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NYSE, NASDAQ, AMEX

2012
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NYSE
NYSE
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1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
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1. .
2. .
3. DJIA
.
Limit order.
Market order.
bid-ask
Stop order.
(Charts).
.
.
(line chart).
(bar chart).
(Japanese Candlesticks).
/ (support/resistance).
(trends).
.
(channel).
(Moving Averages, MA).
.
.
.

1
2
4
4
7
10
13
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35
35
36
37
39
41
44
45
47
48
49
49
2

.
51
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51
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52
.
52
1. (Doji)
52
2. (Hanging Man)/ (Hammer)
54
3. (Shooting Star)/ (Inverted Hammer)
56
4. / (Bearish/Bullish Engulfing)
57
5. (Harami)
58
.
59
(continuation patterns
59
(triangle)
59
(flag)
61
(pennant)
62
(uncertainty pattern)
63
(symmetrical triangle)
63
(reverse patterns)
64
(head & shoulders)
64
(double/triple top)
65
(double/triple bottom)
66
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67
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68
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68
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68
( ).
72
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73
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74
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76
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76
AZN, BRL, FRX, LLY, MRK, WYE, WLP, AET
78
, .
78




, , ,
. ,
.


,
, .
- .
, ,
.
.
, . .
, .
(technical analysis)
(Japanese candlesticks).
, .
, , ,
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, .
II .. .
XIII . XVI
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4

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.

USA

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), National Association of Stock Dealers


Automated Quotation (NASDAQ), AMEmerican eXchange (AMEX) etc.

Europe

London Stock Excnange (LSE), Deutche Burse, EuroNext etc.

Asia

Tokyo Stock Exchange, Hong Kong Stock Exchange etc.

NYSE

17 1792 . 24 ,
-
.
.
.
.
( ).
(listed company),
, Bank of New York (NYSE ticker: BK).
1792 .
.
1868 .
(member seats) .
1869
(listing standards) , .
1871 .
.

(trading floor), .
(specialist).
1896 -.
12 , 40,74.
1907 -
Knickerbocker Trust
. . . ,
,
.
.

1915
, , .
.
1929 29 .

. ,
, .
. : .
,
. ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
.
. - .
.
,
.
- 11% .
.
3 89% 3 1929 ,
.
1934 (SEC).

.

1971

, 1336 (members).
1953 .
,
.
1975 SEC ,
.
1976 (odd lots). ,
100 .
1995 3
3 .
.
1996 CNBC CNN-FN .
20 .
1996 (VIP),
.
24 1997 .
- 12,5 .
28 2000 7 . 29
2001 .
,
.
21 2000 Direct+. 2004
.
2001 , .
(ETF exchange-traded fund),
, .
1934 , UTP (Unlisted Trading Privileges).
2002 NYSE OpenBook.
24 2005 .
3 .
1 2005
- $4 .
9

.
7 2006 NYSE ArcaEx, ,
NYSE Group, Inc., (for-profit, publiclyowned company).
.
NYX.
Archipelago Holdings
NYSE . ,
,
.
. , , Lucent Technologies (LU),
, Direct+ - .
, ,
.
2,5 .
$60 .

NYSE

NYSE Wall Street -,
. (members): (floor
brokers) .
NYSE.
. MarkeTrac www.nyse.com
.

10

1. .

.
, ,
. (trading posts),
, (panel).
, .
. 20 ,
30 .
30 (!). 10 . .
.
.

11

, .
.
(brokerage office) . ,
, ,
.
. ,
.
.

. .
, ,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
- . :
1.

Morgan Stanley

2.

Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

3.

Merrill Lynch&Co., Inc.

4.

Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc.


. ,
, .
.
, NYSE
.
.
7 (NYSE Specialist Firm),
:
1.

Banc of America Specialist

2.

Bear Wagner Specialists LLC

3.

Kellogg Specialist Group


12

4.

LaBranche & Co. LLC

5.

Spear, Leeds & Kellogg Specialists LLC

6.

