6inn nne:eni n Honimy n :axnneni
n ne(ycxo+ennox :aionox nox(ie.
15O
einaxen+nye+cx conemenne n c+ane acne+on xe(y e:n(en+axn n nnoc+annix nanm+ax
9
,
nnnex ec+ninnn ne iacam+cx acne+on xe(y qn:nnecinxn nnnaxn, io+oie ne cnx:ani c ne(ennex
xo:xnc+nennon (ex+eninoc+n.
B cnynae nino:a n o+nanin o+enec+nennix nnn nnoc+annix nna+enix ce(c+n, oiannnenne
nannnae+ (enc+nona+i nocne nenimennx iinnnanen+a n 1O OOO eno. J+o nannno coo+ne+c+nye+
(yion c+a+ie :aiona, io+oax no:naiae+ na e:n(en+on, ocymec+nnxmmnx (enenie neeno(i :a
iannny nnn acne+i c nee:n(en+axn n c+ane, o6x:annoc+i noni:ona+icx noce(nnnec+nox
ynonnoxonennix 6anion nn nenimennn cyxxi n 1O OOO eno.
Cyxxa 1O OOO eno i+o iannnnax nennnnna, nocne nenimennx io+oon noxnnxm+cx
o6x:annoc+n, cnx:annie c nino:ox :a iannny n nno:ox n c+any nanm+i nnn o+enec+nennix
nna+enix ce(c+n. Heeceiax iannny Honimn, e:n(en+i n nee:n(en+i o6x:ani :axnnx+i o6 nx
nino:e, ne(sxnnxx na(neamne (oiyxen+i, no(+ne(ammne nano na nx nino: nnn nanm+noe
a:emenne, (ammee nano na nino:, a +aie :axnnx+i o6 nx nno:e. Tainx e o6a:ox nn o+nanie
:a iannny nanm+i nnn o+enec+nennix nna+enix ce(c+n, e:n(en+i n nee:n(en+i o6x:ani
ne(sxnnx+i (oiyxen+i, no(+ne(ammne nano na o+nannenne nnn nanm+noe a:emenne, (ammne
na neio nano. Cnoco6 o+nanin one(enen n :aione. Iannna n 1O OOO eno nnxenxe+cx +aie nn
one(enennn o6x:annoc+en, cnx:annix c (enenixn neeno(axn :a iannny
1O
n acne+axn n c+ane
c nee:n(en+axn. Hn nenimennn i+on cyxxi e:n(en+i o6x:ani noni:ona+icx noce(nnnec+nox
ynonnoxonennix 6anion, ne(c+annxx nx nanonoe ocnonanne c(enin ((enenoio neeno(a :a y6e,
acne+on c nee:n(en+axn n c+ane) n (oiyxen+i, no(+ne(ammne yia:annoe ocnonanne. Taiax e
o6x:annoc+i iacae+cx nee:n(en+on, ocymec+nnxmmnx (enenie neeno(i :a iannny n n:noci
nannnnixn na cnon cne+a nnn cne+a (yinx nee:n(en+on n o+enec+nennix 6aniax.
Oc+aninax nac+i nanm+nix oiannnennn, co(eamnxcx n :aione, iacae+cx nanm+noio o6oo+a
c +e+inxn c+anaxn, +. e. ne6onimon nac+n nceio o6oo+a. K nnx, n nac+noc+n, o+nocx+cx:
a) nino:, o+nania n nee(ana e:n(en+axn n +e+in c+ani o+enec+nennix nnn nnoc+annix
nna+enix ce(c+n, c ne(na:nanennex nana+i nnn acmnn+i n i+nx c+anax xo:xnc+nennym
(ex+eninoc+i (c ncinmnennxxn);
6) nno6e+enne e:n(en+axn ne(nnnxoc+n, naxo(xmnxcx n +e+inx c+anax, naen n ainnn
n o6mec+nax n e(nnnn ynac+nx n qon(ax c xec+ox naxo(ennx n +e+inx c+anax, (onionix
6yxai, ixn+nonannix nnn ni(annix nee:n(en+axn n: +e+inx c+an, nanm+nix nennoc+en,
no(anaexix nee:n(en+axn n: +e+inx c+an n (.;
n) o+ny(enne e:n(en+axn n +e+inx c+anax nennix 6yxai, e(nnnn ynac+nx n (.;
i) nno6e+enne n c+ane n o+ny(enne n c+ane nee:n(en+axn n: +e+inx c+an nennix 6yxai,
e(nnnn ynac+nx n (.;
() o+ii+ne e:n(en+axn cne+on n 6aniax n o+(enennxx 6anion, nxemmnx xec+o naxo(ennx
n +e+inx c+anax;
e) ie(n+nin o6oo+ xe(y e:n(en+ox n nee:n(en+ox ia+ioconnoio xaai+ea
11
;
) (aennx, conemaexie e:n(en+axn n noni:y nee:n(en+on, ne(xe+ox io+oix xnnxm+cx nanm+a
nnn o+enec+nennie nna+enie ce(c+na;
:) ocymec+nnenne xe(y e:n(en+axn n nee:n(en+axn (enenix acne+on, ni+eiammnx n:
nimena:nannix (enc+nnn.
____________________
9
B cnynae +ainx acne+on :no+in ne accxa+nnae+cx naanne c ionne+nyexixn nanm+axn, iai n cnynae nanm+noio
o6oo+a c :ay6enixn c+anaxn.
1O
Taie c nno6e+ennex n ynanoxonennox 6anie neia nnn (yioio (oiyxen+a, no(neameio onna+e :a y6eox.
11
Ho( +ainx o6oo+ox nonnxae+cx nonynenne nnn ne(oc+annenne ccy(i nnn ie(n+a co coiox ynna+i 6onee nononnni
i+on cyxxi (o nc+enennx io(a co (nx :ainmnennx (oionoa.
151
O+c+yna+i o+ na:nannix n :aione oiannnennn n o6x:annoc+en n nanm+nox o6oo+e xono na
ocnonannn o6mnx nanm+nix a:emennn (ni(anaexix n nox(ie acnoxennx xnnnc+ox,
iynymmnx iocy(ac+nennie qnnanci) nnn nn(nnn(yaninix nanm+nix a:emennn (ni(anaexix
He(ce(a+enex HHL n nox(ie a(xnnnc+a+nnnix emennn). Hn ni(ane nanm+nix a:emennn
nnxenxe+cx in+enn o+cy+c+nnx yio:i (nx 6e:onacnoc+n iocy(ac+na, o6mec+nennoio nox(ia,
annonecnx nna+enoio 6ananca nnn (nx (yinx ocnonnix nn+eecon iocy(ac+na. Bo:xonoc+i
nnxenennx o6mnx n nn(nnn(yaninix nanm+nix a:emennn no:nonxe+, n :anncnxoc+n o+
xenxmmnxcx ycnonnn acmnx+i, no o+nomennm i :aiony, (nana:on cno6o(i nanm+noio o6oo+a
nnn nocc+anannnna+i anee nnxenxexie oiannnennx.
B acnoxennn Mnnnc+a qnnancon o+ 3 cen+x6x 2OO2 i. no nonocy o6 o6mnx nanm+nix
a:emennxx, io+ooe nc+ynnno n cnny nxec+e c :aionox 1 oi+x6x 2OO2 i., a:emae+cx o+c+yna+i o+
oiannnennn nn conemennn nanm+noio o6oo+a c :ay6enixn c+anaxn, nnnex i+n o+c+ynnennx
o+nocx+cx io ncex +e+inx c+anax nnn +oniio i +ex, c io+oixn Honima :ainmnnna coinamennx
o n:anxnon no((eie n :amn+e nnnec+nnnn.
Ho o+nomennm io ncex +e+inx c+anax 6ino a:emeno:
nno6e+enne e:n(en+axn n co6c+nennoe noni:onanne ne(nnnxoc+n ((o 5O OOO eno) n nno-
c+annix nanm+ (n +onno one(enennix cnynaxx);
o+ny(enne e:n(en+axn nennix 6yxai, :a ncinmnennex (onionix 6yxai co coiox niiyna
xenee io(a n e(nnnn ynac+nx, a +aie o+ii+ne cne+on n 6aniax n cnx:n c i+nxn (enc+nnxxn;
nno6e+enne n o+ny(enne n c+ane nee:n(en+axn nennix 6yxai, :a ncinmnennex (onionix
6yxai co coiox niiyna xenee io(a n e(nnnn ynac+nx (naen);
nonynenne o+enec+nennixn o6mec+naxn nnn nxxixn nnnec+oaxn :anxon ia+ioconnoio
xaai+ea n ne(oc+annenne nnoc+annix o6mec+nax e:n(en+axn nxxixn nnnec+oaxn,
+ainx :anxon;
ne(oc+annenne e:n(en+axn nee:n(en+ax, a +aie nonynenne e:n(en+axn y nee:n(en+on
:anxon/ie(n+on ia+ioconnoio xaai+ea c ycnonnex noiamennx o6x:a+enic+n, no:nnimnx
coinacno :aiony nnn nanm+noxy a:emennm;
conemenne e:n(en+axn qn:nnecinxn nnnaxn (aennx n nn(e nanm+nix nennoc+en n o+e-
nec+nennix nna+enix ce(c+n ((o 1O OOO eno).
B cnom onee(i, n o+nomennxx c +e+inxn c+anaxn, c io+oixn 6inn :ainmneni coinamennx
o n:anxnon no((eie n :amn+e nnnec+nnnn, e:n(en+ax 6ino a:emeno:
nee(ana+i (noce(c+nox ynonnoxonennix 6anion) nna+enie ce(c+na na na:nannym n nyni+e a)
neni;
nno6e+a+i n i+nx c+anax ne(nnnxoc+i, nan n ainnn, e(nnnni ynac+nx n (onionie nennie
6yxain c io(nnnix nnn 6onee coiox niiyna n o+iina+i 6anioncine cne+a n i+nx c+anax
n cnx:n c i+nxn (enc+nnxxn.
Koxe +oio, 6inn (ani a:emennx, io+oie ne nxem+ ieoiaqnnecioio nanannennx:
e:n(en+i n nee:n(en+i xoiy+ nino:n+i nnn o+nannx+i :a iannny o+enec+nennie nnn
nnoc+annie nna+enie ce(c+na nime 1O OOO eno, ecnn onn 6inn ninnaneni c 6anioncioio
cne+a nnn nno6e+eni n 6anie :a ce(c+na, naionnennie na 6anionciox cne+y;
nee:n(en+i xoiy+ nino:n+i nnn o+nannx+i :a iannny o+enec+nennie nnn nnoc+annie
nna+enie ce(c+na cnime 1O OOO eno, io+oie 6inn nno6e+eni nnn o6xeneni n 6anie :a
ce(c+na, nnne:ennie anee n c+any n :a(einanonannie n ne(ycxo+ennox :aionox
nox(ie;
nee:n(en+ xoe+ ninec+n :a iannny nanm+y n no(nncannie (oonie nein na cyxxy cnime
1O OOO eno, ecnn na eio qaxnnnm 6ina ni(ana i+a nanm+a, nnn ecnn i+o on no(nncan i+n nein;
a:emae+cx nino:n+i :a iannny :ono+ie xone+i, ninymennie HHL.
O+(eninax inana :aiona 6ina nocnxmena (ex+eninoc+n nyni+on o6xena nanm+. Pa:emennx na
ne(enne (ex+eninoc+n nyni+on o6xena nanm+ (ae+ He(ce(a+eni HLH. B +ainx a:emennxx ne
152
ny(am+cx 6anin
12
, o+(enennx nnoc+annix 6anion, a +aie ie(n+nie yne(ennx n o+(enennx
ie(n+nix yne(ennn. B :aione one(eneno, iex (onno 6i+i n iaine ycnonnx (onno ninonnx+i
nnno, xo(a+anc+nymmee o a:emennn na (ex+eninoc+i n o6nac+n o6xena nanm+. B nac+oxmee nexx
(ex+eninoc+i no o6xeny nanm+i xoe+ nec+n +aie nee:n(en+, a innen+ox xoe+ 6i+i +aie
xo:xnc+nymmnn cy6sei+. Koxe +oio, ne(xe+ox o6oo+a xoiy+ 6i+i +aie nnie nanm+nie
nennoc+n, neenn nnoc+annie nanm+i, nanm+noe :ono+o n nanm+nax nna+nna, nannxe (oonie
nein. O(naio 6inn nne(eni +aie neio+oie oiannnennx. B axiax o(noio (oionoa iynnn nnn
no(an c+onxoc+i nnoc+annix nna+enix ce(c+n ne xoe+ nenicn+i 2O OOO eno. B a6o+e
nyni+on o6xena nanm+ (onni co6nm(a+icx neneinnoc+i c(enoi, ni(ana (oiyxen+on iynnn-
no(an n nec+nci (o6oconec+nin yne+.
Kon+oni, ne(ycxo+ennin :aionox, conemae+cx HLH, 6aniaxn n oianaxn +axoennon
a(xnnnc+annn n noiannnnon cny6i. HHL nono(n+ ion+oni no ninonnennm o6x:a+eninon
o+ne+noc+n n o6nac+n ne(oc+annennix He(ce(a+enex HLH nanm+nix a:emennn n (ex+eninoc+n
nyni+on o6xena nanm+. Lanin (onni ion+onnona+i conemaexie nyni+axn neeno(i :a y6e
n acne+i nny+n c+ani c nee:n(en+axn. B cnom onee(i, oiani +axoennon a(xnnnc+annn
n oiani noiannnnon cny6i (onni ion+onnona+i nno: n c+any, nino: n: nee, +ancqe+
n c+any n n: nee, nanm+ n nannonaninix nna+enix ce(c+n.
3aion +onno one(enxe+ yiononnoe naia:anne n cnynae nanm+nix nec+ynnennn n nanonaymennn,
accxa+nnaexix iai naymenne oiannnennn n neninonnenne o6x:a+enic+n, ne(ycxo+ennix
n :aione. Onn 6inn nne(eni n Viononnin qnnanconin io(eic.
K 3aiony o nanm+nox nane 6ino ni(ano 6 no(:aionnix ai+on, io+oie nc+ynnnn n cnny nxec+e
c :aionox 1 oi+x6x 2OO2 i.
13
4. Bankfuu kypc
B +enenne 9O-x io(on cnc+exa one(enennx nanm+noio iyca xnoioia+no xenxnaci n nomna
ny+i o+ cnc+exi +ne(oio iyca, nnnx:annoio i (onnay CHA (a :a+ex na no+xennn necioniinx
xecxnen i io:nne 5-+n nanm+), nee: non:ymnn (crawling peg) n neexennin iyci n ne(enax
nanm+noio ion(oa (crawling band) (o nnanammeio iyca (independent floating). C+yi+ya io:nni
oc+ananaci nen:xennon (o xnnax 1999 i.
14
Hoxa oc+a c+onxoc+n io:nni n :no+ix n: xecxna
n xecxn noc+enenno cnnanaci: c 1,8 n xecxn n oi+x6e 1991 i. (o O,3 n xa+e 1999 i., n+o 6ino
o+aennex ocna6enammnx nnqnxnnonnix on(annn. Ce(nnn iyc (onnaa CHA coc+annxn
n 199O i. O,95 :n., n 1999 i. 3,9675 :n., a n 2OOO i. 4,3464 :n.
Lonee in6iax cnc+exa iycon cnoco6c+nonana oc+y nnnxnnx inia na qoxnonanne iyca
:no+oio. Kone6annx iycon na qoeice n na qnicnnie ne xoinn nixo(n+i :a ne(eni one(enennoio
nanm+noio ion(oa, io+oin co nexenex acmnnncx. Henonananino, +.e. c xax 1995 i.,
xaicnxaninoe o+inonenne o+ nan+e+noio iyca, one(enxmmee iannni ion(oa, coc+annxno
+/- 7, a c xa+a 1999 i. ye +/- 15. Ve c cee(nni 1997 i. na6nm(annci :axe+nie ione6annx iyca
:no+oio n ne(enax yc+anonnennoio ion(oa. Jen+aninin 6ani c aniyc+a 1998 i. ne nxemnnancx
n cn+yannm na nanm+nox inie, a n nmne 1999 i. 6in nninn(nonan qnicnni na c(enin. Tainx
o6a:ox, necxo+x na qoxaninoe coxanenne cnc+exi nanm+noio ion(oa, na nai+nie nonn+nia
iyca nn6nnanaci i cnc+exe nnanammeio iyca.
____________________
12
Heeneni 6anioncinx (enc+nnn 6in (ononnen ciynion n no(aen nanm+nix nennoc+en.
13
Koxe ynoxxny+oio acnoxennx xnnnc+a qnnancon no nonocy o6 o6mnx nanm+nix a:emennxx, 6inn eme +n
(yinx acnoxennx xnnnc+a qnnancon, o(no acnoxenne Cone+a xnnnc+on n o(no o6sxnnenne He(ce(a+enx HLH.
14
B c+yi+ye io:nni oc+ancx (onna CHA c nenen (onen 45, a eno :axennno oc+aninie ne+ie nanm+i.
153
12 anenx 2OOO i. nac+ynnno nonnoe ocno6o(enne iyca :no+oio. J+o 6in e:yni+a+ nnnnna+nni
Cone+a no (enenon nonn+nie, o(o6ennon :a+ex Cone+ox xnnnc+on. C i+oio xoxen+a iyc
:no+oio cno6o(no qoxnye+cx na inie; neec+ana qyninnonnona+i ia+eionx nan+e+noio
iyca, maiammen (enaninannn n iannn ion(oa. Jen+aninin 6ani xoe+, o(naio, ocymec+nnx+i
nxema+enic+na na nanm+nox inie, n+o (onyciae+cx (ae n cnc+exe nnanammeio iyca (independent
floating), no noia on +aion no:xonoc+im ne nocnoni:onancx.
3a nocne(nne io(i iyc :no+oio :nann+enino ione6ancx. Hocne nn+encnnnon enaninannn n neno(
2OOO-2OO1 ii. iai eaninon, +ai n noxnnaninon, n 2OO2-2OO3 ii. ycnnnnaci +en(ennnx i ocna6nennm.
B 2OO4 i. nenynoci eaninoe ycnnenne :no+oio, a n 2OO5 i. +aie noxnnaninoe ycnnenne. Peaninin
iqqei+nnnin iyc :no+oio, accnn+inaexin c ncnoni:onannex no+e6n+enicinx nen, a +aie
iqqei+nnnin noxnnaninin iyc nonicnnnci n 2OO5 i. na 12,7, (:no+in noxnnanino ycnnnncx no
o+nomennm i eno na 12,6, a i (onnay CHA na 13) . Ce(nnn iyc eno n 2OO5 i. coc+annn 4,O254 :n.,
a (onnaa CHA 3,2348 :n., n +o nexx iai n 2OO4 i. coo+ne+c+nenno 4,534O :n. n 3,654O :n.
5. Baueuue npaeoeue akfu
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LJC) N 2913/92 o+ 12 oi+x6x 2OO2 i., yc+anannnnammee Taxoennin
io(eic LC (O1 LC I 3O2 o+ 19 oi+x6x 1992 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Taxoennin io(eic, :aion o+ 19 xa+a 2OO4 i. (:.V. N 68, no:. 622);
- 3aion o+ 16 anenx 2OO4 i. o6 a(xnnnc+nonannn nnemne+oionix o6oo+ox +onaon n ycnyi
(:.V. N 97, no:. 963);
- 3aion o+ 1O xa+a 2OO6 i. o6 a(xnnnc+nonannn nnemne+oionix o6oo+ox ycnyi (:.V.
N 79, no:. 546);
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 384/96 o :amn+e o+ nxno+a no (exnnnionix nenax n: c+an, ne
xnnxmmnxcx nnenaxn Lnonencioio coo6mec+na (O1 LC I 56 o+ 6 xa+a 1996 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 2O26/97 o+ 6 oi+x6x 1997 i. o :amn+e o+ nxno+a no cy6cn(nonannix
nenax n: c+an, ne xnnxmmnxcx nnenaxn Lnonencioio coo6mec+na (O1 L\ I 288 o+ 21 oi+x6x
1997 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 3285/94 o+ 22 (eia6x 1994 i. no nonocy o6 o6mnx nxno+nix
nannnax (O1 LC I 349 o+ 31 (eia6x 1994 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a N 519/94 o+ 7 xa+a 1994 i. no nonocy o6 o6mnx nxno+nix nannnax,
iacammnxcx neio+oix +e+inx c+an (O1 LC I 78 o+ 22 xa+a 1994 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LJC N 3O3O/93 o+ 12 oi+x6x 1993 i. no nonocy o6 o6mnx nxno+nix
nannnax n o+nomennn neio+oix +eic+nninix n:(ennn n: +e+inx c+an (O1 LC I 275 o+
8 nox6x 1993 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 517/94 o+ 7 xa+a 1994 i. no nonocy o6 o6mnx nxno+nix
nannnax, iacammnxcx +eic+nninix n:(ennn n: +e+inx c+an, neoxnanennix (nyc+oonnnxn
coinamennxxn, no+oionaxn nnn (yinxn (oionoennoc+xxn, nnn cnennaninixn nannnaxn
nxno+a n LC (O1 LC I 67 o+ 1O xa+a 1994 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 3286/94 o+ 22 (eia6x 1994 i., yc+anannnnammee none(yi LC
n o6nac+n o6men +oionon nonn+nin, no:nonxmmne (o6nna+icx co6nm(ennx nan Coo6mec+na,
ni+eiammnx n: xe(ynao(nix nannn +oionnn, oco6enno nnnx+ix no( iin(on BTO (O1 LC
I 349 o+ 31 (eia6x 1994 i.) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a LC N 3O36/94 o+ 8 (eia6x 1994 i., eiynnymmee nxno+ n axiax
iionoxnnecioio o6naioannammeio o6oo+a (O1 LC I 322/94) c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn;
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 98O/2OO5 o+ 27 nmnx 2OO5 i., one(ennnmee cxexy o6mnx +anqnix
neqeennnn (O1 I 169 o+ 3O nmnx 2OO5);
154
- Pacnoxenne Mnnnc+a iionoxnin n +y(a o+ 14 xax 2OO4 i. no nonocy o a:emennxx,
ni(anaexix na nno: nnn nino: +onaon n axiax a(xnnnc+nonannx nnemne+oionoio
o6oo+a +onaaxn (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 131, no:. 14O2);
- 3aion o+ 29 nox6x 2OOO i. o6 nnemne+oionox o6oo+e +onaaxn, +exnonoinxxn n ycnyiaxn,
nxemmnxn c+a+einnecioe :nanenne (nx 6e:onacnoc+n iocy(ac+na, a +aie (nx coxanennx
xe(ynao(noio xna n 6e:onacnoc+n n o6 n:xenennn neio+oix :aionon, c nocne(ymmnxn
n:xenennxxn (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 229, no:. 2315, e(nnin +eic+);
- Pacnoxenne Mnnnc+a iionoxnin n +y(a o+ 18 xax 2OO4 i. no nonocy o :anoie,
yc+anannnnaexix n axiax ce(c+n a(xnnnc+nonannx nnemne+oionix o6oo+ox +onaaxn
(:.V. N 131 o+ 2OO4 i., no:. 14O3);
- Pacnoxenne Cone+a (LC) N 394/2OO6 o+ 27 qenanx 2OO6 i., nnocxmne n:xenennx n ai+y-
ann:nymmee acnoxenne (LC) N 1334/2OOO, yc+anannnnammee cnc+exy LC n o6nac+n
ion+onx iicno+a no(yi+on n +exnonoinn (nonnoio na:nanennx (O1 I 74, 13 xa+a 2OO6);
- 3aion o+ 3O aniyc+a 2OO2 i. o cnc+exe onenin coo+ne+c+nnx (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 2O4, no:. 2O87,
e(nnin +eic+);
- 3aion o+ 27 nmnx 2OO2 i. Banm+noe nano (:.V. N 141, no:. 1178).
155
B cnx:n co nc+ynnennex Honimn n Lnonencinn com:, c 1 xax 2OO4 i. ia(ane c+an-nnenon LC
noni:ym+cx :(eci oco6ixn, 6onee nn6eaninixn nex anee nannnaxn ne6inannx, +y(oyc+onc+na,
nno6e+ennx ne(nnnxoc+n, noni:onannx ycnyiaxn iocy(ac+nennix yne(ennn :(anooxanennx
n connaninoio o6ecnenennx. Ho o+nomennm i ia(anax oc+aninix c+an (+ai na:inaexix +e+inx
c+an), i+n nannna non+n ne n:xennnnci.
1. BLespuue eusu
lpa+ae cmpa, e snkuxc vneauu Esponecxoao coksa
C nenim o6neinennx +ync+nnecioio (nnennx n a:nn+nx (enonix ion+ai+on, Honima :ainmnnna
co xnoinxn c+anaxn coinamennx o n:anxnon nnn o(noc+oonnen o+xene nn: (nx nnn, nne:ammnx
n Honimy na coi ne 6onee 9O (nen. Heeneni i+nx c+an naxo(n+cx n nnnoennn.
B cnx:n co nc+ynnennex Honimn n Lnonencinn com:, c 1 oi+x6x 2OO3 i. (enc+nym+ nonie
nnnnnni nn:onoio enxa xe(y Honimen n Poccnen, Viannon n Lenaycim. C ia(ix n: i+nx
iocy(ac+n nonix coce(en acmnennoio LC, nonicioe nann+enic+no :ainmnnno o+(eninie
coinamennx. Ha ocnonannn coinamennx c Viannon, n nn:onox enxe c nen 6in nnxenen
acnxxe+nnnin nanan+. Vianna ne nnena nn: (nx nonxion, a nonicine ioncynic+na ni(am+ i+n
(oiyxen+i ia(anax Vianni 6ecnna+no. Taioio emennx ne y(anoci (oc+nni n o+nomennxx
c Poccnen n Lenaycim, n cnx:n c nex 6inn nne(eni nn:i (nx nonxion, occnxn n 6enoycon.
Pa:xe nn:onix c6oon o(nnaion y ncex c+oon n coc+annxe+: 1O eno :a o(noia+nym nn:y,
16 eno :a (nyxia+nym n 5O eno :a xnoioia+nym. nx ia(an Lenaycn nn:onie c6oi nne
n coc+annxm+: 5 eno :a o(noia+nym nn:y, 8 eno :a (nyxia+nym n 24 eno :a xnoioia+nym.
Bn:onin c6o ne n:nxae+cx c n+enen Kannnnnia(cion o6nac+n, c nnn n no:ac+e (o 16 ne+
n c+ame 65 ne+ (Lenayci) nnn 7O ne+ (Poccnx), a +aie c ynn+enen (n +ox nncne c neno(ana+enen
ny:on), c+y(en+on n nnexanmnx na yne6y n axiax xe(ynao(noio o6xena, a +aie ynac+nnion
nocne+n+eninix, iyni+ynix, naynno-+exnnnecinx n cno+nnnix xeonnx+nn.
156
,
( ) ,

