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# EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

A.R.ENGINEERING COLLEGE VILLUPURAM DEPARTMENRT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK

## SUB.CODE: EC2301 YEAR : III

BRANCH SEM

: ECE :V

UNIT-I DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM PART-A 1. Why digital to analog modulation is needed? 2. Define digital transmission. 3. Define multiplexing. 4. What is digital pulse modulation? 5. List out the different methods of pulse modulation techniques. 6. Define pulse width modulation. 7. List out the advantages of PWM. 8. Define sampling process. 9. Define Pulse Position Modulation. 10. What is pulse modulation? 11. What is the function of formatter and deformatter block in a digital system? 12. Define channel. What are the types of channel? 13. How can we improve BER? 14. Why we go for gram-schmidt orthogonalization procedure? 15. Define half-power bandwidth, noise-equivalent bandwidth. 16. Define absolute bandwidth. 17. State dimensionality theorem. 18. Write the application of the dimensionality theorem. 19. List out the mathematical models of communication channel.
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

20. State central- limit theorem. 21. State weiner-khinchine theorem. 22. Define WSS-wide sense-stationary process. 23. Which parameter is called figure of merits of a digital communication system and why? 24. What is distortionless transmission? 25. Define pulse position modulation (PPM) and list the advantages, dis advantages. 26. Define pulse position modulation (PAM) and list the advantages, dis advantages.

1. Draw a neat block diagram of a typical digital communication system and explain the function of the key signal processing blocks. 2. (i) distinguish between baseband and bandpass signaling. (ii) Explain binary symmetric channel and Gaussian channel with their mathematical models. 3. Explain how PWM and PPM signals are generated. 4. Classify channels. Explain the mathematical model of any two communication channels. 5. Using Gram-Schmidt process construction an orthonormal set of basis vectors of V3 (R) for the given vectors X1=[1-1 0]T , X2 =[2 -1 -2]T and X3=[1 -1 -2]T . 6. If X1 = [6 3 6] T , X2 = [4 6 2] T and X3 = [2 1 -6] find (a) Inner product of each pair, (b) the length of each vector (c) a vector orthogonal to both X1 and X2 (d) a vector orthogonal to both X1 and X3 (e) a vector orthogonal to both X2 and X3 7. (i) Explain the geometrical representation of signals. (ii) Explain GSOP procedure. 8. (i) Derive the expression of bandwidth of digital data. (ii) Explain the channels with respective representation. (iii) Explain the various definitions of bandwidth. 9. (i) Explain about the performance measure of digital communication system. (ii)Brief discussion about types of analog pulse communication system. 10. (i) what is uncertainty? Explain the difference between uncertainty and information. (ii) Give the model of discrete time memory less Gaussian channel and derive channel capacity for band limited additive white Gaussian channel. (10) (16) (8) (8) (8) (4) (4) (8) (8) (6) (16) (10) (16) (16) (16) (6)

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PART-B

## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

UNIT-II BASEBAND FORMATING TECHNIQUES PART-A 1. State sampling theorem. 2. List out the various encoding techniques for analog sources. 3. What is temporal waveform coding? What are the types of it? 4. What is spectral waveform coding? What are the types of it? 5. What is meant by Model based coding? 6. What is meant by idle channel noise? 7. What is meant by prediction error? 8. State band pass sampling theorem. 9. Define nyquest rate and nyquest interval. 10. What you mean by the term aliasing? 11. How to avoid aliasing? 12. Define quantization. 13. Define quantization noise (or) error. 14. Name the types of uniform quantizer? 15. Define mid tread quantizer? 16. Define mid-riser quantizer? 17. What you mean by non- uniform quantization? 18. Draw the quantization error for the mid tread and mid-rise type of quantizer? 19. What is the disadvantage of uniform quantization over the non-uniform quantization? 20. What do you mean by companding? Define compander. 21. Draw the block diagram of compander? Mention the types of companding? 22. What is PCM, TDM, DM, ADM, and DPCM? 23. Compare DM and PCM. 24. What are the advantages and disadvantages of PCM, TDM, DM, ADM and DPCM? 25. What is slope overload distortion? How it is reduced? 26. What is granular noise? How it is reduced? 27. What is the need for speech coding at low bit rates? 28. Define ADPCM. 29. Compare DPCM and PCM.
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

30. What is quadrature mirror filter (QMF)? 31. What is adaptive transform coding (ATC)? 32. What is the principle of linear predictor coder LPC)? 33. Compare digital pulse modulation methods. 34. Why is prefiltering done before sampling? 35. Define quantization noise power. PART-B

having a fourier transform x (f) which is zero outside the interval [- fm <f < +fm] 2. Explain in detail the various source coding technique for speech signal and compare their performance. 3. (i) Explain a non-uniform quantization process. (ii) Write notes on temporal waveform coding. 4. (i) Explain a spectral waveform encoding process. (ii) Compare various speeches encoding method. 5. Explain PCM and its types. 6. Explain delta modulation and its types. 7. Explain the following sampling technique with necessary waveform (i) Impulse sampling (ii) Natural sampling 8. Explain in detail about model based coding method. 9. A television signal has a bandwidth of 4.5MHZ. This signal is sampled, quantized and binary coded to obtain a PCM signal.