SIG Specialists, Inc.

7.

Van der Moolen Specialists, USA LLC

. ,
,
. .
, .
, . ,
, . ,

10

.
, , .
( ) ,
. , ,
. , -
.
, , ,
SEC. .

.
.
, ,
.
, .
1.

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.
.

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.
13

2.

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3.

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, .

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, -
, .
14

4.

,
.
,
.
NYSE
NASDAQ, .
, .
,
,
, (stop-loss).
, .
,
.

.
Primary market
,
(IPO) ,
(primary stock market). ,
(listing)
. Nasdaq Stock Market, New York Stock Exchange American
Exchange.
NYSE NASDAQ
.
.
NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation.
, . , ,
.
.
NASDAQ , .
. ,
, .. . ,
,
15

(market maker). NASD


(National Association of Scurities Dealers )
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission ,
).
,
, .
, NYSE.
NYSE
,
. NASDAQ market makers ,
,
. ,
bid offer. , NYSE market maker
, . NASDAQ
,
NASD. ,
, .
market makers.
market makera NASDAQ
, NYSE.
,

NYSE, .

NASDAQ , , .
. ,

, . .
, ,
market maker ,
, , NYSE.
, ,
.
AMEX
AMEX NYSE.
, . ,
16


NYSE, AMEX.
1998 NASDAQ AMEX. AMEX

.
.
.
Secondary Market
Regional Stock Exchanges

.
, .
,
.
, NYSE NASDAQ.
, .
, NYSE.
Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia.
Cincinnati Stock Exchange, , Pacific Exchange,

.
Third Market.
ECNs
Electronic Communication Networks .
,
- market maker
. .
ECN .
.

.

17

.
Hybrid Market, NYSE Group 2006

.

. , .
,
. ,
, . ,
(tick tests), .

LRPs
(Liquidity Replenishing Points, LRPs) 2
( ), 30 ,
.
. ,
.
,
. ,
(slow quote),
,
.
10 5 .

,
. .
, .

.
1.

Institutions -
, .
, .
18


. 95% .
:
1.

, ,
, .
.
2.

(mutual funds) ,


. .

, .
3.


.
-, .
.
4.

,
.
, ,
, .
(unit
investment trust), , ,
.
,
.
5.


, :
(IPO Initial Public Offering),

19

..
,
.
.
6.


, ..
. .
,
. .

2.

, .
, ,

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, .

3.

, .

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,
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,
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,
.
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.

20

4.

,
, . ,
.
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission ,
( ).
,
( ), ,
.
, ,
.

, -
.
, , ,
. .
, .
.
.
.
. SEC
.
, ,
. ,
,
, .
,
.
, ,
.
, SEC
,
.
.

21

SEC
Enron. , ,
.
, .
.
.
2006 24 .

The FED
Federal Reserve System (), FED,
. FED 1913
, .
12 . New York, Richmond, Boston,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis, Atlanta, Dallas, Minneapolis, Kansas City, San
Francisco.
FED (Board of Governors).
,

.
FED . .

.
80-.
. 2006 80 .
ECB (European Central Bank), .
.
FED :
-
,
.

,
.
22


, .
,
,
.
FED, ,
(interest rate). , , ,
. , FED ,
. ,
. ,
.

(FOMC, Federal Open Market Committee).
, ,
. -
. FED,
. ,
12 , , FED,
, .
2,25%. ,
,
.

NASD
National Association of Securities Dealers
. .
, .
, , .
, .
FDA, FCC etc.
,
. , ,
.
.
Food and Drug Administration .
23

Federal Communications Commission


.
..

.
. ,
. .

.
, .

1.

,
, . (,
), (, ), ..
1. Dow Jones Industrial Average 30

, .. ( )
.

MicroSoft (MSFT), NASDAQ. ,
DJ30 ( )
Pentium Intel (INTC). 28 Exxon
Mobil General Electric NYSE.
-
, .
, ,
- ,
. 10 1928 . "
". -

" ",
, 10
24

, , .

