Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1088

.., ..

3- ,

57(075.3)
28729
61
.
.
:
, , .. ;
..
: ,
, ,
, , ,

. 323 , .. 11 , 14
, 8 , 3 . , 2
. ,
, .
. , ,
. .. , 55
, 3 .
, 2 . ,
, .
.
61
.., ..
/ .. ,
.. . 3 ., . . .:
, 2008. 1088 .: .
ISBN 9785488017542
,
, ,
, .
(
, , , , ,
); ;
, , ;
.

() .
,
,
, , , , , ,
. .
57(075.3)
28729
ISBN 9785488017542 .., .., 2008
, 2008
!

HxoArnan noramma u, coo1no1c1nonno, mxoArnwo ynonuxu


o1c1am1 o1 c1omu1oArno aanunammocn uoAoruu. Opnaxo 1oo-
nanun x au1yuon1am noyxAonno ac1y1, u ynonux, ocoonno nw1-
Aunw u 1aAan1Aunw, nyxpao1cn n ponoAnu1oArno Au1oa1yo,
xo1oan coo1no1c1nonaAa w conomonnomy coc1onnum nayxu.
EuoAorun - opun ua ocnonnwx omooaaona1oArnwx nopmo1on,
xo1ow au1yuon1w Poccuu cpam1 na nc1ynu1oArnwx axaamonax n
nyaw mopuuncxoro, uoAorunocxoro, coArcxoxoanc1nonnoro, no1o-
unanoro, cno1unnoro, noparorunocxoro noquAo. Huom n nyaw
Poccuu ocymoc1nAno1cn na xonxycno ocnono no oayAr1a1am nc1y-
nu1oArnwx ucnw1anu. 3axon Poccucxo opoauu O oaaona-
nuu raan1uyo1 annwo nana ncox raxpan na oaaonanuo. An
oaArnoro ocymoc1nAonun a1ux nan nco au1yuon1w poAxnw umo1r
apoxna1nwo ynonwo nocoun. Opnaxo 1oonanun x au1yuon1am
c1omu1oArno noaac1am1, a noAoxonuo o 1om, n1o nc1ynu1oArnwo
ucnw1anun nu nuomo na nonw xyc nonopn1cn na ocnono nu-
monwx noramm, aaao1annwx Munoaaonanun, pa u camu a1u
norammw pam1 noamoxnoc1r ononr muoxoro naruonanun 1oo-
nanu u nonocon - o1 camwx numu1unnwx po camwx cAoxnwx,
nocAopnoo nc1onao1cn namo ncoro. H a1o xoomo, 1. x. noanoAno1
o1oa1r nauoAoo nopro1onAonnwx au1yuon1on. Ho umonno a1o
nop+nnAno1 nco oAoo nwcoxuo 1oonanun x xanoc1ny nocou pAn
noc1ynammux: coo1no1c1nuo y1noxponnwm norammam na ocnono
onaa1oArnoro munumyma copoxanun copnoro (noAnoro) omoro o-
aaonanun; conomonnw nopxop; ucnoAraonanuo nocAopnux poc1u-
xonu nayxu, xa1xoc1r uaAoxonun; noAnw oxna1 ma1ouaAa nu
munumaArnom o+omo; poc1ynnoc1r.
Coropnn noAoxonuo occucxux au1yuon1on cymoc1nonno ua-
monuAocr n cnnau c nnoponuom opunoro rocaxaamona (EI0). H a1o
nonwmao1 1oonanun x nocoum pAn noc1ynammux. Ono poAxno
w1r nuomAomwm pAn 1ox, x1o cpao1 EI0 u pAn 1ox, x1o cpao1
nc1ynu1oArnwo axaamonw. Hoxa 1axan Au1oa1ya o1cy1c1nyo1. An-
1ow umom1 mnoroAo1nu ycnomnw onw1 nopro1onxu au1yuon-
1on, n cnnau c a1um nw1aAucr coapa1r nocouo no uoAoruu pAn ncox
noc1ynammux n nyaw (na ocnono EI0 u na ocnono xonxycnwx nc1y-
nu1oArnwx axaamonon), xo1ooo wAo w noc1oonano oArmun-
c1nom au1yuon1on u coo1no1c1nonaAo w camwm nwcoxum 1oona-
nunm, nop+nnAnomwm na nc1ynu1oArnwx axaamonax n nopymuo oc-
cucxuo u aayoxnwo nyaw. Kononun nocoun - xomnAoxcnoo
uaynonuo c1yx1yw u qynxuu na aaAunnwx uoaxunocxux yon-
nnx xunoro. An oAornonun ycnoonun ma1ouaAa nunoponw 46
nwcoxounqoma1unnwx 1aAu, 400 ucynxon u cxom.

