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THE AMERICAN PILOTS' ASSOCIATION


The Master-Pilot Information Exchange:
A Best Practices Summary
October 8, 1997
1.

Master-Pilot Conference

Each pilotage assignment should begin with a conference between the


pilot and the master.
The initial conference is an opportunity not only to exchange information
that the pilot and mastereach needs, but also for the pilot and the master to
establish an appropriate working relationship.
The conference should convey, and be consistent with, the principle that
216

the pilot and the master/bridge crew each has an important role in the navigation of
the vessel.
The amount and subject matter of the information to be exchanged in the
initial conference should be determined by the specific navigation demands of the
pilotage operation.
For some vessel movements, particularly those involving a long run or
difficult maneuvers at the beginning of the movement, not all relevant information
must, or should, be exchanged in the initial conference; additional information can
be exchanged as the movement proceeds.
2.

Pilot's Information Card ("MPX Card")

Pilot groups should consider developing information cards (MPX Cards)


for use by their members.
The pilot should give the card to the master at the time of the initial
conference and use it as the basis for discussion during the conference.
The card should supplement, not substitute for, the master-pilot
information exchange.
There should be a separate card for outbound and inbound movements,
also for shifting operations or different pilotage areas, if appropriate.
The card should include information or instructions specific to
navigation in the local pilotage area; subjects that might be addressed include:
radio channels to be monitored;
posting of anchor watch/lookout (beyond the requirements of the
Rules of the Road); and
local navigation requirements or restrictions (tug escorts, speed
limits, one-way traffic areas, etc.).
The card should also include instructions or requests concerning what the
pilot needs from the master and crew; subjects that might be addressed include:
information about the vessel, its characteristics and condition;
crew to fix position of vessel; and
only English to be spoken on bridge.
217

The card should have a blank space for the pilot to add own items.
Cards should be available to agents for transmission to vessels.
The pilot group should consider having the pilot commission or other
oversight authority approve card; the group should advise the Coast Guard of its
practice.
3.

Pilot's Individual Exchange Practice

Each pilot should develop a personal, standardized conference practice,

taking into account regulatory requirements and best practices in pilotage area.
Pilots should consider using memory aids, such as written or mental
checklists, to ensure that essential exchange items are covered.
4. Absent/Unwillingflncapable Master
An effective exchange requires the participation of a master who is

present, is willing, and has sufficient skills, knowledge, and English language
proficiency to provide the information needed by the pilot and to understand the
pilot's instructions and requests.
Pilots should be aware of regulatory requirements for masters to provide
specific information to the pilot and to cooperate closely with the pilot.
The pilot should make all reasonable efforts to obtain the presence of the
master for purposes of conducting a conference.
If the master or bridge crew fails to provide the information needed by
the pilot or if an unsatisfactory exchange leads the pilot to doubt the ability of the
master or bridge crew to perform the navigation duties normally expected during
the vessel movement, the pilot should use his or her best professional judgment to
determine whether it is safe to proceed with the movement.
If a pilot determines that a movement can safely proceed despite an
unsatisfactory exchange, the pilot should adjust his or her pilotage practices during
the movement accordingly and should report or record the master's refusal to
engage in an exchange or to provide required information.
If a pilot determines that it is not safe to proceed w ith a vessel
movement due to an unsatisfactory exchange, the pilot should refuse to proceed,
218

advise the master/bridge crew on anchoring the vessel or taking other steps to
secure the vessel's safety, and notify appropriate authorities by the best means
available.
5. Ship's Pilot Card/Wheelhouse Poster
Pilots should be aware of regulations requiring vessels to have a pilot

card and wheelhouse poster containing maneuvering data and other information
concerning the ship.
If the pilot, in the exercise of his or her best judgment, considers the,
information provided orally by the master about the vessel and its characteristics
unclear or insufficient, the pilot should consult the pilot card/wheelhouse poster to
confirm or supplement the information from the master.
Pilots should be aware that information on a pilot card/wheelhouse
poster about a vessel's maneuvering and handling characteristics may not be
accurate when maneuvering in the particular waters of the pilot's area or under
local conditions that may be present during the pilotage operation and that such
information may be based on "new vessel" conditions, which may be affected by
factors such as bottom fouling, propeller/rudder damage, or trim.
6. Ships Calling on a Frequent, Regular Basis

The information exchange should not be abandoned for vessels that call
on a frequent, regular basis; such vessels have the potential to induce complacency.
The exchange for such vessels can, and should, be adjusted, however,
with the focus on items, concerning both vessel and pilotage, that may have
changed since the previous call or are otherwise pertinent to the particular pilotage
operation.
7. Continuing Communication

The initial conference should not be the end of communication and


information sharing.
The pilot should convey during the initial conference: the need to
communicate throughout the pilotage operation, the pilot's willingness to answer
questions, and the pilot's continuing need for information.
219

8. Pilot-to-Pilot Transfer

The transferor pilot should request master's presence during transfer.


Recognizing that the circumstances of many pilot-to-pilot transfers do
not

allow

sufficient

time

for

ex

tensive discussion among the two pilots and the master, pilots should develop
techniques for quickly exchanging the most critical information in the time
available.
Where practical, the transferor pilot should give the present status of the
vessel to the transferee pilot, as well as any unusual or problematic handling or
operational characteristics of the vessel.
Where practical, the transferor pilot should repeat to the transferee pilot
information previously given by the master, in the master's presence, and ask the
master to confirm that the information is correct.
9. Pilot Boarding Locations and Procedures

In places where the pilot boarding location or procedures impose


significant constraints on the time or attention that can be devoted to the initial
master-pilot conference, pilot groups and regulatory authorities should review
whether changing the boarding location and/or the procedures would be feasible
and would produce signify cant benefits that could not be obtained through
improvements fn the conference process.
Any proposed change in the pilot boarding location or procedures should
be measured against the traditional principle that pilot boarding locations and
procedures are determined by both the navigational needs of the ship and the
personal safety of the pilot.
10.

Training in the Master-Pilot Information Exchange

The master-pilot information exchange should be an important focus of


initial and continuing training for pilots, particularly Bridge Resource Management
courses for pilots.
Initial training in the master-pilot information exchange should cover:
regulatory requirements;
220

recognition of language, cultural, psychological and physiological


impediments to effective communication and interaction and techniques for
overcoming those impediments; and
best practices in specific pilotage area.
Continuing training in the master-pilot information exchange should
review initial training items and examine recent accidents, new practices of other
pilots, and studies dealing with the subject.
4.8

4.8.1 14 V
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