( 1 2006 .)


30 ,

90
/


180

()
90
90
90
28
30
/





90
90
90
90
90
- 14


(

)





( )













90

,


/


90


90
157

(
)
90


30
90
90


21


90
90


30 ,

- 90


(
)
90
90


90
90
90



/


90
180
90
90
/


90
90
90


90
90
158

90 ,
,


90
90
60
- /


- 180 ,

90 ,

90


90 ,

90
90
21 ,


, ,
, ,
, - ,
,
, ,

/


90
90 ,


90
90


30
/


30 ,

90
90
: ,
.
a
, .

- () ().
. ,
/ 90
.
: (http://www.msz.gov.pl).
159
Ia(ane oc+aninix c+an, nnannymmne ne6inanne 6onee 9O (nen n nnna, enammne
nonynn+i n Honime a6o+y, (onni nxe+i nn:y
1
. 3a nnnx+ne n accxo+enne :axnnennx o ni(ane
aio-nn:i nonicine ioncynic+na n:nxam+ c6o n a:xee 1O eno. C6o :a nnnx+ne n accxo+enne
+an:n+non nn:i coc+annxe+ 1O, 2O nnn 3O eno (n :anncnxoc+n o+ ionnnec+na noe:(on nee:
+en+onm Honimn), a :a nnnx+ne n accxo+enne :axnnennx o ni(ane nn:i na nano ne6inannx,
c6oi coc+annxm+ o+ 3O (o 8O eno (n :anncnxoc+n o+ no(onn+eninoc+n coia (enc+nnx nn:i
n ionnnec+na nse:(on na +en+onm Honimn)
2
. Ko ncex nimena:nannix ocnonnix c6oax cne(ye+
(o6ann+i (ononnn+eninin c6o n a:xee 2O ocnonnon c+anin.
lpa+ae aocyapcms-vneos Esponecxoao coksa u ESU
Ia(ane c+an LC, a +aie Honeinn, Hcnan(nn n nx+enm+enna neeceiam+ iannny Honimn
na ocnonannn (oiyxen+a, no:nonxmmeio one(enn+i n(en+nnnoc+i n ia(anc+no (:aiannnnin
nacno+, nacno+). nna n: i+nx c+an, nnannymmne ne6inanne no(onn+eninoc+im 6onee 3-x
xecxnen, (onni nonynn+i a:emenne na ne6inanne (ni(anaexoe na 5 ne+) nnn a:emenne na
nexennoe ne6inanne. nna c ia(anc+nox c+ani-nnena LC nonynam+ nn( na n+enic+no
ia(annna LC (c6o :a ni(any (oiyxen+a: 3O :n.).
Pemennx no nonocy o ni(ane a:emennx na ne6inanne nnn nn(a na n+enic+no nnnnxae+
noeno(a, n no(nnnennn io+ooio naxo(n+cx xec+o ne(nonaiaexoio ne6inannx ia(annna LC
na +en+onn Honimn.
Pa:emenne na ne6inanne ne(nonaiae+, n+o ia(annn LC naxeenae+cx a6o+a+i, a6o+ae+
nnn naxeenae+cx nec+n nnn ne(e+ na +en+onn Honimn xo:xnc+nennym (ex+eninoc+i n neno(,
nenimammnn 12 xecxnen nnn nxee+ xe(nnnnciym c+axoniy n acnonaiae+ ce(c+naxn, (oc+a+onnixn
na nonnanne 6e: neo6xo(nxoc+n o6amennx :a noxomim n yne(ennx connaninon noxomn
(a6o+ae+, ynn+cx n ny:e, nme+ a6o+y)
3
.
2. Ycnoeun fpypoycfpocfea uuocfpauee
Tpyoycmpocmso apa+a cmpa, e snkuxc vneauu
Esponecxoao coksa
Honicinn a6o+o(a+eni, enammnn nnnx+i na a6o+y nnoc+anna, (onen nonynn+i a:emenne.
Hone(ya nonynennx a:emennx na +y(oyc+onc+no nnoc+anna noxo(n+ n (na i+ana
4
. Ha nenox
i+ane 6y(ymnn a6o+o(a+eni (nnn eio ynonnoxonennin) o6amae+cx n Boeno(cioe ynannenne
(o+nenammee xec+y ne6inannx a6o+o(a+enx) c noci6on ni(a+i ne(nan+eninoe a:emenne,
io+ooe xnnxe+cx (nx nnoc+anna ocnonannex (nx nonynennx nn:i nano na ne6inanne c nanox
____________________
1
Ocnonnix nanonix ai+ox, eiynnymmnx i+n nonoci, xnnxe+cx 3aion o6 nnoc+annax (:.V. o+ 2OO3 i. N 128,
no:. 1175 c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn).
2
Tanq c6oon :a nnex n accxo+enne :axnnennn na nn:i co(en+cx n Pacnoxennn Mnnnc+a nnoc+annix (en
o+ 14 aniyc+a 2OO3 i. no nonocy o ioncynicinx c6oax (:.V. o+ 2OO3 i. N 156, no:.153O, c nocne(ymmnx n:xenennex :.V. o+
2OO6 i. N 63, no:.444).
3
Ho(o6nie nannna ne6inannx ia(an LC n Honime co(en+ 3aion o nnnnnnax n ycnonnxx nse:(a n ne6inannx
ia(an iocy(ac+n-nnenon Lnonencioio com:a n nnenon nx cexen na +en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima (:.V. o+ 2OO2 i.
N 141, no:.118O, c nocne(ymmnxn n:xenennxxn).
4
Hanonax ocnona: 3aion o no((eie +y(oyc+onc+na n nnc+n+y+ax inia +y(a (e(nnin +eic+ :.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 99,
no:.1OO1) n 3aion o6 nnoc+annax (e(nnin +eic+ :.V. o+ 2OO3 i. N 128, no:.1175).
16O
na a6o+y (nn:a D8). B xo(e n+ooio i+ana, nocne nonynennx nnoc+annex nn:i nano na
ne6inanne c nanox na a6o+y, noeno(a ni(ae+ a:emenne na eio +y(oyc+onc+no na +en+onn
Honimn (n+o6i eio nonynn+i, a6o+o(a+eni (onen non:nec+n onna+y n 4on( +y(a n a:xee
xnnnxaninon :aa6o+non nna+i, n 2OO6 i. 899,1O :n.). 3axnnennx o ni(ane a:emennx na
+y(oyc+onc+no nnoc+annen n Honime accxa+nnam+cx (ononino 6ic+o, n +enenne o(noio
xecxna. Hnoc+anny, io+oin nonynnn a:emenne na nonnanne n Honime, ni(ae+cx nn( na
n+enic+no.
Bi(ana ne(nan+eninoio a:emennx n caxoio a:emennx na a6o+y :anncn+ o+ cn+yannn na
xec+nox inie +y(a n o+ inannqniannn nnoc+anna, enammeio nonynn+i a6o+y. J+n
oiannnennx ne nnxenxm+cx i neio+oix iynnax a6o+nnion (i nnenax cexen co+y(nnion
(nnnoxa+nnecinx yne(ennn, nnoc+annax ninycinniax nonicinx xe(nnnncinx ny:on,
ne6inammnx na c+anonie, i nnoc+annax, ne(c+annxmmnx nnoc+annoe ne(nnx+ne na
+en+onn Honimn, nnoc+annax, ninonnxmmnx a6o+y n Honime n axiax xe(ynao(nix
(oionoon n o6nac+n +y(oyc+onc+na).
B neio+oix cnynaxx nnoc+anny xono noynn+i ninonnenne a6o+i 6e: neo6xo(nxoc+n
nonynennx a:emennx na nee
5
. J+o iacae+cx, n nac+noc+n, ynn+enen nnoc+annix x:iion, io+oie
nnexann na ocnonannn xe(ynao(nix coinamennn, noc+oxnnix nnoc+annix ioecnon(en+on,
nnoc+annen, :annxammnx (onnoc+n n nannennxx mn(nnecinx nnn (naxo(xmnxcx n Honime na
ocnonannn nn:i, ecnn nexx nx ne6inannx n Honime, n cnx:n c ninonnennex qyninnn, ne
nenimae+ 3O (nen n ianen(anox io(y), a +aie neno(ana+enen, ynac+nnion noqeccnonaninix
c+anonoi n nnn, ocymec+nnxmmnx n axiax noiaxx LC nnn (yinx xe(ynao(nix noiaxx
ioncan+nni, ion+oninie nnn (yine qyninnn, +e6ymmne oco6on inannqniannn n yxennx. Koxe
i+oio, o+ o6x:annoc+n nonynennx a:emennx na a6o+y 6inn ocno6o(eni ia(ane Vianni,
Poccnn n Lenaycn, neianino nnnx+ie nonicinx a6o+o(a+enex na a6o+y n ceniciox xo:xnc+ne,
o(naio ne (onime nex na +n xecxna n +enenne nonyio(a, nnoc+anni n: c+an, ne nxo(xmnx
n LC/LJH, nanannennie n cnye6nym ioxan(noniy a6o+o(a+enex (nx ninonnennx one(enennon
ycnyin na +en+onn Honimn, a +aie ia(ane Pecny6nnin Tynnn nxec+e c cexixxn, io+oie
nonnam+ n Honime ne xenee nx+n ne+ n neianino a6o+ann n +enenne nocne(nnx ne+iex ne+.
Tpyoycmpocmso nu, snkuxc apa+aauu
aocyapcms-vneos Esponecxoao coksa
u Esponecxoao sxoouuvecxoao npocmpacmsa
Vcnonnx +y(oyc+onc+na ia(an Lnonencioio com:a n Honime (nqqeennnonani n :anncnxoc+n
o+ c+ani noncxo(ennx nnoc+annen. Hannna, (enc+nymmne c 1 xax 2OO4 i. nno(x+ oiannnennx,
xnnxmmnecx :eianinix o+aennex +ex oiannnennn n o6nac+n +y(oyc+onc+na, io+oie
iocy(ac+na-nneni LC nnxenxm+ no o+nomennm i nonicinx ia(anax.
B cnx:n c i+nx ia(ane ncex nonix iocy(ac+n-nnenon LC, a +aie Hnennn, Hnan(nn,
Bennio6n+annn, 4nnnxn(nn, Iennn, Hcnannn, Ho+yiannn n Hcnan(nn xoiy+ cno6o(no
+y(oyc+anna+icx n Honime. Hnnnnn cno6o(noio (oc+yna i nonicioxy iniy +y(a neox+no
6y(e+ ncioe nnxenen +aie n o+nomennn ia(an H+annn
6
. a+nane, ionnan(ni n noneni
____________________
5
Pacnoxenne Mnnnc+a +y(a n connaninon nonn+nin o+ 3O aniyc+a 2OO6 i. no nonocy o ninonnennn a6o+i
nnoc+annaxn 6e: neo6xo(nxoc+n nonynennx a:emennx na a6o+y (:.V. o+ 2OO6 i. N 156, no:.1116) +onno one(enxe+, i+o,
n iainx cn+yannxx n nn iainx ycnonnxx xoe+ accnn+ina+i na nonynenne a6o+i n Honime.
6
B o+ne+ na emenne n+anixncioio nann+enic+na o+ nmnx 2OO6 io(a o cnx+nn nexennix oiannnennn n (oc+yne ia(an
8 nonix c+an-nnenon (+.e. Hexnn, Jc+onnn, n+ni, a+nnn, Honimn, Cnonennn, Cnonainn n Beninn) na n+anixncinn inoi
+y(a, io+ooe +e6ye+ eme qoxaninoio no(+ne(ennx n qoxe acnoxennx Cone+a xnnnc+on H+anixncion
Pecny6nnin.
161
(onni nonyna+i a:emennx na a6o+y, no no ynomennon none(ye. Ty(oyc+onc+no ia(an
Leniinn, 4annnn, micex6yia n nx+enm+enna noncxo(n+ no c+aix (iai (o nc+ynnennx
Honimn n LC) nannnax (+e6ye+cx a:emenne na a6o+y). Caxie ec+ine oiannnennx 6inn
nnxeneni n o+nomennn nexnen n anc+nnnen, enammnx nonynn+i a6o+y n Honime
7
.
Hnoc+anni, nxemmne n Honime noc+oxnnoe xec+o n+enic+na nnn ne6inammne :(eci nexenno,
no 6onee nex 183 (nx n io(y, no(nea+ +ai na:inaexon nonnon nanoionon o6x:annoc+n, +.e. o6x:ani
ynnannna+i nanoin o+ ncex cnonx (oxo(on, ne:anncnxo o+ xec+a naxo(ennx nc+onnnia i+nx
(oxo(on
8
. Bo n:6eanne (nonnoio nanoioo6noennx Honima :ainmnnna coo+ne+c+nymmne
coinamennx co xnoinxn iocy(ac+naxn. Hnoc+anni, ne nxemmne n Honime noc+oxnnoio xec+a
n+enic+na nnn ne6inammne :(eci nexenno, no ne 6onee 183 (nen n io(y, no(nea+ +ai
na:inaexon oiannnennon nanoionon o6x:annoc+n, +.e. ynnannnam+ nanoin +oniio o+ (oxo(on,
nonynennix na +en+onn Honimn.
3. Keapfupu
Hnoc+anni, naxo(xmnecx n Honime, xoiy+ (ononino neiio cnx+i ne(nnnxoc+i (ina+ny,
(ox), 6e: neo6xo(nxoc+n nonynennx coo+ne+c+nymmeio a:emennx. Pa:emenne ne +e6ye+cx +aie
n cnynae nno6e+ennx o+(eninon ina+ni. B cnom onee(i, +aioio o(a a:emenne +e6ye+cx nn
nno6e+ennn nana co6c+nennoc+n nnn nana nennoio noni:onannx ne(nnnxoc+im. 3axnnenne
(nxec+e c nnnoennxxn) o ni(ane a:emennx na nno6e+enne nnoc+annex ne(nnnxoc+n
cne(ye+ no(ana+i n ena+axen+ a:emennn n ionneccnn Mnnnc+ec+na nny+ennnx (en
n a(xnnnc+annn
9
. B cnynae iynnn :exnn (enc+nym+ (yine nannna (cx. inana V!!, nyni+ 6).
Hn aen(e n iynne ne(nnnxoc+n xono nocnoni:ona+icx ycnyiaxn xnoionncnennix aien+c+n,
io+oie acnonaiam+ mnoinx ni6oox ina+n n (oxon n ocymec+nnxm+ noce(nnnec+no
n none(ennn c(enoi.
4. 3ppaeooxpaueuue
Ka(in ia(annn Honimn, nxemmnn xe(nnnnciym c+axoniy, nxee+ nano na 6ecnna+noe
noni:onanne ycnyiaxn iocy(ac+nennoio :(anooxanennx n na caxoc+ox+eninin ni6o +ai
na:inaexoio nana nenoio ion+ai+a
1O
.
Hnoc+anni, nxemmne nn:y na ne6inanne c nanox na +y(oyc+onc+no, noc+oxnnin nnn
nexennin nn( na n+enic+no, xoiy+ noni:ona+icx ycnyiaxn n axiax iocy(ac+nennoio
:(anooxanennx, ecnn na nnx oqoxnena o6x:a+eninax c+axonia n ynnannnam+cx n:noci.