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(A) Determine the sampling rate if the signal is to be sampled at a rate 20% above nyquest rate. (B) If the samples are quantized into 1024 levels, determine the number of binary pulses required to encode each sample. (C)Determine binary pulse rate of the binary coded signal, and the minimum bandwidth required to transmit this signal. 10. (i) Illustrate with neat sketch about subband coding techniques and its implementation. (ii) Explain the noises in delta modulation systems. How to overcome this effect in delta modulation? (8) (8)

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1. State the nyquest sampling theorem. Demonstrate its validity for an analog signal x ( t)

## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

UNIT-III BASEBAND CODING TECHNIQUES PART-A 1. State Shannons theorem on channel capacity. 2. What is meant by coding? What is meant by channel coding? 3. List the four objectives of a channel code (or) error control code. 4. What are the types of error control methods?

6. What is meant by linear block code? Write its properties? 7. What is meant by syndrome of linear block code? 8. Write syndrome properties of linear block code? 9. What are the steps in the decoding procedure of linear block code? 10. Define hamming codes? Write properties of it? 11. What is hamming distance? 12. Define hamming weight, hamming distance and minimum distance. 13. What is a perfect code? 14. Find a code word for (3,1) repetition code. 15. What is a parity- check code? What are the types of it? 16. Define cyclic codes? Write its properties? 17. What are the advantages and disadvantages of cyclic codes? 18. What is convolutional code? 19. Differentiate block code and convolutional code. 20. What are the structural properties of convolutional code? 21. What is constraint length of convolutional code? What is code rate? 22. What is viterbi decoding scheme? 23. What are the limitations of viterbi decoding? 24. What is coding gain with reference to error control code? 25. What are the advantages of convolutional code? 26. What is meant by BCH Code? 27. What is meant by RS code? 28. List the features of RS code? 29. Define BSC.
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

30. What is BEC? 31. What is meant by line codes? 32. List the desirable properties of a line code? PART-B 1. (i) Assume a (2,1) convolutional coder with constraint length 6.draw the tree diagram, state diagram and trellis diagram for the assumed coder. (ii) Find the (7, 4) linear systematic block code word corresponding to 1101. Assume a (10)

2. Derive the power spectra of polar codes and on-off codes. Discuss their characteristics. 3. For (6, 3) systematic linear block code word, the code word comprises I1 ,I2,I3 ,P1,P2 ,P3 where the three parity check bits P1,P2 and P3 are formed from the information bits as follows: P1 = I1 P2 = I1 P3 = I2 Find (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The parity check matrix The generator matrix All possible code words. Minimum weight and minimum distance and The error detecting and correcting capability of the code. If the received sequence is 10000. Calculate the syndrome and decode the received sequence. 4. (i) Explain how encoding is done by convolutional codes with suitable example. (ii) Explain tree diagram, trellis diagram and state transition diagram of convolutional codes. 5. (i) Draw the diagram of 1/3 rate conventional encoder with constraint length 3. What is the generator polynomial of the encoder. Find the encoded sequence corresponding to the message sequence 10011. (ii) Find the generator matrix and parity check matrix of a (7, 4) hamming code. 6. (i) Explain the power spectra of unipolar NRZ and RZ. (ii) Find the generator matrix of (7, 4) cyclic code.
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

7. (i) construct a single error correcting (7,4) linear block code and the corresponding detecting table. (ii) Briefly describe the concept of error- free communication. 8. (i) list and explain the properties of line codes. (ii) Determine the generator polynomial g(x) for (7, 4) cyclic code, and find code vectors for the following data vectors 1010,1111 and 1000. 9. The parity check matrix of a particular (7, 4) linear block code is given by 1110100 H= 1101010 1011001 (a) Find the generator matrix (G). (b) List all the code vectors. (c) What is the minimum distance between code vector? (d) How many errors can be detected? How many errors can be corrected? 10. For 1 0 0 1 1 = m0 , m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 generate a code word using time domain approach. A 1/3 Rate convolutional code has the following generators: g1 = [1 0 0], g2 = [1 0 1], g3 = [1 1 1] Draw: (i) Encoder circuit, (iii) State diagram, (v) Code tree. 11. (i) Explain the transform domain approach analysis of convolutional code. (ii) Derive the power spectral density of polar signaling and explain. UNIT-IV BASEBAND RECEPTION TECHNIQUES PART-A 1. Differentiate noise, fading and idle channel noise. 2. List out important sources of noise. 3. What is base band transmission? What problems occurred in it? 4. What is correlator? 5. What is an optimum filter of matched filter? 6. What are the properties of matched filter? 7. How is transfer function of matched filter related to spectrum of output signal?
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

8. What is inter symbol interference? 9. What is the function of zero ISI? 10. State Nyquest criterion for zero ISI. 11. What is an idle Nyquest channel? 12. What is meant by raised cosine spectrum? What are the limitations of it? 13. Write the transfer function of raised cosine filter. 14. Mention the significance of raised cosine channel.