# "
CBOHCTBA XHBOFO
EuoAorun (epeu. bIos - xuanr, Iogos - nayxa) - a1o nayxa, xo-
1oan uaynao1 xunwo oranuamw na ncox uoaxunocxux yon-
nnx. Hunwo oranuamw xaax1ouaym1cn npom ocoonnoc1o,
xaxpan ua xo1owx nnAno1cn nununuaArno u nooxopumo pAn
xuanu. Ocnonnwmu ua nux nnAnm1cn cAopymmuo.
O6mon nomocxn (moxa6oanam) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r
nocAopona1oArnwx xumunocxux nooccon noc1ynAonun nomoc1n n
oranuam, ux nonamonun, ucnoAraonanun, naxonAonun u ypaAo-
nuo nopyx1on acnapa. Mo1aoAuam nxAmnao1 pna nonownno
no1oxammux noocca: anaoAuam u xa1aoAuam.
Auoo.u:+ (ron. anaboIo - noprom) - a1o xomnAoxc uoxumu-
nocxux nooccon noc1ynAonun nomoc1n n xAo1xy u ux ycnoonun.
Hu a1om ua noc1ynunmux nomoc1n coapam1cn nooxopumwo xAo1xo
coopunonun, xo1owo cnouqunnw u pAn pannoro nupa, u pAn xonx-
o1no ocou (oAxu, noAucaxaupw, xuw, nyxAounonwo xucAo-
1w). C anaoAuamom cnnaana occu+u.nuun (Aa1. assImIIaIIo - yno-
poAonuo, o1oxpoc1nAonuo), nxAmnamman nnoxAo1onnwo nooccw
o1Aoxonun aanacnwx nomoc1n. Eco a1o ocymoc1nAno1cn n oayAr1a-
1o nunouun, xo1ooo moxo1 w1r an1o1oqnwm uAu ro1oo1oq-
nwm. Hu oononpoquo+ nu1anuu oranuam cun1oauyo1 oranu-
nocxuo nomoc1na ua nooranunocxux, nu a1om anorun aanacao1cn
n nupo xumunocxux cnnao. Hanoc1nw pna 1una an1o1oqnoro nu1a-
nun: qo1ocun1oa u xomocun1oa. Hu qo1ocun1oao oranunocxuo co-
opunonun oaaym1cn aa cno1 anoruu cno1a, nu xomocun1oao - aa
cno1 anoruu xumunocxux oaxu nooranunocxux nomoc1n. Hau-
oAoo muoxo acnoc1anon qo1ocun1oa - x nomy cnoconw nco
ac1onun u noxo1owo noxauo1w. Hu eeneponpoquo+ nu1anuu
oranuam noAynao1 yxo ro1onwo oranunocxuo coopunonun. Opnaxo
n nononanaArnom nupo onu ownno no ucnoAraym1cn, a acmonAn-
m1cn po monomoon, ua xo1owx aa1om cun1oauym1cn cnouqunoc-
xuo pAn oranuama nomoc1na.
Konoo.u:+ (ron. caIaboIo - cacwnanuo nnua, aaymonuo) -
a1o uoxumunocxuo nooccw, xo1owo ocymoc1nAnm1 acnap ano-
ronacwmonnwx coopunonu, noAynonnwx anoo ny1om nu1anun.
E oayAr1a1o xa1aoAuama nwpoAno1cn anorun, xo1oan aanacao1-
cn n moAoxyAax ATP u aa1om ucnoArayo1cn pAn xuanopon1oArnoc-
1u xAo1xu.
Ka1aoAuam oxna1wnao1 anoro1unocxuo nooccw, cnnaannwo
c acmonAonuom anoo naxonAonnwx nomoc1n u noucxopnmuo na
yonno o1poArno xAo1xu. Conoxynnoc1r nooccon acnapa, no-
xopnmux na yonno ncoro oranuama, naawnao1cn ouccu+u.nuueu.
Ho cAopyo1 ny1a1r mo1aoAuam, noucxopnmu n xunwx cuc1omax,
c omonom n noxuno nuopo. E xopo oranunocxoro mo1aoAuama
noucxopn1 rAyoxuo xumunocxuo nooaaonanun nonAoxaomwx co-
opunonu. Hanumo, cAoxnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na, noc1ynun-
muo n xAo1xy, acmonAnm1cn po yrAoxucAoro raaa u nopw. E no-
xuno nuopo ownno 1axoro no noucxopu1. Hanumo, xuc-
1aAAw, nwac1ammuo n nacwmonnom ac1noo coAu, oaaym1cn
ny1om accouauu anoo puccouuonannwx uonon; nopa, xo1oan
ucnano1cn c nonoxnoc1u oaoa uAu mon, aa1om xonponcuyo1cn
n na u nwnapao1 poxpom n pyrom moc1o, umoo1 nouamononnoo
xumunocxoo c1oonuo.
Hmpoaonno, uAu axcxoun, nopc1anAno1 coo ypaAonuo
ua oranuama nopyx1on omona nomoc1n. O1xopw (mAaxu) oaay-
m1cn n oayAr1a1o acmonAonun Amoro numonoro cyc1a1a. An
oranuama onu oxaawnam1cn nonyxnwmu uAu paxo nopnwmu, no-
a1omy nopAoxa1 ypaAonum. Hnorpa ypaAonuo nopnwx nomoc1n
aa1ypnono. Hanumo, ac1onun no ncorpa mory1 ypaAn1r nomoc1-
na, noa1omy onu o1xAapwnam1cn nny1u oranuama, no n oaonac-
no qomo (aaAunnoro opa nmoc1uAuma).
Hopnnmnocxn nnAno1cn noo1+omAomwm cnoc1nom xunoro. Hop-
nuxnoc1r xuno1nwx xoomo aamo1na, y pyrux oranuamon pnu-
xonuo nwaxono n monrmo c1ononu, no umoo1cn ncorpa. Pac1o-
nun noc1onnno ac1y1, uamonno1cn noAoxonuo Auc1ron n aanucu-
moc1u o1 ocnomonun, no 1o xo nununo monno1cn uaru noora.
Eny1u xAo1xu noc1onnno noucxopu1 pnuxonuo u1onAaamw u
nomoc1n n no. MoAoxyAw, nxopnmuo n coc1an xAo1onnwx mom-
an, oAapam1 nwcoxo nopnuxnoc1rm.
Paappamnmocxn - a1o cnoc1no xunwx oranuamon uAu o1poAr-
nwx xAo1ox oaruona1r na uamononuo copw (nnomno u nny1on-
no). 01o cnoc1no noanoAno1 oranuamy on1umaArno nooc1auna1r
cnom xuanopon1oArnoc1r n coo1no1c1nuu c noanuxmumu ycAonunmu.
KAo1xa cnocona nocnunuma1r aaAunnwo quaunocxuo u xumunoc-
xuo curnaAw, noonopn ux n aAox1unocxu umnyArc. Hn1oncunnoc1r
poc1nun nocnunumaomoro xAo1xo curnaAa naawnao1cn noorom.
Paamnomonno - a1o nocnouanoponuo coo noponwx oranua-
mon, n1o oocnonunao1 nonownnoc1r u noomc1nonnoc1r xuanu n
oo nupono cnouqunnoc1u. Hanoc1nw pna ocnonnwx 1una aamno-
xonun: noAonoo u ocnoAoo. E no.ooo+ aamnoxonuu ynac1nym1
pna na1noa aanoro noAa, nu a1om noucxopu1 cAunnuo pnyx
noAonwx xAo1ox (ramo1) c ranAoupnwm naoom xomocom - onAo-
po1noonuo, c oaaonanuom punAoupno auro1w. Eecno.oe aamno-
xonuo noucxopu1 c ynac1uom opnoro opu1oArcxoro oranuama.
Pocx - a1o ynoAunonuo maccw u o+oma oranuama aa cno1 no-
moc1n, noc1ynunmux n noocco nu1anun. Poc1 oranuamon o1Au-
nao1cn o1 oc1a xuc1aAAon uAu unwx nooranunocxux o+ox1on
1om, n1o y nux nooccw upy1 nny1u oranuama nocopc1nom no-
c1oonun nonwx xAo1onnwx u nnoxAo1onnwx c1yx1y.
# "
CBOHCTBA XHBOFO
EuoAorun (epeu. bIos - xuanr, Iogos - nayxa) - a1o nayxa, xo-
1oan uaynao1 xunwo oranuamw na ncox uoaxunocxux yon-
nnx. Hunwo oranuamw xaax1ouaym1cn npom ocoonnoc1o,
xaxpan ua xo1owx nnAno1cn nununuaArno u nooxopumo pAn
xuanu. Ocnonnwmu ua nux nnAnm1cn cAopymmuo.
O6mon nomocxn (moxa6oanam) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r
nocAopona1oArnwx xumunocxux nooccon noc1ynAonun nomoc1n n
oranuam, ux nonamonun, ucnoAraonanun, naxonAonun u ypaAo-
nuo nopyx1on acnapa. Mo1aoAuam nxAmnao1 pna nonownno
no1oxammux noocca: anaoAuam u xa1aoAuam.
Auoo.u:+ (ron. anaboIo - noprom) - a1o xomnAoxc uoxumu-
nocxux nooccon noc1ynAonun nomoc1n n xAo1xy u ux ycnoonun.
Hu a1om ua noc1ynunmux nomoc1n coapam1cn nooxopumwo xAo1xo
coopunonun, xo1owo cnouqunnw u pAn pannoro nupa, u pAn xonx-
o1no ocou (oAxu, noAucaxaupw, xuw, nyxAounonwo xucAo-
1w). C anaoAuamom cnnaana occu+u.nuun (Aa1. assImIIaIIo - yno-
poAonuo, o1oxpoc1nAonuo), nxAmnamman nnoxAo1onnwo nooccw
o1Aoxonun aanacnwx nomoc1n. Eco a1o ocymoc1nAno1cn n oayAr1a-
1o nunouun, xo1ooo moxo1 w1r an1o1oqnwm uAu ro1oo1oq-
nwm. Hu oononpoquo+ nu1anuu oranuam cun1oauyo1 oranu-
nocxuo nomoc1na ua nooranunocxux, nu a1om anorun aanacao1cn
n nupo xumunocxux cnnao. Hanoc1nw pna 1una an1o1oqnoro nu1a-
nun: qo1ocun1oa u xomocun1oa. Hu qo1ocun1oao oranunocxuo co-
opunonun oaaym1cn aa cno1 anoruu cno1a, nu xomocun1oao - aa
cno1 anoruu xumunocxux oaxu nooranunocxux nomoc1n. Hau-
oAoo muoxo acnoc1anon qo1ocun1oa - x nomy cnoconw nco
ac1onun u noxo1owo noxauo1w. Hu eeneponpoquo+ nu1anuu
oranuam noAynao1 yxo ro1onwo oranunocxuo coopunonun. Opnaxo
n nononanaArnom nupo onu ownno no ucnoAraym1cn, a acmonAn-
m1cn po monomoon, ua xo1owx aa1om cun1oauym1cn cnouqunoc-
xuo pAn oranuama nomoc1na.
Konoo.u:+ (ron. caIaboIo - cacwnanuo nnua, aaymonuo) -
a1o uoxumunocxuo nooccw, xo1owo ocymoc1nAnm1 acnap ano-
ronacwmonnwx coopunonu, noAynonnwx anoo ny1om nu1anun.
E oayAr1a1o xa1aoAuama nwpoAno1cn anorun, xo1oan aanacao1-
cn n moAoxyAax ATP u aa1om ucnoArayo1cn pAn xuanopon1oArnoc-
1u xAo1xu.
Ka1aoAuam oxna1wnao1 anoro1unocxuo nooccw, cnnaannwo
c acmonAonuom anoo naxonAonnwx nomoc1n u noucxopnmuo na
yonno o1poArno xAo1xu. Conoxynnoc1r nooccon acnapa, no-
xopnmux na yonno ncoro oranuama, naawnao1cn ouccu+u.nuueu.
Ho cAopyo1 ny1a1r mo1aoAuam, noucxopnmu n xunwx cuc1omax,
c omonom n noxuno nuopo. E xopo oranunocxoro mo1aoAuama
noucxopn1 rAyoxuo xumunocxuo nooaaonanun nonAoxaomwx co-
opunonu. Hanumo, cAoxnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na, noc1ynun-
muo n xAo1xy, acmonAnm1cn po yrAoxucAoro raaa u nopw. E no-
xuno nuopo ownno 1axoro no noucxopu1. Hanumo, xuc-
1aAAw, nwac1ammuo n nacwmonnom ac1noo coAu, oaaym1cn
ny1om accouauu anoo puccouuonannwx uonon; nopa, xo1oan
ucnano1cn c nonoxnoc1u oaoa uAu mon, aa1om xonponcuyo1cn
n na u nwnapao1 poxpom n pyrom moc1o, umoo1 nouamononnoo
xumunocxoo c1oonuo.
Hmpoaonno, uAu axcxoun, nopc1anAno1 coo ypaAonuo
ua oranuama nopyx1on omona nomoc1n. O1xopw (mAaxu) oaay-
m1cn n oayAr1a1o acmonAonun Amoro numonoro cyc1a1a. An
oranuama onu oxaawnam1cn nonyxnwmu uAu paxo nopnwmu, no-
a1omy nopAoxa1 ypaAonum. Hnorpa ypaAonuo nopnwx nomoc1n
aa1ypnono. Hanumo, ac1onun no ncorpa mory1 ypaAn1r nomoc1-
na, noa1omy onu o1xAapwnam1cn nny1u oranuama, no n oaonac-
no qomo (aaAunnoro opa nmoc1uAuma).
Hopnnmnocxn nnAno1cn noo1+omAomwm cnoc1nom xunoro. Hop-
nuxnoc1r xuno1nwx xoomo aamo1na, y pyrux oranuamon pnu-
xonuo nwaxono n monrmo c1ononu, no umoo1cn ncorpa. Pac1o-
nun noc1onnno ac1y1, uamonno1cn noAoxonuo Auc1ron n aanucu-
moc1u o1 ocnomonun, no 1o xo nununo monno1cn uaru noora.
Eny1u xAo1xu noc1onnno noucxopu1 pnuxonuo u1onAaamw u
nomoc1n n no. MoAoxyAw, nxopnmuo n coc1an xAo1onnwx mom-
an, oAapam1 nwcoxo nopnuxnoc1rm.
Paappamnmocxn - a1o cnoc1no xunwx oranuamon uAu o1poAr-
nwx xAo1ox oaruona1r na uamononuo copw (nnomno u nny1on-
no). 01o cnoc1no noanoAno1 oranuamy on1umaArno nooc1auna1r
cnom xuanopon1oArnoc1r n coo1no1c1nuu c noanuxmumu ycAonunmu.
KAo1xa cnocona nocnunuma1r aaAunnwo quaunocxuo u xumunoc-
xuo curnaAw, noonopn ux n aAox1unocxu umnyArc. Hn1oncunnoc1r
poc1nun nocnunumaomoro xAo1xo curnaAa naawnao1cn noorom.
Paamnomonno - a1o nocnouanoponuo coo noponwx oranua-
mon, n1o oocnonunao1 nonownnoc1r u noomc1nonnoc1r xuanu n
oo nupono cnouqunnoc1u. Hanoc1nw pna ocnonnwx 1una aamno-
xonun: noAonoo u ocnoAoo. E no.ooo+ aamnoxonuu ynac1nym1
pna na1noa aanoro noAa, nu a1om noucxopu1 cAunnuo pnyx
noAonwx xAo1ox (ramo1) c ranAoupnwm naoom xomocom - onAo-
po1noonuo, c oaaonanuom punAoupno auro1w. Eecno.oe aamno-
xonuo noucxopu1 c ynac1uom opnoro opu1oArcxoro oranuama.
Pocx - a1o ynoAunonuo maccw u o+oma oranuama aa cno1 no-
moc1n, noc1ynunmux n noocco nu1anun. Poc1 oranuamon o1Au-
nao1cn o1 oc1a xuc1aAAon uAu unwx nooranunocxux o+ox1on
1om, n1o y nux nooccw upy1 nny1u oranuama nocopc1nom no-
c1oonun nonwx xAo1onnwx u nnoxAo1onnwx c1yx1y.
% $
Paannxno nopc1anAno1 coo nananAonnw nooa1umw no-
occ xanoc1nonnwx uamononu oranuama. Hu a1om moxo1 no-
ucxopu1r xax oro ycAoxnonuo, 1ax u ynomonuo. Hanumo, y
opunmorocn po1onwma mAoxonu1ammoro no moo aanu1un no-
ucxopu1 ycAoxnonuo oArmunc1na cuc1om oranuama. Ho nocAo
onopoAonnoro nouopa nanunao1cn oa1nw noocc, nanumo,
noc1ononno ymonrmao1cn xoAunoc1no Aumqoupno 1xanu ummyn-
no cuc1omw, ocAaAno1cn noAonan qynxun u p. Hanoc1nw cAy-
nau noo1onuu - aamnoxonun Aununonnwx qom (nanumo, y Au-
nunxu amuc1omw - axcoAo1An).
YPOBHH OPFAHH3AUHH XHBOFO
Ocymoc1nAonuo uoAorunocxux qynxu noamoxno na aanwx
uoaxunocxux yonnnx. Paccmo1um ux no moo ynoAunonun cAox-
noc1u oranuaauu.
Mo.eu.npumu (moAoxyAnno-rono1unocxu) yononr nnAno1-
cn nanaArnwm. Ero uaynao1 moAoxyAnnan uoAorun. Cymoc1nym1
no1wo xAacca coopunonu, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 ocnonnwo uoAo-
runocxuo qynxuu, noa1omy ux naawnam1 uoAorunocxumu moAo-
xyAamu. 01o oAxu, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w, noAucaxaupw u Au-
nupw. Onu onaa1oArno nucy1c1nym1 n Amo xAo1xo. HcxAmno-
nuom nnAnm1cn noxAo1onnwo oranuamw - nuycw, xo1owo coc1on1
Aumr ua oAxon u nyxAounono xucAo1w. Kaxpw ua a1ux xAac-
con nomoc1n nwnoAnno1 cnouqunocxuo qynxuu u no moxo1 w1r
aamonon pyrum coopunonuom. Hanumo, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w
ocymoc1nAnm1 xanonuo u oaAuaaum nacAopc1nonno unqoma-
uu. EoAxu ynanAnm1 ncomu uoxumunocxumu oaxunmu n xAo1-
xo. unupw qomuym1 ocnony uoAorunocxux moman u 1. p.
Hocmo1n na aanooaauo oranuamon, omu nAan c1oonun rAan-
nwx uomoAoxyA y nux ypunu1oArno Auaox. Eco oAxu oaaona-
nw ua 20 aaAunnwx amunoxucAo1, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w coc1on1
ua nyxAoo1upon, opunaxonwx pAn ncox oranuamon.
EoAoo nuaxu yononr oranuaauu xunoro nonoamoxon, nocxoAr-
xy accma1unaomwo c1yx1yw ypy1 opunaxonwmu xax n xuno
ma1ouu, 1ax u n noxuno. Hooranunocxuo nomoc1na, xumunocxuo
aAomon1w u oaaymmuo ux aAomon1anwo nac1uw, xo1owo nxopn1
n coc1an oranuamon, nunom no o1Aunam1cn o1 1axonwx n noxuno
nuopo. Hanumo, aAox1onw, no1onw no umom1 nuxaxux ocoon-
noc1o. Eopa n oranuamax xumunocxu upon1unna nopo Muonoro
oxoana uAu nopnnoro naa a1mocqow.
Cu.enouumu yononr oAoo nwcoxu. On oxna1wnao1 nooc-
cw, noucxopnmuo n xuno xAo1xo. EuomoAoxyAw mory1 camoc1on-
1oArno nwnoAnn1r cnou qynxuu (nanumo, oAxu-qomon1w) uAu
accouuona1rcn n cyxAo1onnwo c1yx1yw - oranoAAw (mom-
annwo u nomomannwo) u ynac1nona1r n ux pon1oArnoc1u.
K.enouumu yononr nopc1anAno1 coo camoc1on1oArnym xu-
nym cuc1omy - xAo1xy. Kaxpo xAo1xo nucymu nco cnoc1na xu-
noro (omon nomoc1n, aapaxumoc1r, nwpoAonuo u p.). An op-
noxAo1onnwx qom xuanu xAo1onnw yononr oranuaauu 1ox-
poc1non oranuamonnomy. V mnoroxAo1onnwx oranuamon 1oAo co-
c1ou1 ua mnoxoc1na xAo1ox, noa1omy y nux moxpy xAo1onnwm u
oranuamonnwm yonnnmu umoo1cn nocxoArxo nomoxy1onnwx
yonno.
Tuoueomu yononr accma1unao1 xAo1onnwo ancamAu - 1xa-
nu, xo1owo umom1cn y oArmunc1na mnoroxAo1onnwx oranua-
mon. KoAonuaArnwo opnoxAo1onnwo u nu1na1wo oranuamw no
mory1 cnu1a1rcn uc1unno mnoroxAo1onnwmu, nocxoArxy coc1on1
ua opunaxonwx xAo1ox. Hac1onmuo 1xanu umom1cn y oranuamon,
nro 1oAo oaaonano nocxoArxumu cAonmu xAo1ox, ouon1uonan-
nwx 1oxmono. E a1ux cAynanx xAo1xu cnouaAuauym1cn pAn
nwnoAnonun onopoAonnwx qynxu, poc1uran nu a1om roaapo
oAoo nwcoxo aqqox1unnoc1u no cannonum c opnoxAo1onnwmu
qomamu. Opnaxo nu a1om xAo1xu c1anonn1cn aanucumwmu o1
pon1oArnoc1u pyrux xAo1ox. E nac1noc1u, mwmonnwo xAo1xu cno-
conw aqqox1unno coxama1rcn, no nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na um poA-
xnw poc1anAn1r pyruo 1xanu, nanumo, xonr.
Opeouumu yononr oxna1wnao1 aaAunnwo oranw, xo1owo
oaaym1cn ua 1xano. Hocmo1n na 1o n1o xaxpw oran coc1o-
u1 ua nocxoArxux 1xano, ownno 1oArxo opna ua nux nnAno1cn
aono, 1orpa xax oc1aArnwo nwnoAnnm1 ncnomora1oArnym qyn-
xum. Hanumo, n copo aono 1xanrm nnAno1cn mwmonnan,
coopunu1oArnan 1xanr oaayo1 c1omy, a xonr cnaxao1 xapuo-
muou1w nooxopumwmu nomoc1namu u ypaAno1 nopyx1w xua-
nopon1oArnoc1u, anu1oAuaArnan 1xanr (anpo1oAu) nwc1uAao1 ua-
ny1u xamow copa, nonnan - noopao1 orany umnyArcw o1
nonnwx on1on.
Cucne+umu yononr accma1unao1 cuc1omw oranon, xo1owo
oaaym1 oranw, nwnoAnnmmuo cooma xaxym-1o oArmym qynx-
um. Hu a1om noucxoxponuo, c1oonuo u nac1nwo qynxuu ora-
non cuc1omw mory1 w1r aaAunnwmu. Hanumo, ayw, nawx, xo-
Aypox u nononr nxopn1 n coc1an numonau1oArno cuc1omw, no c1o-
onuo u qynxuu a1ux oranon aanwo. Opnaxo nco onu, a 1axxo
pyruo oranw numonau1oArno cuc1omw oocnonunam1 noc1ynAo-
nuo n oranuam nyxnwx nomoc1n u ypaAonuo ua noro mAaxon.
Conoxynnoc1r cuc1om oaayo1 mnoroxAo1onnw opeouu:+.
Hon.nuuouumu yononr, 1ax xo xax u nco nocAopymmuo, nn-
Ano1cn naporanuamonnwm, nocxoArxy oxna1wnao1 no opny ocor,
a rynny. ToArxo nonyAnun cnocona oocnonu1r aamnoxonuo
ocoo u noomc1nonnoc1r nuponwx ocoonnoc1o.
Euoooou yononr oxna1wnao1 nco nonyAnuu 1oro uAu unoro
nupa, xo1owo aacoAnm1 ncm 1ou1oum aoaAa.
% $
Paannxno nopc1anAno1 coo nananAonnw nooa1umw no-
occ xanoc1nonnwx uamononu oranuama. Hu a1om moxo1 no-
ucxopu1r xax oro ycAoxnonuo, 1ax u ynomonuo. Hanumo, y
opunmorocn po1onwma mAoxonu1ammoro no moo aanu1un no-
ucxopu1 ycAoxnonuo oArmunc1na cuc1om oranuama. Ho nocAo
onopoAonnoro nouopa nanunao1cn oa1nw noocc, nanumo,
noc1ononno ymonrmao1cn xoAunoc1no Aumqoupno 1xanu ummyn-
no cuc1omw, ocAaAno1cn noAonan qynxun u p. Hanoc1nw cAy-
nau noo1onuu - aamnoxonun Aununonnwx qom (nanumo, y Au-
nunxu amuc1omw - axcoAo1An).
YPOBHH OPFAHH3AUHH XHBOFO
Ocymoc1nAonuo uoAorunocxux qynxu noamoxno na aanwx
uoaxunocxux yonnnx. Paccmo1um ux no moo ynoAunonun cAox-
noc1u oranuaauu.
Mo.eu.npumu (moAoxyAnno-rono1unocxu) yononr nnAno1-
cn nanaArnwm. Ero uaynao1 moAoxyAnnan uoAorun. Cymoc1nym1
no1wo xAacca coopunonu, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 ocnonnwo uoAo-
runocxuo qynxuu, noa1omy ux naawnam1 uoAorunocxumu moAo-
xyAamu. 01o oAxu, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w, noAucaxaupw u Au-
nupw. Onu onaa1oArno nucy1c1nym1 n Amo xAo1xo. HcxAmno-
nuom nnAnm1cn noxAo1onnwo oranuamw - nuycw, xo1owo coc1on1
Aumr ua oAxon u nyxAounono xucAo1w. Kaxpw ua a1ux xAac-
con nomoc1n nwnoAnno1 cnouqunocxuo qynxuu u no moxo1 w1r
aamonon pyrum coopunonuom. Hanumo, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w
ocymoc1nAnm1 xanonuo u oaAuaaum nacAopc1nonno unqoma-
uu. EoAxu ynanAnm1 ncomu uoxumunocxumu oaxunmu n xAo1-
xo. unupw qomuym1 ocnony uoAorunocxux moman u 1. p.
Hocmo1n na aanooaauo oranuamon, omu nAan c1oonun rAan-
nwx uomoAoxyA y nux ypunu1oArno Auaox. Eco oAxu oaaona-
nw ua 20 aaAunnwx amunoxucAo1, nyxAounonwo xucAo1w coc1on1
ua nyxAoo1upon, opunaxonwx pAn ncox oranuamon.
EoAoo nuaxu yononr oranuaauu xunoro nonoamoxon, nocxoAr-
xy accma1unaomwo c1yx1yw ypy1 opunaxonwmu xax n xuno
ma1ouu, 1ax u n noxuno. Hooranunocxuo nomoc1na, xumunocxuo
aAomon1w u oaaymmuo ux aAomon1anwo nac1uw, xo1owo nxopn1
n coc1an oranuamon, nunom no o1Aunam1cn o1 1axonwx n noxuno
nuopo. Hanumo, aAox1onw, no1onw no umom1 nuxaxux ocoon-
noc1o. Eopa n oranuamax xumunocxu upon1unna nopo Muonoro
oxoana uAu nopnnoro naa a1mocqow.
Cu.enouumu yononr oAoo nwcoxu. On oxna1wnao1 nooc-
cw, noucxopnmuo n xuno xAo1xo. EuomoAoxyAw mory1 camoc1on-
1oArno nwnoAnn1r cnou qynxuu (nanumo, oAxu-qomon1w) uAu
accouuona1rcn n cyxAo1onnwo c1yx1yw - oranoAAw (mom-
annwo u nomomannwo) u ynac1nona1r n ux pon1oArnoc1u.
K.enouumu yononr nopc1anAno1 coo camoc1on1oArnym xu-
nym cuc1omy - xAo1xy. Kaxpo xAo1xo nucymu nco cnoc1na xu-
noro (omon nomoc1n, aapaxumoc1r, nwpoAonuo u p.). An op-
noxAo1onnwx qom xuanu xAo1onnw yononr oranuaauu 1ox-
poc1non oranuamonnomy. V mnoroxAo1onnwx oranuamon 1oAo co-
c1ou1 ua mnoxoc1na xAo1ox, noa1omy y nux moxpy xAo1onnwm u
oranuamonnwm yonnnmu umoo1cn nocxoArxo nomoxy1onnwx
yonno.
Tuoueomu yononr accma1unao1 xAo1onnwo ancamAu - 1xa-
nu, xo1owo umom1cn y oArmunc1na mnoroxAo1onnwx oranua-
mon. KoAonuaArnwo opnoxAo1onnwo u nu1na1wo oranuamw no
mory1 cnu1a1rcn uc1unno mnoroxAo1onnwmu, nocxoArxy coc1on1
ua opunaxonwx xAo1ox. Hac1onmuo 1xanu umom1cn y oranuamon,
nro 1oAo oaaonano nocxoArxumu cAonmu xAo1ox, ouon1uonan-
nwx 1oxmono. E a1ux cAynanx xAo1xu cnouaAuauym1cn pAn
nwnoAnonun onopoAonnwx qynxu, poc1uran nu a1om roaapo
oAoo nwcoxo aqqox1unnoc1u no cannonum c opnoxAo1onnwmu
qomamu. Opnaxo nu a1om xAo1xu c1anonn1cn aanucumwmu o1
pon1oArnoc1u pyrux xAo1ox. E nac1noc1u, mwmonnwo xAo1xu cno-
conw aqqox1unno coxama1rcn, no nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na um poA-
xnw poc1anAn1r pyruo 1xanu, nanumo, xonr.
Opeouumu yononr oxna1wnao1 aaAunnwo oranw, xo1owo
oaaym1cn ua 1xano. Hocmo1n na 1o n1o xaxpw oran coc1o-
u1 ua nocxoArxux 1xano, ownno 1oArxo opna ua nux nnAno1cn
aono, 1orpa xax oc1aArnwo nwnoAnnm1 ncnomora1oArnym qyn-
xum. Hanumo, n copo aono 1xanrm nnAno1cn mwmonnan,
coopunu1oArnan 1xanr oaayo1 c1omy, a xonr cnaxao1 xapuo-
muou1w nooxopumwmu nomoc1namu u ypaAno1 nopyx1w xua-
nopon1oArnoc1u, anu1oAuaArnan 1xanr (anpo1oAu) nwc1uAao1 ua-
ny1u xamow copa, nonnan - noopao1 orany umnyArcw o1
nonnwx on1on.
Cucne+umu yononr accma1unao1 cuc1omw oranon, xo1owo
oaaym1 oranw, nwnoAnnmmuo cooma xaxym-1o oArmym qynx-
um. Hu a1om noucxoxponuo, c1oonuo u nac1nwo qynxuu ora-
non cuc1omw mory1 w1r aaAunnwmu. Hanumo, ayw, nawx, xo-
Aypox u nononr nxopn1 n coc1an numonau1oArno cuc1omw, no c1o-
onuo u qynxuu a1ux oranon aanwo. Opnaxo nco onu, a 1axxo
pyruo oranw numonau1oArno cuc1omw oocnonunam1 noc1ynAo-
nuo n oranuam nyxnwx nomoc1n u ypaAonuo ua noro mAaxon.
Conoxynnoc1r cuc1om oaayo1 mnoroxAo1onnw opeouu:+.
Hon.nuuouumu yononr, 1ax xo xax u nco nocAopymmuo, nn-
Ano1cn naporanuamonnwm, nocxoArxy oxna1wnao1 no opny ocor,
a rynny. ToArxo nonyAnun cnocona oocnonu1r aamnoxonuo
ocoo u noomc1nonnoc1r nuponwx ocoonnoc1o.
Euoooou yononr oxna1wnao1 nco nonyAnuu 1oro uAu unoro
nupa, xo1owo aacoAnm1 ncm 1ou1oum aoaAa.
' &
Euoueuonuuecuuu yononr accma1unao1 naaumoo1nomonun
moxpy oranuamamu, xo1owo ou1am1 na opno 1ou1ouu.
Euocqepumu yononr nnAno1cn camwm xynnwm. On nxAmnao1
n con conoxynnoc1r o1nomonu moxpy ncomu oranuamamu, ou-
1ammumu na 3omAo. Euoonoaw o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra, nanu-
mo, coomoc1no nyc1wnu no noxoxo na Aocno uoonoa. Opnaxo
Amo uoonoa noc1ononno nooxopu1 n pyro, noa1omy coomo-
c1na nomunyomo nopnoram1cn naaumnomy noapoc1num.
KRETKA
Oranuam oAoc1on, no oranuaonan, xax u mnoruo cAoxnwo
cuc1omw, no uoaxunocxomy nununy (1aA. 1). Haynonuo
xaxporo ua yonno oranuaauu xunoro 1oyo1 cnoux nopxopon
To . u u o 1
Hopapxnnocuno yponnn cxpoonnx oprannama
u mo1opon. Hepome qpoouu optouuoouu xuooto - moneuqnnp-
um, cqunemouum u unemouum - uoquoem oemoo uonotuuec-
uur uoqu, umeuqemon umonotue.
KRETOHHAR TEOPHR
Paanu1uo u1oAoruu cnnaano c coapanuom u yconomonc1nonanuom
on1unocxux yc1oc1n, noanoAnmmux accmo1o1r u uaynu1r xAo1xu.
E 1609 - 1610 rr. Faanaoo Faanao cxonc1yuonaA nonw mux-
ocxon, opnaxo Aumr n 1624 r. on oro yconomonc1nonaA 1ax, n1o um
moxno wAo noAraona1rcn. 01o1 muxocxon ynoAununaA n 35 - 40 aa.
Hooa rop H. ma6op paA nuoy naananuo muxocxon. E 1665 r.
Po6opx Fyu nnonwo ynupoA n noxo nnoxu, xo1owm paA naana-
nuo coII - xAo1xa. EAaropan yconomonc1nonanum muxocxo-
na Anxonom nan Aononryuom nonnuAacr noamoxnoc1r uayna1r xAo1-
xu u po1aArnoo c1oonuo oranon u 1xano. E 1696 r. wAa onyAu-
xonana oro xnura Tanw nuopw, o1xw1wo c nomomrm cono-
monnomux muxocxonon. ononryx nnonwo accmo1oA u onucaA
au1ou1w, cnoma1oaoupw, o1xwA po1oAo nonopomw u 1aun-
c1nonnw mu muxooranuamon, xo1owo on naanaA unqyaoun-
mu. ononryx no nany cnu1ao1cn ocnononoAoxnuxom naynno mux-
ocxonuu. Hn Hyxunro nnonwo yno1ouA 1omun no1onAaa-
ma. P. Hpayn onucaA npo xax noc1onnnym c1yx1yy u nopAo-
xuA 1omun nucIous - npo. E 1838 r. M. Haopon coapaA
1ooum u1oronoaa (xAo1xooaaonanun). Ero ocnonnan aacAyra -
noc1anonxa nonoca o noanuxnononuu xAo1ox n oranuamo. Ocno-
nwnancr na ao1ax HAopona, Toopop Hnann coapaA xAo1on-
nym 1ooum. E 1839 r. wAa onyAuxonana oro occmo1nan xnu-
ra Muxocxonunocxuo uccAoponanun o coo1no1c1nuu n c1yx1y-
o u oc1o xuno1nwx u ac1onu.
Ocnonnwmu ucxopnwmu noAoxonunmu uaoxonno xoopnn wAu
cAopymmuo: 1) oce nuouu cocnonn u: u.enou; 2) u.enuu pocne
uuu u uoonumr u+ewn oue npuuuunm cnpoeuun, nou uou
oo:uuuown oouuouoom+u nnn+u; 3) uooon onoe.tuon u.en
uo co+ocnonne.tuo, o oenne.tuocnt opeouu:+o npeocnoo.nen
coou c++ u:ueoenne.tuocnu onoe.tumr u.enou.
EoArmoo nAunnuo na paArnomoo aanu1uo xAo1onno 1oouu
oxaaaA Pypoanq Hnpxon. On no 1oArxo cnoA noopuno nco mnoro-
nucAonnwo aaoanonnwo qax1w, no u yopu1oArno noxaaaA, n1o
xAo1xa nnAno1cn noc1onnno c1yx1yo u noanuxao1 1oArxo ny-
1om aamnoxonun coo noponwx - xaxpan xAo1xa ua xAo1xu
(omnIa coIIuIa o coIIuIao).
KAo1xa nnAno1cn aAomon1ano opunuo ncoro xunoro, no1omy
n1o o nucymu nco cnoc1na xunwx oranuamon: nwcoxoynonpo-
nonnoo c1oonuo, noAynonuo anoruu uanno u oo ucnoAraonanuo
' &
Euoueuonuuecuuu yononr accma1unao1 naaumoo1nomonun
moxpy oranuamamu, xo1owo ou1am1 na opno 1ou1ouu.
Euocqepumu yononr nnAno1cn camwm xynnwm. On nxAmnao1
n con conoxynnoc1r o1nomonu moxpy ncomu oranuamamu, ou-
1ammumu na 3omAo. Euoonoaw o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra, nanu-
mo, coomoc1no nyc1wnu no noxoxo na Aocno uoonoa. Opnaxo
Amo uoonoa noc1ononno nooxopu1 n pyro, noa1omy coomo-
c1na nomunyomo nopnoram1cn naaumnomy noapoc1num.
KRETKA
Oranuam oAoc1on, no oranuaonan, xax u mnoruo cAoxnwo
cuc1omw, no uoaxunocxomy nununy (1aA. 1). Haynonuo
xaxporo ua yonno oranuaauu xunoro 1oyo1 cnoux nopxopon
To . u u o 1
Hopapxnnocuno yponnn cxpoonnx oprannama
u mo1opon. Hepome qpoouu optouuoouu xuooto - moneuqnnp-
um, cqunemouum u unemouum - uoquoem oemoo uonotuuec-
uur uoqu, umeuqemon umonotue.
KRETOHHAR TEOPHR
Paanu1uo u1oAoruu cnnaano c coapanuom u yconomonc1nonanuom
on1unocxux yc1oc1n, noanoAnmmux accmo1o1r u uaynu1r xAo1xu.
E 1609 - 1610 rr. Faanaoo Faanao cxonc1yuonaA nonw mux-
ocxon, opnaxo Aumr n 1624 r. on oro yconomonc1nonaA 1ax, n1o um
moxno wAo noAraona1rcn. 01o1 muxocxon ynoAununaA n 35 - 40 aa.
Hooa rop H. ma6op paA nuoy naananuo muxocxon. E 1665 r.
Po6opx Fyu nnonwo ynupoA n noxo nnoxu, xo1owm paA naana-
nuo coII - xAo1xa. EAaropan yconomonc1nonanum muxocxo-
na Anxonom nan Aononryuom nonnuAacr noamoxnoc1r uayna1r xAo1-
xu u po1aArnoo c1oonuo oranon u 1xano. E 1696 r. wAa onyAu-
xonana oro xnura Tanw nuopw, o1xw1wo c nomomrm cono-
monnomux muxocxonon. ononryx nnonwo accmo1oA u onucaA
au1ou1w, cnoma1oaoupw, o1xwA po1oAo nonopomw u 1aun-
c1nonnw mu muxooranuamon, xo1owo on naanaA unqyaoun-
mu. ononryx no nany cnu1ao1cn ocnononoAoxnuxom naynno mux-
ocxonuu. Hn Hyxunro nnonwo yno1ouA 1omun no1onAaa-
ma. P. Hpayn onucaA npo xax noc1onnnym c1yx1yy u nopAo-
xuA 1omun nucIous - npo. E 1838 r. M. Haopon coapaA
1ooum u1oronoaa (xAo1xooaaonanun). Ero ocnonnan aacAyra -
noc1anonxa nonoca o noanuxnononuu xAo1ox n oranuamo. Ocno-
nwnancr na ao1ax HAopona, Toopop Hnann coapaA xAo1on-
nym 1ooum. E 1839 r. wAa onyAuxonana oro occmo1nan xnu-
ra Muxocxonunocxuo uccAoponanun o coo1no1c1nuu n c1yx1y-
o u oc1o xuno1nwx u ac1onu.
Ocnonnwmu ucxopnwmu noAoxonunmu uaoxonno xoopnn wAu
cAopymmuo: 1) oce nuouu cocnonn u: u.enou; 2) u.enuu pocne
uuu u uoonumr u+ewn oue npuuuunm cnpoeuun, nou uou
oo:uuuown oouuouoom+u nnn+u; 3) uooon onoe.tuon u.en
uo co+ocnonne.tuo, o oenne.tuocnt opeouu:+o npeocnoo.nen
coou c++ u:ueoenne.tuocnu onoe.tumr u.enou.
EoArmoo nAunnuo na paArnomoo aanu1uo xAo1onno 1oouu
oxaaaA Pypoanq Hnpxon. On no 1oArxo cnoA noopuno nco mnoro-
nucAonnwo aaoanonnwo qax1w, no u yopu1oArno noxaaaA, n1o
xAo1xa nnAno1cn noc1onnno c1yx1yo u noanuxao1 1oArxo ny-
1om aamnoxonun coo noponwx - xaxpan xAo1xa ua xAo1xu
(omnIa coIIuIa o coIIuIao).
KAo1xa nnAno1cn aAomon1ano opunuo ncoro xunoro, no1omy
n1o o nucymu nco cnoc1na xunwx oranuamon: nwcoxoynonpo-
nonnoo c1oonuo, noAynonuo anoruu uanno u oo ucnoAraonanuo