. 1884 11 .
, .
,
2. S&P 500 ( ) 500
, Standard and Poors.
7 .
.
. ,
, 70% .
3. NASDAQ Composite, NYSE Composite ,
NASDAQ NYSE.
.

2.

.
,
.
:
1. :
$XOI AMEX oil index ( American Exchange);
$OSX PHLX oil service sector index ( ,
Philadelphia Exchange);
2. :
$STQ PHLX Steel Producers index (
Philadelphia Exchange);
$GDM AMEX Gold Miners index ( , ,
American Exchange).
.

25

,

.
1. - $BKX;
2. - $HMO;
3. - $RLX;
4. - $XAL;
5. - $DRG;
..

3.

DJIA

AA

Alcoa Inc. Common Stock

8.56

11,203,883

AXP

American Express Company Common

55.63

2,581,617

BA

Boeing Company (The) Common Sto

72.25

2,470,489

BAC

Bank of America Corporation Com

7.57

102,710,070

CAT

Caterpillar, Inc. Common Stock

85.99

5,696,848

CSCO

Cisco Systems, Inc.

16.76

19,873,997

CVX

Chevron Corporation Common Stoc

100.94

3,299,405

DD

E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Com

49.33

1,940,376

DIS

Walt Disney Company (The) Commo

46.53

3,682,020

GE

General Electric Company Common

19.45

22,077,912

HD

Home Depot, Inc. (The) Common S

51.59

8,420,989

HPQ

Hewlett-Packard Company Common

21.58

7,628,330

IBM

International Business Machines

194.32

1,524,564

INTC

Intel Corporation

26.67

18,085,134

JNJ

Johnson & Johnson Common Stock

64.11

79,576,316

JPM

JP Morgan Chase & Co. Common St

34.62

51,905,323

KFT

Kraft Foods Inc. Common Stock

38.51

3,419,620

KO

Coca-Cola Company (The) Common

74.93

2,859,823

MCD

McDonald's Corporation Common S

88.39

6,020,223

MMM

3M Company Common Stock

86.61

1,395,494

26

MRK

Merck & Company, Inc. Common St

38.54

7,164,065

MSFT

Microsoft Corporation

29.35

18,104,487

PFE

Pfizer, Inc. Common Stock

22.27

16,577,614

PG

Procter & Gamble Company (The)

62.61

4,129,899

AT&T Inc.

34.95

16,466,511

TRV

The Travelers Companies, Inc. C

61.87

1,059,852

UTX

United Technologies Corporation

73.87

5,622,950

VZ

Verizon Communications Inc. Com

43.05

6,951,097

WMT

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Common St

67.36

6,223,502

XOM

Exxon Mobil Corporation Common

81.15

7,175,911

27

.
: Limit
order; Market order; Stop order.

Limit order.
limit order
, . ,
10 , (.. ) 10 .
,
Book .
Bid ,
Ask. ,
.

.
. Ask,
,
, .
,
.
,
.

Market order.
, ,
, . , Buy market ABC 500,
, 500 ABC ,
. , .
.
,
bid-ask.

28

bid-ask. bidask, ,
.
- (NYSE)
:

Symbol
ABC
XYZ
LLL

Trade
price
48.23
73.13
24.66

Trade
size
5
1
7

Bid x ask size


Bid - ask
48.23 - 48.26
73.09 73.14
24.65 24.67

12 8
5 25
2 18

Volume
57800
112600
359400

.
Symbol . , NYSE, ,
3 . , ATK, LEN, V, GD. NYSE,
NASDAQ 4 , .
, MSFT, AMZN, YHOO.
Trade price . Trade price
.
Trade size .
Bid , ( ),
.
Ask , ( ),
.
Bid size , , ,
Bid, .
. 100 . , 12,
1200 . Ask size.
Ask size , .
Volume .
ABC. ,
1200 48.23 . ,
, 600 ,
1200 , , 12 100 .
29

bid size ask size


, ,
. , , bid
. ,
, , 48.20.
. Ask ,
. 800 . ask
,
. , 48.30.
:
48.32
20
48.30
3
ABC 48.23 500 48.23 - 48.26 12 8 57800
48.20
8
48.18
2
, .
, , , 48.23 1200 , bid,
, 48.20
, , , 700 ,
( ),
:
ABC 48.23 500