16. Define duo binary system? What are the drawbacks of it? 17. Why do we need equalization in base band transmission? 18. What are the two factors contribute to pulse distortion in switched telephone network? 19. Why do we need adaptive equalization in switched telephone network? 20. What is an eye pattern? 21. Draw an eye pattern and represent the ways in which it could be used to evaluate the performance of a base band transmission? 22. How is the eye pattern obtained in the CRO? 23. What is meant by power spectrum of a signal? 24. What is meant by adaptive equalization? 25. What is the need for a demodulator in case of base band signaling when the received waveforms are already in pulse like form? 26. Draw the NRZ and RZ code for the digital data 10110001. PART-B 1. What does the term equalization refer to? Explain how it is carried out by using transversal filters. 2. Derive the expression for bit error probability due to a matched filter. 3. (i) Define a matched filter and compare its functioning with a correlator. (ii) Explain how matched filter can maximize SNR for a given transmitted symbol. 4. Discuss on signal design for ISI elimination. 5. (i) draw the eye pattern and Explain the analysis of eye pattern. (ii) Discuss the error probabilities of binary base band signal. 6. Discuss on various types of noise in communication system. 7. Derive the expression for error probability of on-off and polar signaling.
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## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

8. (i) state Nyquest pulse shape criterion for zero ISI and explain. (ii) Draw the block diagram of duo-binary signaling scheme for controlled ISI. Explain the scheme with and without precoder. 9. (i) Explain zero- forcing equalizer with neat diagram. (ii) Explain the maximum likelihood detector. 10. (i) Explain the two operations modes of adaptive equalization.

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(ii) Explain about symbol synchronization technique used in base band transmission systems? (8)

BANDPASS SIGNAL TRANSMISSION AND RERCEPTION PART-A 1. Draw the functional model of pass band data transmission. 2. Distinguish between coherent and non-coherent receivers. 3. Draw the waveform for binary data sequence 101100 modulated under (a) ASK, (b) FSK, (c) PSK. 4. What is signal constellation diagram? 5. Define BPSK, QPSK, BFSK, MSK and DPSK. 6. Give signal space characteristic of QPSK. 7. Compare the relation between symbol and bits of all the scheme. 8. Compare the probability of error of the entire scheme. 9. Differentiate QPSK and MSK. 10. Define deviation ratio in MSK. 11. List the spectral properties of MSK. 12. What do you understand by CPFSK? 13. Why synchronization is needed? 14. What are the types of synchronization? 15. Bring out the difference between carrier recovery and clock recovery. 16. What are the applications of digital modulation technique? 17. Define QAM. 18. List out the applications of QAM. 19. What is data rate? 20. Define modulation rate.. 21. Define QAM and draw its constellation diagram. 22. A binary frequency shift keying system employs two signaling frequencies f1 and f2 . The lower
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UNIT-V

## EC 2301 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION

frequency f1 is 1200 Hz and signaling rate is 500 baud. Calculate f2 . PART-B 1. Derive the bit error probability due to coherent ASK, PSK and FSK systems. Compare the performance of these systems. 2. (i) Distinguish coherent and non-coherent detection. (ii) Explain non-coherent detection methods of binary frequency shift keying scheme. 3. (i) Explain binary PSK and QPSK with corresponding equations and constellation diagrams. (ii) Obtain the probability of bit error for coherently detected BPSK and compare its probability of bit error performance with QPSK scheme. 4. (i) discuss QPSK signaling. (ii) Derive the bit error probability due to QPSK receiver. Compare the performance of QPSK receiver with that of PSK receiver. 5. Draw the FSK transmitter and receiver and explain the error probabilities of FSK. 6. Explain the concept of coherent BPSK with transmitter and receiver block diagrams and obtain the expression for probability of error. 7. A set of binary data is sent at the rate of Rb = 100 kbps over a channel with 60 dB transmission loss and power spectral density = 10- 12 W/Hz at the receiver. Determine the transmitted Power for a bit error probability Pe = 10-3 for the following modulation schemes (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Coherent ASK non-coherent ASK FSK PSK DPSK 16 QAM. (6) (16) (16) (12) (16) (8) (4) (8) (16) (4) (12)

8. (i) derive the power spectral density of binary ASK signal. (ii) Draw the block diagram of QPSK transmitter and receiver. Explain the function of various block. 9. (i) Draw the functional block diagram of modulator for QAM and explain its operation. (ii) Derive the expression for error-probability of QAM system. 10. Explain in detail the minimum shift keying.
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