T
o

.
u
u
o

z
C
n
c
x
o
m
a

m
n
n
o


n
p
n
p
o
p
m

T
o

.
u
u
o

z
C
n
c
x
o
m
a

m
n
n
o


n
p
n
p
o
p
m
!
T
o

.
u
u
o

3
X
a
p
a
u
x
o
p
n
m
o

n
p
n
a
n
a
u
n

n
p
o
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
n
x

n

a
y
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
n
x

u
a
o
x
o
u
pAn nwnoAnonun ao1w u noppoxanun ynonpononnoc1u (no-
opoAonuo an1onuu), omon nomoc1n, ax1unnan oaxun na aa-
paxonun, oc1, aanu1uo, aamnoxonuo, ypnoonuo u noopana uo-
Aorunocxo unqomauu no1omxam, oronoaun, apan1aun x ox-
yxammo copo.
Knemouuon meopun o coopemeuuo uumepnpemouu nxAm-
nao1 cAopymmuo rAannwo noAoxonun: 1) u.enuo no.nencn uu
oepco.tuou o.e+eunopuou eouuuueu uooeo; 2) u.enuu ocer opeo
uu:+oo npuuuunuo.tuo crooum no cooe+ cnpoeuuw, quuuuu u
ru+uuecuo+ cocnoo; 3) u.enuu po:+uoowncn no.tuo nne+
oe.euun ucroouou u.enuu; 4) u.enuu rpounn, nepepoonmoown
u peo.u:wn eeuenuuecuw uuqop+ouuw; 5) +uoeou.enouume
opeouu:+m no.nwncn c.oum+u u.enouum+u ouco+.n+u, opo
:wu+u ue.ocnume cucne+m; 6) u+euuo .oeooopn oenne.tuoc
nu u.enou o c.oumr opeouu:+or ocecno.nwncn pocn, po:
ounue, o+eu oeecno u ouepeuu.
Conomonnan cuc1oma1uxa xunwx oranuamon nopc1anAona n
1aA. 2.
HPOKAPHOTHHECKHE
H DYKAPHOTHHECKHE KRETKH
E nac1onmoo nomn aaAunam1 npouapnoxnnocuno u ayuapnoxn-
nocuno oprannamm. K nonwm nunapAoxa1 cuno-aoAonwo nopooc-
Au, ax1unomuo1w, ax1ouu, cnuoxo1w, muxonAaamw, uxxo1cuu
u xAamupuu, xo n1owm - oArmunc1no nopoocAo, ruw u Auma-
nuxu, ac1onun u xuno1nwo. E o1Aunuo o1 noxauo1unocxo, ayxa-
uo1unocxan xAo1xa umoo1 npo, oranunonnoo ooAonxo ua pnyx
moman, u oArmoo xoAunoc1no momannwx oranoAA (1aA. 3).
Xnmnnocuax oprannaanx uaoxun. Ha ncox aAomon1on nouo-
punocxo cuc1omw .H. MonpoAoona n oranuamo noAonoxa ona-
yxono 86 noc1onnno nucy1c1nymmux, ua nux 25 nooxopumw
pAn nomaArno xuanopon1oArnoc1u, 18 ua xo1owx acoAm1no,
a ? noAoanw. Hoqocco E.P. EuArnmc naanaA ux aAomon1amu
xuanu.
E coc1an nomoc1n, ynac1nymmux n oaxunx, cnnaannwx c xua-
nopon1oArnoc1rm xAo1xu, nxopn1 non1u nco uanoc1nwo xumunocxuo
aAomon1w, nunom na poAm no1wox ua nux nuxopu1cn oxoAo 98%
maccw xAo1xu. 01o uuc.opoo (65 - ?5%), e.epoo (15 - 18%), oooopoo
(8 - 10%) u o:on (1,5 - 3,0%). Oc1aArnwo aAomon1w nopaapoAnm1cn
na pno rynnw: +oupoo.e+eunm (oxoAo 1,9%) u +uupoo.e+eunm
(oxoAo 0,1%). K maupoaaomonxam o1nocn1cn cepo, qocqop, r.op,
uo.uu, uonpuu, +oeuuu, uo.tuuu u e.e:o, x mnupoaaomonxam -
!
T
o