Hnoc+anni xoiy+ +aie :ac+axona+icx na (o6ononinix nananax. Hano na xe(nnnncioe
____________________
7
Ho(o6nax nnqoxannx na +exy oiannnennn nn +y(oyc+onc+ne ia(an Anc+nn n Iexannn n Honime naxo(n+cx
n Pacnoxennn Mnnnc+a iionoxnin n +y(a o+ 26 xax 2OO4 io(a no nonocax oiannnennn n o6nac+n +y(oyc+onc+na
nnoc+annen na +en+onn Pecny6nnin Honima (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 123, no:. 1293).
8
O6sxnnenne Mnnnc+a qnnancon o+ 31 xnnax 2OOO io(a o ny6nniannn e(nnoio +eic+a 3aiona o no(oxo(nox nanoie
c qn:nnecinx nnn (:.V. o+ 2OOO i. N 14, no:. 176).
9
nx ia(an nnn ne(nnx+nn iocy(ac+n-nnenon LC a:emennx ne +e6ye+cx, :a ncinmnennex nno6e+ennx
cenicioxo:xnc+nennon ne(nnnxoc+n (n +enenne 12 ne+ c xoxen+a nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC) n +ai na:inaexix n+oix (oxon
(n +enenne 5 ne+ c xoxen+a nc+ynnennx Honimn n LC).
1O
3aion o6 ycnyiax cnc+exi :(anooxanennx, qnnancnyexix n: ny6nnnnix ce(c+n (:.V. o+ 2OO4 i. N 21O, no:. 2135).
162
c+axonanne n noni:onanne ycnyiaxn iocy(ac+nennoio :(anooxanennx nxem+ +aie nnoc+anni
c+y(en+i, o6ynammnecx n Honime.
Ipaaaue c1pau-uueuon EC u E3H (a +aie nneni nx cexen), io+oie oxnaneni n cnoen c+ane
nceo6men cnc+exon :(anooxanennx, xoiy+ noni:ona+icx xe(nnnncion noxomim na +en+onn
Honimn (+aie n +ox cnynae, ecnn naxo(x+cx n Honime n +ync+nnecinx nenxx). B:anxoacne+ :a
oia:annie ycnyin non:no(n+cx xe(y coo+ne+c+nymmnxn yne(ennxxn cnc+exi :(anooxanennx.
Hannen+ (onen nxe+i nn ce6e Lnonenciym ia+y xe(nnnncioio c+axonannx nnn :axenxmmnn
ee ce+nqnia+. O6a (oiyxen+a (am+ nano na 6ecnna+noe noni:onanne ycnyiaxn (ncinmnn+enino
n yne(ennxx, nxemmnx (oiono c Hannonaninix qon(ox :(anooxanennx) na 6a:onox yonne
xe(nnnncioio o6cnynnannx n y :y6noio nana. B cnynae oc+on neo6xo(nxoc+n, i+n nnna xoiy+
nanann+icx nenoce(c+nenno i cnennannc+y, n 6oninnny, nnn nocnoni:ona+icx ycnyiaxn cioon
noxomn n xe(nnnncioio +ancno+a na +en+onn Honimn.
Ia(ane c+an-nnenon LC, ne oxnanennie cnc+exon :(anooxanennx n cnoen c+ane, xoiy+
noni:ona+icx xe(nnnncinxn ycnyiaxn n Honime nn ycnonnn, ecnn onn oqoxx+ (o6ononinym
xe(nnnnciym c+axoniy n nxem+ xec+o noc+oxnnoio nonnannx na +en+onn Honimn. oiono
o (o6ononinox xe(nnnnciox c+axonannn c Hannonaninix qon(ox :(anooxanennx xoiy+
:ainmnn+i nnoc+anni, ne6inammne n Honime na ocnonannn nn:i c nanox na +y(oyc+onc+no,
nxemmne nn( na n+enic+no nnn nexennoe a:emenne na ne6inanne, n cnynae, ecnn y nnx ne+
o6x:a+eninon xe(nnnncion c+axonin (o6x:a+eninoe c+axonanne xono nonynn+i, nannxe, nn
:ainmnennn +y(onoio (oionoa).
Oc+aninie nnoc+anni ne xoiy+ 6ecnna+no noni:ona+icx ycnyiaxn iocy(ac+nennoio
:(anooxanennx :a ncinmnennex cnynaen, ioi(a :ainmnennie xe(y Honimen n (yinxn c+anaxn
xe(ynao(nie (oionoi ne(ycxa+nnam+ +aiym no:xonoc+i
11
. Ka(in n: (oionoon
one(enxe+, ioxy n n iaiox cnynae, a +aie, n iaiox o6sexe nonoeni 6ecnna+nie xe(nnnncine
ycnyin. Vcnyiaxn xoiy+ 6i+i oxnaneni:
nnna, :ac+axonannie n c+ane, c io+oon 6ino no(nncano coo+ne+c+nymmee coinamenne
(nannxe, n Poccnn n c+anax 6inmen Kiocnannn), ne:anncnxo o+ nenn nn:n+a;
a6o+nnin, ioxan(nonannie na a6o+y :a iannny nnn a6o+ammne n nniannnnon :one;
nce ia(ane (annon c+ani.
Me(nnnncine ycnyin oia:inam+cx nn nannnnn coo+ne+c+nymmeio (oiyxen+a (nannxe,
nacno+a, cnanin o xe(nnnnciox c+axonannn nnn coo+ne+c+nymmeio 6nania).
B :anncnxoc+n o+ nn(a coinamennx (ecnn +aioe cymec+nye+ c (annix iocy(ac+nox) o6sex ycnyi
xoe+ oxna+ina+i iai ne(oc+annenne +oniio neo+nonon xe(nnnncion noxomn, +ai n nm6ym
xe(nnnnciym noxomi. Pacxo(i na oia:anne xe(nnnncinx ycnyi n axiax xe(ynao(noio
coinamennx name nceio nece+ iocy(ac+nennin 6m(e+. Pacne+ c+onxoc+n oia:annix nnoc+annax
xe(nnnncinx ycnyi non:no(n+ Lmo no xe(ynao(nix acne+ax
12
.
Hnoc+anni, naxo(xmnecx na +en+onn Honimn, io+oie ne oxnaneni nceo6mnx xe(nnnncinx
c+axonannex n ne xnnxm+cx ia(anaxn iocy(ac+n, c io+oixn Honima :ainmnnna coo+ne+c+nymmne
xe(ynao(nie coinamennx, xoiy+:
nocnoni:ona+icx xoomo a:nn+on (oco6enno n 6onimnx ioo(ax) ce+im nac+nix n ioonea-
+nnnix xe(nnnncinx yne(ennn, oia:inammnx nonnon o6sex xe(nnnncinx ycnyi;
:ainmnn+i (oiono co c+axonon ioxnannen (nannxe, c Bceo6mnx ynannennex c+axonannx
PZ\), io+oin iaan+nye+ no:na+ acxo(on na nenenne nn necnac+nix cnynaxx nnn
ninna+y c+axonoio o6ecnenennx nn (yinx c+axonix cnynaxx.
____________________
11
Taioio o(a (oionoi ye no(nncani c An6annen, Lonianen, Poccnen, Locnnen n Ieneionnnon, Maie(onnen,
Xona+nen, Ce6nen n Henoionen.
12
Cx. no(o6nee: lll://www.Lim.gov.l
163
5. Hauonee nonynnpuue uuocfpauuue nsuku
Caxix nonynxnix nnoc+annix x:iiox n Honime xnnxe+cx aninnncinn x:ii. O+nocn+enino
nonynxnixn xnnxm+cx +aie nexeninn n yccinn, ee xono nc+e+n+i nm(en, ionoxmnx na
qanny:ciox, ncnanciox nnn n+anixnciox x:iiax. Hnoc+annixn x:iiaxn nna(em+ name nceio
n+enn iynnix ioo(on, xono(ei, a +aie +e, i+o o6mae+cx c nnoc+annaxn no o(y cnonx
noqeccnonaninix :anx+nn.
B +enenne nocne(nnx ne+ n Honime na6nm(ae+cx cnc+exa+nnecinn oc+ nncna nm(en, nna(emmnx
nnoc+annixn x:iiaxn.
6. Bankfa
enc+nymmnx n Honime nna+enix ce(c+nox xnnxe+cx nonicinn :no+in, io+oin (enn+cx na
1OO iomen. O6xen nanm+i na nonicine :no+ie xono non:nec+n n nonicinx 6aniax, iaccax
ioc+nnnn, a +aie n nyni+ax o6xena nanm+. O(nn (onna CHA c+on+ oiono 3 :no+ix 1O iomen,
o(nn eno oiono 4 :no+ix (no iycy :a nmni 2OO6 i.).
B nac+oxmee nexx n nannnnox o6oo+e naxo(x+cx cne(ymmne (enenie :nain:
6anino+i (oc+onnc+nox: 1O :n., 2O :n., 5O :n., 1OO :n. n 2OO :n.;
xone+i (oc+onnc+nox: 1 i., 2 i., 5 i., 1O i., 2O i., 5O i., 1 :n., 2 :n. n 5 :n.
7. Tpaucnopf
Me(y iynnenmnxn ioo(axn Honimn nxee+cx no:(ymnoe coo6menne, io+ooe o6cnynnae+
nonicinn annaneeno:nni Honicine annannnnn OT (PII IOT). Ha noniciox annannonnox
inie nannnam+ a6o+a+i n +ai na:inaexie (emenie neeno:nnin, io+oie ne(naiam+ neeno:in
na o+enec+nennix n :ay6enix nnnnxx.
B 6onimnnc+no ioo(on Honimn xono (oexa+i no ene:non (ooie, io+oax o6cnynnae+cx
ne(nnx+nex Honicine iocy(ac+nennie ene:nie (ooin PKP. Oco6enno nno+nax
ene:no(oonax ce+i naxo(n+cx na mie n :ana(e c+ani. Pacnncanne (nnennx noe:(on xono
nonen+i (a +aie :a6onnona+i xec+a nnn iynn+i 6nne+ na xamy+ no +en+onn Honimn)
na Hn+ene+ can+e PKP: www.I.l
B ia(ox ioo(e cymec+nye+ o6mec+nennin +ancno+: an+o6yci, +axnan (n iynnix ioo(ax),
a +aie xe+o (+oniio n Bamane). Lnne+i, (ammne nano na noe:( ioo(cinx +ancno+ox,
xono iynn+i n ia:e+nix inociax, na c+annnxx xe+o, nnoi(a +aie y no(n+enen. nx +ync+on
niio(ni cy+onnie n ne(eninie noe:(nie 6nne+i. B ia(ox ioo(e (enc+nye+ cnox cnc+exa onna+
:a noni:onanne o6mec+nennix +ancno+ox. Lnne+i xoiy+ 6i+i connixn ((enc+nym+ n +enenne
one(enennoio nexenn), nnn a:onixn ((enc+nym+ na o(nn noe:( ne:anncnxo o+ no+xennoc+n
xamy+a). Heio+oie noni:ona+enn o6mec+nennoio +ancno+a nxem+ niio+i. Kynnennin 6nne+
(enc+nn+enen +oniio n (annox ioo(e. Jeni 6nne+on n a:nix ioo(ax (nqqeennnonani
(ione6nm+cx n ne(enax o+ 1,7O (o 3 :no+ix :a noe:().
V(o6nix ce(c+nox +ancno+a xnnxe+cx +aicn, io+ooe xono :aia:a+i no +eneqony nnn n:x+i
na c+oxnie. Honi:onanne xamnnaxn, nnna(neamnxn i 6onee iynnix ionoannxx, xnnxe+cx,
iai nannno, 6onee (emenix n 6e:onacnix. Mono +aie n:x+i an+oxo6nni nanoia+ n o(non n:
xnoionncnennix qnx, oia:inammen ycnyin Rent a car. Hyni+i o6cnynnannx innen+a
acnonoeni n aiono+ax, n enennnxx 6onimnx ioc+nnnn n neio+oix 6mo ny+emec+nnn.
164
Bo(n+enicine nana, ni(annie n c+anax-nnenax Lnonencioio com:a, (enc+nn+enini +aie
n n Honime, a coi nx (enc+nnx :anncn+ o+ (a+i, yia:annon n (oiyxen+e (ne+ neo6xo(nxoc+n
o6xennna+i nx na nonicinn o6a:en (o nc+enennx i+oio coia, :a ncinmnennex cnynax y+en
(oiyxen+a). Honi:yxci an+oxo6nnex na +en+onn Honimn, no(n+eni o6x:an nxe+i nn ce6e
einc+annonnin (oiyxen+ na xamnny n nonnc o6x:a+eninoio c+axonannx ia(ancion
o+ne+c+nennoc+n (OC). B Honime oiannnenne ciooc+n n nacenennix nyni+ax (nx neiionix
an+oxo6nnen coc+annxe+ 5O ix/nac, :a nx ne(enaxn 9O ix/nac, a na an+oc+a(ax 13O ix/nac.
Maicnxaninax (onyc+nxax ciooc+i +ancno+noio ce(c+na c nnnenox coc+annxe+ 7O ix/nac,
a na an+oc+a(ax n ciooc+nix (ooiax 8O ix/nac.
B +enenne 6nnanmnx ne+ nnannye+cx acmnn+i ce+i an+oc+a(, n+o :nann+enino o6neinn+
n ycion+ an+oxo6nninoe coo6menne n Honime.
8. Censu
B Honime +eneqonnie ycnyin oia:inae+ ne(e nceio TeleIomuniIacja PolsIa S.A. (TP S.A.),
no xe(yioo(nmm n xe(ynao(nym cnx:i ne(oc+annxm+ n (yine onea+oi: (Tele 2, elia
n x( (yinx). Ce+i co+onon cnx:n oxna+inae+ non+n ncm +en+onm c+ani. O6me(oc+ynnixn
+eneqonaxn-an+oxa+axn xono noni:ona+icx, ncnoni:yx +eneqonnie ia+onin, io+oie no(am+cx
na non+e n n ia:e+nix inociax. B Honime ne+ +eneqonon-an+oxa+on, ncnoni:ymmnx xone+i.
H+o6i cnx:a+icx c a6onen+ox n: (yioio ioo(a, na(o na6a+i nnqy O, a :a+ex io( onea+oa,
io( an+oxa+nnecion cnx:n n noxe a6onen+a (nannxe O (1O11) 99 12 34 567). Bi6o (annoio io(a
onea+oa o:nanae+ ni6o +eneioxxynniannonnon ce+n qnxi, ycnyiaxn io+oon xi xo+nx
nocnoni:ona+icx. Lcnn nn xe(yioo(nen cnx:n io( ne 6y(e+ na6an, +o no yxonnannm i+o
o:nanae+ ni6o TeleIomuniIacja PolsIa S.A. n ianec+ne onea+oa cnx:n. Bny+nioo(cine
coe(nnennx n no(annxmmex 6onimnnc+ne cnynaen ocymec+nnxm+cx c noxomim TP SA.
Cne(ye+ noxnn+i, n+o n neio+oix cnynaxx, n+o6i nocnoni:ona+icx ycnyiaxn nnoio onea+oa
(ne TP SA), cne(ye+ :ainmnn+i c nnx o+(eninin (oiono na oia:anne +eneioxxynniannonnix ycnyi.
Ko( an+oxa+nnecion cnx:n c Honimen OO48
Ko(i an+oxa+nnecion cnx:n c noeno(cinxn ioo(axn:
Bamana (Ma:onenioe noeno(c+no): O-22
Lenoc+oi (Ho(nxccioe noeno(c+no): O-85
Li(iom (Kyxncio-Hoxocioe noeno(c+no): O-52
I(anici (Hoxocioe noeno(c+no): O-58
Ioyn-Beniiononicin (m6ymcioe noeno(c+no): O-95
Ka+onnne (Cnne:cioe noeno(c+no): O-32
Kenine (Cnen+oimncioe noeno(c+no): O-41
Kaion (Manononicioe noeno(c+no): O-12
m6nnn (m6nnncioe noeno(c+no): O-81
o(:i (o(:nncioe noeno(c+no): O-42
Onim+in (Baxnno-Ma:ycioe noeno(c+no): O-89
Onone (Ononicioe noeno(c+no): O-77
Ho:nani (Benniononicioe noeno(c+no): O-61
Xemyn (Ho(iana+cioe noeno(c+no): O-17
He+nn (3ana(nonoxocioe noeno(c+no): O-91
Bonnan (Hnnecnne:cioe noeno(c+no): O-71
165
9. Hufepuef
Hn+ene+ no nce 6onimen c+enenn ninonnxe+ ioxxynniannonnie, nnqoxannonnie n o6a:o-
na+eninie qyninnn.
B 2OO5 i. (onx (oxamnnx xo:xnc+n, ocnamennix ioxnim+eaxn, nxemmnx (oc+yn i nn+ene+y,
a +aie +ainx, n io+oix no iannen xee o(no nnno nxee+ conexennin co+onin +eneqon,
no:nonxmmnn noni:ona+icx nn+ene+ox, nonicnnaci (o 3O (26 n 2OO4 i.). Honen+ nonicinx
ne(nnx+nn, noni:ymmnxcx ioxnim+eaxn n 2OO5 i. coc+annn 93, a ne(nnx+nn nxemmnx (oc+yn
i nn+ene+y 87. Lonimnnc+no qnx nxee+ n nn+ene+e cnon can+. Ho cannennm c (yinxn
enonencinxn c+anaxn nn+ene+ nce eme c+on+ (ononino (ooio, xo+x ac+ymax ioniyennnx
xe(y noc+anmniaxn ycnyi n ce+n (onna n 6nnanmee nexx nnnec+n i cnnennm nen.
Bo ncen c+ane cymec+nye+ ce+i Hn+ene+-iaqe, (ammnx no:xonoc+i noni:ona+icx nn+ene+ox,
nac+o n nm6oe nexx cy+oi.
BAXHLL APLCA B HHTLPHLTL
Mnnnc+ec+no nnoc+annix (en www.msz.gov.l
Mnnnc+ec+no qnnancon www.ml.gov.l
Mnnnc+ec+no nny+ennnx (en n a(xnnnc+annn www.mswia.gov.l
Mnnnc+ec+no iionoxnin n +y(a www.mg.gov.l
Cenx www.sejm.gov.l
Cena+ www.senal.gov.l
Vnannenne ioxn+e+a enonencion nn+eiannn www.uIie.gov.l
Hannonaninin nonicinn 6ani www.nL.l
Kannenxnx He:n(en+a www.iezydenl.l
Kannenxnx He(ce(a+enx Cone+a Mnnnc+on www.Iim.gov.l
Honicioe aien+c+no nena+n www.a.l
Inannoe c+a+nc+nnecioe ynannenne www.slal.gov.l
Honicioe aien+c+no a:nn+nx ne(nnnnxa+enic+na www.ai.gov.l
Honicioe aien+c+no nnqoxannn n nnoc+annix nnnec+nnnn www.aiz.gov.l
Lonimnnc+no n: nimena:nannix nn+ene+-cenncon co(en+ nnqoxannm na noniciox n na
aninnnciox x:iiax.
10. Bpeun paofu ypepeuu, aukoe u uarasuuoe
Iocy(ac+nennie n a(xnnnc+a+nnnie yne(ennx n Honime a6o+am+ c none(eninnia no
nx+nnny c 8.OO (o 16.OO, a nnoi(a n no cy66o+ax. Hoximnennie ne(nnx+nx a6o+am+ nac+o n (ne
cxeni c 6.OO (o 14.OO n c 14.OO (o 22.OO.
Lanin o+ii+i c none(eninnia no nx+nnny, nenxymec+nenno c 8.OO (o 18.OO, a nnoi(a no
cy66o+ax c 9.OO (o 13.OO. O(naio cne(ye+ nxe+i n nn(y, n+o neio+oie 6anin, oco6enno n xanix
ioo(ax, no cy66o+ax ne a6o+am+, a n oc+aninie (nn xoiy+ :aiina+icx anime.
166
Ho(ononic+nennie xaia:nni a6o+am+ c 7.OO (o 19.OO, cynexaie+i (o 6onee no:(neio nexenn,
nnoi(a (o 22.OO. Cymec+nym+ +aie +ai na:inaexie nonnie xaia:nni, io+oie o+ii+i iyinie
cy+in. Heio+oie no(ononic+nennie xaia:nni n cynexaie+i o+ii+i +aie no nociecenixx.
An+ein, n io+oix no(am+cx neiac+na n qaxanen+nnecine no(yi+i, name nceio o+ii+i
c 8.OO (o 2O.OO , no n ia(ox ioo(e no iannen xee o(na n: nnx (eyn+ nonim. Lonimax nac+i
neiac+n no(ae+cx no enen+ax.
Pa6o+nnin nac+nix ne(nnx+nn name nceio nannnam+ a6o+y n 8.OO nnn 9.OO. B Bamane
n n (yinx ioo(ax n iynnix qnxax, oco6enno nnoc+annix, nce name nno(n+cx ioo+inn neein
na nann. Bce 6onee nonynxnix c+anonn+cx o6cy(enne (enonix nonocon no nexx nanna nnn no
n+oon nononnne (nx n ec+oanax n iaqe.
11. Focfuuuu u nufauue
B Honime 6ic+o ac+e+ ce+i ioc+nnnn, ec+oanon, 6aon, iaqe n o(nonexenno acmnxe+cx
o6sex n nonimae+cx ianec+no oia:inaexix nxn ycnyi. B a:nix einonax c+ani, inannix
o6a:ox n 6onimnx ioo(ax, no:nnina ce+i ioc+nnnn nicoioio c+an(a+a, ne(na:nanennix,
ne(e nceio, (nx :ay6enix ioc+en, nocemammnx Honimy n (enonix nnn +ync+nnecinx nenxx.
Kanec+no oia:inaexix ycnyi naxo(n+cx na yonne, 6nn:iox i xnonix c+an(a+ax. 3nann+eninax
nac+i ioc+nnnn o6ecnennnae+ roon service, nanennie ycnyin, noia+ an+oxo6nnen, acnonaiae+
cno+nnno-eieannonnix o6oy(onannex n +.(. C+onxoc+i noxea n ioc+nnnne :anncn+ o+ ee
ia+eionn, a +aie ioo(a, n io+oox ona naxo(n+cx.
3a nocne(nne io(i noxnnnoci 6onimoe nncno nac+nix nancnona+on, acnonoennix, inannix
o6a:ox, n(oni n(ymnx nee: Honimy +ancno+nix xainc+anen. J+n nancnona+i nxem+
nn6nn:n+enino +o+ e c+an(a+ n oia:inam+ ycnyin n +ox e o6sexe, n+o n ioc+nnnni.
Cymec+nymmax ce+i ec+oanon, 6aon n iaqe ne(naiae+ a:noo6a:nie nannonaninie 6nm(a
xnoinx c+an xna n, ne(e nceio, nn+a+eninie n niycnie 6nm(a nonicion iyxnn. Oco6ennoio
nnnxannx :acnynnam+ xxcnie 6nm(a (noniciax cnennaninoc+i i+o o+nnnno nnio+onnennax
(nni, y+ia nnn e6imin c iannox, ne(e nceio ia+oqeninix). H: cynon nonxin ne(nonn+am+
iynnin 6ynion n incnie cyni, +.e. 6om, yei cyn na xynnon :ainacie, mn. Mxco nac+o
:axenxe+cx i6on (ne(e nceio qoenim n nnnex). Honiciax iyxnx cnann+cx oneni niycnixn
nexxcnixn 6nm(axn, n +.n. ncxioio o(a ianymiaxn cna(inxn c xio(axn n oc+ixn c ianyc+on
n +nooiox, a +aie ona(ixxn n 6nnnnniaxn.
O(nnx n: caxix nm6nxix 6nm( n n +o e nexx cnennaninoc+im nonicion iyxnn xnnxe+cx 6nioc:
+ymenax 6enoionannax n inamenax ianyc+a c necioniinxn co+axn xxca n c 6onimnx ionnnec+nox
(o6anoi (oco6enno in6on) n cnennn.
Cne(ye+ +aie o+xe+n+i, n+o noniciax iyxnx nxee+ xnoio einonaninix o+nnnnn. Ha :ana(e
omymae+cx nnnxnne nexenion iyxnn, na noc+oie yccion.
Pec+oani n Honime acnonaiam+ 6oia+ix xenm n: n+anixncion, qanny:cion n in+ancion iyxnn.
B 6onimnnc+ne ec+oanon nicmeio a:x(a, iai nannno, 6e: no6nex xono onna+n+i :aia:
ie(n+nixn ia+oniaxn. B 6aax, na6ax nnn ec+oanax 6onee nn:ioio inacca nnoi(a i+o
neno:xono. Oqnnnan+y nnnx+o (ana+i naenie n a:xee 1O o+ yia:annon n cne+e cyxxi.
12. Bosuouocfu npoeepeuun ceoopuoro epeueuu
Cno6o(noe nexx c+on+ nocnx+n+i ocxo+y (oc+onnxena+eninoc+en. Inannixn xec+axn
nanoxnnnec+na nnoc+annix +ync+on n Honime xnnxm+cx iynnenmne ioo(a: Bamana, Kaion,
167
Bonnan, I(anici, Ho:nani. Onn nn+xinnam+ a:noo6a:nex axn+ei+yi, nn+eecnixn
naxx+nniaxn c+anni, iacnnix acnonoennex. Cne(ye+, o(naio, noxnn+i, n+o n (yine ioo(a,
noxenime, +aie :acnynnam+ nnnxannx. Hac+o i+o onaona+eninie xec+a c +nnnnnon nonicion
axn+ei+yon n xnoionncnennixn naxx+nniaxn 6oia+on nonicion nc+onn.
B Honime nennionennax nno(a. Oco6enno iacnnie xec+a naxo(x+cx n o:enix iaxx,
nannxe n Ma:yciox iae. H+o6i onenn+i :(emnne o:ea n ein, nynme nceio nee(nnia+icx no
nnx na naycnon no(ie nnn 6an(aie. 3acnynnae+ nnnxannx n nonicioe no6eeie Lan+nncioio
xox c necnanixn nnxaxn, na io+oix nce eme xono nan+n xn+ai iaxeni, o+nnnammnncx
ne +oniio iaco+on, no n nene6nixn cnonc+naxn.
m6n+enn io +aie ne 6y(y+ a:onaonani. H caxie nicoine n Honime ioi Ta+i, n 6onee
nn:ine Cy(e+i n Lecin(i, nn+xinnam+ +ync+on nennionennixn nen:aaxn n 6oia+c+nox
nno(i.
O 6oia+c+ne nno(i c+ani cnn(e+enic+nye+, n nac+noc+n, cymec+nonanne n Honime (na(na+n
+ex Hannonaninix naion, co:(annix n xec+ax c a:noo6a:non n nac+o ynnianinon qnoon
n qaynon.
B Honime xono nn+eecno nonec+n nexx, :annxaxci cno+ox. nx nenocnne(nc+on iai
n ioo(ax, +ai n :a nx ne(enaxn, nonoeni nenocnne(nie +acci, io+oix c+anonn+cx nce 6onime.
Ha cno+nnnix nnoma(iax, n 6onimnx cno+nnnix :anax n na io+ax xono :annxa+icx
nai+nnecin ncexn nn(axn cno+a.
Peioxen(yex nocnoni:ona+icx +aie 6oia+on iyni+ynon noiaxxon. B i+ox nnane oco6enno
xnoio xoe+ ne(non+i Bamana. 3(eci naxo(x+cx neiacnie (axa+nnecine +ea+i, n:nec+en
cnonx 6oia+ix ene+yaox Tea+ onei n 6ane+a.
3acnynnam+ nnnxannx n xy:en. Han6onee n:nec+nie n: nnx naxo(x+cx n Bamane n Kaione.
B nnx co6ani 6oia+ie ionneinnn ni(ammnxcx non:ne(ennn nonicinx n :ay6enix xy(onnion.
B innnix xaia:nnax (oc+ynni neiacno n:(annie ny+eno(n+enn, n +ox nncne na nnoc+annix
x:iiax. B nnx co(en+cx no(o6nax nnqoxannx o no:xonoc+xx none(ennx cno6o(noio nexenn
n caxix nn+eecnix ioo(ax n einonax Honimn.
Mnoionncnennie 6mo ny+emec+nnn oia:inam+ ycnyin no 6onnonannm xec+ n ioc+nnnnax,
noiynie 6nne+on, o6ecnennnam+ in(axn n neeno(nniaxn, ne(naiam+ noia+ an+oxo6nnen, o6xen
nanm+i n +.n.
13. Epuuuu usuepeuun, reorpaqueckoe epeun,
uanpneuue e snekfpocefu
Euum usuepeu
enc+nye+ (ecx+nnnax cnc+exa xe, onnammaxcx na Me(ynao(nym cnc+exy CH (Sysleme
!nleinalional).
leoapaquvecxoe speu
Honima acnonoena n naconox noxce nen+anino-enonencioio nexenn (connennoe nexx
xen(nana 15L). C ionna xa+a (o ionna oi+x6x nno(n+cx noc+onno-enonencioe nexx
(xen(nana 3OL).
168
Hanp+eue s snexmpocemu
Jnei+nnecioe nanxenne n Honime coc+annxe+ 23O B+. Hcnoni:ym+cx +aine e m+encenn, iai
n n 6onimnnc+ne enonencinx c+an. Ce(nxx nac+o+a +oia 5O In.
14. Rouou e skcfpeuuux cnyanx
B iic+ennix cnynaxx cne(ye+ noni:ona+icx cne(ymmnxn noxeaxn +eneqonon:
Heo+nonax xe(nnnnciax noxomi: 999
Hoanax oxana: 998
Honnnnx: 997
Ia:onax anannnax cny6a: 992
Teneqon iic+ennoio ni:ona c xo6nninix annaa+on: 112
15. Focypapcfeeuuue u penuruosuue npaspuuku
Banenmne iocy(ac+nennie n ennino:nie na:(nnin n Honime:
Honin Io( 1 xnnax
Hacxa necnon, coinacno ia+onnnecioxy ianen(am (KK)
Ha:(nni +y(a 1 xax
Ha:(nni Konc+n+ynnn 3 Max 3 xax
Ha:(nni Tena Iocno(nx n nmne, coinacno KK (ne+nei)
Ha:(nni Bo:necennx Hecnx+on eni Mann 15 aniyc+a
Ha:(nni Bcex Cnx+ix 1 nox6x
Hannonaninin na:(nni He:anncnxoc+n 11 nox6x
Po(ec+no Xnc+ono 25-26 (eia6x.
Bce nimeyia:annie na:(nnnnie (nn xnnxm+cx no :aiony cno6o(nixn o+ a6o+i (nea6onnxn).
169
1998-2005 .
( %)
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005