48.23 - 48.26 12 8 57800

ABC 48.23 700 48.23 48.26 5 x 8 58500


, . -, ,
trade size. 500, 700.
700 . -, bid size. 12,
1200 , 5, 500 . ,
700 , , 12-7=5.
500 (5 100 ). -, ,
. 57800, 700 ,
58500. ,
.

30

. , -
1000 .
:
ABC 48.23 700 48.23 48.26 5 x 8 58500

ABC 48.30 200 48.23 48.30 5 x 1 59500


, . ,
48.26 800 . 48.30,
300 .
. 800 48.26, 1000
, ( ), 200
48.30. , Trade
price 48.30, trade size 200.
48.30 300 , , , , .
ask size = 1. , ,
59500.
.
.
, 300 ABC 48.24,
buy limit ABC 48.24 300. . :
ABC 48.30 200 48.23 48.30 5 x 1 59500

ABC 48.30 200 48.24 48.30 3 x 1 59500


, .
, bid bid size. bid,
. 48.23.
, 48.24, 48.23,
.
ABC 48.30 200 48.23 48.30 5 x 1 59500

ABC 48.30 200 48.23 48.30 8 x 1 59500


31

,
bid size. 500 , 800.
, , - .
. , ,
. , 600 ,
, , ( bid)
500 , , .
:
ABC 48.23 600 48.23 48.30 2 x 1 60100
, 600 , ,
, 200 . 300
.
:

Bid ask, , - .

Bid , .
. ( ), ,
.

Ask , .
. ( )
.

,
.

,
.
bid ask bid-ask spread. .

, ,
. , , ,
( bid ask)
. .
Trade price. Trade price -
, bid ask

32

. , -
,
.

Stop order.
Stop .
.

, .. ,
( )
. stop (
).
, .
. , ,
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
. ,
, - .
. , ,
, , c , ,
(trade price) ,
. , 39.90 39.80,
39.80, .
, 39.80, 10 .
, ,
. , , 39.80,
, . trade price
, ( trigger), ,
, ( )
, . .
:
ABC 48.23 600 48.23 48.30 2 x 1 60100
33

, ( )
48.23 48.13. , , .
- . :
ABC 48.13 300 48.12 48.16 5 x 3 62300
Trade price 48.13,
, .
.
48.12. , 48.13,
48.12.

(Charts).
.
-
(technical analysis).
. , , .
. .

.

, .
: () ().
, .. ,
.
4 :
(open price);
(close price);
(high);
(low);

34


, .. = 0,5*(open+close);
, .. = 0,5*(high+low)
.
.

NYSE 1 , 5 , 10 , 15 , 30 , 1
, 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 .
,
1 , 1 1
. ,
.
.
.
,
.
, ,
.
, 1, 5, 15 . :
(.. , );
(.. ,
).

.
(line chart).
.
.
(close line).
.

35

(bar chart).

. .
.
,
(HLC high, low, close).
, ,
(OHLC open, high, low, close).



2. "" OHLC

, ,
.
, - , .. .
,
.

36

(Japanese Candlesticks).
.
, ,
.
, - OHLC.
4 . ,
, ,
.
, , ,
:
, ,

( ).
, ,
( ).

37

:
(4 ).
, , (
).
(
).
,
,
.
, -
.
, .

38

/
(support/resistance).
,
, .
.
/ , /
. .
:

, ;
;

, ;
.
, ,
, .
:
( 1), ..
;
( 2), ..
( )
, ;
( 3), ..
.
,
. ,
,
, (volume spike).
.