.
u
u
o

3
X
a
p
a
u
x
o
p
n
m
o

n
p
n
a
n
a
u
n

n
p
o
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
n
x

n

a
y
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
n
x

u
a
o
x
o
u
pAn nwnoAnonun ao1w u noppoxanun ynonpononnoc1u (no-
opoAonuo an1onuu), omon nomoc1n, ax1unnan oaxun na aa-
paxonun, oc1, aanu1uo, aamnoxonuo, ypnoonuo u noopana uo-
Aorunocxo unqomauu no1omxam, oronoaun, apan1aun x ox-
yxammo copo.
Knemouuon meopun o coopemeuuo uumepnpemouu nxAm-
nao1 cAopymmuo rAannwo noAoxonun: 1) u.enuo no.nencn uu
oepco.tuou o.e+eunopuou eouuuueu uooeo; 2) u.enuu ocer opeo
uu:+oo npuuuunuo.tuo crooum no cooe+ cnpoeuuw, quuuuu u
ru+uuecuo+ cocnoo; 3) u.enuu po:+uoowncn no.tuo nne+
oe.euun ucroouou u.enuu; 4) u.enuu rpounn, nepepoonmoown
u peo.u:wn eeuenuuecuw uuqop+ouuw; 5) +uoeou.enouume
opeouu:+m no.nwncn c.oum+u u.enouum+u ouco+.n+u, opo
:wu+u ue.ocnume cucne+m; 6) u+euuo .oeooopn oenne.tuoc
nu u.enou o c.oumr opeouu:+or ocecno.nwncn pocn, po:
ounue, o+eu oeecno u ouepeuu.
Conomonnan cuc1oma1uxa xunwx oranuamon nopc1anAona n
1aA. 2.
HPOKAPHOTHHECKHE
H DYKAPHOTHHECKHE KRETKH
E nac1onmoo nomn aaAunam1 npouapnoxnnocuno u ayuapnoxn-
nocuno oprannamm. K nonwm nunapAoxa1 cuno-aoAonwo nopooc-
Au, ax1unomuo1w, ax1ouu, cnuoxo1w, muxonAaamw, uxxo1cuu
u xAamupuu, xo n1owm - oArmunc1no nopoocAo, ruw u Auma-
nuxu, ac1onun u xuno1nwo. E o1Aunuo o1 noxauo1unocxo, ayxa-
uo1unocxan xAo1xa umoo1 npo, oranunonnoo ooAonxo ua pnyx
moman, u oArmoo xoAunoc1no momannwx oranoAA (1aA. 3).
Xnmnnocuax oprannaanx uaoxun. Ha ncox aAomon1on nouo-
punocxo cuc1omw .H. MonpoAoona n oranuamo noAonoxa ona-
yxono 86 noc1onnno nucy1c1nymmux, ua nux 25 nooxopumw
pAn nomaArno xuanopon1oArnoc1u, 18 ua xo1owx acoAm1no,
a ? noAoanw. Hoqocco E.P. EuArnmc naanaA ux aAomon1amu
xuanu.
E coc1an nomoc1n, ynac1nymmux n oaxunx, cnnaannwx c xua-
nopon1oArnoc1rm xAo1xu, nxopn1 non1u nco uanoc1nwo xumunocxuo
aAomon1w, nunom na poAm no1wox ua nux nuxopu1cn oxoAo 98%
maccw xAo1xu. 01o uuc.opoo (65 - ?5%), e.epoo (15 - 18%), oooopoo
(8 - 10%) u o:on (1,5 - 3,0%). Oc1aArnwo aAomon1w nopaapoAnm1cn
na pno rynnw: +oupoo.e+eunm (oxoAo 1,9%) u +uupoo.e+eunm
(oxoAo 0,1%). K maupoaaomonxam o1nocn1cn cepo, qocqop, r.op,
uo.uu, uonpuu, +oeuuu, uo.tuuu u e.e:o, x mnupoaaomonxam -
# "
P u c . 1. Oas cxeua auuoxucnomm:
R pauxan, no xomopouy auuoxucnomm pasnuvakmcs ue+y coo; s pauxe oas
vacms ns scex auuoxucnom
P u c . 2. 1paauem nonunenmua
uuuu, +eot, uoo, qnop, +opeoueu, ce.eu, uoo.tn, +o.uoeu, cnpou
uuu, uuue.t, rpo+, oouoouu u p. Hocmo1n na ononr maAoo copo-
xanuo, muxoaAomon1w uram1 naxnym oAr. Onu nAunm1 na o-
mon nomoc1n. Eoa nux nonoamoxna nomaArnan xuanopon1oArnoc1r
xaxpo xAo1xu n o1poArnoc1u u oranuama xax oAoro.
KAo1xa coc1ou1 ua nooranunocxux u oranunocxux nomoc1n.
Copu nooranunocxux nooAapao1 oooo, oo o1nocu1oArnoo xoAu-
noc1no coc1anAno1 o1 ?0 po 80%. Eopa - ynunocaArnw ac1nou-
1oAr, n no noucxopn1 nco uoxumunocxuo oaxuu n xAo1xo, nu
ynac1uu nopw ocymoc1nAno1cn oo 1onAooryAnun. Eomoc1na, a-
c1nonmmuocn n nopo (coAu, ocnonanun, xucAo1w, oAxu, yrAonopw,
cnu1w u p.), naawnam1cn euopoqu.tum+u. Iuopoqoume nomo-
c1na (xuw u xuonoponwo) no ac1nonm1cn n nopo. Ec1r oranu-
nocxuo nomoc1na c nw1nny1wmu moAoxyAamu, y xo1owx opun xo-
no rupoquAon, a pyro rupoqoon; ux naawnam1 o+qunonu
uecuu+u. Humoom amquna1unocxux nomoc1n mory1 cAyxu1r qoc-
qoAunupw, ynac1nymmuo n oaaonanuu uoAorunocxux moman.
Hooranunocxuo nomoc1na (coAu, xucAo1w, ocnonanun, noAo-
xu1oArnwo u o1ua1oArnwo uonw) coc1anAnm1 o1 1,0 po 1,5%
maccw xAo1xu. Copu oranunocxux nomoc1n nooAapam1 oAxu
(10 - 20%), xuw, uAu Aunupw (1 - 5%), yrAonopw (0,2 - 2,0%),
nyxAounonwo xucAo1w (1 - 2%). Copoxanuo nuaxomoAoxyAn-
nwx nomoc1n n xAo1xo no nonwmao1 0,5%.
MoAoxyAa 6oaua nnAno1cn noAumoom, xo1ow coc1ou1 ua oAr-
moro xoAunoc1na non1onmmuxcn opunu (monomoon). Monomow
oAxa - amunoxucAo1w (ux 20) opnonomonno oAapam1 pnymn ax-
1unnwmu a1omnwmu rynnamu: amunorynno (ona coomao1 moAo-
xyAo amunoxucAo1w cnoc1na ocnonanun) u xaoxcuArno ryn-
no (ona coomao1 moAoxyAo cnoc1na xucAo1w) (uc. 1). Amuno-
xucAo1w coopunonw moxpy coo non1upnwmu cnnanmu, oaayn
noAunon1upnym onr (nonunnym c1yx1yy oAxa) (uc. 2). Ona
aaxynunao1cn n cnuaAr, nopc1anAnmmym, n cnom onoopr, n1o-
unnym c1yx1yy oAxa. EAaropan onopoAonno noc1anc1non-
no ouon1auu noAunon1upno onu noanuxao1 1o1unnan c1yx-
1ya oAxa, xo1oan onopoAno1 cnouqunnoc1r u uoAorunocxym
ax1unnoc1r moAoxyAw oAxa. HocxoArxo 1o1unnwx c1yx1y, o+o-
punnncr moxpy coo, oaaym1 no1no1unnym c1yx1yy.
EoAxu nwnoAnnm1 naxnomuo qynxuu. omon1w - uo-
Aorunocxuo xa1aAuaa1ow, ynoAununammuo cxooc1r xumunocxux
oaxu n xAo1xo n co1nu 1wcnn - muAAuonw aa, nnAnm1cn oAxamu.
EoAxu, nxopn n coc1an ncox xAo1onnwx c1yx1y, nwnoAnnm1 nAac1u-
nocxym (c1ou1oArnym) qynxum. Onu oaaym1 xAo1onnw cxoAo1.
nuxonun xAo1ox 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 cnouaArnwo oAxu (ax1un,
muoaun, punoun). EoAxu oocnonunam1 1ancno1 nomoc1n n xAo1xy,
ua xAo1xu u nny1u xAo1xu. An1u1oAa, xo1owo nanpy c ory-
An1onwmu nwnoAnnm1 u aamu1nwo qynxuu, 1axxo nnAnm1cn oA-
xamu. H naxono, oAxu nnAnm1cn opnum ua uc1onnuxon anoruu.
raonopm nopaapoAnm1cn na monocaxaupw u noAucaxaupw.
HoAucaxaupw, nopono oAxam, noc1oonw ua monomoon - monoca-
xaupon. Copu monocaxaupon n xAo1xo nauoAoo naxnw rAmxoaa
(copoxu1 moc1r a1omon yrAoopa) u non1oaa (nn1r a1omon yrAoo-
pa). Hon1oaw nxopn1 n coc1an nyxAounonwx xucAo1. Monocaxaupw
xoomo ac1nonm1cn n nopo, noAucaxaupw - nAoxo. E xuno1-
nwx xAo1xax noAucaxaupw nopc1anAonw rAuxoronom, n ac1u-
1oArnwx - n ocnonnom ac1noumwm xaxmaAom u noac1noumwmu
oAAmAoao, romuoAAmAoao, nox1unom u p. VrAonopw nnAnm1cn
uc1onnuxom anoruu. CAoxnwo yrAonopw, coopunonnwo c oAxamu
(rAuxono1ounw) u (uAu) xuamu (rAuxoAunupw), ynac1nym1 n oa-
aonanuu xAo1onnwx nonoxnoc1o u naaumopoc1nunx xAo1ox.
K annnpam o1nocn1cn xuw u xuonoponwo nomoc1na. MoAo-
xyAw xuon noc1oonw ua rAuouna u xunwx xucAo1 (uc. 3).
K xuonoponwm nomoc1nam o1nocn1cn xoAoc1oun, noxo1owo ro-
monw, Aou1un. unupw, nnAnmmuocn ocnonnwm xomnonon1om xAo-
1onnwx moman, nwnoAnnm1 1om camwm c1ou1oArnym qynxum.
Onu nnAnm1cn naxnomum uc1onnuxom anoruu. Tax, ocAu nu noA-
nom oxucAonuu 1 r oAxa uAu yrAonopon ocnooxpao1cn 1?,6 xx
anoruu, 1o nu noAnom oxucAonuu 1 r xua - 38,9 xx.
Hyuaonnonmo uncaoxm nnAnm1cn noAumonwmu moAoxyAamu,
oaaonannwmu monomoamu - nyxAoo1upamu, xaxpw ua xo1owx
# "
P u c . 1. Oas cxeua auuoxucnomm:
R pauxan, no xomopouy auuoxucnomm pasnuvakmcs ue+y coo; s pauxe oas
vacms ns scex auuoxucnom
P u c . 2. 1paauem nonunenmua
uuuu, +eot, uoo, qnop, +opeoueu, ce.eu, uoo.tn, +o.uoeu, cnpou
uuu, uuue.t, rpo+, oouoouu u p. Hocmo1n na ononr maAoo copo-
xanuo, muxoaAomon1w uram1 naxnym oAr. Onu nAunm1 na o-
mon nomoc1n. Eoa nux nonoamoxna nomaArnan xuanopon1oArnoc1r
xaxpo xAo1xu n o1poArnoc1u u oranuama xax oAoro.
KAo1xa coc1ou1 ua nooranunocxux u oranunocxux nomoc1n.
Copu nooranunocxux nooAapao1 oooo, oo o1nocu1oArnoo xoAu-
noc1no coc1anAno1 o1 ?0 po 80%. Eopa - ynunocaArnw ac1nou-
1oAr, n no noucxopn1 nco uoxumunocxuo oaxuu n xAo1xo, nu
ynac1uu nopw ocymoc1nAno1cn oo 1onAooryAnun. Eomoc1na, a-
c1nonmmuocn n nopo (coAu, ocnonanun, xucAo1w, oAxu, yrAonopw,
cnu1w u p.), naawnam1cn euopoqu.tum+u. Iuopoqoume nomo-
c1na (xuw u xuonoponwo) no ac1nonm1cn n nopo. Ec1r oranu-
nocxuo nomoc1na c nw1nny1wmu moAoxyAamu, y xo1owx opun xo-
no rupoquAon, a pyro rupoqoon; ux naawnam1 o+qunonu
uecuu+u. Humoom amquna1unocxux nomoc1n mory1 cAyxu1r qoc-
qoAunupw, ynac1nymmuo n oaaonanuu uoAorunocxux moman.
Hooranunocxuo nomoc1na (coAu, xucAo1w, ocnonanun, noAo-
xu1oArnwo u o1ua1oArnwo uonw) coc1anAnm1 o1 1,0 po 1,5%
maccw xAo1xu. Copu oranunocxux nomoc1n nooAapam1 oAxu
(10 - 20%), xuw, uAu Aunupw (1 - 5%), yrAonopw (0,2 - 2,0%),
nyxAounonwo xucAo1w (1 - 2%). Copoxanuo nuaxomoAoxyAn-
nwx nomoc1n n xAo1xo no nonwmao1 0,5%.
MoAoxyAa 6oaua nnAno1cn noAumoom, xo1ow coc1ou1 ua oAr-
moro xoAunoc1na non1onmmuxcn opunu (monomoon). Monomow
oAxa - amunoxucAo1w (ux 20) opnonomonno oAapam1 pnymn ax-
1unnwmu a1omnwmu rynnamu: amunorynno (ona coomao1 moAo-
xyAo amunoxucAo1w cnoc1na ocnonanun) u xaoxcuArno ryn-
no (ona coomao1 moAoxyAo cnoc1na xucAo1w) (uc. 1). Amuno-
xucAo1w coopunonw moxpy coo non1upnwmu cnnanmu, oaayn
noAunon1upnym onr (nonunnym c1yx1yy oAxa) (uc. 2). Ona
aaxynunao1cn n cnuaAr, nopc1anAnmmym, n cnom onoopr, n1o-
unnym c1yx1yy oAxa. EAaropan onopoAonno noc1anc1non-
no ouon1auu noAunon1upno onu noanuxao1 1o1unnan c1yx-
1ya oAxa, xo1oan onopoAno1 cnouqunnoc1r u uoAorunocxym
ax1unnoc1r moAoxyAw oAxa. HocxoArxo 1o1unnwx c1yx1y, o+o-
punnncr moxpy coo, oaaym1 no1no1unnym c1yx1yy.
EoAxu nwnoAnnm1 naxnomuo qynxuu. omon1w - uo-
Aorunocxuo xa1aAuaa1ow, ynoAununammuo cxooc1r xumunocxux
oaxu n xAo1xo n co1nu 1wcnn - muAAuonw aa, nnAnm1cn oAxamu.
EoAxu, nxopn n coc1an ncox xAo1onnwx c1yx1y, nwnoAnnm1 nAac1u-
nocxym (c1ou1oArnym) qynxum. Onu oaaym1 xAo1onnw cxoAo1.
nuxonun xAo1ox 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 cnouaArnwo oAxu (ax1un,
muoaun, punoun). EoAxu oocnonunam1 1ancno1 nomoc1n n xAo1xy,
ua xAo1xu u nny1u xAo1xu. An1u1oAa, xo1owo nanpy c ory-
An1onwmu nwnoAnnm1 u aamu1nwo qynxuu, 1axxo nnAnm1cn oA-
xamu. H naxono, oAxu nnAnm1cn opnum ua uc1onnuxon anoruu.
raonopm nopaapoAnm1cn na monocaxaupw u noAucaxaupw.
HoAucaxaupw, nopono oAxam, noc1oonw ua monomoon - monoca-
xaupon. Copu monocaxaupon n xAo1xo nauoAoo naxnw rAmxoaa
(copoxu1 moc1r a1omon yrAoopa) u non1oaa (nn1r a1omon yrAoo-
pa). Hon1oaw nxopn1 n coc1an nyxAounonwx xucAo1. Monocaxaupw
xoomo ac1nonm1cn n nopo, noAucaxaupw - nAoxo. E xuno1-
nwx xAo1xax noAucaxaupw nopc1anAonw rAuxoronom, n ac1u-
1oArnwx - n ocnonnom ac1noumwm xaxmaAom u noac1noumwmu
oAAmAoao, romuoAAmAoao, nox1unom u p. VrAonopw nnAnm1cn
uc1onnuxom anoruu. CAoxnwo yrAonopw, coopunonnwo c oAxamu
(rAuxono1ounw) u (uAu) xuamu (rAuxoAunupw), ynac1nym1 n oa-
aonanuu xAo1onnwx nonoxnoc1o u naaumopoc1nunx xAo1ox.
K annnpam o1nocn1cn xuw u xuonoponwo nomoc1na. MoAo-
xyAw xuon noc1oonw ua rAuouna u xunwx xucAo1 (uc. 3).
K xuonoponwm nomoc1nam o1nocn1cn xoAoc1oun, noxo1owo ro-
monw, Aou1un. unupw, nnAnmmuocn ocnonnwm xomnonon1om xAo-
1onnwx moman, nwnoAnnm1 1om camwm c1ou1oArnym qynxum.
Onu nnAnm1cn naxnomum uc1onnuxom anoruu. Tax, ocAu nu noA-
nom oxucAonuu 1 r oAxa uAu yrAonopon ocnooxpao1cn 1?,6 xx
anoruu, 1o nu noAnom oxucAonuu 1 r xua - 38,9 xx.
Hyuaonnonmo uncaoxm nnAnm1cn noAumonwmu moAoxyAamu,
oaaonannwmu monomoamu - nyxAoo1upamu, xaxpw ua xo1owx
% $
P u c . 3. Oas qopuyna mpuaunanuepua
(+upa unu uacna),
ae R
1
, R
2
, R
3
ocmamxu +upmx xucnom
P u c . 5. Hpocmpacmseas cmpyxmypa
yxneuosmx xucnom:
P u c . 4. Cmpoeue uonexyn
yxneuosmx xucnom:
l PHl; ll yuepaus amouos ya-
nepoa s uxne nemosm; lll BHl.
3sesovxo (*) omuevem pasnuvus
s cmpoeuu BHl u PHl. Banemme
csssu noxasam ynpoeo: A ae-
u; T muuu; C umosu;
G ayau; U ypaun
To . u u o 4
Cocxan nyuaonnonmx uncaox
caxaa u oc1a1xa qocqono xucAo1w. Hu a1om ocnonanun acno-
Aoxonw nny1u pnono cnuaAu, a caxao-qocqa1nw cxoAo1 -
cnayxu. Aao1uc1wo ocnonanun ooux ono coopunonw moxpy
coo xomnAomon1ano nopoopnwmu cnnanmu, nu a1om aponnn
coopnnxoxcx xoanuo c xnmnnom, a nxoann c ryannnom. E aanucu-
moc1u o1 nomoa a1oma no o1nomonum x cnnau c ocnonanuom xon-
w onu ooananam1 xax 5 u 3 (cm. uc. 4 u 5).
Eco uoxumunocxuo oaxuu n xAo1xo c1oro c1yx1yuo-
nanw u ocymoc1nAnm1cn nu ynac1uu nwcoxocnouqunocxux uo-
xa1aAuaa1oon - qopmonxon, uAu ananmon (epeu. on - n, zymo -
oxonuo, aaxnacxa), - oAxon, xo1owo, coopunnncr c uoAorunoc-
xumu moAoxyAamu - cyc1a1amu, cnuxam1 anorum ax1unauu,
nooxopumym pAn ocymoc1nAonun 1o uAu uno oaxuu (anorun
ax1unauu - a1o munumaArnoo xoAunoc1no anoruu, nooxopumoo
moAoxyAo pAn nc1ynAonun n xumunocxym oaxum). omon1w
ycxonm1 oaxum na 10 nonpxon (n 10
10
aa).
Haananun ncox qomon1on cxAapwnam1cn ua pnyx nac1o. Ho-
nan copoxu1 yxaaanuo Auo na cyc1a1, Auo na poc1nuo, Auo
na 1o u pyroo. E1oan nac1r - oxonnanuo, ono ncorpa nopc1anAono
yxnamu aaa. Tax, naananuo qomon1a cyxuna1poruporonaaa
oananao1, n1o on noapoc1nyo1 na coopunonun nn1ano xucAo1w
(cyxuna1-), o1numan o1 nux nopoop (-poruporon-).
Ho omomy 1uny noapoc1nun qomon1w nopaapoAnm1cn na
moc1r xAaccon. Oucupeouno:m xa1aAuauym1 oxucAu1oArno-noc-
c1anonu1oArnwo oaxuu, npoucqepo:m ynac1nym1 n noonoco
l PHl; ll BHl; nemm caxapoqocqamme ocmosm;
A, C, G, T, U asomucmme ocosaus, peuemxu ue+y uuu
soopome csssu (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
coc1ou1 ua nyunonoro uAu nuumupunonoro ocnonanun, caxaa
non1oaw u oc1a1xa qocqono xucAo1w. Eo ncox xAo1xax cymoc1-
nyo1 pna 1una nyxAounonwx xucAo1: poaoxcuuonyxAounonan
(HK) u uonyxAounonan (PHK), xo1owo o1Aunam1cn no coc1a-
ny ocnonanu u caxaon (uc. 4, 1aA. 4).
MoAoxyAa PHK oaaonana opno noAunyxAoo1upno onrm
(uc. 5).
MoAoxyAa HK coc1ou1 ua pnyx aanonananAonnwx noAunyxAo-
o1upnwx ono, aaxynonnwx opna noxyr pyro n nupo pnono
cnuaAu. Kaxpw nyxAoo1up coc1ou1 ua aao1uc1oro ocnonanun,
% $
P u c . 3. Oas qopuyna mpuaunanuepua
(+upa unu uacna),
ae R
1
, R
2
, R
3
ocmamxu +upmx xucnom
P u c . 5. Hpocmpacmseas cmpyxmypa
yxneuosmx xucnom:
P u c . 4. Cmpoeue uonexyn
yxneuosmx xucnom:
l PHl; ll yuepaus amouos ya-
nepoa s uxne nemosm; lll BHl.
3sesovxo (*) omuevem pasnuvus
s cmpoeuu BHl u PHl. Banemme
csssu noxasam ynpoeo: A ae-
u; T muuu; C umosu;
G ayau; U ypaun
To . u u o 4
Cocxan nyuaonnonmx uncaox
caxaa u oc1a1xa qocqono xucAo1w. Hu a1om ocnonanun acno-
Aoxonw nny1u pnono cnuaAu, a caxao-qocqa1nw cxoAo1 -
cnayxu. Aao1uc1wo ocnonanun ooux ono coopunonw moxpy
coo xomnAomon1ano nopoopnwmu cnnanmu, nu a1om aponnn
coopnnxoxcx xoanuo c xnmnnom, a nxoann c ryannnom. E aanucu-
moc1u o1 nomoa a1oma no o1nomonum x cnnau c ocnonanuom xon-
w onu ooananam1 xax 5 u 3 (cm. uc. 4 u 5).
Eco uoxumunocxuo oaxuu n xAo1xo c1oro c1yx1yuo-
nanw u ocymoc1nAnm1cn nu ynac1uu nwcoxocnouqunocxux uo-
xa1aAuaa1oon - qopmonxon, uAu ananmon (epeu. on - n, zymo -
oxonuo, aaxnacxa), - oAxon, xo1owo, coopunnncr c uoAorunoc-
xumu moAoxyAamu - cyc1a1amu, cnuxam1 anorum ax1unauu,
nooxopumym pAn ocymoc1nAonun 1o uAu uno oaxuu (anorun
ax1unauu - a1o munumaArnoo xoAunoc1no anoruu, nooxopumoo
moAoxyAo pAn nc1ynAonun n xumunocxym oaxum). omon1w
ycxonm1 oaxum na 10 nonpxon (n 10
10
aa).
Haananun ncox qomon1on cxAapwnam1cn ua pnyx nac1o. Ho-
nan copoxu1 yxaaanuo Auo na cyc1a1, Auo na poc1nuo, Auo
na 1o u pyroo. E1oan nac1r - oxonnanuo, ono ncorpa nopc1anAono
yxnamu aaa. Tax, naananuo qomon1a cyxuna1poruporonaaa
oananao1, n1o on noapoc1nyo1 na coopunonun nn1ano xucAo1w
(cyxuna1-), o1numan o1 nux nopoop (-poruporon-).
Ho omomy 1uny noapoc1nun qomon1w nopaapoAnm1cn na
moc1r xAaccon. Oucupeouno:m xa1aAuauym1 oxucAu1oArno-noc-
c1anonu1oArnwo oaxuu, npoucqepo:m ynac1nym1 n noonoco
l PHl; ll BHl; nemm caxapoqocqamme ocmosm;
A, C, G, T, U asomucmme ocosaus, peuemxu ue+y uuu
soopome csssu (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
coc1ou1 ua nyunonoro uAu nuumupunonoro ocnonanun, caxaa
non1oaw u oc1a1xa qocqono xucAo1w. Eo ncox xAo1xax cymoc1-
nyo1 pna 1una nyxAounonwx xucAo1: poaoxcuuonyxAounonan
(HK) u uonyxAounonan (PHK), xo1owo o1Aunam1cn no coc1a-
ny ocnonanu u caxaon (uc. 4, 1aA. 4).
MoAoxyAa PHK oaaonana opno noAunyxAoo1upno onrm
(uc. 5).
MoAoxyAa HK coc1ou1 ua pnyx aanonananAonnwx noAunyxAo-
o1upnwx ono, aaxynonnwx opna noxyr pyro n nupo pnono
cnuaAu. Kaxpw nyxAoo1up coc1ou1 ua aao1uc1oro ocnonanun,
' &
qynxuonaArnwx rynn, euopo.o:m oocnonunam1 oaxuu rup-
oAuaa, .uo:m - nucoopunonuo rynn no pnonwm cnnanm, u:o
+epo:m ocymoc1nAnm1 noonop coopunonu n pyrym uaomonym
qomy, a .ueo:m (no ny1a1r c Auaaamu!) cnnawnam1 moAoxyAnnwo
rynnuonxu n onu.
Ocnona Amoro qomon1a - oAox. Emoc1o c 1om oc1r qomon1w,
xo1owo no oAapam1 xa1aAu1unocxo ax1unnoc1rm, noxa x oAxo-
no ocnono (onoqep+eun) no nucoopunu1cn oAoo noc1an no c1o-
onum nooAxonan rynnuonxa - uoqep+eun. Hnorpa xoqomon1w
umom1 coc1nonnwo naananun, unorpa ux ooananam1 yxnamu. Ho-
opxo n coc1an xoqomon1on nxopn1 nomoc1na, naawnaomwo nu1amu-
namu. Mnoruo nu1amunw no cun1oauym1cn n oranuamo u poAxnw
noa1omy noc1yna1r c numo. Hu ux nopoc1a1xo noanuxam1 aaoAo-
nanun (anu1amunoaw), cumn1omw xo1owx, no cy1u poAa, a1o nonn-
Aonun nopoc1a1onno ax1unnoc1u coo1no1c1nymmux qomon1on.
Hoxo1owo xoqomon1w uram1 xAmnonym oAr no mnorux nax-
nomux uoxumunocxux oaxunx. E xanoc1no numoa moxno
nunoc1u xoqomon1 A (KoA), xo1ow oocnonunao1 noonoc ryn-
nuonox yxcycno xucAo1w. Koqomon1 nuxo1unamupaponunpu-
nyxAoo1up (coxamonno - NAD) oocnonunao1 noonoc uonon no-
poopa n oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwx oaxunx; 1axonw xo
u nuxo1unamupaponunpunyxAoo1upqocqa1 (NADP), qAanunaponun-
punyxAoo1up (FAD) u np pyrux. Kc1a1u, nuxo1unamup - opun
ua nu1amunon.
CTPOEHHE XHBOTHOH KRETKH
K.enuo no.nencn ocuoouou cnpunpuou u quuuuouo.tuou
eouuuueu uomr opeouu:+oo, ocecno.nweu pocn, po:ounue,
o+eu oeecno u ouepeuu, rpouneu, nepepoonmooweu u peo
.u:weu eeuenuuecuw uuqop+ouuw. K.enuo npeocnoo.nen
coou c.ouw cucne+ uono.u+epoo, onoe.euuw on oueuueu
cpeom n.o:+onuuecuou +e+pouou (uuno.e++ou, u cocnonw
u: nopo u uunon.o:+m, o uonopou pocno.oeowncn opeoue..m u
ou.wueuun.
Paamow xAo1ox noAonoxa naruym1 o1 nocxoArxux muxomo1-
on (nanumo, maAwo Aumqou1w - oxoAo ?) po 200 mxm (no-
xAo1xa). Hanomnum, n1o opun muxomo1 (mxm) 10
-6
m; 1 nanomo1
(nm) 10
-9
m; 1 anrc1om (A