-

(e)
(e)




-
-

(w %)
,

( . 1 )

4,8

4,8

14,2


5,9

3,5

11,0
9,4
14,6

1,9


11,8

8,6
10,4


3,4937

4,1

5,2

6,8


-5,2

3,6

9,4
2,0
4,4

-1,0


7,3

9,8
13,1


3,9675

4,0

2,6

2,7


-5,6

6,8

1,4
25,3
10,8

-3,3


10,1

8,5
15,1


4,3464

1,0

2,0

-8,8


5,8

0,6

-11,7
11,8
3,2

-3,3


5,5

3,6
19,4


4,0939

1,4

3,3

-5,8


-1,9

1,4

-4,1
8,3
7,3

-4,4


1,9

0,8
20,0


4,0795

3,8

3,1

-0,2


-0,8

8,1

1,6
18,7
8,2

-3,8


0,8

1,7
20,0


3,8889

5,3

4,3

6,4


7,5

12,6

4,7
18,2
17,3

-0,9


3,5

2,6
19,0


3,6540

3,4

2,0

6,5


-2,1

3,8

5,0
10,8
4,6

1,9


2,1

0,5
17,6


3,2348
: (GUS).
17O
2003-2005 .
2003 2004 2005
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
(. )
( . .)

( )
209,6
5,5
136,3
38,7
68,0
53,6
4.724,0

602,1
242,,3
6,3
154,4
44,2
88,2
73,8
4.684,0

667,4
303,2
7,9
187,6
55,1
100,9
89,3
4.773,0

777,7
: (GUS).





2005 .

. .


%
. .


%
. .

89 378,1 100,0 101 538,8 100,0 -12 160,7





74 746,6
69 013,9
5 688,1

8 943,4
83,6
77,2
6,4

10,0
74 476,9
66 595,5
15 338,7

11 723,2
73,3
65,6
15,1

11,6
269,7
2 418,4
-9 650,6

-2 779,8










25 224,7
3 960,5
5 482,8
5 558,5
4 995,6
4 076,9
3 721,4
590,6
2 665,2
2 749,8
28,2
4,4
6,1
6,2
5,6
4,6
4,2
0,7
3,0
3,1
25 053,4
8 985,5
7 181,2
6 094,7
3 143,4
3 633,3
3 474,0
5 496,6
2 670,4
2 327,2
24,7
8,8
7,1
6,0
3,1
3,6
3,4
5,4
2,6
2,3
171,2
-5 025,0
-1 698,4
-536,3
1 852,2
443,6
247,4
-4 906,0
-5,3
422,6
: (GUS).

171


2
0
0
5


8
9

3
7
8
,
1

3

3
0
5
,
6

1

7
8
2
,
5

1
2
4
,
2

3

7
1
5
,
6

4

9
5
7
,
6

4

6
4
5
,
6

4

9
6
9
,
8

4
9
3
,
1

2

5
8
8
,
0

2

8
0
2
,
1

3

7
9
4
,
8

3
8
6
,
8

1

9
5
8
,
1

3
9
7
,
2

1
0

6
8
7
,
3

2
0

2
0
9
,
9

1
5

2
3
5
,
8

8
4
9
,
9

2
6
,
3

6

4
2
4
,
0

2
4
,
1

1
0
0
,
0

3
,
7

2
,
0

0
,
1

4
,
2

5
,
6

5
,
2

5
,
6

0
,
6

2
,
9

3
,
1

4
,
2

0
,
4

2
,
2

0
,
5

1
2
,
0

2
2
,
6

1
7
,
0

1
,
0

0
,
0

7
,
2

0
,
0

1
0
1

5
3
8
,
8

1

5
3
1
,
2

2

0
9
7
,
2

3
3
9
,
1

2

8
8
4
,
1

1
2

5
3
0
,
7

1
0

2
1
8
,
7

7

6
8
7
,
1

8
6
0
,
3

1

0
5
8
,
0

3

1
4
9
,
6

5

1
5
6
,
7

5
2
1
,
7

1

4
3
3
,
6

1
6
4
,
0

1
1

1
1
3
,
9

2
5

7
5
9
,
2

1
1

0
0
1
,
0

2

0
6
9
,
5

5
5
,
0

1

8
6
4
,
8

4
3
,
4

1
0
0
,
0

1
,
5

2
,
1

0
,
3

2
,
9

1
2
,
4

1
0
,
1

7
,
6

0
,
9

1
,
0

3
,
1

5
,
1

0
,
5

1
,
4

0
,
2

1
1
,
0

2
5
,
4

1
1
,
0

2
,
0

0
,
1

1
,
8

0
,
0

-
1
2

1
6
0
,
7

1

7
7
4
,
4

-
3
1
4
,
7

-
2
1
5
,
0

8
3
1
,
5

-
7

5
7
3
,
1

-
5

5
7
3
,
1

-
2

7
1
7
,
2

-
3
6
7
,
2

1

5
3
0
,
0

-
3
4
7
,
6

-
1

3
6
2
,
0

-
1
3
4
,
8

5
2
4
,
6

2
3
3
,
2

-
4
2
6
,
7

-
5

5
4
9
,
3

4

2
3
4
,
8

-
1

2
1
9
,
5

-
2
8
,
8

4

5
5
9
,
2

-
1
9
,
4


(
G
U
S
)
.

172
2003-2005 . ( . )
2003 2004 2005
A.
:
()
()
:


:


:



.



.


-
-
-
-


.



.
-4 599
-5 725
61 007
66 732
527
11 174
10 647
-3 637
2 108
5 745
4 236
5 316
1 080

-46
60
106

8 686
-305
4 589
-1 296
3 740
-493
3 321
-870

2 846

1195

-1 195
-10 522
-5 622
81 862
87 484
1 005
13 465
12 460
-11 539
1 995
13 534
5 634
8 283
2 649

998
1 144
146

8 315
-794
12 873
-1 330
10 612
-11 897
-1 358
209

1 999

790

-790

-4 364
-2 694
95 846
98 540
1 930
16 157
14 227
-10 543
2 701
13 244
6 943
11 030
4 087

995
1 183
188

14 242
-1 455
7 724
-2 443
15 156
-2 565
-2 464
289

-2 738

8 135

-8 135
: .

173

( 31 2004 .)


( . )

%
1 16 026,1 19,9
2 11 154,2 13,8
3 10 163,7 12,6
4 10 149,5 12,6
5 4 648,7 5,8
6 4 337,2 5,4
7 4 089,3 5,1
8 3 715,2 4,6
9 2 902,6 3,6
10 2 096,2 2,6
11 1 617,5 2,0
12 1 223,7 1,5
13 a 1 167,9 1,4
14 1 110,5 1,4
15 1 026,2 1,3
16 678,4 0,8
17 673,0 0,8
18 578,5 0,7
19 561,6 0,7
20 486,3 0,6
21 409,1 0,5
22 362,3 0,4
23 345,2 0,4
24 219,0 0,3
25 210,9 0,3
26 159,5 0,2
27 100,1 0,1
28 75,0 0,1
29 70,4 0,1
30 70,3 0,1
31 57,2 0,1
32 55,8 0,1
33 45,0 0,1
34 40,0
35 16,9
36 6,8
1 . . 80 649,8 100,0
1 . . () 3 827,8
84 477,6
: (PAIiIZ).
174

()
( 31 2004 .)

( .
)

%

:
32 199,9 39,9
- 6 663,6 8,3
- , , 6 624,8 8,2
- 4 205,5 5,2
- 3 250,0 4,0
- 3 245,2 4,0
- , ,
2 086,0 2,6
- 1 692,1 2,1
- 1 459,0 1,8
-
1 278,3 1,6
- ,
1 023,7 1,3
- , 349,7 0,4
- 290,5 0,4
- 31,4 0,0
18 878,5 23,4
9 517,4 11,8
, , 7 861,4 9,7
, 3 207,6 4,0
,
2 952,7 3,7
, ,
2 732,2 3,4
2 110,1 2,6
885,3 1,1
228,6 0,3
, 76,3 0,1
1 . . 80 649,8 100,0
1 . . 3 827,8
84 477,6
: (PAIiIZ).
175


3
1


2
0
0
4

.
)


1

F
r
a
n
c
e

T
e
l
e
c
o
m

4

4
7
0
,
4


2

E
B
R
D

4

0
0
0
,
0


3

F
i
a
t


S
p
A

1

8
0
0
,
6


4

K
B
C

B
a
n
k

N
.
V
.

1

7
4
3
,
4


5

M
e
t
r
o

G
r
o
u
p

A
G

1

5
0
8
,
0


6

H
V
B

G
r
o
u
p

1

3
3
6
,
0


7

C
i
t
i
g
r
o
u
p

1

3
0
0
,
0


8

T
e
s
c
o

P
l
c

1

3
0
0
,
0


9

A
p
o
l
l
o
-
R
i
d
a

P
o
l
a
n
d

L
l
c
.

1

3
0
0
,
0


1
0

V
i
v
e
n
d
i

U
n
i
v
e
r
s
a
l

1

2
4
3
,
4


1
1

U
n
i
t
e
d

P
a
n
-
E
u
r
o
p
e

C
o
m
m
u
n
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s


1

2
0
0
,
0


1
2

U
n
i
C
r
e
d
i
t
o

I
t
a
l
i
a
n
o

S
p
A

1

2
0
0
,
0


1
3

K
r
o
n
o
s
p
a
n

H
o
l
d
i
n
g
s

L
t
d
.

1

0
6
1
,
8

e

1
4

V
a
t
t
e
n
f
a
l
l

A
B

1

0
2
9
,
2


1
5

G
e
n
e
r
a
l

M
o
t
o
r
s

C
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

1

0
1
0

,
0


1
6

I
N
G

G
r
o
u
p

N
.
V
.

9
9
0
,
0


1
7

C
a
r
r
e
f
o
u
r

9
8
0
,
0


1
8

D
a
e
w
o
o

9
3
6
,
4


1
9

E
n
t
e
r
p
r
i
s
e

I
n
v
e
s
t
o
r
s

9
1
4
,
5


2
0

V
o
l
k
s
w
a
g
e
n

A
G

8
7
3
,
1


(

P
A
I
i
I
Z
)
.