39

.
2 , 2
, 1 /.
:

.
, -, ,
; -, ,
,
;
.
, ,

, (channel).
.
:
.
, .
, .
.
, .
.
. .
40

(trends).
,
: ()
() .
(trend)
:
( - uptrend);

( downtrend);

( side trend, flat) , .

41

- .
, .. ,
.
. ,
, .
.
, ,
. .
1. .

), ( ) ( ).
2. .
, :
, .
()
. ,
. -
,
, .
.
.
.
3. .
.
, .
.
4. .
42


- ($INDU) - ($TRAN).
,
. ,
.
5. .
, .

.
,
.

.
.
6. ,
.
:
. , ,
, .
.

:
? , , , ,
.
.
,
. ,
.. , .
, .

43


( )
.
.

, ,
.
,

.

.
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, , /
.
. -
, .
.

44

(uptrend) (downtrend)
. .
, - ,
(resistance level), .. , ,
. ,
.
, (support level),
.. , , .
,
.

, . , ,
, .
.

(channel).
.
. ,
.

, .
, . .

45

.
, .
, uptrenda, downtrenda.

3. uptrend'e

46

4. uptrend'e.

(Moving Averages, MA).


, uptrende
downtrende. ,
.

. 10, 20, 50, 200.
.
n- :
(Simple Moving Average, SMA)
n /n.
n .
S ,
: .
(Exponential Moving Average, EMA)
EMA(t) = EMA(t 1) + (K x [Price(t) 47

EMA(t 1)]), t , t 1
, K = 2 / (n + 1).
,
, , .
.
, , , , ..

.

, ,
. MA
. MA .

.

. .

48

.
. ,
. , .
. ,
uptrend, 5- downtrend.
?
, .. ,
, .
, . :

, .
, uptrend, ,
. .
,
.
, ,
,
.

.
.
. , - .
.
uptrende
. downtrende
.
uptrenda .

. .
(stop loss) .
.
49

,
, .
.
.
, .
.

,
. ,
.
, , .

50

.

. (
. chart).
.

,
,
.

.
,
17-18 .
,
(, ),
, .
, ,
, , .

.
. :
.
, ,

, .
/
.
().

, ,
, ,
.
.
51

,
,
.

.
. ,

,
.
.
.
:
. .

.

,
. .
1.

(Doji)

, , .. .
, .
, .

(Gravestone Doji)

52

..

.
uptrenda .
, .. ,
- .

(Dragon Fly Doji)

, , ..
. uptrenda
.
, .. ,
- .

53

2.

(Hanging Man)/ (Hammer)

uptrenda (), downtrenda


().
, , - ,
. , . .
.
uptrenda , .
, .. , .

54

downtrenda , .
, .. , .

55

3.

(Shooting Star)/

(Inverted Hammer)

uptrenda ( ), downtrenda
( ).
, , - ,
. , . .
.
uptrenda , .
, .. , .
downtrenda , .
, .. , .

56

4.

/ (Bearish/Bullish Engulfing)

. .
. .
:
( uptrenda) ;
( downtrenda) .
.

57

5.

(Harami)

. .
. :
( uptrenda) ,
;
( downtrenda) ,
.
.

58

.
.
. .

(continuation patterns)
(triangle)
(ascending triangle)


.
, ,
. ,
, . - .

59

(descending triangle)


.
, ,
. ,
, . - .

60

(flag)


.
, , .
uptrenda - , ,
. - .

downtrenda - ,
, . - .

61

(pennant)

.
. .
uptrenda , ,
. - .
downtrenda ,
, . - .

62

(uncertainty pattern)
(symmetrical triangle)


.
, ,
.
uptrenda, downtrenda ,
. ,
.
uptrenda - , ,
. - .
downtrenda - ,
, . - .

63

(reverse patterns)
(head & shoulders)

.
uptrend, downtrend.
, .
, .
uptrenda - , ,
. - .
downtrenda - , ,
. - .

64

(double/triple top)

() ()
uptrend.
, .
, , . -
.

65

(double/triple bottom)

() ()
downtrend.
, .
, , . -
.