) 10
-10
m. oma xAo1ox aanooaana.
Onu mory1 w1r maonupnwmu, onoupnwmu, noo1onooaanwmu,
nAocxumu, xyunocxumu, nuama1unocxumu, noAuronaArnwmu, nu-
amupaArnwmu, anoapna1wmu, nomyna1wmu, o1oc1na1wmu, amo-
onupnwmu u p.
Ocnonnwmu qynxuonaArnwmu c1yx1yamu xAo1xu nnAnm1cn
oo nooepruocnumu uo+n.euc, uunon.o:+o u nopo.
Honopxnocxnm uomnaouc nxAmnao1 n con e.uuouo.uuc, n.o:
+onuuecuw +e+pou (uuno.e++) u uopnuuo.tumu c.ou uunon
.o:+m. Ho1ypno nupo1r, n1o oaxoro o1ranunonun nonoxnoc1noro
xomnAoxca o1 u1onAaamw no1.
E nxonaaamo nwpoAnm1 euo.on.o:+ (+onpuuc, uuno:o.t),
opeoue..m u ou.wueuun.
Ocnonnwmu c1yx1ynwmu xomnonon1amu xppa nnAnm1cn uopuo
.e++o (uopuoneuo), uu.eon.o:+o u rpo+oco+m; no1Au noxo1owx
xomocom mory1 noonAo1a1rcn, u n a1o oAac1u oaayo1cn no
pmuuo. Hoopxo x c1yx1ynwm aAomon1am npa o1nocn1 xoma-
1un. Opnaxo, no onopoAonum, xoma1un - a1o nomoc1no xomocom.
Hu1oAomma, xauoAomma u nac1r oranoAA oaaonanw uo.o
euuecuu+u +e+pouo+u.
Ocnonnwo c1yx1yw, oaaymmuo xAo1xy, noonucAonw n 1aA. 5
u nopc1anAonw na uc. 6.
HHOAOFHHECKHE MEMHPAHL
HauoAoo noAno c1oonuo uoAorunocxux moman o1axao1
xupxoc1no-moaaunnan mopoAr, nononanaArnw nauan1 xo1oo wA
nopAoxon n 19?2 r. I. HuxoAconom u C. Cunroom. Momana coc1o-
u1 ua pnyx cAoon amquna1unocxux moAoxyA Aunupon (uAunupnw
cAo, uAu ucAo). Kaxpan 1axan moAoxyAa umoo1 pno nac1u - roAon-
xy u xnoc1. Iupoqonwo xnoc1w oamonw pyr x pyry. IoAonxu,
nano1un, rupoquArnw u nananAonw xnayxu u nny1r xAo1-
xu. E uAunupnw cAo noryxonw moAoxyAw oAxa (uc. ?). Mo-
AoxyAw Aunupon cnoconw wc1o puqqynpuona1r n oxonom na-
nanAonuu n nopoAax opnoro monocAon u xano opxo nooxopn1
ua opnoro monocAon n pyro.
EuAunupnw cAo nopo1 con xax xupxoc1r, oAapamman ana-
nu1oArnwm nonoxnoc1nwm na1nxonuom. EcAopc1nuo a1oro on o-
aayo1 aamxny1wo noAoc1u, xo1owo no cnapam1cn.
Hoxo1owo oAxu noxopn1 nooa ncm 1oAmy momanw, 1ax n1o
opun xono moAoxyAw oamon n noc1anc1no no opny c1oony mom-
anw, pyro - no pyrym. Hx naawnam1 uuneepo.tum+u (npouc
+e+pouum+u). yruo oAxu acnoAoxonw 1ax, n1o n oxoAomom-
annoo noc1anc1no oamon Aumr opun xono moAoxyAw, n1oo
xo xono Aoxu1 no nny1onnom uAu n nayxnom monocAoo moma-
nw. Taxuo oAxu naawnam1 ounpeuuu+u uAu, coo1no1c1nonno, oue
uuu+u (unorpa 1o u pyruo naawnam1 noAyun1oraArnwmu). Hoxo-
1owo oAxu (ownno noonocumwo nooa momany u nomonno na-
xopnmuocn n no) mory1 Aoxa1r moxpy qocqoAunupnwmu cAonmu.
Konw oAxonwx moAoxyA, oamonnwo n oxoAomomannoo no-
c1anc1no, mory1 cnnawna1rcn c aaAunnwmu nomoc1namu, naxopn-
mumucn n a1om noc1anc1no. Hoa1omy un1oraArnwo oAxu uram1
' &
qynxuonaArnwx rynn, euopo.o:m oocnonunam1 oaxuu rup-
oAuaa, .uo:m - nucoopunonuo rynn no pnonwm cnnanm, u:o
+epo:m ocymoc1nAnm1 noonop coopunonu n pyrym uaomonym
qomy, a .ueo:m (no ny1a1r c Auaaamu!) cnnawnam1 moAoxyAnnwo
rynnuonxu n onu.
Ocnona Amoro qomon1a - oAox. Emoc1o c 1om oc1r qomon1w,
xo1owo no oAapam1 xa1aAu1unocxo ax1unnoc1rm, noxa x oAxo-
no ocnono (onoqep+eun) no nucoopunu1cn oAoo noc1an no c1o-
onum nooAxonan rynnuonxa - uoqep+eun. Hnorpa xoqomon1w
umom1 coc1nonnwo naananun, unorpa ux ooananam1 yxnamu. Ho-
opxo n coc1an xoqomon1on nxopn1 nomoc1na, naawnaomwo nu1amu-
namu. Mnoruo nu1amunw no cun1oauym1cn n oranuamo u poAxnw
noa1omy noc1yna1r c numo. Hu ux nopoc1a1xo noanuxam1 aaoAo-
nanun (anu1amunoaw), cumn1omw xo1owx, no cy1u poAa, a1o nonn-
Aonun nopoc1a1onno ax1unnoc1u coo1no1c1nymmux qomon1on.
Hoxo1owo xoqomon1w uram1 xAmnonym oAr no mnorux nax-
nomux uoxumunocxux oaxunx. E xanoc1no numoa moxno
nunoc1u xoqomon1 A (KoA), xo1ow oocnonunao1 noonoc ryn-
nuonox yxcycno xucAo1w. Koqomon1 nuxo1unamupaponunpu-
nyxAoo1up (coxamonno - NAD) oocnonunao1 noonoc uonon no-
poopa n oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwx oaxunx; 1axonw xo
u nuxo1unamupaponunpunyxAoo1upqocqa1 (NADP), qAanunaponun-
punyxAoo1up (FAD) u np pyrux. Kc1a1u, nuxo1unamup - opun
ua nu1amunon.
CTPOEHHE XHBOTHOH KRETKH
K.enuo no.nencn ocuoouou cnpunpuou u quuuuouo.tuou
eouuuueu uomr opeouu:+oo, ocecno.nweu pocn, po:ounue,
o+eu oeecno u ouepeuu, rpouneu, nepepoonmooweu u peo
.u:weu eeuenuuecuw uuqop+ouuw. K.enuo npeocnoo.nen
coou c.ouw cucne+ uono.u+epoo, onoe.euuw on oueuueu
cpeom n.o:+onuuecuou +e+pouou (uuno.e++ou, u cocnonw
u: nopo u uunon.o:+m, o uonopou pocno.oeowncn opeoue..m u
ou.wueuun.
Paamow xAo1ox noAonoxa naruym1 o1 nocxoArxux muxomo1-
on (nanumo, maAwo Aumqou1w - oxoAo ?) po 200 mxm (no-
xAo1xa). Hanomnum, n1o opun muxomo1 (mxm) 10
-6
m; 1 nanomo1
(nm) 10
-9
m; 1 anrc1om (A

) 10
-10
m. oma xAo1ox aanooaana.
Onu mory1 w1r maonupnwmu, onoupnwmu, noo1onooaanwmu,
nAocxumu, xyunocxumu, nuama1unocxumu, noAuronaArnwmu, nu-
amupaArnwmu, anoapna1wmu, nomyna1wmu, o1oc1na1wmu, amo-
onupnwmu u p.
Ocnonnwmu qynxuonaArnwmu c1yx1yamu xAo1xu nnAnm1cn
oo nooepruocnumu uo+n.euc, uunon.o:+o u nopo.
Honopxnocxnm uomnaouc nxAmnao1 n con e.uuouo.uuc, n.o:
+onuuecuw +e+pou (uuno.e++) u uopnuuo.tumu c.ou uunon
.o:+m. Ho1ypno nupo1r, n1o oaxoro o1ranunonun nonoxnoc1noro
xomnAoxca o1 u1onAaamw no1.
E nxonaaamo nwpoAnm1 euo.on.o:+ (+onpuuc, uuno:o.t),
opeoue..m u ou.wueuun.
Ocnonnwmu c1yx1ynwmu xomnonon1amu xppa nnAnm1cn uopuo
.e++o (uopuoneuo), uu.eon.o:+o u rpo+oco+m; no1Au noxo1owx
xomocom mory1 noonAo1a1rcn, u n a1o oAac1u oaayo1cn no
pmuuo. Hoopxo x c1yx1ynwm aAomon1am npa o1nocn1 xoma-
1un. Opnaxo, no onopoAonum, xoma1un - a1o nomoc1no xomocom.
Hu1oAomma, xauoAomma u nac1r oranoAA oaaonanw uo.o
euuecuu+u +e+pouo+u.
Ocnonnwo c1yx1yw, oaaymmuo xAo1xy, noonucAonw n 1aA. 5
u nopc1anAonw na uc. 6.
HHOAOFHHECKHE MEMHPAHL
HauoAoo noAno c1oonuo uoAorunocxux moman o1axao1
xupxoc1no-moaaunnan mopoAr, nononanaArnw nauan1 xo1oo wA
nopAoxon n 19?2 r. I. HuxoAconom u C. Cunroom. Momana coc1o-
u1 ua pnyx cAoon amquna1unocxux moAoxyA Aunupon (uAunupnw
cAo, uAu ucAo). Kaxpan 1axan moAoxyAa umoo1 pno nac1u - roAon-
xy u xnoc1. Iupoqonwo xnoc1w oamonw pyr x pyry. IoAonxu,
nano1un, rupoquArnw u nananAonw xnayxu u nny1r xAo1-
xu. E uAunupnw cAo noryxonw moAoxyAw oAxa (uc. ?). Mo-
AoxyAw Aunupon cnoconw wc1o puqqynpuona1r n oxonom na-
nanAonuu n nopoAax opnoro monocAon u xano opxo nooxopn1
ua opnoro monocAon n pyro.
EuAunupnw cAo nopo1 con xax xupxoc1r, oAapamman ana-
nu1oArnwm nonoxnoc1nwm na1nxonuom. EcAopc1nuo a1oro on o-
aayo1 aamxny1wo noAoc1u, xo1owo no cnapam1cn.
Hoxo1owo oAxu noxopn1 nooa ncm 1oAmy momanw, 1ax n1o
opun xono moAoxyAw oamon n noc1anc1no no opny c1oony mom-
anw, pyro - no pyrym. Hx naawnam1 uuneepo.tum+u (npouc
+e+pouum+u). yruo oAxu acnoAoxonw 1ax, n1o n oxoAomom-
annoo noc1anc1no oamon Aumr opun xono moAoxyAw, n1oo
xo xono Aoxu1 no nny1onnom uAu n nayxnom monocAoo moma-
nw. Taxuo oAxu naawnam1 ounpeuuu+u uAu, coo1no1c1nonno, oue
uuu+u (unorpa 1o u pyruo naawnam1 noAyun1oraArnwmu). Hoxo-
1owo oAxu (ownno noonocumwo nooa momany u nomonno na-
xopnmuocn n no) mory1 Aoxa1r moxpy qocqoAunupnwmu cAonmu.
Konw oAxonwx moAoxyA, oamonnwo n oxoAomomannoo no-
c1anc1no, mory1 cnnawna1rcn c aaAunnwmu nomoc1namu, naxopn-
mumucn n a1om noc1anc1no. Hoa1omy un1oraArnwo oAxu uram1

T
o

.
u
u
o

C
x
p
y
u
x
y
p
n
m
o

u
o
m
n
o
n
o
n
x
m

u
a
o
x
u
n
H
p
u
r
e

a
u
u
e
:

p
a
u
u
a
n

f
a

n
u

a
n
a
n
n
e
f
c
n

o

e
u
u
o

n
o

p
a
c
f
u
f
e
n
u
u
o

u
a
o
f
u
o


k
n
e
f
k
e
P u c . 6. Ocosme cmpyxmypm +usomo xnemxu:
1 aapaynspas (anaxas) sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 2 anuxoxanuxc; 3 umoneuua;
4 xopmuxansm cno umonnasum; 2+3+4 = nosepxocmm xounnexc xnemxu;
5 nuoumosme nysmpsxu; 6 uumoxopus; 7 npoue+ymovme qunauemm;
8 cexpemopme apaynm; 9 smeneue cexpema; 10 xounnexc lons+u;
11 mpacnopmme nysmpsxu; 12 nusocoum; 13 qaaocoua; 14 csoome puocoum;
15 nonupuocoua; 16 apaynspas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 17 oxaunem ny-
smpex; 18 spmuxo; 19 sepas nauua; 20 nepuyxneapoe npocmpacmso, oapau-
veoe apy+o u sympee ueupaauu xapuomexu; 21 xpouamu; 22 noposm
xounnexc; 23 xnemovm emp; 24 uuxpompyovxa; 25 nepoxcucoua
oArmym oAr n oranuaauu 1ancmomannwx nooccon. C no-
Ayun1oraArnwmu oAxamu ncorpa cnnaanw moAoxyAw, ocymoc1n-
Anmmuo nocnun1uo curnaAon ua copw (moAoxyAnnwo peuenno
pm) uAu noopany curnaAon o1 momanw n copy. Mnoruo oAxu
oAapam1 qomon1a1unnwmu cnoc1namu.

T
o

.
u
u
o

C
x
p
y
u
x
y
p
n
m
o

u
o
m
n
o
n
o
n
x
m

u
a
o
x
u
n
H
p
u
r
e

a
u
u
e
:

p
a
u
u
a
n

f
a

n
u

a
n
a
n
n
e
f
c
n

o

e
u
u
o

n
o

p
a
c
f
u
f
e
n
u
u
o

u
a
o
f
u
o


k
n
e
f
k
e
P u c . 6. Ocosme cmpyxmypm +usomo xnemxu:
1 aapaynspas (anaxas) sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 2 anuxoxanuxc; 3 umoneuua;
4 xopmuxansm cno umonnasum; 2+3+4 = nosepxocmm xounnexc xnemxu;
5 nuoumosme nysmpsxu; 6 uumoxopus; 7 npoue+ymovme qunauemm;
8 cexpemopme apaynm; 9 smeneue cexpema; 10 xounnexc lons+u;
11 mpacnopmme nysmpsxu; 12 nusocoum; 13 qaaocoua; 14 csoome puocoum;
15 nonupuocoua; 16 apaynspas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 17 oxaunem ny-
smpex; 18 spmuxo; 19 sepas nauua; 20 nepuyxneapoe npocmpacmso, oapau-
veoe apy+o u sympee ueupaauu xapuomexu; 21 xpouamu; 22 noposm
xounnexc; 23 xnemovm emp; 24 uuxpompyovxa; 25 nepoxcucoua
oArmym oAr n oranuaauu 1ancmomannwx nooccon. C no-
Ayun1oraArnwmu oAxamu ncorpa cnnaanw moAoxyAw, ocymoc1n-
Anmmuo nocnun1uo curnaAon ua copw (moAoxyAnnwo peuenno
pm) uAu noopany curnaAon o1 momanw n copy. Mnoruo oAxu
oAapam1 qomon1a1unnwmu cnoc1namu.
!
P u c . 7. Hosepxocmm xounnexc:
1 anuxonpomeum; 2 nepuqepuvecxue enxu; 3 aupoqunsme aonosxu qocqonunuos;
4 aupoqome xsocmm qocqonunuos; 5 uuxpoqunauemm; 6 uuxpompyovxu;
7 cyueupame enxu; 8 mpacueupam (umeapansm) enox (no Xsuy u
lopuaxy, c usueeusuu)
EucAo acummo1unon: n xaxpom monocAoo acnoAaram1cn aa-
Aunnwo Aunupw, rAuxoAunupw onayxunam1cn 1oArxo n nayx-
nom monocAoo 1ax, n1o ux yrAonopnwo onu nananAonw xnayxu.
MoAoxyAw xoAoc1ouna n momanax ayxauo1 Aoxa1 no nny1on-
no, oamonno x u1onAaamo noAonuno momanw. Hu1oxomw
acnoAaram1cn n nayxnom monocAoo, a ATP-cun1o1aaw - na nny1-
onno c1oono momanw.
Hopono Aunupam, oAxu 1axxo cnoconw x Aa1oaArno puq-
qyauu, opnaxo cxooc1r oo monrmo, nom y Aunupnwx moAoxyA.
Hooxop ua opnoro monocAon n pyro nax1unocxu nonoamoxon.
Konon1aun nomoc1n, n nac1noc1u uonon, no oo c1oonw
momanw no opunaxona. Hoa1omy xaxpan c1oona noco1 cno aAox-
1unocxu aanp. PaaAunun n xonon1auu uonon coapam1 coo1-
no1c1nonno u aanoc1r aAox1unocxux no1onuaAon.
Honopxnocxnm uomnaouc (cm. uc. ?) oocnonunao1 naau-
mopoc1nuo xAo1xu c oxyxammo oo copo. E cnnau c a1um on
nwnoAnno1 cAopymmuo ocnonnwo qynxuu: aaranunu1oArnym (a-
ronym), 1ancno1nym, oon1onym (nocnun1uo curnaAon ua nnom-
no pAn xAo1xu copw), a 1axxo qynxum noopanu unqomauu,
nocnunn1o oon1oamu, rAyoxum c1yx1yam u1onAaamw.
Ocnono nonoxnoc1noro xomnAoxca nnAno1cn uoAorunocxan
momana, naawnaoman napymno uaoxonno mom6pano (unano -
nxoaommo). Eo 1oAmuna oxoAo 10 nm, 1ax n1o n cno1onom
muxocxono ona noaaAunuma. O c1oonuu u oAu uoAorunocxux
moman xax 1axonwx cxaaano anoo, u1oAomma xo oocnonuna-
o1, n nonym onoopr, aaranunu1oArnym qynxum no o1nomo-
num x nnomno pAn xAo1xu copo. Ec1oc1nonno, ona nwnoAnno1
nu a1om u pyruo qynxuu: 1ancno1nym u oon1onym (noc-
nun1un curnaAon ua nnomno pAn xAo1xu copw). Hu1oAomma,
1axum oaaom, oocnonunao1 nonoxnoc1nwo cnoc1na xAo1xu.
EoAxu ocymoc1nAnm1 oArmym nac1r momannwx qynxu:
mnoruo ua nux nnAnm1cn oon1oamu, pyruo - qomon1amu, 1o-
1ru - noonocnuxamu. Hopono Aunupam, oAxu 1axxo cnoconw
x Aa1oaArno puqqyauu, opnaxo cxooc1r oo monrman, nom y Au-
nupnwx moAoxyA. Hooxop moAoxyA oAxa ua opnoro monocAon n
pyro nax1unocxu nonoamoxon. Tax xax n xaxpom monocAoo co-
poxa1cn cnou oAxu, ucAo acummo1unon. HocxoArxo oAxo-
nwx moAoxyA mory1 oaaona1r xanaA, nooa xo1ow noxopn1
onopoAonnwo uonw uAu moAoxyAw.
Oouou u: ooueuuur quuuuu n.o:+onuuecuou +e+poum no
.nencn mpoucnopm. Hanomnum, n1o oamonnwo pyr x pyry
xnoc1w Aunupon oaaym1 rupoqonw cAo, nonn1c1nymmu
nonuxnononum noAnnwx nopoac1noumwx moAoxyA. Kax na-
nuAo, nny1onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r u1oAommw
noco1 o1ua1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n xAo1-
xy noAoxu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
MaAwo (18 a) noaanxonnwo moAoxyAw nopw wc1o puqqyn-
puym1 nooa momanw, 1axxo wc1o puqqynpuym1 maAwo no-
Annwo moAoxyAw (nanumo, mononuna, CO
2
, rAuooA), rupo-
qonwo moAoxyAw (O
2
, N
2
, onaoA), xynnwo noaanxonnwo noAn-
nwo moAoxyAw noomo no cnoconw puqqynpuona1r (rAmxoaa,
caxaoaa). E 1o xo nomn nooa u1oAommy yxaaannwo nomoc1na
puqqynpuym1 Aorxo Aaropan naAunum n no momannwx 1anc-
no1nwx oAxon, cnouqunocxux pAn xaxporo xumunocxoro co-
opunonun.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 1ancno1a: noccuoumu u ounuoumu. Ho-
nw no 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu, n1oo - anoroaanucumw (uc. 8).
Haccnnnm xpancnopx noaanxonnwx moAoxyA ocymoc1nAno1cn
no rapuon1y xonon1auu, 1ancno1 aanxonnwx moAoxyA aa-
nucu1 o1 rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
u 1ancmomanno aano-
c1u no1onuaAon, xo1owo o+opunnm1cn n npouc+e+pouumu epo
oueun H
-
, uAu o.eunporu+uuecuuu nponouumu epooueun. Kax
nanuAo, nny1onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r moma-
nw noco1 o1ua1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n
xAo1xy noAoxu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
uqqqoun (.on. dIusIo - acnoc1anonuo, ac1oxanuo) - a1o
nooxop uonon uAu moAoxyA, nwanannw ux oynoncxum pnuxonuom
nooa momanw ua aonw, rpo a1u nomoc1na naxopn1cn n oAoo nwco-
xo xonon1auu, n aony c oAoo nuaxo xonon1auo po 1ox
!
P u c . 7. Hosepxocmm xounnexc:
1 anuxonpomeum; 2 nepuqepuvecxue enxu; 3 aupoqunsme aonosxu qocqonunuos;
4 aupoqome xsocmm qocqonunuos; 5 uuxpoqunauemm; 6 uuxpompyovxu;
7 cyueupame enxu; 8 mpacueupam (umeapansm) enox (no Xsuy u
lopuaxy, c usueeusuu)
EucAo acummo1unon: n xaxpom monocAoo acnoAaram1cn aa-
Aunnwo Aunupw, rAuxoAunupw onayxunam1cn 1oArxo n nayx-
nom monocAoo 1ax, n1o ux yrAonopnwo onu nananAonw xnayxu.
MoAoxyAw xoAoc1ouna n momanax ayxauo1 Aoxa1 no nny1on-
no, oamonno x u1onAaamo noAonuno momanw. Hu1oxomw
acnoAaram1cn n nayxnom monocAoo, a ATP-cun1o1aaw - na nny1-
onno c1oono momanw.
Hopono Aunupam, oAxu 1axxo cnoconw x Aa1oaArno puq-
qyauu, opnaxo cxooc1r oo monrmo, nom y Aunupnwx moAoxyA.
Hooxop ua opnoro monocAon n pyro nax1unocxu nonoamoxon.
Konon1aun nomoc1n, n nac1noc1u uonon, no oo c1oonw
momanw no opunaxona. Hoa1omy xaxpan c1oona noco1 cno aAox-
1unocxu aanp. PaaAunun n xonon1auu uonon coapam1 coo1-
no1c1nonno u aanoc1r aAox1unocxux no1onuaAon.
Honopxnocxnm uomnaouc (cm. uc. ?) oocnonunao1 naau-
mopoc1nuo xAo1xu c oxyxammo oo copo. E cnnau c a1um on
nwnoAnno1 cAopymmuo ocnonnwo qynxuu: aaranunu1oArnym (a-
ronym), 1ancno1nym, oon1onym (nocnun1uo curnaAon ua nnom-
no pAn xAo1xu copw), a 1axxo qynxum noopanu unqomauu,
nocnunn1o oon1oamu, rAyoxum c1yx1yam u1onAaamw.
Ocnono nonoxnoc1noro xomnAoxca nnAno1cn uoAorunocxan
momana, naawnaoman napymno uaoxonno mom6pano (unano -
nxoaommo). Eo 1oAmuna oxoAo 10 nm, 1ax n1o n cno1onom
muxocxono ona noaaAunuma. O c1oonuu u oAu uoAorunocxux
moman xax 1axonwx cxaaano anoo, u1oAomma xo oocnonuna-
o1, n nonym onoopr, aaranunu1oArnym qynxum no o1nomo-
num x nnomno pAn xAo1xu copo. Ec1oc1nonno, ona nwnoAnno1
nu a1om u pyruo qynxuu: 1ancno1nym u oon1onym (noc-
nun1un curnaAon ua nnomno pAn xAo1xu copw). Hu1oAomma,
1axum oaaom, oocnonunao1 nonoxnoc1nwo cnoc1na xAo1xu.
EoAxu ocymoc1nAnm1 oArmym nac1r momannwx qynxu:
mnoruo ua nux nnAnm1cn oon1oamu, pyruo - qomon1amu, 1o-
1ru - noonocnuxamu. Hopono Aunupam, oAxu 1axxo cnoconw
x Aa1oaArno puqqyauu, opnaxo cxooc1r oo monrman, nom y Au-
nupnwx moAoxyA. Hooxop moAoxyA oAxa ua opnoro monocAon n
pyro nax1unocxu nonoamoxon. Tax xax n xaxpom monocAoo co-
poxa1cn cnou oAxu, ucAo acummo1unon. HocxoArxo oAxo-
nwx moAoxyA mory1 oaaona1r xanaA, nooa xo1ow noxopn1
onopoAonnwo uonw uAu moAoxyAw.
Oouou u: ooueuuur quuuuu n.o:+onuuecuou +e+poum no
.nencn mpoucnopm. Hanomnum, n1o oamonnwo pyr x pyry
xnoc1w Aunupon oaaym1 rupoqonw cAo, nonn1c1nymmu
nonuxnononum noAnnwx nopoac1noumwx moAoxyA. Kax na-
nuAo, nny1onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r u1oAommw
noco1 o1ua1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n xAo1-
xy noAoxu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
MaAwo (18 a) noaanxonnwo moAoxyAw nopw wc1o puqqyn-
puym1 nooa momanw, 1axxo wc1o puqqynpuym1 maAwo no-
Annwo moAoxyAw (nanumo, mononuna, CO
2
, rAuooA), rupo-
qonwo moAoxyAw (O
2
, N
2
, onaoA), xynnwo noaanxonnwo noAn-
nwo moAoxyAw noomo no cnoconw puqqynpuona1r (rAmxoaa,
caxaoaa). E 1o xo nomn nooa u1oAommy yxaaannwo nomoc1na
puqqynpuym1 Aorxo Aaropan naAunum n no momannwx 1anc-
no1nwx oAxon, cnouqunocxux pAn xaxporo xumunocxoro co-
opunonun.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 1ancno1a: noccuoumu u ounuoumu. Ho-
nw no 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu, n1oo - anoroaanucumw (uc. 8).
Haccnnnm xpancnopx noaanxonnwx moAoxyA ocymoc1nAno1cn
no rapuon1y xonon1auu, 1ancno1 aanxonnwx moAoxyA aa-
nucu1 o1 rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
u 1ancmomanno aano-
c1u no1onuaAon, xo1owo o+opunnm1cn n npouc+e+pouumu epo
oueun H
-
, uAu o.eunporu+uuecuuu nponouumu epooueun. Kax
nanuAo, nny1onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r moma-
nw noco1 o1ua1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n
xAo1xy noAoxu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
uqqqoun (.on. dIusIo - acnoc1anonuo, ac1oxanuo) - a1o
nooxop uonon uAu moAoxyA, nwanannw ux oynoncxum pnuxonuom
nooa momanw ua aonw, rpo a1u nomoc1na naxopn1cn n oAoo nwco-
xo xonon1auu, n aony c oAoo nuaxo xonon1auo po 1ox
# "
P u c . 8. Cxeua naccusoao mpacnopma no snexmpoxuuuvecxouy apauemy
u axmusoao mpacnopma npomus snexmpoxuuuvecxoao apauema:
1 mpacnopmupyeuas uonexyna; 2 xaanoopasyku enox; 3 enox-nepeocvux;
4 snexmpoxuuuvecxu apauem; 5 sepaus; 6 axmusm mpacnopm; 7 naccusm
mpacnopm (oneaveas uqqysus); 8 uqqysus, onocpeyeuas enxou-nepeocvuxou;
9 uqqysus vepes xaan; 10 npocmas uqqysus; 11 nunum ucno (no Anepmcy
u coasm.)
no, noxa xonon1auu no oo c1oonw momanw nwannnm1cn.
uqqyaun moxo1 w1r ueunpo.tuou (noaanxonnwo nomoc1na
noxopn1 moxpy Aunupnwmu moAoxyAamu uAu nooa oAox,
qomuymmu xanaA) uAu o.eeueuuou (cnouqunocxuo oAxu-
noonocnuxu cnnawnam1 nomoc1no u noonocn1 oro nooa moma-
ny). OAornonnan puqqyaun no1oxao1 wc1oo, nom no1aArnan.
Eopa noc1ynao1 n xAo1xy ny1om ocmoco (epeu. osmos - 1oAnox,
panAonuo). E nac1onmoo nomn ma1oma1unocxu poxaawnao1cn na-
Aunuo n u1oAommo moArnamux no
Q
monnwx no, noanuxammux
no moo nooxopumoc1u.
Auxnnnm xpancnopx ocymoc1nAnm1 oAxu-noonocnuxu, nu
a1om acxopyo1cn anorun, noAynaoman ncAopc1nuo rupoAuaa ATP
uAu no1onnoro no1onuaAa. Ax1unnw 1ancno1 noucxopu1 no-
1un rapuon1a xonon1auu.
E 1ancno1nwx nooccax noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu ocnon-
nym oAr urao1 aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1, nu
a1om noonoc upo1 no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu nomoc1n. Ha
u1oAommo ayxauo1unocxux xAo1ox c nomomrm na1uono-xaAuo-
noro nacoca noppoxunao1cn momannw no1onuaA. 01o1 nacoc,
qynxuonuymmu xax an1uno1, naxanunammu no1un rapu-
on1on xonon1auu K
-
n xAo1xy, a Na
-
no nnoxAo1onnym copy,
nnAno1cn qomon1om ATP-aao. Hu a1om n ATP-aao noucxopn1
xonqomauonnwo uamononun, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx Na
-
noono-
cu1cn nooa momany u nwnopu1cn no nnoxAo1onnym copy, a K
-
noonocu1cn nny1r xAo1xu.
ATP-aaa ocymoc1nAno1 1axxo ax1unnw 1ancno1 amunoxuc-
Ao1 u caxaon. AnaAorunnw moxanuam nucy1c1nyo1 n u1oAommo
aaonwx ax1ou. Opnaxo y nux qomon1 nmoc1o rupoAuaa ATP
ocymoc1nAno1 oro cun1oa ua ADP u qocqa1a, ucnoArayn no1on-
nw rapuon1. Taxum xo oaaom qynxuonuyo1 ax1ouoopo-
ncun. Hnwmu cAonamu, opun u 1o1 xo qomon1 ocymoc1nAno1 u
cun1oa u rupoAua ATP.
E cnnau c naAunuom cymmanoro o1ua1oArnoro aanpa n u1o-
nAaamo noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu np noaanxonnwx moAoxyA no-
onocu1cn no nununy cumno1a c H
-
, uc1onnuxom anoruu nnAno1-
cn 1ancmomannw aAox1oxumunocxu rapuon1 H
-
(nanumo,
rAuun, raAax1oaa, rAmxoaa), o1ua1oArno aanxonnwo nomoc1na
noonocn1cn no nununy cumno1a 1axxo c H
-
aa cno1 rapuon1a
xonon1auu H
-
, 1ancno1 Na
-
ocymoc1nAno1cn no nununy
an1uno1a c H
-
, xo1ow noonocu1cn n xAo1xy 1axxo aa cno1
rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
; moxanuam anaAorunon Na
-
K
-
nacocy
ayxauo1. HoAoxu1oArno aanxonnwo nomoc1na noc1ynam1 n xAo1-
xy no nununy ynuno1a aa cno1 1ancmomanno aanoc1u aAox-
1unocxux no1onuaAon.
Enomnnn nonoxnoc1r u1oAommw noxw1a ranuouaanucom.
ToAmuna oro aaAunna u xoAoAo1cn paxo n aanwx ynac1xax no-
noxnoc1u opno xAo1xu o1 ?,5 po 200 nm. IAuxoxaAuxc nopc1an-
Ano1 coo conoxynnoc1r moAoxyA, cnnaannwx c oAxamu moma-
nw. Ho coc1any a1u moAoxyAw mory1 nopc1anAn1r coo ononxu
noAucaxaupon, rAuxoAunupon u rAuxono1ounon.
Mnoruo ua moAoxyA rAuxoxaAuxca qynxuonuym1 n xanoc1no
cnouqunocxux moAoxyAnnwx oon1oon. Konono cnoopnw
o1poA oon1oa oAapao1 ynuxaArno noc1anc1nonno xonqury-
auo. Hoa1omy c num mory1 o+opunn1rcn 1oArxo 1o moAoxyAw,
naxopnmuocn nno xAo1xu, xo1owo oAapam1 1axxo ynuxaArno
xonquryauo, no aoxaArno cummo1unno no o1nomonum x o-
on1oy. Hmonno Aaropan cymoc1nonanum cnouqunocxux o-
on1oon na nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu mory1 aaxonAn1rcn 1ax naawna-
omwo curnaArnwo moAoxyAw, n nac1noc1u moAoxyAw romonon.
Hom oArmo xonxo1nwx cnouqunocxux oon1oon naxopu1-
cn n rAuxoxaAuxco, 1om ax1unnoo xAo1xa oaruyo1 na coo1no1-
c1nymmuo curnaArnwo nomoc1na. EcAu n rAuxoxaAuxco no1 moAo-
xyA, cnouqunocxu cnnawnammuxcn c nnomnumu nomoc1namu,
xAo1xa na nocAopnuo no oaruyo1. Taxum oaaom, e.uuouo.uuc,
uopno c co+ou uuno.e++ou, oecneuuooen u optepuw quu
uuw nooepruocnuoeo uo+n.euco.
K rAyoxo nonoxnoc1u u1oAommw numwxam1 nonoxnoc-
1nwo c1yx1yw u1onAaamw. Onu cnnawnam1cn c oAxamu u-
1oAommw u ocymoc1nAnm1 noopany unqomauu rAyunnwm
c1yx1yam, aanycxan cAoxnwo onu uoxumunocxux oaxu.
Onu xo, uamonnn cnoo naaumonoAoxonuo, monnm1 xonquryaum
u1oAommw.
# "
P u c . 8. Cxeua naccusoao mpacnopma no snexmpoxuuuvecxouy apauemy
u axmusoao mpacnopma npomus snexmpoxuuuvecxoao apauema:
1 mpacnopmupyeuas uonexyna; 2 xaanoopasyku enox; 3 enox-nepeocvux;
4 snexmpoxuuuvecxu apauem; 5 sepaus; 6 axmusm mpacnopm; 7 naccusm
mpacnopm (oneaveas uqqysus); 8 uqqysus, onocpeyeuas enxou-nepeocvuxou;
9 uqqysus vepes xaan; 10 npocmas uqqysus; 11 nunum ucno (no Anepmcy
u coasm.)
no, noxa xonon1auu no oo c1oonw momanw nwannnm1cn.
uqqyaun moxo1 w1r ueunpo.tuou (noaanxonnwo nomoc1na
noxopn1 moxpy Aunupnwmu moAoxyAamu uAu nooa oAox,
qomuymmu xanaA) uAu o.eeueuuou (cnouqunocxuo oAxu-
noonocnuxu cnnawnam1 nomoc1no u noonocn1 oro nooa moma-
ny). OAornonnan puqqyaun no1oxao1 wc1oo, nom no1aArnan.
Eopa noc1ynao1 n xAo1xy ny1om ocmoco (epeu. osmos - 1oAnox,
panAonuo). E nac1onmoo nomn ma1oma1unocxu poxaawnao1cn na-
Aunuo n u1oAommo moArnamux no
Q
monnwx no, noanuxammux
no moo nooxopumoc1u.
Auxnnnm xpancnopx ocymoc1nAnm1 oAxu-noonocnuxu, nu
