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POWER GENERATION

PROCESS BASICS
BOILER / STEAM TURBO-GENERATOR
UTILITY PLANT
40%
Steam Condenser

20%

Stack

Lake
Steam
6% Aux. Power + Losses
34% Electricity

100%
Fuel

Air

Boiler Steam Turbine Generator Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 34%


BOILER / STEAM TURBINE-GENERATOR
INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION
Process Steam
65%

15%

Process Plant

Stack

Steam 5% Aux. Power + Losses

15% Electricity

Fuel
100%

Air

Boiler Steam Turbine Generator Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 80%


SIMPLE CYCLE COMBUSTION (GAS) TURBINE

57-62%

100% Fuel Stack

Combuster
3% Aux Power + Losses

35-40% Electricity
Air

Compressor Turbine Generator Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 35-40%


GAS TURBINE
INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION PLANT
20%

Stack Stack

Supplementary/
Auxiliary
Fuel (Optional) Process Steam
Process Plant
100% Fuel

Combuster Exhaust Gas

Air

Compressor Turbine Generator Transmission


GAS TURBINE 28%
COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT
Steam Condenser
20%

Stack
Stack
Steam Lake
Supplementary
Fuel (Optional)

100% Fuel

Steam Turbine Generator


Transmission
Combuster Exhaust Gas 12-15% Electricity

Air 6% Aux. Power + Losses 35-40% Electricity

Compressor Turbine Generator Transmission

Thermal Efficiency - 45-55%


UTILITY PLANT - FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System

Boiler Steam & Water System

Air & Flue Gas System

BOILER Fuel Preparation System

Fuel Firing System

Boiler Miscellaneous Systems

Boiler Feed Pumps &


UNIT#2
Deaerator System

Turbine Steam System


TURBINE-
HP & LP Heaters System
GENERATOR
Turbine Supervisory & Control
System
Generator & Electrical System

Turbine Miscellaneous Systems

Turbine Bypass System

Fuel Handling System


DM Plant Station Miscellaneous Systems
CAPTIVE POWER PLANT - FUNCTIONAL BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System

Steam & Water

Air & Flue Gas


BOILER

Fuel Preparation

Fuel Firing

Steam UNIT#2 UNIT#3


TG HP & LP Heaters

Supervisory & Control

Generator & Electrical

Miscellaneous Systems

BFP’s & Deaerator System

Fuel Handling System


DM Plant Station Miscellaneous Systems
BOILER FUNDAMENTALS
BASIC DIAGRAM OF A BOILER

Steam
Water

Steam / Water System Blowdown

Fuel
Flue Gas
Mixing of Heat Transfer
Fuel & Air Surface
Furnace

Air Ash
SALIENT FEATURES OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL
& UTILITY BOILER

• STEAM BOILER
• WATER TUBE

• SUPERHEATED STEAM

• HIGH PRESSURE

• WATER COOLED FURNACE

• WATER CIRCULATION
COMBUSTION REQUIREMENTS

Sufficient
Combustion Air

Temperature
Fuel Combustion
Mixing within above
is Time
Flammable Ignition
Gasified Temperature
Range Point Turbulence

3 T’s of Combustion
BASIC COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY

Complete Heat

(Air) Oxygen Fuel Flue Gas

Products
H2 H2O
O2 + C CO2

Incomplete
Heat

Oxygen Fuel
Flue Gas
Products
H2
H2O
O2 + C
CO2
CO
H2
C

• Other Combustibles - Sulphur to Sulphur Oxides


• Non-combustible - Nitrogen to Nitrogen+Nitrous Oxides
• Ash
BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM Hot Reheat
Steam
Spray
Water Main Steam
Drum
Attemperator

Attemperator
Cold
Final Primary Final Reheat
Platen Primary
Re Re Super Steam
Super Super
Heater Heater Heater Spray
Heater Heater
Water

Down
Comers Flue Gas
Economiser
Feed Water

Furnace

Flue Gas
Water Wall Out to
Risers Air Heater

Bottom Ring Header

Simplified Process Diagram


BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Heat Transfer by Radiation and Convection