176
1. MHHHCTLPCTBO JKOHOMHKH
MNSJRSJWO GOSPOLARK
Pl. Jrzecl Krzyzy 3/5
00-507 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6935000
!ax: 6934048, 6934013,
e-mail: BPmg.gov.pl
lttp:// www.mg.gov.pl
2. MHHHCTLPCTBO CTPOHTLLCTBA
MNSJRSJWO B\LOWNCJWA
ul. Wspolna 2/4
00-926 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6619796, 6281718
!ax: 6619794, 6295389
e-mail: infomtil.gov.pl
lttp://www.mtil.gov.pl
3. MHHHCTLPCTBO HAPOHOIO
OLPA3OBAHH
MNSJRSJWO L\KAC] NAROLOW]
Al. ].Cl. Szucla 25
00-918 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 3474100, 5224100
!ax: 6286953, 6283504
e-mail: ministermen.gov.pl, informacjamen.gov.pl
lttp://www.men.gov.pl
4. MHHHCTLPCTBO 4HHAHCOB
MNSJRSJWO !NANSW
ul. Switolrzysla 12
00-916 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6945555, 6945058
!ax: 6944177, 8272722
e-mail: selretariat.lmmofnet.gov.pl
lttp://www.mf.gov.pl
5. MHHHCTLPCTBO MOPCKOIO
XO3HCTBA
MNSJRSJWO GOSPOLARK MORSK]
ul. Clalulinsliego 4/6
00-928 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6301870,
!ax: 6301873, 6280872
e-mail: selretariat.mgmmgm.gov.pl
lttp://www.mgm.gov.pl
6. MHHHCTLPCTBO KVLTVPL
H HAJHOHALHOIO HACLH
MNSJRSJWO K\LJ\RY LZLZCJWA
NAROLOWGO
ul. Kralowslie Przeumiescie 15/17
00-071 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 4210100, 4210251
!ax: 8267533, 8261765
e-mail: rzecznilmliun.gov.pl
lttp://www.mliun.gov.pl
l. MHHHCTEPCTBA H HEKOTOPLE QEHTPAPLHLE
BEOMCTBA
177
7. MHHHCTLPCTBO HAVKH
H BLCHLIO OLPA3OBAHH
MNSJRSJWO NA\K SZKOLNCJWA
WYZSZGO
ul. Wspolna 1/3
00-529 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5292718, 6281944
!ax: 6280922, 5292621
e-mail: uipmnisw.gov.pl
lttp://www.mnisw.gov.pl
8. MHHHCTLPCTBO HAJHOHALHOH
OLOPOHL
MNSJRSJWO OBRONY NAROLOW]
ul. Klonowa 1
00-909 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6280031, 6280032, 6280033, 6280034
!ax: 8455378, 6840224
e-mail: cimonwp.mil.pl
lttp://www.mon.gov.pl
9. MHHHCTLPCTBO TPVA
H COJHALHOIO OLLCHLHLHH
MNSJRSJWO PRACY OPK SPOLCZN]
ul. Nowogrouzla 1/3/5
00-513 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6661100, 6611122
!ax: 6611124
e-mail: prasamps.gov.pl
lttp://www.mps.gov.pl
1O. MHHHCTLPCTBO CLLCKOIO
XO3HCTBA H PA3BHTH CLA
MNSJRSJWO ROLNCJWA ROZWO]\ WS
ul. Wspolna 30
00-930 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6231239, 6231510, 6231000
!ax: 6232750, 6232751
e-mail: lancelariaminrol.gov.pl
lttp://www.minrol.gov.pl
11. MHHHCTLPCTBO PLIHOHALHOIO
PA3BHTH
MNSJRSJWO ROZWO]\ RGONALNGO
ul. Wspolna 2/4
00-926 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 4613000
!ax: 4613310
e-mail: meuiamrr.gov.pl
lttp://www.mrr.gov.pl
12. IOCVAPCTBLHHOL
KA3HAHLHCTBO
MNSJRSJWO SKARB\ PANSJWA
ul. Krucza 36
00-522 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6958000, 6959000
!ax: 6213361, 6280872
e-mail: ministermsp.gov.pl
lttp://www.msp.gov.pl
13. MHHHCTLPCTBO CHOPTA
MNSJRSJWO SPORJ\
Al. Roz 2
00-559 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5223399
!ax: 8262172
e-mail: rzecznilmsport.gov.pl
lttp://www.msport.gov.pl
14. MHHHCTLPCTBO KCTHJHH
MNSJRSJWO SPRAWLLWOSC
Al. \jazuowslie 11
00-950 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5212888, 6272974
!ax: 6213095, 6286552, 6214986
e-mail: inagorslams.gov.pl, lims.gov.pl
lttp://www.ms.gov.pl
15. MHHHCTLPCTBO BHVTPLHHHX L
H AMHHHCTPAJHH
MNSJRSJWO SPRAW WWN]JRZNYCH
ALMNSJRAC]
ul. S.Batorego 5
02-591 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6212020
!ax: 8497494, 6227973
e-mail: ministermswia.gov.pl
lttp://www.mswia.gov.pl
16. MHHHCTLPCTBO HHOCTPAHHLX
L
MNSJRSJWO SPRAW ZAGRANCZNYCH
Al. ].Cl. Szucla 23
00-580 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5239000, 5239318
!ax: 6290287, 6283353
e-mail: usimsz.gov.pl
lttp://www.msz.gov.pl
178
17. MHHHCTLPCTBO OKPVXAKHLH
CPLL
MNSJRSJWO SROLOWSKA
ul. Wawelsla 52/54
00-922 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5792900, 5792400
!ax: 5792224, 5792511, 5792473
e-mail: infomos.gov.pl, commentmos.gov.pl
lttp://www.mos.gov.pl
18. MHHHCTLPCTBO TPAHCHOPTA
MNSJRSJWO JRANSPORJ\
ul. Clalulinsliego 4/6
00-928 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6301000, 6301122
!ax: 6301116, 8300063
e-mail: infomt.gov.pl
lttp://www.mt.gov.pl
19. MHHHCTLPCTBO
3PABOOXPAHLHH
MNSJRSJWO ZLROWA
ul. Miouowa 15
00-952 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6349600, 6349326
!ax: 6349213, 8262791
e-mail: lancelariamz.gov.pl
lttp://www.mz.gov.pl
2O. VHPABLHHL KOMHTLTA
LBPOHLHCKOH HHTLIPAJHH
\RZ_L KOMJJ\ NJGRAC]
\ROP]SK]
Al. ].Cl. Szucla 23
00-580 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 4555335, 4555352
!ax: 4555333, 4555353
e-mail: ciemail.ulie.gov.pl, rzecznilmail.ulie.gov.pl
lttp://www.ulie.gov.pl
21. VHPABLHHL HO 3AHHTL
KOHKVPLHJHH H HPAB
HOTPLLHTLLH
\RZ_L OCHRONY KONK\RNC]
KONS\MNJW
Plac Powstancow Warszawy 1
00-950 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5560800
!ax: 8266125
e-mail: uoliluolil.gov.pl
lttp://www.uolil.gov.pl
22. HATLHTHOL VHPABLHHL
PLCHVLHKH HOLHA
\RZ_L PAJNJOWY RZCZYPOSPOLJ]
POLSK]
Al. Niepouleglosci 188/192
00-950 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 8258001, 8255910
!ax: 8250581, 8750680
e-mail: informacjauprp.pl
lttp://www.uprp.pl
23. VHPABLHHL TLXHHHLCKOIO
HA3OPA
\RZ_L LOZOR\ JCHNCZNGO
ul. Szczsliwicla 34
02-353 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5722100, 8226589
!ax: 8227209
e-mail: uutuut.gov.pl
lttp://www.uut.gov.pl
24. IABHOL VHPABLHHL MLP
GLWNY \RZ_L MAR
ul. leltoralna 2
00-139 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 5819399, 5819545
!ax: 6208378, 6208411
e-mail: gumgum.gov.pl
lttp://www.gum.gov.pl
25. IOCVAPCTBLHHLH HHCTHTVT
IHIHLHL
PANSJWOWY ZAKLAL HGNY
ul. Clocimsla 24
00-791 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 8494051, 5421400
!ax: 8497484, 8493513
lttp://www.pzl.gov.pl
26. HAJHOHALHLH HOLCKHH
LAHK
NAROLOWY BANK POLSK
ul. Switolrzysla 11/21
00-919 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6531000
!ax: 8264123, 6208518
e-mail: nlpnlp.pl, selretariat.gpmail.nlp.pl
lttp://www.nlp.pl
179
27. HOLCKA JKOHOMHHLCKA
HAATA
KRA]OWA ZBA GOSPOLARCZA
ul. Jrlacla 4
00-074 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6309600
!ax: 8274673
e-mail: liglig.pl
lttp://www.lig.pl
28. HOLCKOL AILHTCTBO
HH4OPMAJHH H HHOCTPAHHLX
HHBLCTHJHH A.O.
POLSKA AGNC]A N!ORMAC] NWSJYC]
ZAGRANCZNYCH S.A.
ul. Bagatela 12
00-585 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 3349800
!ax: 3349999
e-mail: postpaiz.gov.pl, investpaiz.gov.pl
lttp://www.paiz.gov.pl
ll. BOEBOCKHE YRPABPEHHR
1. Hnnecnne:cioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
no Bonnane
Lolnoslsli \rzu Wojewouzli we Wroclawiu
Pl. Powstancow Warszawy 1
50-951 Wroclaw
Jel.: 48(71) 3406000, 3406273, 3406301
!ax: 3406895
e-mail: infouuw.pl
lttp://www.uuw.pl
2. Kyxncio-Hoxocioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Li(iome
Kujawslo-Pomorsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Byugoszczy
ul. ]agiellonsla 3
85-950 Byugoszcz
Jel.: 48(52) 3497782
!ax: 3497460
e-mail: wojewouauwoj.lyugoszcz.pl
lttp://www.uwoj.lyugoszcz.pl
3. m6nnncioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n m6nnne
Lulelsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Lullinie
ul. Spolojna 4
20-914 Lullin
Jel.: 48(81) 7424308, 7424310
!ax: 7424309
e-mai: wojewoualullin.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.uw.lullin.pl, www.lullin.uw.gov.pl
4. m6ymcioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Ioyn-Beniiononicin
Lulusli \rzu Wojewouzli w Gorzowie Wiellopolslim
ul. ]agiellonczyla 8
66-400 Gorzow Wiellopolsli
Jel.: 48(95) 7202210, 7115235, 7115236
!ax: 7115803
e-mail: wojewouauwoj.gorzow.pl
lttp:// www.wojewoualulusli.pl
5. o(:nncioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n o(:n
Louzli \rzu Wojewouzli w Louzi
ul. Piotrlowsla 104
90-926 Louz
Jel.: 48(42) 6641010, 6641413
!ax: 6641040
e-mail: selretariatlouz.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.uw.louz.pl
6. Manononicioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Kaione
Malopolsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Kralowie
ul. Basztowa 22
31-156 Kralow
Jel.: 48(12) 3921200, 3921519
!ax: 4227208, 6160545
e-mail: urzaumalopolsla.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.lralow.uw.gov.pl, www.malopolsla.uw.gov.pl
18O
7. Ma:onenioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Bamane
Mazowiecli \rzu Wojewouzli w Warszawie
Pl. Banlowy 3/5
00-950 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 6956999
!ax: 6203704
e-mail: wojewouamazowieclie.pl
lttp://www.mazowsze.uw.gov.pl, www.mazowieclie.pl
8. Ononicioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Onone
Opolsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Opolu
ul. Piastowsla 14
45-082 Opole
Jel.: 48(77) 4524100, 4524706, 4524710
!ax: 4524705
e-mail: gwopole.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.opole.uw.gov.pl
9. Ho(iana+cioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Xemyne
Poularpacli \rzu Wojewouzli w Rzeszowie
ul. Grunwaluzla 15
35-959 Rzeszow
Jel.: 48(17) 8671000, 8671901
!ax: 8671950
e-mail: selrwojrzeszow.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.rzeszow.uw.gov.pl
1O. Ho(nxccioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Lenoc+oie
Poulasli \rzu Wojewouzli w Bialymstolu
ul. Micliewicza 3
15-213 Bialystol
Jel.: 48(85) 7439315, 7439201
!ax: 7439231, 7322486
e-mail: wojewoualialystol.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.lialystol.uw.gov.pl
11. Hoxocioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n I(anicie
Pomorsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Guanslu
ul. Olopowa 21/27
80-810 Guansl
Jel.: 48(58) 3077695, 3014928
!ax: 3011417, 3077610
e-mail: zolguansl.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.guansl.uw.gov.pl
12. Cnne:cioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Ka+onnne
Slsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Katowicacl
ul. ]agiellonsla 25
40-032 Katowice
Jel.: 48(32) 2077777, 2554037
!ax: 2552482, 2564245
e-mail: wojewoualatowice.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.latowice.uw.gov.pl
13. Cne+noimncioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Kenine
Switolrzysli \rzu Wojewouzli w Kielcacl
Al. X Wielow Kielc 3
25-516 Kielce
Jel.: 48(41) 3442956, 3421115
!ax: 3444832
e-mail: wojewoulielce.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.lielce.uw.gov.pl
14. Baxnno-Ma:ycioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Onim+ine
Warminslo-Mazursli \rzu Wojewouzli w Olsztynie
al. ]. Pilsuusliego 7/9
10-575 Olsztyn
Jel.: 48(89) 5232201, 5232200
!ax: 5351881
e-mail: wojewouauw.olsztyn.pl
lttp://www.uw.olsztyn.pl, www.olsztyn.uw.gov.pl
15. Benniononicioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Ho:nann
Wiellopolsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Poznaniu
Al. Niepouleglosci 16/18
61-713 Poznan
Jel.: 48(61) 8541071, 8541300
!ax: 8527327
e-mail: wuwpoznan.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.poznan.uw.gov.pl
16. 3ana(nonoxocioe noeno(cioe ynannenne
n Hennne
Zaclouniopomorsli \rzu Wojewouzli w Szczecinie
Waly Clrolrego 4
70-502 Szczecin
Jel.: 48(91) 4303500, 4342413
!ax: 4303500, 4330250
e-mail: zuwszczecin.uw.gov.pl
lttp://www.szczecin.uw.gov.pl
181
1. Oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona L\RO-PARK
Menen
Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna \RO-PARK Mielec
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Aien+c+no a:nn+nx
noximnennoc+n n Bamane
O+(enenne APH n Menine
ARP S.A. Ouuzial w Mielcu
ul. Partyzantow 25
39-300 Mielec
Jel.: 48(17) 7887236
!ax: 7887769
e-mail: europarleuroparl.com.pl
lttp://www.europarl.com.pl
2. Ka+onnniax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Katowicla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Ka+onnniax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Katowicla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna S.A.
ul. Sienliewicza 28
40-032 Katowice
Jel.: 48(32) 2510736, 2510958, 7857068
!ax: 2513766
e-mail: lsselsse.com.pl
lttp://www.lsse.com.pl
3. Cynaniciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Suwalsla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Cynaniciax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona n Cynaniax
Spolla zarzuzajca: Suwalsla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna S.A. w Suwallacl
ul. Noniewicza 49
16-400 Suwalli
Jel./!ax: 48(87) 5652217, 5652449
e-mail: sssessse.com.pl, suwallissse.com.pl,
goluapssse.com.pl, ellssse.com.pl
lttp://www.ssse.com.pl
4. einnniax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Legnicla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO einnniax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Legnicla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna S.A.
ul. Karuynala B. Kominla 9
59-220 Legnica
Jel.: 48(76) 7277470
!ax: 7277474
e-mail: lssestrefa-legnica.com
lttp://www.strefa-legnica.com
5. o(:nnciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Louzla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO o(:nnciax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Louzla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna S.A.
ul. Ks. Jymieniecliego 22/24
90-349 Louz
Jel.: 48(42) 6762753, 6762754
!ax: 6762755
e-mail: infosse.louz.pl
lttp://www.sse.louz.pl
6. Ban6nxciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Wallrzysla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: OOO Ban6nxciax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Wallrzysla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna nvest-Parl Sp. z o.o.
ul. \czniowsla 21
58-306 Wallrzycl
Jel.: 48(74) 6649163, 6649164
!ax: 6649162
e-mail: investinvest-parl.com.pl
lttp://www.invest-parl.com.pl
lll. OCOELE SKOHOMH-ECKHE 3OHL
182
7. Kaxennoiyciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax
:ona xanoio ne(nnnnxa+enic+na
Kamiennogorsla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna Malej
Przeusiliorczosci
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Oco6ax iionoxnneciax
:ona xanoio ne(nnnnxa+enic+na
Spolla zarzuzajca: Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Malej Przeusiliorczosci S.A.
ul. Papieza ]ana Pawla 11a
58-400 Kamienna Gora
Jel.: 48(75) 6451503...i 06
!ax: 7442017
e-mail: strefassemp.pl
lttp://www.ssemp.pl
8. Koc+mnncio-Cny6nniax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Kostrzynslo-Slulicla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Koc+mnnicio-
Cny6nniax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Kostrzynslo-Slulicla Specjalna
Strefa lonomiczna S.A. w Kostrzyniu
ul. Orla Bialego 22
66-470 Kostrzyn nau Our
Jel.: 48(95) 7219800
!ax: 7524167
e-mail: infolssse.pl
lttp://www.lssse.pl
9. Cnynciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Slupsla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Hoxocioe aien+c+no
einonaninoio a:nn+nx
Spolla zarzuzajca: Pomorsla Agencja Rozwoju
Regionalnego S.A.