a1om acxopyo1cn anorun, noAynaoman ncAopc1nuo rupoAuaa ATP
uAu no1onnoro no1onuaAa. Ax1unnw 1ancno1 noucxopu1 no-
1un rapuon1a xonon1auu.
E 1ancno1nwx nooccax noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu ocnon-
nym oAr urao1 aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1, nu
a1om noonoc upo1 no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu nomoc1n. Ha
u1oAommo ayxauo1unocxux xAo1ox c nomomrm na1uono-xaAuo-
noro nacoca noppoxunao1cn momannw no1onuaA. 01o1 nacoc,
qynxuonuymmu xax an1uno1, naxanunammu no1un rapu-
on1on xonon1auu K
-
n xAo1xy, a Na
-
no nnoxAo1onnym copy,
nnAno1cn qomon1om ATP-aao. Hu a1om n ATP-aao noucxopn1
xonqomauonnwo uamononun, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx Na
-
noono-
cu1cn nooa momany u nwnopu1cn no nnoxAo1onnym copy, a K
-
noonocu1cn nny1r xAo1xu.
ATP-aaa ocymoc1nAno1 1axxo ax1unnw 1ancno1 amunoxuc-
Ao1 u caxaon. AnaAorunnw moxanuam nucy1c1nyo1 n u1oAommo
aaonwx ax1ou. Opnaxo y nux qomon1 nmoc1o rupoAuaa ATP
ocymoc1nAno1 oro cun1oa ua ADP u qocqa1a, ucnoArayn no1on-
nw rapuon1. Taxum xo oaaom qynxuonuyo1 ax1ouoopo-
ncun. Hnwmu cAonamu, opun u 1o1 xo qomon1 ocymoc1nAno1 u
cun1oa u rupoAua ATP.
E cnnau c naAunuom cymmanoro o1ua1oArnoro aanpa n u1o-
nAaamo noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu np noaanxonnwx moAoxyA no-
onocu1cn no nununy cumno1a c H
-
, uc1onnuxom anoruu nnAno1-
cn 1ancmomannw aAox1oxumunocxu rapuon1 H
-
(nanumo,
rAuun, raAax1oaa, rAmxoaa), o1ua1oArno aanxonnwo nomoc1na
noonocn1cn no nununy cumno1a 1axxo c H
-
aa cno1 rapuon1a
xonon1auu H
-
, 1ancno1 Na
-
ocymoc1nAno1cn no nununy
an1uno1a c H
-
, xo1ow noonocu1cn n xAo1xy 1axxo aa cno1
rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
; moxanuam anaAorunon Na
-
K
-
nacocy
ayxauo1. HoAoxu1oArno aanxonnwo nomoc1na noc1ynam1 n xAo1-
xy no nununy ynuno1a aa cno1 1ancmomanno aanoc1u aAox-
1unocxux no1onuaAon.
Enomnnn nonoxnoc1r u1oAommw noxw1a ranuouaanucom.
ToAmuna oro aaAunna u xoAoAo1cn paxo n aanwx ynac1xax no-
noxnoc1u opno xAo1xu o1 ?,5 po 200 nm. IAuxoxaAuxc nopc1an-
Ano1 coo conoxynnoc1r moAoxyA, cnnaannwx c oAxamu moma-
nw. Ho coc1any a1u moAoxyAw mory1 nopc1anAn1r coo ononxu
noAucaxaupon, rAuxoAunupon u rAuxono1ounon.
Mnoruo ua moAoxyA rAuxoxaAuxca qynxuonuym1 n xanoc1no
cnouqunocxux moAoxyAnnwx oon1oon. Konono cnoopnw
o1poA oon1oa oAapao1 ynuxaArno noc1anc1nonno xonqury-
auo. Hoa1omy c num mory1 o+opunn1rcn 1oArxo 1o moAoxyAw,
naxopnmuocn nno xAo1xu, xo1owo oAapam1 1axxo ynuxaArno
xonquryauo, no aoxaArno cummo1unno no o1nomonum x o-
on1oy. Hmonno Aaropan cymoc1nonanum cnouqunocxux o-
on1oon na nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu mory1 aaxonAn1rcn 1ax naawna-
omwo curnaArnwo moAoxyAw, n nac1noc1u moAoxyAw romonon.
Hom oArmo xonxo1nwx cnouqunocxux oon1oon naxopu1-
cn n rAuxoxaAuxco, 1om ax1unnoo xAo1xa oaruyo1 na coo1no1-
c1nymmuo curnaArnwo nomoc1na. EcAu n rAuxoxaAuxco no1 moAo-
xyA, cnouqunocxu cnnawnammuxcn c nnomnumu nomoc1namu,
xAo1xa na nocAopnuo no oaruyo1. Taxum oaaom, e.uuouo.uuc,
uopno c co+ou uuno.e++ou, oecneuuooen u optepuw quu
uuw nooepruocnuoeo uo+n.euco.
K rAyoxo nonoxnoc1u u1oAommw numwxam1 nonoxnoc-
1nwo c1yx1yw u1onAaamw. Onu cnnawnam1cn c oAxamu u-
1oAommw u ocymoc1nAnm1 noopany unqomauu rAyunnwm
c1yx1yam, aanycxan cAoxnwo onu uoxumunocxux oaxu.
Onu xo, uamonnn cnoo naaumonoAoxonuo, monnm1 xonquryaum
u1oAommw.
% $
IV
Momuaoxonnmo coopnnonnx. Hu xon1ax1o xAo1ox pyr c py-
rom ux u1oAommw nc1ynam1 no naaumopoc1nun. Hu a1om oaay-
m1cn ocowo o+opunnmmuo c1yx1yw - +eu.enouume coeouue
uun (uc. 9). Onu qomuym1cn nu oaaonanuu mnoroxAo1onnoro
oranuama no nomn amuonaArnoro aanu1un u nu oaaonanuu
1xano. MoxxAo1onnwo coopunonun nopaapoAnm1cn na noc1wo u
cAoxnwo. E npocmmr coeuueuunr u1oAommw cocopnux xAo1ox qo-
muym1 nwoc1w nanopouo ayon, 1ax n1o ayo opno xAo1xu
nnopno1cn moxpy pnymn ayamu pyro (:uonoe coeouueuue) uAu
noonAo1ammuxcn moxpy coo un1opuru1au (no.tueououoe co
eouueuue). Moxpy u1oAommamu cocopnux xAo1ox ncorpa coxanno1-
cn moxxAo1onnan moAr muuno 15 - 20 nm.
Cnoxume coeuueuun, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAnm1cn na ap-
roauonnwo, aamwxammuo u nonopnmuo. K aproauonnwm coopuno-
nunm o1nocn1cn oec+oco+o, no.oec+oco+o u noncou cuen.euun
(.eunoououon oec+oco+o). ocmocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx aAox1o-
nonAo1nwx noAonun, nunapAoxamux u1oAommam cocopnux xAo-
1ox, aapoAonnwx moxxAo1onnwm noc1anc1nom aamoom oxoAo
25 nm, aanoAnonnwm 1onxoquuAAnnwm nomoc1nom rAuxono-
1ounno nuopw. K oamonnwm x u1onAaamo c1oonam ooux
nAac1unox pocmocomw nuxonAnm1cn xoa1unonwo 1onoquAamon-
1w, nanomunammuo no qomo roAonnwo mnuArxu. Homumo a1oro,
nooa moxxAo1onnoo noc1anc1no noxopn1 moxxAo1onnwo noAox-
na, coopunnmmuo oo nAac1unxu.
Hoaypocmocoma, oaaonannan Aumr opno nAac1unxo c nxo-
pnmumu n noo 1onoquAamon1amu, nuxonAno1 xAo1xy x aaaAr-
no momano. Hoxcou conaonnx, uAu aonxonnpnax pocmocoma,
nopc1anAno1 coo Aon1y, xo1oan oruao1 ncm nonoxnoc1r
xAo1xu nAuau oo anuxaArnoro o1poAa. Huuna moxxAo1onnoro
noc1anc1na, aanoAnonnoro noAoxnuc1wm nomoc1nom, no nonw-
mao1 15 - 20 nm. Hu1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r Aon1w ynAo1-
nona u yxonAona coxa1u1oArnwm nynxom ax1unonwx quAamon1on.
Hnomume coeuueuun, uAu oonupouue ooum, noxopn1 nooa
anuxaArnwo nonoxnoc1u xAo1ox n nupo noncxon muuno 0,5 -
0,6 mxm. E nAo1nwx xon1ax1ax moxpy u1oAommamu cocopnux xAo-
1ox nax1unocxu no1 moxxAo1onnoro noc1anc1na u rAuxoxaAux-
ca. EoAxonwo moAoxyAw ooux moman xon1ax1uym1 moxpy co-
o, noa1omy nooa nAo1nwo xon1ax1w moAoxyAw no noxopn1. Ha
u1oAommo opno xAo1xu umoo1cn co1r roomxon, oaaonannwx
ononxamu oAxonwx nac1u aAAun1unocxo qomw, acnoAoxon-
nwx no nny1onnom monocAoo momanw, xo1owm na u1oAommo
cocopno xAo1xu coo1no1c1nym1 yrAyAonun, ooapxu.
K nonopnmum coopunonunm o1nocn1cn noucyc, uAu moaonnp-
nm uonxaux, u cnnanc. Hooa nux ua opno xAo1xu n pyrym
noxopn1 nopoac1noumwo maAwo moAoxyAw c moAoxyAnno mac-
co no oAoo 1500 a. Taxumu xon1ax1amu coopunonw ononr mnoruo
I
II
III
2
1
1
1
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
1
1
8
8
8
P u c . 9. Me+xnemovme coeueus:
l nnomoe coeueue; ll ecuocoua; lll nonyecuocoua; lV excyc (enesuoe coeu-
eue); 1 umoneuum cue+mx xnemox; 2 som cnunaus; 3 snexmpoonnomme nna-
cmuxu; 4 npoue+ymovme qunauemm (mooqunauemm), saxpenneme s nnacmuxe;
5 ue+xnemovme qunauemm; 6 asansas ueupaa; 7 none+aas coeuumens-
as mxas; 8 xoexcom, xa+m us xomopmx cocmoum us 6 cyeuu c unupuvecxuu
xaanou (no Xsuy u lopuaxy u no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
8
xAo1xu noAonoxa (u xuno1nwx). E noxcyco moxpy u1oAommamu
cocopnux xAo1ox umoo1cn noc1anc1no muuno 2 - 4 nm. Oo
u1oAommw coopunonw moxpy coo uouueucouo+u - noAwmu rox-
caronaArnwmu oAxonwmu c1yx1yamu aamoamu oxoAo 9 nm,
xaxpan ua xo1owx oaaonana moc1rm oAxonwmu cy+opunua-
mu. Mo1opom aamoaxunanun u cxaAwnanun noxaaano, n1o na nny1-
onno nac1u momanw umom1cn roxcaronaArnwo nac1unxu aa-
moamu 8 - 9 nm, a na nayxno - coo1no1c1nymmuo um nmxu.
HoAonwo xon1ax1w uram1 naxnym oAr n ocymoc1nAonuu qynx-
uu xAo1ox, oAapammux nwaxonno aAox1unocxo ax1unnoc-
1rm (nanumo, xapuomuou1w). Cunancw uram1 naxnym oAr
n ocymoc1nAonuu qynxu nonno cuc1omw.
Mnuponopcnnun. Muxonocunxu oocnonunam1 ynoAunonuo
xAo1onno nonoxnoc1u. 01o, xax nanuAo, cnnaano c ocymoc1nAo-
nuom qynxuu ncacwnanun nomoc1n ua nnomno pAn xAo1xu co-
pw. Muxonocunxu nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu nonoxnoc1noro xom-
nAoxca xAo1xu. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo nwnnnunanun u1oAom-
mw pAuno 1 - 2 mxm u puamo1om po 0,1 mxm.
Ocoo xynnwo muxonocunxu pAuno po ? mxm naawnam1 cxo-
poonanxmn. Onu umom1cn y noxo1owx cnouaAuauonannwx xAo-
1ox (nanumo, y conconwx xAo1ox n oranax annonocun u cAyxa).
Hx oAr cnnaana no co ncacwnanuom, a c 1om, n1o onu mory1 o1-
xAonn1rcn o1 cnooro nononanaArnoro noAoxonun. Taxoo uamono-
nuo xonquryauu nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu nwawnao1 oo noayxponuo,
nocAopnoo nocnunumao1cn nonnwmu oxonnanunmu, u curnaAw
noc1ynam1 n on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy.
EuoAorunocxuo momanw aapoAnm1 xAo1xy na o1poArnwo o-
Aac1u, umommuo cnou c1yx1ynwo u qynxuonaArnwo ocoonno-
c1u - uo+nopn+eunm, a 1axxo o1ranununam1 xAo1xy o1 oxy-
xammo oo copw.
% $
IV
Momuaoxonnmo coopnnonnx. Hu xon1ax1o xAo1ox pyr c py-
rom ux u1oAommw nc1ynam1 no naaumopoc1nun. Hu a1om oaay-
m1cn ocowo o+opunnmmuo c1yx1yw - +eu.enouume coeouue
uun (uc. 9). Onu qomuym1cn nu oaaonanuu mnoroxAo1onnoro
oranuama no nomn amuonaArnoro aanu1un u nu oaaonanuu
1xano. MoxxAo1onnwo coopunonun nopaapoAnm1cn na noc1wo u
cAoxnwo. E npocmmr coeuueuunr u1oAommw cocopnux xAo1ox qo-
muym1 nwoc1w nanopouo ayon, 1ax n1o ayo opno xAo1xu
nnopno1cn moxpy pnymn ayamu pyro (:uonoe coeouueuue) uAu
noonAo1ammuxcn moxpy coo un1opuru1au (no.tueououoe co
eouueuue). Moxpy u1oAommamu cocopnux xAo1ox ncorpa coxanno1-
cn moxxAo1onnan moAr muuno 15 - 20 nm.
Cnoxume coeuueuun, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAnm1cn na ap-
roauonnwo, aamwxammuo u nonopnmuo. K aproauonnwm coopuno-
nunm o1nocn1cn oec+oco+o, no.oec+oco+o u noncou cuen.euun
(.eunoououon oec+oco+o). ocmocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx aAox1o-
nonAo1nwx noAonun, nunapAoxamux u1oAommam cocopnux xAo-
1ox, aapoAonnwx moxxAo1onnwm noc1anc1nom aamoom oxoAo
25 nm, aanoAnonnwm 1onxoquuAAnnwm nomoc1nom rAuxono-
1ounno nuopw. K oamonnwm x u1onAaamo c1oonam ooux
nAac1unox pocmocomw nuxonAnm1cn xoa1unonwo 1onoquAamon-
1w, nanomunammuo no qomo roAonnwo mnuArxu. Homumo a1oro,
nooa moxxAo1onnoo noc1anc1no noxopn1 moxxAo1onnwo noAox-
na, coopunnmmuo oo nAac1unxu.
Hoaypocmocoma, oaaonannan Aumr opno nAac1unxo c nxo-
pnmumu n noo 1onoquAamon1amu, nuxonAno1 xAo1xy x aaaAr-
no momano. Hoxcou conaonnx, uAu aonxonnpnax pocmocoma,
nopc1anAno1 coo Aon1y, xo1oan oruao1 ncm nonoxnoc1r
xAo1xu nAuau oo anuxaArnoro o1poAa. Huuna moxxAo1onnoro
noc1anc1na, aanoAnonnoro noAoxnuc1wm nomoc1nom, no nonw-
mao1 15 - 20 nm. Hu1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r Aon1w ynAo1-
nona u yxonAona coxa1u1oArnwm nynxom ax1unonwx quAamon1on.
Hnomume coeuueuun, uAu oonupouue ooum, noxopn1 nooa
anuxaArnwo nonoxnoc1u xAo1ox n nupo noncxon muuno 0,5 -
0,6 mxm. E nAo1nwx xon1ax1ax moxpy u1oAommamu cocopnux xAo-
1ox nax1unocxu no1 moxxAo1onnoro noc1anc1na u rAuxoxaAux-
ca. EoAxonwo moAoxyAw ooux moman xon1ax1uym1 moxpy co-
o, noa1omy nooa nAo1nwo xon1ax1w moAoxyAw no noxopn1. Ha
u1oAommo opno xAo1xu umoo1cn co1r roomxon, oaaonannwx
ononxamu oAxonwx nac1u aAAun1unocxo qomw, acnoAoxon-
nwx no nny1onnom monocAoo momanw, xo1owm na u1oAommo
cocopno xAo1xu coo1no1c1nym1 yrAyAonun, ooapxu.
K nonopnmum coopunonunm o1nocn1cn noucyc, uAu moaonnp-
nm uonxaux, u cnnanc. Hooa nux ua opno xAo1xu n pyrym
noxopn1 nopoac1noumwo maAwo moAoxyAw c moAoxyAnno mac-
co no oAoo 1500 a. Taxumu xon1ax1amu coopunonw ononr mnoruo
I
II
III
2
1
1
1
3
4
5
6
7
1
1
1
1
8
8
8
P u c . 9. Me+xnemovme coeueus:
l nnomoe coeueue; ll ecuocoua; lll nonyecuocoua; lV excyc (enesuoe coeu-
eue); 1 umoneuum cue+mx xnemox; 2 som cnunaus; 3 snexmpoonnomme nna-
cmuxu; 4 npoue+ymovme qunauemm (mooqunauemm), saxpenneme s nnacmuxe;
5 ue+xnemovme qunauemm; 6 asansas ueupaa; 7 none+aas coeuumens-
as mxas; 8 xoexcom, xa+m us xomopmx cocmoum us 6 cyeuu c unupuvecxuu
xaanou (no Xsuy u lopuaxy u no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
8
xAo1xu noAonoxa (u xuno1nwx). E noxcyco moxpy u1oAommamu
cocopnux xAo1ox umoo1cn noc1anc1no muuno 2 - 4 nm. Oo
u1oAommw coopunonw moxpy coo uouueucouo+u - noAwmu rox-
caronaArnwmu oAxonwmu c1yx1yamu aamoamu oxoAo 9 nm,
xaxpan ua xo1owx oaaonana moc1rm oAxonwmu cy+opunua-
mu. Mo1opom aamoaxunanun u cxaAwnanun noxaaano, n1o na nny1-
onno nac1u momanw umom1cn roxcaronaArnwo nac1unxu aa-
moamu 8 - 9 nm, a na nayxno - coo1no1c1nymmuo um nmxu.
HoAonwo xon1ax1w uram1 naxnym oAr n ocymoc1nAonuu qynx-
uu xAo1ox, oAapammux nwaxonno aAox1unocxo ax1unnoc-
1rm (nanumo, xapuomuou1w). Cunancw uram1 naxnym oAr
n ocymoc1nAonuu qynxu nonno cuc1omw.
Mnuponopcnnun. Muxonocunxu oocnonunam1 ynoAunonuo
xAo1onno nonoxnoc1u. 01o, xax nanuAo, cnnaano c ocymoc1nAo-
nuom qynxuu ncacwnanun nomoc1n ua nnomno pAn xAo1xu co-
pw. Muxonocunxu nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu nonoxnoc1noro xom-
nAoxca xAo1xu. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo nwnnnunanun u1oAom-
mw pAuno 1 - 2 mxm u puamo1om po 0,1 mxm.
Ocoo xynnwo muxonocunxu pAuno po ? mxm naawnam1 cxo-
poonanxmn. Onu umom1cn y noxo1owx cnouaAuauonannwx xAo-
1ox (nanumo, y conconwx xAo1ox n oranax annonocun u cAyxa).
Hx oAr cnnaana no co ncacwnanuom, a c 1om, n1o onu mory1 o1-
xAonn1rcn o1 cnooro nononanaArnoro noAoxonun. Taxoo uamono-
nuo xonquryauu nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu nwawnao1 oo noayxponuo,
nocAopnoo nocnunumao1cn nonnwmu oxonnanunmu, u curnaAw
noc1ynam1 n on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy.
EuoAorunocxuo momanw aapoAnm1 xAo1xy na o1poArnwo o-
Aac1u, umommuo cnou c1yx1ynwo u qynxuonaArnwo ocoonno-
c1u - uo+nopn+eunm, a 1axxo o1ranununam1 xAo1xy o1 oxy-
xammo oo copw.
' &
P u c . 1 0. Cmpoeue
uuxpompyovxu:
1 myynuosme cyeu-
um; 2 accouuposame
enxu; 3 nepeueaeume
vacmum
1
2
3
1 2
3
4
5
P u c . 1 1. lnemovm emp:
1 mpunnemm uuxpompyovex;
2 pauansme cnum; 3 em-
pansas cmpyxmypa xoneca mene-
au; 4 uuxpompyovxu; 5 camen-
numm (no lpcmuvy, c usueeusuu)
Jnxonaaama. Ocnonnwmu c1yx1yamu u1onAaamw nnAnm1-
cn ruaAonAaama (ma1uxc) u nanomonnwo n no oranoAAw u nxAm-
nonun.
Fnaaonaaama. IuaAonAaama nopc1anAno1 coo xoAAoup, coc-
1onmu ua nopw, uonon u mnorux moAoxyA oranunocxux nomoc1n.
E ruaAonAaamo no1oxao1 np naxnomux uoxumunocxux oaxu.
Opranoaam. Opeoue..o+u uo:moown o.e+eunm uunon.o:+m,
cnpunpupooouume uo .tnpo+uupocuonuuecuo+ pooue u om
no.unwue uouupenume quuuuu u.enuu; opeoue..m uocnown
o ocecno.euuu ner quuuuu u.enuu, uonopme ueoroou+m o.n
noooepouun ee u:ueoenne.tuocnu. Cmpa o1nocn1cn oocnono-
nuo oo anoro1unocxoro omona, cun1o1unocxux nooccon, oocno-
nonuo 1ancno1a nomoc1n u 1. n.
OranoAAw, nucymuo ncom xAo1xam, naamnamx opranoaaamn
o6moro naananonnx, nucymuo xo noxo1owm cnouaAuauonan-
nwm nupam xAo1ox - cnonaannmmn. E aanucumoc1u o1 1oro, nxAm-
nao1 c1yx1ya oranoAAw uoAorunocxym momany uAu no1, aa-
Aunam1 opranoaam mom6pannmo u nomom6pannmo.
Opranoaam o6moro naananonnx. Homom6pannmo opranoaam.
K nomomannwm oranoAAam o1nocn1cn u1ocxoAo1, xAo1onnw
on1 u uocomw.
Jnxocuoaox. ]unocue.en (xAo1onnw cxoAo1), n cnom onoopr,
oaaonan 1omn xomnonon1amu: +uuponpouuo+u, +uupoqu.o+eu
no+u u npo+enouum+u qu.o+euno+u.