• Boiler Water Circulation - Natural or Controlled

• Heat Transfer depends on Heat Transfer Area & Time

• Heat Transfer is affected by Fouling, Boiler Pressure, Boiler Water Quality


and % MCR Load
BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Economiser - Pre-heats Boiler Feed water

• Boiler Drum - Separates water from steam and reduce solids in steam

• Water Walls - Absorb heat from flue gas to evaporate boiler water

• Superheaters - Heat up steam coming from boiler drum

• Reheaters - Heat up steam coming from High Pressure turbine

• Attemperators - Reduce superheat from steam


BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Drum Level - Regulation of Feed Water flow

• Drum Water Quality - Blow down / Chemical Dozing

• Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces - Blowdown / Soot Blowing

• Main Steam Temperature - Attemperation / Burner Tilt

• Hot Reheat Steam Temperature - Burner Tilt / Attemperation

• Main Steam Pressure - Regulation of Combustion


AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM
To Air Cooled PA FAN A
To Hot To Cold
Guns PA Header PA Header
From
Scanner Air Fans FD Fans
PA FAN B

WINDOX A
AH A ESP A
P F L
R E
T I T ID Fan A
FURNACE H C
N N S Chimney
O
S S H
H H ID Fan B
ESP B
AH B
WINDBOX B

FD FAN A

FD FAN B

Simplified Process Diagram


AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Generation of Draft - Natural / Induced / Forced / Balanced

• Supply of Air for Transport of Pulverised Coal

• Pre-heating of Air

• Distribution of Air in Combustion Chamber

• Recirculation of Gas

• Fan capacity depends on Flow, Density & System Resistance

• Fan performance is affected by temperature, density, barometric pressure


and speed

• Flue Gas Cleaning

• Gas flow is restricted by ash deposits on boiler surfaces


AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Air Path - Forced Draft Fans, Steam Coil Air Pre-heater,


Regenerative Air Pre-heater & Wind-box

• Gas Path - Induced Draft Fans and Stack

• Gas Recirculation - Gas Recirculating Fans

• Flue Gas Cleaning - Mechanical Precipitator, Electrostatic


Precipitator and Gas Scrubber

• Dampers
AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Furnace Draft - ID Fan Inlet Vane Control and/or Variable Speed

• Secondary Air Flow - FD Fan Variable Pitch Control

• PA Header Pressure - PA Fan Inlet Vane Control

• RAPH Cold End Temperature - SCAPH Control

• Gas Recirculation - Damper Control


FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM - COAL
Raw Coal Bunker To Mill Discharge
Valves

To Hot PA
Other
Coal Feeder Mills

Coal+Air
to Burners

Mill A Cold PA
To
Other
Mills

To Other Mills Seal Air Fans

Simplified Process Diagram


FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM - GAS/OIL
Fuel Gas
Supply To Burners
FCV FGTV

PRV’s
FUEL GAS

Atomising
Steam/Air

PCV

Fuel Oil
Return
Short Long
Recirc Recirc
PCV

Fuel Oil
Oil Heater To Burners
Supply
FCV FOTV

Steam
Fuel Oil Pumps
FUEL OIL

Simplified Process Diagram


FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Coal Pulverizing - Direct / Indirect Firing

• Coal Transport and Drying

• Fuel Gas Pressure Regulation

• Fuel Oil Pumping & Filtering

• Fuel Oil Pressure & Viscosity Regulation

• Gas Pressure & Oil Pressure/Temperature affect Boiler


Load
FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Coal Mills - Tube Ball / Bowl / Impact

• Raw Coal Feeders - Chain / Belt / Rotary / Gravimetric

• Coal / Air Dampers, Gates & Discharge Valves

• Fuel Oil Pumps & Heaters

• Seal Air Fans

• Coal Bunkers

• Vapour Fans
FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Coal Flow - Raw Coal Feeder Speed