ul. Poznansla 1a
76-200 Slupsl
Jel.: 48(59) 8412892
!ax: 8413261
e-mail: officeparr.slupsl.pl
lttp://www.parr.slupsl.pl
1O. Oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona C+aaxonnne
Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna ,Staraclowice
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Oco6ax iionoxnneciax
:ona C+aaxonnne
Spolla zarzuzajca: Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
,Staraclowice S.A.
ul. Rauomsla 29
27-200 Staraclowice
Jel.: 48(41) 2754101, 2754445
!ax: 2754102
e-mail: ssesse.com.pl, selretariatsse.com.pl
lttp://www.sse.com.pl
11. Tano6eiciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax
:ona Luio-PaiI Wisiosan
Jarnolrzesla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna ,uro-
Parl Wislosan
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Aien+c+no a:nn+nx
noximnennoc+n n Bamane
Spolla zarzuzajca: Agencja Rozwoju Przemyslu S.A.
w Warszawie
ul. Lomaniewsla 41
02-672 Warszawa
Jel.: 48(22) 4603600, 4603700
!ax: 4603701
e-mail: arpsaarp.com.pl
lttp://www.arp.com.pl
He(c+ann+enic+no n Tano6eie:
Przeustawicielstwo w Jarnolrzegu:
Agencja Rozwoju Przemyslu S.A. w Warszawie
Ouuzial w Jarnolrzegu
ul. Zallauowa 48
39-405 Jarnolrzeg - Maclow
Jel.: 48(15) 8229999, 8236688, 6416000
!ax: 8234708
e-mail: liurotsse.pl
lttp://www.tsse.pl
12. Hoxociax oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Pomorsla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: OOO Hoxociax oco6ax
iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla zarzuzajca: Pomorsla Specjalna Strefa
lonomiczna Sp. z o.o.
ul. Wlauyslawa V 9
81-703 Sopot
Jel.: 48(58) 5559700, 5559717
!ax: 5559711
e-mail: leauofficestrefa.gua.pl,
marletingstrefa.gua.pl
lttp://www.strefa.gua.pl
183
1. ABCTPAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
7 Jurrana Street, Yarralumla
ACJ 2600, CANBRRA, Australia
Jel.: (0-061 2) 62721000
!ax: (0-061 2) 62733184
e-mail: emlassypolanu.org.au,
wel.syuneymgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polanu.org.au
2. ABCTPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Botsclaft uer Repullil Polen
Hietzinger Hauptstrae 42c,
1130 Wien, esterreicl
Jel.: (0-043 1) 87015100, 870150 - 46
!ax: (0-043 1) 87015222
e-mail: infolotsclaftrp.at, infolanuelsratpolen.at,
wel.wieuenmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.wien.poleml.net, lttp://www.lanuelstratpolen.at
3. A3LPLAHXAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
2, Kiclil Gala str.
AZ-1000 BAK\, Azerlaijan
Jel.: (0-0994 12) 4920114, 4975281, 4974708
!ax: (0-0994 12) 4920214
e-mail: emlpolazeurotel.com
lttp://www.emlpol.azeurotel.com
4. ALAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Rruga e Lurresit 123, JRANA, Allania
Jel.: (0-0355 4) 234190
!ax: (0-0355 4) 233364
e-mail: polemlallaniaonline.net
lttp://www.tirana.poleml.net
5. AXHP
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
37 Av. Mustapla Ali Klouja, 16 030 l-Biar,
ALGR BP 60, Algerie
Jel.: (0-0213 21) 923474, 922553
!ax: (0-0213 21) 921435
e-mail: amlalgieryaloo.pl, wel.algermgip.gov.pl,
lrlalgerwissal.uz, lrl.presztalwissal.uz
6. AHIOA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlaixaua ua Rep6llica ua Polonia
Rua Comanuante Nzaji 21/23, Alvalaue
CP. 1340, L\ANLA, Angola
Jel.: (0-0244) 222 323088
Jel.:/!ax: (0-0244) 222 323086
e-mail: emlpolnetangola.com
lttp://www.emlpolonia-ang.info
13. Baxnno-Ma:yciax oco6ax iionoxnneciax
:ona
Warminslo-Mazursla Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: AO Baxnno-Ma:yciax
oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona
Spolla Zarzuzajca: Warminslo-Mazursla Specjalna
Strefa lonomiczna S.A.
ul. Micliewicza 21/23
10-508 Olsztyn
Jel./!ax: 48(89) 5350241
e-mail: wmssewmsse.com.pl
lttp://www.wmsse.com.pl
14. Oco6ax iionoxnneciax :ona Kaioncinn
+exnonoinnecinn nai
Specjalna Strefa lonomiczna ,Kralowsli Parl
Jeclnologiczny
Vnannxmmee o6mec+no: OOO Kaioncinn
+exnonoinnecinn nai
Spolla zarzuzajca: Kralowsli Parl Jeclnologiczny Sp. z o.o.
Al. ]ana Pawla 37
31-864 Kralow
Jel.: 48(12) 6401940
!ax: 6401945
e-mail: liurosse.lralow.pl
lttp://www.sse.lralow.pl
lV. REPE-EHL ROCOPLCTB PECRYEPHKH ROPLLA
3A PYEEXOM
184
7. APILHTHHA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Repullila ue Polonia
Calle Alejanuro Mara ue Aguauo 2870
1425 B\NOS ARS, Argentina
Jel.: (0-054 11) 48029681-82, 48025411
!ax: (0-054 11) 48029683
e-mail: amlluenosuatamarlets.com.ar,
lrllaireslouse.com.ar, promocionfilertel.com.ar
lttp://www.emlajauauepolonia.org.ar,
lttp://www.polonia-wellaires.com.ar
8. APMLHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
44A Hanrapetutyan Str., RWAN, Armenia
Jel.: (0-0374 10) 542493
!ax: (0-0374 10) 542498
e-mail: polemlarminco.com
9. LLAPVCL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
Rumiancewa 6
220034 MNSK, Repullique ue Bielorussie
Jel.: (0-0375 17) 2882313
!ax: (0-0375 17) 2364992
e-mail: amlminslnsys.ly, welnsys.ly,
wel.minslmgip.gov.pl, wpli.minslnsys.ly
lttp://www.emlassypolanu.nsys.ly
1O. LLLIH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
Avenue ues Gaulois 29
1040 BR\XLLS, Belgique
Jel.: (0-032 2) 7390100, 7390101
!ax: (0-032 2) 7361881
e-mail: polamllxlslynet.le, infopoleconomie.le,
wel.lrulselamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polemlassy.le, lttp://www.poleconomie.le
11. LOIAPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
ul. Clan Krum 46, 1000 SO!A, Bulgaria
Jel.: (0-0359 2) 9872610, 9872660
!ax: (0-0359 2) 9872939
e-mail: polamlainternet-lg.net,
lrl_pl_sofialslg.net, wel.sofiamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.lrlplsofia.lslg.net
12. LOCHH H ILPJLIOBHHA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
ul. Lola 13, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia anu Herzegovina
Jel.: (0-0387 33) 201142, 215862, 201018
Jel.:/!ax: (0-0387 33) 233796
e-mail: amsarlil.net.la
13. LPA3HH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlaixaua ua Rep6llica ua Polonia
SS - Aveniua uas Naoes, Qu. 809 Lote 33
70.423-900 BRASLA-L.!. Caixa Postal 07/0263, Brasil
Jel.: (0-055 61) 32128000
!ax: (0-055 61) 32428543
e-mail: emlaixauapolonia.org.lr,
welsppoloniatraue.org.lr, lrlpolmaclls.com.lr
lttp://www.polonia.org.lr, lttp://www.poloniatraue.org.lr
14. BLHKOLPHTAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
47 Portlanu Place
LONLON W1B 1]H, \niteu Kinguom
Jel.: (0-044) 8707742700, 8707742702,
!ax: (0-044) 2073234018
e-mail: polislemlassypolislemlassy.org.ul,
welpolisleml-traue.co.ul
lttp://www.polislemlassy.org.ul, www.polisleml-traue.co.ul
15. BLHIPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Lengyel Kztarsasag Nagylvetsege
Varosligeti fasor 16
H-1068 Buuapest, Magyar Kztarsasag
Jel.: (0-0361) 4138200
!ax: (0-0361) 3511723
e-mail: infopolisleml.lu, amlpl-welaxelero.lu,
wel.luuapesztmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.lengyelorszag.lu, lttp://www.amlpl-wel.lu
16. BLHLCVJA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Av. Nicolas Copernico, Qta. ,Amlar
Valle Arrila, Sector Los Naranjos
CARACAS, Venezuela
Jel.: (0-0582 12) 9916167, 9911461
!ax: (0-0582 12) 9922164
e-mail: amlcarcamlasaua.org.ve,
lonsulamlasaua.org.ve
lttp://www.amlasaua.org.ve
185
17. BLLTHAM
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
3 Clua Mot Cot, HANO, Vietnam
Jel.: (0-084 4) 8452027, 8453728
!ax: 8236914
e-mail: polamlln.vnn.vn
18. ILPMAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Botsclaft uer Repullil Polen
Lassenstr. 19-21, 14193 BRLN, Leutscllanu
Jel.: (0-049 30) 223130
!ax: (0-049 30) 22313155
e-mail: infolotsclaft-polen.ue,
infowirtsclaft-polen.ue, wel.lerlinmgip.gov.pl,
info.loelnwirtsclaft-polen.ue
lttp://www.lotsclaft-polen.ue,
lttp://www.amlasaua-polsla.ue,
lttp://www.wirtsclaft-polen.ue
19. IPLJH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Clryssantlemon 22
154-52 Paleo Psyclico, AJHNS, Greece
Jel.: (0-030 210) 679 7700
!ax: (0-030 210) 679 7711
e-mail: atenyamlinternet.gr, infopolanu-emlassy.gr,
welatenyatl.fortlnet.gr, wel.atenymgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polanu-emlassy.gr, lttp://www.welateny.gr
2O. IPV3H
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
19, Brotlers Zulalaslvili Street
0108 JBLS, Georgia
Jel.: (0-0995 32) 920398
!ax: (0-0995 32) 920397
e-mail: amlpolgruzjaaccess.sanet.ge
lttp://www.tlilisi.poleml.net
21. AHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Riclelieus Alle 12, 2900 Hellerup, Lenmarl
Jel.: (0-045) 39467700
!ax: (0-045) 39467766
e-mail: mailamlpol.ul, polcompolcom.ul,
wel.lopenlagamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.amlpol.ul, lttp://www.polcom.ul
22. LMOKPATHHLCKA PLCHVLHKA
KOHIO
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
63, Avenue ue la ]ustice
KNSHASA Gomle
Repullique Lemocratique uu Congo
Jel.:/!ax: (0-0243) 817006327, 817006326
!ax: (0-0871) 762198049
e-mail: linpolamlyaloo.com
lttp://www.pologne.cu
23. LIHHLT
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
5 l Aziz Osman Str., Zamalel, CARO
Aral Repullic of gypt
Jel.: (0-0202) 7367456, 7359583
!ax: (0-0202) 7355427
e-mail: salafalolanua.org, infowellair.com,
lrllairegyptonline.com
lttp://www.lolanua.org
24. 3HMLALBL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
16 Corl Ru, Belgravia
P.O. Box 3932
HARAR, Zimlalwe
Jel.: (0-02634) 253442, 253443
!ax: 253710
e-mail: polamlafricaonline.co.zw
25. H3PAHL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
16 Soutine St.
JL-AVV 64-684, srael
Jel.: (0-0972 3) 7253111
!ax: (0-0972 3) 5237806
e-mail: emlpolnetvision.net.il, lrltlvinter.net.il
lttp://www.telaviv.poleml.net,
lttp://www.poleml.org/economic.ltm
186
26. HHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
50-M Slantipatl, Clanalyapuri
110021 NW LLH, nuia
Jel.: (0-091 11) 41496900, 41496901
!ax: (0-091 11) 26871914
e-mail: polemlairtellroaulanu.in,
rlpoltraueinuia.org, welpoltraueinuia.org,
wel.newuellimgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polanuemlassy.in, lttp://www.poltraueinuia.org
27. HHOHL3H
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
]l. HR Rasuna Saiu Kav. X Blol V / 3
12950 ]alarta Selatan, nuonesia
Jel.: (0-062 21) 2525938 - 40
!ax: (0-062 21) 2525958
e-mail: meuiapolanuemljal.org, raucapolanuemljal.org
lttp://www.polanuemljal.org
28. HOPAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
No 3 Malmouu Seif Al-Lin Al-rani St.
P.O.Box 942050
AMMAN 11194, ]oruan
Jel.: (0-0962 6) 5512593, 5512594, 5512596
!ax: (0-0962 6) 5512595
e-mail: polemlnol.com.jo
lttp://www.amman.poleml.net
29. HPAK
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Hay Al-Walua Malalla 904, Zulal 60, House No. 22/24
BAGHLAL, raq
Jel.: (0-0964 1) 7190297
!ax: (0-0964 1) 7190296
e-mail: amlaspolo2.pl
3O. HPAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Africa xpressway, Pirouz str. 1-3
P.O.Box 11365-3489, 19-174 JHRAN, ran
Jel.: (0-09821) 88787262-64
!ax: (0-09821) 88788774
e-mail: infoemlpoltelran.com
lttp://www.emlpoltelran.com,
lttp://www.teleran.poleml.net
31. HPAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
5, Aileslury Roau, Ballslriuge
L\BLN 4, relanu
Jel.: (0-0353 1) 2830855
!ax: (0-0353 1) 2698309
e-mail: infouullin.poleml.net, polemlasiol.ie,
lrluullin.polislemlassy.ie, wel.uullinmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polislemlassy.ie,
lttp://www.uullin.polislemlassy.ie
32. HCHAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Calle Guisanuo 23-lis
28035 MALRL, spana
Jel.: (0-034 91) 3736605
!ax: (0-034 91) 3736624
e-mail: emlajauapolonia.es , comercialpolonia.es,
wel.maurytmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polonia.es
33. HTAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlasciata uella Repulllica ui Polonia
Via P.P. Rulens 20, Monti Parioli 00197, ROMA, talia
Jel.: (0-039 06) 36204200
!ax: (0-039 06) 3217895
e-mail: polisl.emlassyagora.stm.it,
ufficio.stampaamlasciatapolonia.it,
infoinfopolonia.it, wel.rzymmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.amlasciatapolonia.it,
lttp://www.infopolonia.it
34. HLMLH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Hauua !ajj Attan Area
P.O. Box 16168
SANA, Yemen
Jel.: (0-09671) 413523, 413524, 412244
!ax: (0-09671) 413647
e-mail: polemly.net.ye
lttp://www.y.net.ye/poleml
187
35. KA3AXCTAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Lzlarlentslaya 9 - slanuerova 11/13
480099 ALMAJY, Kazallstan
Jel.: (0-07 3272) 581551, 581617
!ax: (0-07 3272) 581550
e-mail: amlpolpolanu.lz, almatypol-traue.lz
lttp://www.almaty.poleml.net, lttp://www.pol-traue.lz
36. KAMLOXA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
767 Monivong Blvu, P.O. Box 58
PHNOM PHN, Camlouia
Jel.: (0-0855 23) 217782
!ax: (0-0855 23) 217781
e-mail: eml.pol.pponline.com.ll
lttp://www.plnompenl.poleml.net
37. KAHAA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
443 Laly Avenue, OJJAWA, Ontario K1N 6H3,
Canaua
Jel.: (0-0613) 7890468, 7893376, 7896542
!ax: (0-0613) 7891218
e-mail: ottawapolislemlassy.ca,
traueofficepolanu-canaua.org
lttp://www.polislemlassy.ca, lttp://www.polanu-canaua.org
38. KLHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Kalarnet Roau, 00100 NAROB, Kenya
P. O. Box 30086
Jel.: (0-0254 20) 3872811, 3872812
!ax: (0-0254 20) 3872814, 3874572
e-mail: amlnairolenyawel.com
lttp://www.nairoli.poleml.net
39. KHHP
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Kenneuy Avenue 12-17, Office 302
1087 NCOSA, Cyprus
Jel.: (0-0 357) 22 753517
!ax: (0-0 357) 22 751981
e-mail: secretariatpolaml.org.cy
lttp://www.nilozja.poleml.net
4O. KHTAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
1 Ritan Lu, ]ian Guo Men Wai
100600 B]NG, People`s Repullic of Clina
Jel.: (0-086 10) 65321235 - 37
!ax: (0-0 86 10) 65321745
e-mail: polslapullic2.lta.net.cn,
polcompullic3.lta.net.cn, commoffpullic.lta.net.cn
lttp://www.PolanumlassyClina.net,
lttp://www.polecom.com.cn
Ieneaninoe ioncynic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
n Ionionie
Consulate General of tle Repullic of Polanu
Suite 2009, Jwo Pacific Place
88 Queensway, Cental
HONG KONG Special Auministrative Region
of tle People`s Repullic of Clina
Jel.: (0-0852) 28400779, 28400814
!ax: (0-0852) 25960062, 29189109
e-mail: lgrpllnetvigator.com,
lgcommllnetvigator.com
lttp://www.polanutraue.com.ll
41. KOVMLH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
ue Bogota, L.C., Columlia
Apartauo Aereo 101363 \nicentro
Calle 104a, No 23-48, Bogota, Repullica ue Colomlia
Jel.: (0-057 1) 2140400, 2142931
!ax: (0-057 1) 2140854
e-mail: poleml.callenet.co
42. KOPLHCKA HAPOHO-
LMOKPATHHLCKA PLCHVLHKA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Jeuonggang - Munsuuong, Pyongyang, LPR of Korea
Jel.: (0-08502) 3817325, 3817328, 3817331
!ax: (0-08502) 3817634
!ax:/Jel.: (0-08502) 3817637
lttp://www.plenian.poleml.net
188
43. KOCTA-PHKA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Aveniua 9, Calle 33 No 3307, Barrio scalante
664-2010 Correos Zapote
SAN ]OS, Costa Rica