66

.
,
. ,
. , ,
.
.
,
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GDP
Gross Domestic Product ( ) -
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56% GDP

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14% GDP

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GDP
advance estimate.
preliminary estimate.
- revised estimate.
GDP (GDP deflator, implicit price
deflator for GDP = IPD for GDP). = ( / )
* 100. ,
. ,
. M-5.

CPI
Consumer Price Index. (
).
.
. 1982-1984 .,
100. CPI :

- 42%;

- 18%;

- 17%;

- 6%;

- 6%;

- 4%;

- 7%.

, ,
, CPI ,
69

.
CPI ,
.
CPI (core CPI).
CPI
. CPI , .
, . CPI ,
,
. CPI . 13
. M-5.
PPI
Production Price Index. .
. CPI,
. PPI 3450
. , PPI 100, 1982 .
PPI :

- 40%;

- 26%;

- 25%;

- 9%.

PPI CPI - ,
, . ,
. PPI (core
PPI). PPI
. . M-5.
Employment report
. :
60000 ( );
- (375000), non-farm
payrolls, average workweek ( ), average hourly earnings
( ) .. 1- .

70

Non-farm payrolls.

. :
.

, .
. .
non-farm payrolls, .
, non-farm payrolls
,

. M-5.
Initial claims (Jobless claims).
.
, / .
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30 . M-3.
Employment cost index

.
1989 , 100. ECI
,
, . , ECI -
. ECI
. 4 . M-3.
Consumer confidence.

.
. .
,
.
, . 100 1985
. - 5 .
, .
71


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University Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index

. 500
. . ,
. Consumer Confidence,
. . M-4.

Durable orders .
. 2 .
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. M-4.

( ).
Chicago PMI, NAPM
Production Managers Index, National Association of Purchasing Managers Index.
Chicago PMI NAPM,
, Chicago PMI - .
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NAPM, NAPM.
"", "", "
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. M-4.
72

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, ,
Federal Reserve.
, . . M-4.

.
Construction Spending
.
.
. S-3, M-2.
Housing starts and building permits
.
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,
.
.
. 16
. S-4, M-2.
Existing home sales
. 5
. S-4, M-2.
New home sales
,
. S-4, M-2.
Auto Sales

() . 1 . S-4, M-0.

Retail sales.
.
,
,
73

.
, , . S-4, M-3.
Personal income and consumption.
.
,
. S-4(retail), M-3.

.
Industrial production
, .
.
. . M-4.
International trade
. /.
20 . M-2.
Leading indicators
,
-
. . M-3.
Treasury budget
. (
). M-1.
Capacity Utilization
, .
.
. 1 . M-2.
Wholesale trade
. ,
, . M1.
Consumer credit

74

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75

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McAfee 15%. 5
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76

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NYSE. www.nyse.com.
market movers ,
.
Industrial sector.
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..
TXT, ETN, GE ..
: $DJUSIN (Industrial Index)
Retail.
,
.
.
TLB, COH, AAP, MIK, AZO, WMT, ABS, CPG ..
Market mover: Wal-Mart (WMT)
: $RLX
Oil-gas.
Oil-gas ,
, , , .
MUR, BJS, UCL, SC, RD, KMI, KMG, XOM
Market mover: Exxon Mobile (XOM)
: $XOI, $OSX
Construction .
,
.
LEN, KBH, CTX, RYL, BZH, FCR, JEC
:$HGX
Drugs/Medicine/Healthcare/Pharmaceuticals

77

.
AZN, BRL, FRX, LLY, MRK, WYE, WLP, AET
: $DRG, $HMO
Finance/Brokerages/Insurance/Banks
, , :
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FNM, SLM, FRE, JHF, STU, AMG
: $XBD, $BKX, $INSR
Defense/Airspace
-, , -
, , ..
.
BA, ATK, GD, LMT, NOC, UDI, COL
: $DFI
Technology/Telecommunications
, ,
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CCU, COX, ETM, NOK
: $DJUSCT

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81

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