• Coal/Air Temperature & Flow - Cold & Hot PA Flows


FUEL FIRING SYSTEM
OFA
OFA

FF EA

F FA
(2) (3) Air Damper
EF AA

E OFA Over Fire Air


EA End Air
DE
FA Fuel Air

D AA Aux. Air
Front Wall
Coal Burner
CD (4)
(1)
Plan Fire Ball Scanner
C
(Corner Designation) LFO?HFO Burner
BC
B HFO Burner
Oil Flame Scanner
AB
A HEA Igniter

AA

Typical Corner Arrangement


for a Tangentially Fired System
FUEL FIRING SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Fuel Firing - Front / Tangential

• Fuel Oil Atomisation - Mechanical / Air / Steam

• Flame Ignition

• Air Distribution

• Fuel Combustion
FUEL FIRING SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Burners

• Ignitors

• Flame Scanners

• Burner Tilt Mechanism

• Wind Box

• Dampers
FUEL FIRING SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Furnace to Wind Box Differential Pressure

• Fuel Air Flows

• Fuel Firing

• Emergency Shutdown

• Flame Monitoring

• Oil Support for Coal Flame Stability


BOILER MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS

Boiler Auxiliary Cooling Water System

• Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Boiler & it’s auxiliaries

• Consists of Overhead Tank, Pumps & Heat Exchangers

Chemical Dosing System

• Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Boiler Water

• Consists of Preparation Tanks, Mixers & Metering Pumps


DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM
Condensate from LP Heater

To HP
HP Heater Drains
Aux. Steam Heaters

CRH Steam
Deaerator
IPT Extraction
Aux. Steam Steam
for Feed Storage Tank
Pegging To HP Bypass
Spray

Hydrazine T o APRDS
Dosing Spray
Ammonia Recirculation
Dosing Valve
M

Discharge Valve

Boiler Feed Pumps

Simplified Process Diagram


DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Boiler Water pre-heating & air removal

• Maintain positive Suction Pressure for Feed Pumps

• Feed Water Pumping to Boiler


DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Boiler Feed Pumps

• Hydraulic Coupling

• Deaerator
DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Deaerator Pressure

• Deaerator Level

• BFP Minimum Recirculation

• Feed Pump Speed


STEAM TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

• Conservation of Energy - Heat may be converted in to work and


work may be converted in to heat,
in accordance with a certain natural proportionality constant
(ENERGY CAN NOT BE DESTROYED)

• Not all of a given quantity of Heat can be converted in to useful Work,


because of irreversbility in the process
(ENTROPY OF THE UNIVERSE IS INCREASING)
BASIC RANKINE CYCLE

Heat Available
for Work

Unavailable Heat

S
IMPROVING RANKINE CYCLE

• Superheating

• Increased Pressure

• Decreased Exhaust Pressure

• Regenerative Feed Heating

• Reheating
STEAM TURBINE TYPES

• Condensing Turbine

• Back Pressure Turbine

• Regenerative Turbine

•Controlled Extraction

• No. of Cylinders

• Speed - Constant / Variable

• Single / Double Flow


TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM
Main
Steam

ESV CV HP IP
Turbine Turbine LP Turbine

Cold
Reheat
Steam

Condenser

Hot
Reheat
Steam
IV CV
Extraction
Steam

Simplified Process Diagram


TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Turbine - Casing, Rotor & Blades

• Emergency Stop Valves

• Control Valves

• Condenser
TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Steam Admission

• Emergency Shutdown
REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM
To From BFP To
Boiler Discharge Deaerator LPT
CRH Extraction Steam
Steam

To
Deaerator LP
HP
HTR
HTR

LPT Condenser
IPT Extraction Steam Gland
Extrn. Leakoff
Steam LP Steam
HP HTR Minimum Makeup
HTR Recirculation Hotwell

To LPT Extraction
Condenser
LP Drain
To GSC HTR CLR
HP Condenser LP
Flash Flash
Tank Tank
Condensate Extraction
Pump

Simplified Process Diagram


REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Pumping of Condensate from Hotwell to Deaerator