Jel.: (0-0506) 2347411, 2346024
!ax: (0-0506) 2347900
e-mail: emlajpolonia1racsa.co.cr
lttp://www.polonia-eml-cr.com
44. KVLA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Calle G no.452 esq. 19, Veuauo
Ciuuau ue la Halana C.P. 10400
Apartauo 6650, Cula
Jel.: (0-0537) 8332439, 8332440
!ax: (0-0537) 8332442
e-mail: lavpolemlct.futuro.pl
lttp://www.emlajauapolonia.cu
45. KVBLHT
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Al -]alriya, Area No 8, Street No. 20, House No. 377, Kuwait
P.O. Box 5066, Safat, 13501 Kuwait
Jel.: (0-0965) 5311571, 5311572
!ax: (0-0965) 5311576, 5311578
e-mail: polamlaqualitynet.net
lttp://www.polamlaluw.gov.lw
46. AOC
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
263 Jlaueua Ru., lm. 3
P.O. Box 1106
VNJAN, Lao P.L.R.
Jel.: (0-0856 21) 312940
!ax: (0-0856 21) 312085
e-mail: polvte7laotel.com, polemlvyaloo.com
lttp://www.vientiane.poleml.net
47. ATBH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Meunielu iela 6B, LV 1010 RGA, Latvia
Jel.: (0-0371) 7031500
!ax: (0-0371) 7031549
e-mail: amlpolapollo.lv, welpoltraue.lv
lttp://www.ryga.poleml.net, lttp://www.poltraue.lv
48. HBAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Av. Presiuent Suleiman !rangiel
52 - Raymonu Klalife Blug.
Baalua - P.O. BOX 40-215, Lelanon
Jel.: (0-0961 5) 924881
!ax: (0-0961 5) 924882
e-mail: polamlcyleria.net.ll
lttp://www.polamleirut.org
49. HBH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
61 Slaria Ben Aslour
P.O. Box 519, 3686
JRPOL, Lilya
Jel.: (0-0218 21) 3608569, 3615972
!ax: (0-0218 21) 3615199
e-mail: amlrp.trypolisinteria.pl
lttp://www.trypolis.poleml.net
5O. HTBA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
ul. Smelio 20A
LJ-10323 VLN\S, Lietuva
Jel.: (0-0370 5) 2709001
!ax: (0-0370 5) 2709007
e-mail: amlpoltuu.lt, lrltalas.lt,
wel.wilnomgip.gov.pl,
rauca.wilnomgip.gov.pl, sel.wilnomgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polanuemlassy.lt, lttp://www.wel-wilno.lt
51. KKCLMLVPI
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
2 rue ue Pulvermull
L-2356 Granu-Lucle ue Luxemlourg
Jel.: (0-0352) 260032
!ax: (0-0352) 26687574
e-mail: amlapolpt.lu
52. MAKLOHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
ul. Ljuro Ljalovic 50
1000 SKOP], Repullic of Maceuonia
Jel.: (0-0389 2) 3119744, 3112647
e-mail: amlpolunet.com.ml
189
53. MAAH3H
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
No 495, 4 1/2 ]alan Ampang, 68000 Ampang , Selangor
P.O. Box 10052, 50704 K\ALA L\MP\R, Malaysia
Jel.: (0-060 3) 42576733, 42576719
!ax: (0-060 3) 42570123
e-mail: polamlatm.net.my, lrl_msiatm.net.my
lttp://www.welll.com
54. MAPOKKO
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
23, rue Oqlal
B.P. 425
RABAJ, Maroc
Jel.: (0-0212 37) 771791, 771173
!ax: 775320
e-mail: apolognemenara.ma, commerplmenara.ma
lttp://www.amlpologne.ma, lttp://welralat.ma
55. MLKCHKA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Calle Cracovia No 40
Col. San ngel
C.P. 01000 MXCO L.!.
Jel.: (0-052 55) 55504700, 55504878
!ax: (0-052 55) 56160822
e-mail: emlajauauepoloniaprouigy.net.mx,
comercio_plprouigy.net.mx
lttp://www.melsyl.poleml.net
56. MOOBA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
Str. Alexanuru Plamaueala, 3
ML-2009 CHSNA\, Moluova
Jel.: (0-037322) 238551, 238552, 238956
!ax: (0-037322) 238553
e-mail: amlpolslcl.molupac.mu, welamlcl.molupac.mu
lttp://www.polonia.mu
57. MOHIOH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Liplomat 95 Ajlyn Oron Suuc V ORC
PO BOX-1049, \laanlaatar-13, Mongolia
Jel.: (0-0976 11) 320641, 321926
!ax: (0-0976 11) 322926, 320576
e-mail: pollonsulatmagicnet.mn,
pol_emlassymagicnet.mn
58. HHILPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
10, Ona Crescent, off Lale Jclau Crescent, Maitama
900271, AB\]A, Nigeria
Jel.: (0-0234 9) 4138280 - 83
!ax: (0-0234 9) 4138281
e-mail: poemlalulinlserve.com
lttp://www.aluja.poleml.net
59. HHLPAHL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Alexanuerstraat 25
2514 ]M Len Haag, Jle Netlerlanus
Jel.: (0-031 70) 7990100, 7990102
!ax: (0-70) 7990137
e-mail: amllagapolaml.nl, welwellaga.nl,
wel.lagamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polaml.nl, lttp://www.wellaga.nl
6O. HOBA 3LAHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
17 \planu Roau
Kellurn
Wellington 6005, New Zealanu
P.O. Box 10211
Jel.: (0-0644) 4759453
!ax: (0-0644) 4759458
e-mail: polislemlassyxtra.co.nz
lttp://www.polanu.org.nz
61. HOPBLIH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Olav Kyrres plass 1, 0244 OSLO, Norway
Jel.: (0-04724) 110850, 110851, 110852
!ax: (0-04722) 444839
e-mail: amlpolonline.no, trauepollroauparl.no
lttp://www.oslo.poleml.net, lttp://www.weloslo.com
62. OL1LHHLHHLL APALCKHL
JMHPATL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Alu Llali, Lelma Street, Corner witl Karama Street
P. O. Box 2334, AB\ LHAB, \niteu Aral mirates
Jel.: (0-0971 2) 4465200
!ax: (0-0971 2) 4462967
e-mail: polemlemirates.net.ae, polcon99emirates.net.ae
lttp://www.plemlassy.gov.ae
19O
63. HAKHCTAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Liplomatic nclave , Street 24, G-5/4
P. O. Box. 1032, SLAMABAL, Palistan
Jel.: (0-09251) 2279491, 2279493
!ax: (009251) 2279498, 2825442
e-mail polemlusl.net.pl
lttp://www.islamalau.poleml.net
64. HAHAMA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Repullica ue Polonia
Bella Vista, Calle 47, uificio Vista Marina, Piso 2
Apartauo Postal 0816-03505, Panama, Repullica ue Panama
Jel.: (0-0507) 2636254, 2635097
!ax: (0-0507) 2233717
e-mail: polamlcwpanama.net
lttp://www.emlajauauepolonia.net
65. HLPV
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Aveniua Salaverry 1978, ]es6s Mara
LMA 11, Per6
Jel.: (0-0511) 4713920
!ax: 4713925, 4714813
e-mail: consrplimaamauta.rcp.net.pe
lttp://www.polonia.org.pe
66. HOPTVIAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlaixaua ua Rep6llica ua Polonia
Av. uas Lescolertas 2
1400-092 LSBOA, Portugal
Jel.: (0351 21) 3041410, 3014200, 3012350
!ax: (0351 21) 3041429
e-mail: eml.poloniamail.telepac.pt,
lrl.lizlonamail.telepac.pt, wel.lizlonamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.eml-polonia.pt,
lttp://www.negociosnapolonia.com
67. PLCHVLHKA KOPL
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
70, Sagan-uong, ]ongno-gu,
110-190 SO\L, Repullic of Korea
Jel.: (0-082 2) 7239681
!ax: (0-082 2) 7239680
e-mail: emlassypolanuseoul.org, filipllornet.net
lttp://www.polanuseoul.org, lttp://www.luypolanu.or.lr
68. POCCH (POCCHHCKA 4LLPAJH)
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Klimasllina 4, 123557 MOSCOW, Russian !eueration
Jel.: centrala (0-07495) 2311500, 2311511
!ax: 2311515, 2311555
e-mail: emlassypolanueml.ru, polanupolwel.ru,
wel.moslwamgip.gov.pl, wel.moslwa-raucamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polanueml.ru, lttp://www.polwel.ru
69. PVMLHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
al. Alexanuru 23
Sector 1, B\CHARSJ, Romania
Jel.: (0-040 21) 3082200
!ax: 2307832
e-mail: amlasaualulareszt.ro, welpol.ro ,
wel.lularesztmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.lulareszt.ro, lttp://www.polonia.ro
7O. CAVOBCKA APABH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Aluullal Bin Lzafar Street, House No.20
Al-Wooroou Listrict Riyaul (Rijau)
P.O. Box 94016, RYALH 11693, Sauui Aralia
Jel.: (0-0966 1) 4549274, 4508889
!ax: (0-0966 1) 4549210
e-mail: rijauamlslalalal.net.sa
lttp://www.polanuemlassy.org.sa
71. CLHLIA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
Villa 'les Ailes !ann Resiuence x Cornicle Ouest
LAKAR BP 343, Senegal
Jel.: (0-0221) 8252403, 8242354
!ax: (0-0221) 8249526
e-mail: amlassaue.plsentoo.sn
lttp://www.amlassaue-pologne.sn
72. CLPLH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
ul. Kneza Milosa 38, 11000 BOGRAL, Serlia
Jel.: (0-0381 11) 2065318
!ax: (0-0381 11) 3616939
e-mail: amlrpfrjeunet.yu
191
73. CHHIAHVP
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
435 Orclaru Roau
17-02/03, Wisma Atria
SNGAPOR 238877
Jel.: (0-065) 62359478
!ax: (0-065) 62359479
e-mail: polisl_emlassypacific.net.sg
lttp://www.singapore.poleml.pl
74. CHPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
P.O. Box 501
Alou Rumanel, Basla` Aluin Aita Str.
LAMASC\S, Syria
Jel.: (0-0963 11) 3316098, 3333010
!ax: (0-0963 11) 3315318
e-mail: polemlasmail.sy
lttp://www.uamaszel.poleml.net
75. COBAKH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
Hummelova 4, 814 91 BRAJSLAVA, Slovaquie
Jel.: (0-0421 2) 54413175, 54413174, 54412142, 54413196
54412422, 54413221
!ax: (0-0421 2) 54413184
e-mail: lratamplnextra.sl, welpolaml.sl
lttp://www.polslevelvyslanectvo.sl, lttp://www.wel.polaml.sl
76. COBLHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Bezigrau 10
1000 L]\BL]ANA, Slovenia
Jel: (0-0386 1) 4364712
!ax: (0-0386 1) 4362521
e-mail: amlpol.sisiol.net
lttp://www.polanu-emlassy.si
77. COLHHLHHLL HTATL AMLPHKH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
2640 16tl Street, N.W. WASHNGJON, L.C. 20009, \SA
Jel.: (0-01 202) 2343800
!ax: (0-01 202) 3286271
e-mail: poleml.infoeartllinl.net, economicioip.com
lttp://www.polanuemlassy.org
78. TAHAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
100/81-82, Vongvanij Builuing B, 25tl !loor
Rama 9 Roau, Huaylwang
BANGKOK 10310, Jlailanu
Jel.: (0-066) 26450367-9
!ax: (0-066) 26450365
e-mail: ampollllasiaaccess.net.tl
lttp://www.poleml.or.tl
79. TAHBAHL
Ha oc+one ne+ nn nonicioio (nnnoxa+nnecioio
ne(c+ann+enic+na, nn ioncynic+na. B cnynaxx
+e6ymmnx noxomn xono cnx:a+icx c (enc+nymmnx
n Tan6in Bamancinx +oionix 6mo.
Bamancioe +oionoe 6mo n Tan6in
Warsaw Jraue Office in Jaipei
Jaipei Worlu Jraue Center Blug.
No. 333, Keelung Ru., Sec. 1, 20-tl !loor, Room 2006
JAP 110, Jaiwan
Jel.: (0-0886 2) 27220139, 27225364
!ax: (0-0886 2) 27220557
e-mail: warsaw.officemsa.linet.net
lttp://www.polanu.org.tw
8O. TAH3AHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
63 Alyllan Roau, \panga
LAR S SALAAM, Janzania
P. O. Box 2188
Jel.: (0-0255 22) 2115271
!ax: (0-0255 22) 2115812
e-mail: polamlwingrouptz.com, polintafrica.com
81. TVHHC
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
5, mpasse N1, Rue ue Coruoue
2092 l Manar , J\NS, Junisie
Jel.: (0-0216 71) 873837, 874843
!ax: (0-0216 71) 872987
e-mail: aml.polognewanauoo.tn,
amlwel.tunisplanet.tn, welplanet.tn
lttp://www.amlassauepologne.pl,
lttp://www.pologne.intl.tn
192
82. TVPJH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Atatirl Bulvari No.241
Kavalliuere, ANKARA, Jurley
Jel.: (0-090 312) 4572000, 4572001
!ax: (0-090 312) 4678963
e-mail: polamlsuperonline.com, welamlaua.net.tr,
wel.anlarasuperonline.com,
commuivisionistlotmail.com.tr
lttp://www.polonya.org.tr, lttp://www.polonya.org.tr/wel
83. V3LLKHCTAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
!iruavsiy 66 str., Yunasalausliy Rayon
700084 Jasllent, \zlelistan
Jel.: (0-0998 71) 1208650
!ax: (0-0998 71) 1208651
e-mail: amlasaualcc.com.uz, wel-amllcc.com.uz
lttp://www.taszlent.poleml.net
84. VKPAHHA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
]aroslawiw Wal 12
01034 KV-34, \lraine
Jel.: (0-0380 44) 2300700
!ax: (0-0380 44) 2706336
e-mail: amlasauapolsla.com.ua, welamlulrnet.net,
welliyvoliacalle.com wel.lijowmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.polsla.com.ua,
lttp://users.auamant.net/-welaml
85. VPVIBAH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
]orge Canning 2389
C.P. 11600 Monteviueo, \ruguay
Jel.: (0-0598 2) 4801313, 4801151
!ax: (0-0598 2) 4873389
e-mail: amlmontenetgate.com.uy
lttp://www.emlajauapoloniauruguay.com
86. 4HHHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Armas Linugrenin tie 21
00570 Helsinli, !inlanu
Jel.: (0-0358 9) 618280, 61828140
!ax: (0-0358 9) 6847477
e-mail: aml.polanulelsinli.inet.fi,
wel.lelsinlilolumlus.fi, officepoltraue.fi,
wel.lelsinlimgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.lelsinli.poleml.net
87. 4PAHJH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Amlassaue ue la Repullique ue Pologne
1 rue ue Jalleyranu
75007 PARS, !rance
Jel.: (0-033 1) 43173405
!ax: (0-033 1) 43173407
e-mail: infoamlassaue.pologne-org.net,
infoeco.aml-pologne.fr
lttp://www.amlassaue.pologne.net,
lttp://www.eco.aml-pologne.fr
88. XOPBATH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
ul. Krlezin Gvozu 3, 10000 Zagrel, Croatia
Jel.: (0-0385 1) 4899444
!ax: (0-0385 1) 4834577
e-mail: amlasaua-polslazg.ltnet.lr,
amlasaua-polslazg.t-com.lr wel.zagrelzg.ltnet.lr,
wel.zagrzelmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.amlasauapoljsla.lr,
lttp://www.welzagrel.com.lr
89. HLXH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Valustejnsla 8, 118 01 Prala 1, Czecl Repullil
Jel.: (0-0420 2) 57099500
!ax: (0-0420 2) 57530399
e-mail: amlrpczeclymlox.vol.cz, welwel.cz,
wel.pragamgip.gov.pl, wel.pragamgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.prague.poleml.net, lttp://www.wel.cz
193
9O. HHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlajaua ue la Rep6llica ue Polonia
Mar uel Plata 2055, Comuna Proviuencia
SANJAGO, Clile
Jel.: (0-056 2) 2041213, 2690212
!ax: (0-056 2) 2049332, 3418648
e-mail: emlclileentelclile.net
lttp://www.santiagoueclile.poleml.net,
lttp://www.polonia.cl, lttp://www.emlpolonia.cl
91. HBLHJAPH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
Botsclaft uer Repullil Polen
lfenstrasse 20A
3000 BRN 15, Sclweiz
Jel.: (0-041 31) 3580202
!ax: (0-041 31) 3580216
e-mail: polislemluial.eunet.cl, postmasterwel-pl-lern.cl,
wel.lernomgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.lerno.poleml.net, lttp://www.wel-pl-lern.cl
92. HBLJH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Karlavgen 35, S-114 31 SJOCKHOLM, Sweuen
Jel.: (0-046 8) 50575000
!ax: (0-046 8) 50575086
e-mail: info.polentele2.se, infopolcommerce.com,
wel.sztollolmmgip.gov.pl
lttp://www.poleml.se, lttp://www.polcommerce.com
93. JCTOHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Suur Karja 1/Vana Jurg 2/4
10140 JALLNN, stonia
Jel.: (0-0372) 6278206, 6604378
!ax: (0-0372) 6445221, 6445221
e-mail: poola.infomail.ee, poolapoola.ee
lttp://www.tallin.poleml.net
94. J4HOHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
Bole Sul-City, Kelele 03, House No. 2111/00
P.O.Box 27207/1000, ALLS ABABA, tliopia
Jel.: (0-0251 11) 6185401
!ax: (0-0251 11) 6610000
e-mail: polemletlionet.et
lttp://www.auuisalela.poleml.net
95. KXHO-A4PHKAHCKA
PLCHVLHKA
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
PO BOX 12277 Queenswoou 0121
14 Amos Street, Collyn 0083, PRJORA, Soutl Africa
Jel.: (0-027 12) 4302621
!ax: (0-027 12) 4302608
e-mail: aml.polpixie.co.za, lrlpljlliafrica.com,
officepoltraue.org.za,
lttp://www.lrljll.org.za, lttp://www.poltraue.org.za
96. HOHH
Hoconic+no Pecny6nnin Honima
mlassy of tle Repullic of Polanu
2-13-5 Mita, Meguro-lu,
JOKYO 153-0062, ]apan
Jel.: (0-081 3) 57947020, 57947050
!ax: (0-081 3) 57947024, 57947053
e-mail: polamlpolanu.or.jp, lrltoliointer.net
lttp://www.polanu.or.jp