•Gradual Heating of Feed Water Temperature

• Minimise Heat Loss from the Cycle


REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• HP Heaters

• LP Heaters

• Drain Cooler

• Condensate Extraction Pumps


REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Hotwell Level

• Heater Level

• Minimum Flow through CEP & GSC


TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Governing
Oil
System

Turning
Gear

Jacking Condenser
Oil Vacuum
System System

Lubricating Gland Turbine


Oil Steam Drain
System System
System

OIL SYSTEMS
VACUUM SYSTEM WARM UP SYSTEM

Functional Block Diagram


TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Shaft & Bearing Protection

• Electro-hydraulic Governing

• Maintain Vacuum in Condenser

• Supply Steam to Turbine Glands

• Warming up of Turbines and their Valves

• Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions


TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Oil Pumps, Turning Gear & Jacking Oil Pump

• Hydraulic Actuators for Turbine Valves

• Vacuum Pumps

• Gland Steam Pressure Regulator

• Oil Coolers & Temperature Regulator


TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Speed / Load / Frequency Control

• Gland Steam Pressure Control


TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS

Condenser Cooling Water System

• Supplies Cooling Water Condensation of Turbine Exhaust Steam

Turbine Auxiliary Cooling Water System

• Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Turbine & it’s auxiliaries

• Consists of Overhead Tank, Pumps & Heat Exchangers

Chemical Dosing System

• Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Condensate

• Consists of Preparation Tanks, Mixers & Metering Pumps


TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS
Condenser Cooling Water System
CW Return Header

Cooling Condenser Waterbox


Tower
To A B
Unit#2
CW
Sump

CW
Makeup
Water
CW Supply Header

Circulating
Water Pumps

Simplified Process Diagram


TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS
Condenser Cooling Water System

Major Equipment

• Cooling Towers
• CW Pumps

Process Performance Highlights

• Steam Condensation
• Cooling of Condenser CW - Cooling Tower / Lake

Process Regulation

• Condenser Tube Cleaning - Online / Back flushing


TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM
Main
Steam
To HPT

Feed
Water PRV

Block Spray
Valve Control
Valve
CRH
From HPT

HRH To IPT

Condensate

Condenser

Simplified Process Diagram


TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Enable Boiler Operation for Quick Re-start after Boiler Trip and
during Turbine Start-up

• Control MS Pressure after Turbine Trip or Sudden Load Throw-off


TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• MS Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating

• HRH Steam Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating


GENERATOR FUNDAMENTALS
WORKING PRINCIPLE

• Converts Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy

• Based on Electro-magnetic Induction

E = 4.44 O FN volts

E - e. m. f.
O - Strength of Magnetic Field
F - Frequency
N - No. of Turns in a Stator Winding Coil

F = Pn/120

P - No. of Poles
n - Revolution per second of Rotor
GENERATOR EFFICIENCY & LOSSES

• Efficiency = Output Electrical Energy


Input Mechanical Energy

• Losses - Bearing Loss, Copper Loss & Iron Loss

• Typically Efficiency is 90-97%


GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Metering &
Protective
Relays

Generator Seal
Transformer Oil
System

Generator Hydrogen
Synchronising Cooling
Sceme System

Unit Field Stator


Auxiliary Excitation Cooling Water
Transformer System System

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

Generator Functional Block Diagram


GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Isolator 132 KV Bus I

132 KV Bus II

Circuit Breaker

Unit
GT
Auxiliary
Transformer

From
11 kV From
Station
Station
Bus
Bus
Generator
6.6 kV Unit Bus A 6.6 kV Unit Bus B

Key One Line Diagram


GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Process Performance Highlights

• Conversion of Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy

• Field Excitation

• Stator Winding Cooling by Distillate / Air

• Rotor Winding Cooling by Hydrogen / Air

• Hydrogen Sealing by Oil

• Synchronisation & Voltage Transformation

• Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions


GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Major Equipment

• Generator - Stator, Rotor, Armature Windings, Field Windings

• Field Excitation - Exciter (DC/AC), Static Rectifying Unit & AVR

• Bus Ducts & Transformers

• Circuit Breakers & Protective Relays

• H2 Cooling - Fans, Dryers & Coolers

• Stator Water Cooling - Pumps, Coolers & Overhead Tank

• Seal Oil - Pumps, Coolers & Differential Pressure Regulator


GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

Process Regulation

• Field Excitation

• Generator Synchrinisation

• Voltage Regulation
POWER PLANT
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Efficiency Calculations

• Boiler Efficiency - Direct / Heat Loss Method

• Turbine Heat Rate - Total Heat Supplied/ KWHR

• Plant Heat Rate - Heat Supplied/ KWHR


OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

Factors Affecting Plant Performance


• Flue Gas Exit Temperature

• Excess Air

• Unburnt Fuel

• Steam Temperature

• Condenser Back Pressure

• FW Temperature at Eco Inlet

• Auxiliary Power Consumption

• Make up Water Flow

• Optimum Loading
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

• Start-up & Shutdown Monitoring

• Trip Analysis - Boiler / Turbine / Generator

• Equipment Run-Hour Monitoring

• History Trending

• Alarm Management

• Division of Operational Responsibilities

• Economic Load Allocation & Load Shedding (CPP)


POWER PLANT
AUTOMATION &
CONTROL
POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Burner Management System

• Furnace Purge Supervision

• Secondary Air Damper Modulation, On/Off Control and Supervision

• Light/Heavy Oil On/Off Control and Supervision

• Pulveriser and Feeder On/Off Control and Supervision

• Flame Scanning

• Overall Boiler Flame Failure Protection

• Boiler Trip Protection


POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Soot Blower Sequential Control

• Wall Blowers

• Long Retractable Blowers

• Air Heater Blowers


POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Automatic Turbine Run-up System

• Oil Supply Control - Turning Gear, Auxiliary Oil Pumps, Emergency Oil Pump,
Jacking Oil Pump and Lube Oil Temperature

• Condensate & Evacuation Control - Condensate Extraction Pumps, Gland Steam


Pressure, Vacuum Pumps and Vacuum Breaker Valve

• Turbine Control - Steam & Metal Temperature Matching, Warming up of HP


ESV & CV, Steam Rolling & Acceleration and Auto Synchroniser
POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Turbine Stress Evaluator

• Calculation of Actual and Permissible Thermal Stress Values

• Comparison of Actual with Permissible Stress Values and Computation


of Available Margin

• Optimize Start up, Operation and Shut down


POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Automatic Turbine Tester

• Safety Devices - Remote Trip, Over-speed, Low Vacuum and


Thrust Bearing

• HP/IP Valves - HP Stop and Control Valves, and IP Stop and


Control Valves
POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL

Electro-hydraulic Governing System

• Speed Control

• Load Control

• Load Shedding

• Initial Pressure Control


AUTOMATION & CONTROL

CRITICAL CLOSED LOOPS

• CMC - Boiler Follow / Turbine follow / Coordinated (Utility)

• Header Pressure Control (CPP)

• Combustion - Fuel / Air Flow

• Steam Temperature

• Drum Level

• Furnace Draft
AUTOMATION & CONTROL

OPEN LOOP CONTROL

• Interlocking - Safe Startup / Shutdown

• Protection - Emergency Shutdown (Trip)

• Sequencial Control - Efficient Startup / Shutdown

CRITICAL OPEN LOOPS

• ID/FD /PA Fans

• BFP
POWER PLANT
INSTRUMENTATION
POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION

• Temperature - T/C & RTD

• Pressure

• Level - DP / Displacement / Hydra Step Drum Level Indicator

• Flow - DP / Annubar / Mag-flow

• Turbine Supervisory - Vibration/ Expansion/ Axial Shift/ Eccentricity

• Steam & Water Analysers - Conductivity/ pH/ DO2/ Silica

• Gas Analysers - O2/ CO2/ CO (in Flue Gas)


Pollution Monitor
H2 Purity (in Generator)

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