Mnupoxpy6onun (uc. 10) nonuawnam1
ncm u1onAaamy xAo1xu. Kaxpan ua nux
nopc1anAno1 coo noAw uAunp puamo1-
om 20 - 30 nm. C1onxa muxo1yonxu umo-
o1 1oAmuny 6 - 8 nm. Ona oaaonana 13 nu-
1nmu (no1oquAamon1amu), cxynonnwmu no
cnuaAu opna nap pyro. Kaxpan nu1r, n
cnom onoopr, cAarao1cn ua pumoon oAxa
1yyAuna. Kaxpw pumo nopc1anAon - u
-1yyAunom. Cun1oa 1yyAunon noucxopu1
na momanax ranyAnno anponAaama1u-
nocxo co1u, a coxa n cnuaAu - n xAo-
1onnom on1o. Muxo1yonxu nonnw u
oaaym1 ononwo c1yx1yw u1ocxoAo1a.
Onu oocnonunam1 ocnonnwo no1oxu nny1-
uxAo1onnoro ax1unnoro 1ancno1a.
Hpomomyxonnmo qnaamonxm 1oAmuno
8 - 10 nm nopc1anAonw n xAo1xo pAunnw-
mu oAxonwmu moAoxyAamu. Onu 1onrmo
muxo1yonox, no 1oAmo muxoquAamon-
1on, aa n1o u noAynuAu cnoo naananuo.
Mnupoqnaamonxm - a1o oAxonwo nu1u 1oAmuno oxoAo 4 nm.
EoArmunc1no ua nux oaaonano moAoxyAamu ounuuoo, xo1owx
nwnnAono oxoAo 10 nupon. Komo 1oro, ax1unonwo quAamon1w mo-
ry1 rynnuona1rcn n nynxu, oaaymmuo coc1nonno ononwo c1yx-
1yw u1ocxoAo1a.
Kaoxonnm onxp (uc. 11) oaaonan pnymn ueunpuo.n+u (oun
.oco+o) u ueunpocqepou. Oo on1uoAu punAocomw acnoAoxo-
nw nop yrAom pyr x pyry. Ocnonnan qynxun xAo1onnoro on1-
a - coxa muxo1yonox.
Kaxpan onxpnoan nopc1anAno1 coo uAunp, c1onxa xo1o-
oro, n cnom onoopr, coc1ou1 ua ponn1u xomnAoxcon muxo1yo-
nox pAuno oxoAo 0,5 mxm u puamo1om oxoAo 0,25 mxm. Kaxpw
xomnAoxc coc1ou1 ua 1ox muxo1yonox u noa1omy naawnao1cn
npun.eno+. TunAo1w, acnoAoxonnwo no o1nomonum pyr x pyry
nop yrAom oxoAo 50, coc1on1 ua 1ox muxo1yonox (uany1u xna-
yxu): noAno A u nonoAnwx E u C puamo1om oxoAo 20 nm xax-
pan. O1 1yonxu A o1xopn1 pno ynxu. Opna ua nux nananAona x
1yonxo C cocopnoro 1unAo1a, pyran - x on1y uAunpa, rpo
nny1onnuo ynxu oaaym1 quryy anoapw uAu cnu xoAoca. Kax-
pan muxo1yonxa umoo1 1ununnoo c1oonuo.
Hon1uoAu acnoAoxonw naaumno nononpuxyAnno. Opna ua
nux ynuao1cn xonom n oxonym nonoxnoc1r pyro. Honan
naawnao1cn ponono, n1oan - ma1ouncxo. ononnn on1u-
oAr noanuxao1 ncAopc1nuo ypnoonun ma1ouncxo. Ma1ouncxan
on1uoAr oxyxona aAox1ononAo1nwm oopxom, oaaonannwm
maonupnwmu cone..uno+u, coopunonnwmu nAo1nwm ma1oua-
Aom c nayxno c1oono xaxporo 1unAo1a.
' &
P u c . 1 0. Cmpoeue
uuxpompyovxu:
1 myynuosme cyeu-
um; 2 accouuposame
enxu; 3 nepeueaeume
vacmum
1
2
3
1 2
3
4
5
P u c . 1 1. lnemovm emp:
1 mpunnemm uuxpompyovex;
2 pauansme cnum; 3 em-
pansas cmpyxmypa xoneca mene-
au; 4 uuxpompyovxu; 5 camen-
numm (no lpcmuvy, c usueeusuu)
Jnxonaaama. Ocnonnwmu c1yx1yamu u1onAaamw nnAnm1-
cn ruaAonAaama (ma1uxc) u nanomonnwo n no oranoAAw u nxAm-
nonun.
Fnaaonaaama. IuaAonAaama nopc1anAno1 coo xoAAoup, coc-
1onmu ua nopw, uonon u mnorux moAoxyA oranunocxux nomoc1n.
E ruaAonAaamo no1oxao1 np naxnomux uoxumunocxux oaxu.
Opranoaam. Opeoue..o+u uo:moown o.e+eunm uunon.o:+m,
cnpunpupooouume uo .tnpo+uupocuonuuecuo+ pooue u om
no.unwue uouupenume quuuuu u.enuu; opeoue..m uocnown
o ocecno.euuu ner quuuuu u.enuu, uonopme ueoroou+m o.n
noooepouun ee u:ueoenne.tuocnu. Cmpa o1nocn1cn oocnono-
nuo oo anoro1unocxoro omona, cun1o1unocxux nooccon, oocno-
nonuo 1ancno1a nomoc1n u 1. n.
OranoAAw, nucymuo ncom xAo1xam, naamnamx opranoaaamn
o6moro naananonnx, nucymuo xo noxo1owm cnouaAuauonan-
nwm nupam xAo1ox - cnonaannmmn. E aanucumoc1u o1 1oro, nxAm-
nao1 c1yx1ya oranoAAw uoAorunocxym momany uAu no1, aa-
Aunam1 opranoaam mom6pannmo u nomom6pannmo.
Opranoaam o6moro naananonnx. Homom6pannmo opranoaam.
K nomomannwm oranoAAam o1nocn1cn u1ocxoAo1, xAo1onnw
on1 u uocomw.
Jnxocuoaox. ]unocue.en (xAo1onnw cxoAo1), n cnom onoopr,
oaaonan 1omn xomnonon1amu: +uuponpouuo+u, +uupoqu.o+eu
no+u u npo+enouum+u qu.o+euno+u.
Mnupoxpy6onun (uc. 10) nonuawnam1
ncm u1onAaamy xAo1xu. Kaxpan ua nux
nopc1anAno1 coo noAw uAunp puamo1-
om 20 - 30 nm. C1onxa muxo1yonxu umo-
o1 1oAmuny 6 - 8 nm. Ona oaaonana 13 nu-
1nmu (no1oquAamon1amu), cxynonnwmu no
cnuaAu opna nap pyro. Kaxpan nu1r, n
cnom onoopr, cAarao1cn ua pumoon oAxa
1yyAuna. Kaxpw pumo nopc1anAon - u
-1yyAunom. Cun1oa 1yyAunon noucxopu1
na momanax ranyAnno anponAaama1u-
nocxo co1u, a coxa n cnuaAu - n xAo-
1onnom on1o. Muxo1yonxu nonnw u
oaaym1 ononwo c1yx1yw u1ocxoAo1a.
Onu oocnonunam1 ocnonnwo no1oxu nny1-
uxAo1onnoro ax1unnoro 1ancno1a.
Hpomomyxonnmo qnaamonxm 1oAmuno
8 - 10 nm nopc1anAonw n xAo1xo pAunnw-
mu oAxonwmu moAoxyAamu. Onu 1onrmo
muxo1yonox, no 1oAmo muxoquAamon-
1on, aa n1o u noAynuAu cnoo naananuo.
Mnupoqnaamonxm - a1o oAxonwo nu1u 1oAmuno oxoAo 4 nm.
EoArmunc1no ua nux oaaonano moAoxyAamu ounuuoo, xo1owx
nwnnAono oxoAo 10 nupon. Komo 1oro, ax1unonwo quAamon1w mo-
ry1 rynnuona1rcn n nynxu, oaaymmuo coc1nonno ononwo c1yx-
1yw u1ocxoAo1a.
Kaoxonnm onxp (uc. 11) oaaonan pnymn ueunpuo.n+u (oun
.oco+o) u ueunpocqepou. Oo on1uoAu punAocomw acnoAoxo-
nw nop yrAom pyr x pyry. Ocnonnan qynxun xAo1onnoro on1-
a - coxa muxo1yonox.
Kaxpan onxpnoan nopc1anAno1 coo uAunp, c1onxa xo1o-
oro, n cnom onoopr, coc1ou1 ua ponn1u xomnAoxcon muxo1yo-
nox pAuno oxoAo 0,5 mxm u puamo1om oxoAo 0,25 mxm. Kaxpw
xomnAoxc coc1ou1 ua 1ox muxo1yonox u noa1omy naawnao1cn
npun.eno+. TunAo1w, acnoAoxonnwo no o1nomonum pyr x pyry
nop yrAom oxoAo 50, coc1on1 ua 1ox muxo1yonox (uany1u xna-
yxu): noAno A u nonoAnwx E u C puamo1om oxoAo 20 nm xax-
pan. O1 1yonxu A o1xopn1 pno ynxu. Opna ua nux nananAona x
1yonxo C cocopnoro 1unAo1a, pyran - x on1y uAunpa, rpo
nny1onnuo ynxu oaaym1 quryy anoapw uAu cnu xoAoca. Kax-
pan muxo1yonxa umoo1 1ununnoo c1oonuo.
Hon1uoAu acnoAoxonw naaumno nononpuxyAnno. Opna ua
nux ynuao1cn xonom n oxonym nonoxnoc1r pyro. Honan
naawnao1cn ponono, n1oan - ma1ouncxo. ononnn on1u-
oAr noanuxao1 ncAopc1nuo ypnoonun ma1ouncxo. Ma1ouncxan
on1uoAr oxyxona aAox1ononAo1nwm oopxom, oaaonannwm
maonupnwmu cone..uno+u, coopunonnwmu nAo1nwm ma1oua-
Aom c nayxno c1oono xaxporo 1unAo1a.
! !
P u c . 1 2. Puocoua:
l uanas cyeuua;
ll onsuas cyeuu-
a; lll oeueue
cyeuu; (no Anepm-
cy u coasm., c usue-
eusuu)
I II III
K xony ca1oAAu1on no u1onAaamo 1ancno1uym1cn 1yyAu-
nw, u umonno :oect npoucrooun copuo +uuponpoueu. Eypynu
coannwmu, onu o1poAnm1cn u nananAnm1cn n aanwo ynac1xu
u1onAaamw, n1ow aann1r cnoo moc1o n c1yx1yax u1ocxoAo1a.
Hon1uoAu nnAnm1cn camooryAuymmumucn c1yx1yamu, xo-
1owo ypnaunam1cn n xAo1onnom uxAo (cm. aapoA KAo1onnw
uxA). Hon1uoAu ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu aaaArnwx 1oAo oc-
nunox u xry1uxon u n oaaonanuu mu1o1unocxoro noo1ona.
PHHOCOML
Puocomw (uc. 12) nopc1anAnm1 coo 1oAra aamoamu
20 30 nm (xonc1an1a copumon1auu 80). Puocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx
czeouuuu - oArmo u maAo. Kaxpan cy+opunua nopc1an-
Ano1 coo xomnAoxc uocomno PHK (PHK) c oAxamu. EoAr-
man cy+opunua (xonc1an1a copumon1auu 60) copoxu1 1u aa-
Aunnwo moAoxyAw PHK, cnnaannwo c 40 moAoxyAamu oAxon;
maAan copoxu1 opny moAoxyAy PHK u 33 moAoxyAw oAxon. Cun-
1oa PHK ocymoc1nAno1cn na no1Anx xomocom - npwmxonwx
oranuaa1oax (n oAac1u npwmxa). Coxa uocom ocymoc1n-
Ano1cn n oAac1u no xauo1oxu.
Ocnonnan qynxun uocom - coxa oAxonwx moAoxyA ua amu-
noxucAo1, poc1anAnomwx x num 1ancno1nwmu PHK (1PHK). Mox-
py cy+opunuamu uocomw umoo1cn moAr, n xo1oo noxopu1 mo-
AoxyAa unqomauonno PHK (mPHK), a na oArmo cy+opunuo -
ooapxa, n xo1oo acnoAarao1cn u no xo1oo cnoAaao1 qomuy-
mmancn oAxonan onr. Coxa amunoxucAo1 nouanopu1cn n coo1-
no1c1nuu c nooponanuom nyxAoo1upon n onu mPHK. Taxum cnoco-
om ocymoc1nAno1cn xpancaxnx rono1unocxo unqomauu.
Puocomw mory1 naxopu1rcn n ruaAonAaamo noopunonxo Auo
rynnamu n nupo oao1ox, cnuaAo, aanu1xon. Taxuo rynnw naaw-
nam1 no.upuoco+o+u (no.uco+o+u). Taxum oaaom, moAoxyAa mPHK
moxo1 no1nruna1rcn no nonoxnoc1u no 1oArxo opno, no u nocxoAr-
xux npom Aoxamux uocom. 3nanu1oArnan nac1r uocom nuxon-
Aona x momanam: x nonoxnoc1u anponAaama1unocxo co1u u x na-
yxno momano xauo1oxu. Cooooume puoco+m cuune:upwn
e.ou, ueoroou+mu o.n u:ueoenne.tuocnu co+ou u.enuu, npu
upen.euume - e.ou, noo.eouu omoeoeuuw u: u.enuu.
KoAunoc1no uocom n xAo1xo moxo1 poc1ura1r pocn1xon muA-
Auonon.
OPFAHEAAL
Mom6pannmo opranoaam. Kaxpan momannan oranoAAa nop-
c1anAno1 c1yx1yy u1onAaamw, oranunonnym momano. EcAop-
c1nuo a1oro nny1u noo oaayo1cn noc1anc1no, o1ranunonnoo
o1 ruaAonAaamw. Hu1onAaama oxaawnao1cn 1axum oaaom aapo-
Aonno na o1poArnwo o1coxu co cnoumu cnoc1namu - uomnapx-
monxm (oue.. comarImonI - o1poAonuo, xyno, o1cox). Ho.uuue
uo+nopn+eunoo - oouo u: ooumr ocoeuuocneu ouopuonuuec
uur u.enou.
K momannwm oranoAAam o1nocn1cn +unorouopuu, ouoo
n.o:+onuuecuon cent (3HC), uo+n.euc Io.tou, .u:oco+m u ne
poucuco+m.
Mnxoxonppnn - anoro1unocxuo c1anuu xAo1xu, ynac1ny-
m1 n nooccax xAo1onnoro pwxanun u nooaaym1 anorum, xo-
1oan nu a1om ocnooxpao1cn, n qomy, poc1ynnym pAn ucnoAr-
aonanun pyrumu c1yx1yamu xAo1xu.
Mu1oxonpuu, n o1Aunuo o1 pyrux oranoAA, oAapam1 co-
c1nonno rono1unocxo cuc1omo, nooxopumo pAn ux camonocn-
ouanoponun u cun1oaa oAxon. Onu umom1 cnou HK, PHK u u-
ocomw, o1Aunammuocn o1 1axonwx n npo u n pyrux o1poAax
u1onAaamw coc1nonno xAo1xu. E 1o xo nomn mu1oxonpuaArnwo
HK, PHK u uocomw nocrma cxopnw c noxauo1unocxumu. 01o
nocAyxuAo 1oAnxom pAn aaao1xu cumuo1unocxo runo1oaw,
corAacno xo1oo mu1oxonpuu (u xAoonAac1w) noanuxAu ua cum-
uo1unocxux ax1ou. Mu1oxonpuaArnan HK xoAronupnan
(xax y ax1ou), na noo nuxopu1cn oxoAo 2% HK xAo1xu.
Mu1oxonpuu (u xAoonAac1w) cnoconw aamnoxa1rcn n xAo1-
xo ny1om unanoro poAonun. Taxum oaaom, ouu no.nwncn co
+ooocnpou:ooonu+ucn opeoue..o+u. Emoc1o c 1om rono1unocxan
unqomaun, copoxamancn n ux HK, no oocnonunao1 ux ncomu
nooxopumwmu pAn noAnoro camonocnouanoponun oAxamu; nac1r
a1ux oAxon xopuyo1cn nponwmu ronamu u noc1ynao1 n mu1o-
xonpuu ua ruaAonAaamw. Hoa1omy mu1oxonpuu n o1nomonuu ux
camonocnouanoponun naawnam1 noayanxonomnmmn cxpyuxypamn.
V ue.ooeuo u opeur +.euonunowur +unorouopuo.tumu eeuo+
uoc.eoencn on +onepu: npu on.ooonoopeuuu nuueu.enuu +u
norouopuu cnep+un o uee ue npouuuown.
Kaxpan mu1oxonpun oaaonana pnymn momanamu - oueu
ueu u ounpeuueu (uc. 13). Moxpy numu acnoAoxono +e+e+
pouuoe npocnpoucnoo muuno 10 - 20 nm. Enomnnn moma-
na onnan, nny1onnnn xo oaayo1 mnoronucAonnwo upucnm,
xo1owo mory1 umo1r nup cxAapox, 1yonox u rono. EAaropa-
n xuc1am nAomapr nny1onno momanw cymoc1nonno ynoAu-
nunao1cn.
! !
P u c . 1 2. Puocoua:
l uanas cyeuua;
ll onsuas cyeuu-
a; lll oeueue
cyeuu; (no Anepm-
cy u coasm., c usue-
eusuu)
I II III
K xony ca1oAAu1on no u1onAaamo 1ancno1uym1cn 1yyAu-
nw, u umonno :oect npoucrooun copuo +uuponpoueu. Eypynu
coannwmu, onu o1poAnm1cn u nananAnm1cn n aanwo ynac1xu
u1onAaamw, n1ow aann1r cnoo moc1o n c1yx1yax u1ocxoAo1a.
Hon1uoAu nnAnm1cn camooryAuymmumucn c1yx1yamu, xo-
1owo ypnaunam1cn n xAo1onnom uxAo (cm. aapoA KAo1onnw
uxA). Hon1uoAu ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu aaaArnwx 1oAo oc-
nunox u xry1uxon u n oaaonanuu mu1o1unocxoro noo1ona.
PHHOCOML
Puocomw (uc. 12) nopc1anAnm1 coo 1oAra aamoamu
20 30 nm (xonc1an1a copumon1auu 80). Puocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx
czeouuuu - oArmo u maAo. Kaxpan cy+opunua nopc1an-
Ano1 coo xomnAoxc uocomno PHK (PHK) c oAxamu. EoAr-
man cy+opunua (xonc1an1a copumon1auu 60) copoxu1 1u aa-
Aunnwo moAoxyAw PHK, cnnaannwo c 40 moAoxyAamu oAxon;
maAan copoxu1 opny moAoxyAy PHK u 33 moAoxyAw oAxon. Cun-
1oa PHK ocymoc1nAno1cn na no1Anx xomocom - npwmxonwx
oranuaa1oax (n oAac1u npwmxa). Coxa uocom ocymoc1n-
Ano1cn n oAac1u no xauo1oxu.
Ocnonnan qynxun uocom - coxa oAxonwx moAoxyA ua amu-
noxucAo1, poc1anAnomwx x num 1ancno1nwmu PHK (1PHK). Mox-
py cy+opunuamu uocomw umoo1cn moAr, n xo1oo noxopu1 mo-
AoxyAa unqomauonno PHK (mPHK), a na oArmo cy+opunuo -
ooapxa, n xo1oo acnoAarao1cn u no xo1oo cnoAaao1 qomuy-
mmancn oAxonan onr. Coxa amunoxucAo1 nouanopu1cn n coo1-
no1c1nuu c nooponanuom nyxAoo1upon n onu mPHK. Taxum cnoco-
om ocymoc1nAno1cn xpancaxnx rono1unocxo unqomauu.
Puocomw mory1 naxopu1rcn n ruaAonAaamo noopunonxo Auo
rynnamu n nupo oao1ox, cnuaAo, aanu1xon. Taxuo rynnw naaw-
nam1 no.upuoco+o+u (no.uco+o+u). Taxum oaaom, moAoxyAa mPHK
moxo1 no1nruna1rcn no nonoxnoc1u no 1oArxo opno, no u nocxoAr-
xux npom Aoxamux uocom. 3nanu1oArnan nac1r uocom nuxon-
Aona x momanam: x nonoxnoc1u anponAaama1unocxo co1u u x na-
yxno momano xauo1oxu. Cooooume puoco+m cuune:upwn
e.ou, ueoroou+mu o.n u:ueoenne.tuocnu co+ou u.enuu, npu
upen.euume - e.ou, noo.eouu omoeoeuuw u: u.enuu.
KoAunoc1no uocom n xAo1xo moxo1 poc1ura1r pocn1xon muA-
Auonon.
OPFAHEAAL
Mom6pannmo opranoaam. Kaxpan momannan oranoAAa nop-
c1anAno1 c1yx1yy u1onAaamw, oranunonnym momano. EcAop-
c1nuo a1oro nny1u noo oaayo1cn noc1anc1no, o1ranunonnoo
o1 ruaAonAaamw. Hu1onAaama oxaawnao1cn 1axum oaaom aapo-
Aonno na o1poArnwo o1coxu co cnoumu cnoc1namu - uomnapx-
monxm (oue.. comarImonI - o1poAonuo, xyno, o1cox). Ho.uuue
uo+nopn+eunoo - oouo u: ooumr ocoeuuocneu ouopuonuuec
uur u.enou.
K momannwm oranoAAam o1nocn1cn +unorouopuu, ouoo
n.o:+onuuecuon cent (3HC), uo+n.euc Io.tou, .u:oco+m u ne
poucuco+m.
Mnxoxonppnn - anoro1unocxuo c1anuu xAo1xu, ynac1ny-
m1 n nooccax xAo1onnoro pwxanun u nooaaym1 anorum, xo-
1oan nu a1om ocnooxpao1cn, n qomy, poc1ynnym pAn ucnoAr-
aonanun pyrumu c1yx1yamu xAo1xu.
Mu1oxonpuu, n o1Aunuo o1 pyrux oranoAA, oAapam1 co-
c1nonno rono1unocxo cuc1omo, nooxopumo pAn ux camonocn-
ouanoponun u cun1oaa oAxon. Onu umom1 cnou HK, PHK u u-
ocomw, o1Aunammuocn o1 1axonwx n npo u n pyrux o1poAax
u1onAaamw coc1nonno xAo1xu. E 1o xo nomn mu1oxonpuaArnwo
HK, PHK u uocomw nocrma cxopnw c noxauo1unocxumu. 01o
nocAyxuAo 1oAnxom pAn aaao1xu cumuo1unocxo runo1oaw,
corAacno xo1oo mu1oxonpuu (u xAoonAac1w) noanuxAu ua cum-
uo1unocxux ax1ou. Mu1oxonpuaArnan HK xoAronupnan
(xax y ax1ou), na noo nuxopu1cn oxoAo 2% HK xAo1xu.
Mu1oxonpuu (u xAoonAac1w) cnoconw aamnoxa1rcn n xAo1-
xo ny1om unanoro poAonun. Taxum oaaom, ouu no.nwncn co
+ooocnpou:ooonu+ucn opeoue..o+u. Emoc1o c 1om rono1unocxan
unqomaun, copoxamancn n ux HK, no oocnonunao1 ux ncomu
nooxopumwmu pAn noAnoro camonocnouanoponun oAxamu; nac1r
a1ux oAxon xopuyo1cn nponwmu ronamu u noc1ynao1 n mu1o-
xonpuu ua ruaAonAaamw. Hoa1omy mu1oxonpuu n o1nomonuu ux
camonocnouanoponun naawnam1 noayanxonomnmmn cxpyuxypamn.
V ue.ooeuo u opeur +.euonunowur +unorouopuo.tumu eeuo+
uoc.eoencn on +onepu: npu on.ooonoopeuuu nuueu.enuu +u
norouopuu cnep+un o uee ue npouuuown.
Kaxpan mu1oxonpun oaaonana pnymn momanamu - oueu
ueu u ounpeuueu (uc. 13). Moxpy numu acnoAoxono +e+e+
pouuoe npocnpoucnoo muuno 10 - 20 nm. Enomnnn moma-
na onnan, nny1onnnn xo oaayo1 mnoronucAonnwo upucnm,
xo1owo mory1 umo1r nup cxAapox, 1yonox u rono. EAaropa-
n xuc1am nAomapr nny1onno momanw cymoc1nonno ynoAu-
nunao1cn.
!! !
P u c . 1 3 . Mumoxopus:
l oas cxeua cmpoeus: 1 apy+as
ueupaa; 2 sympess ueupaa;
3 xpucmm; 4 uampuxc; ll cxeua cmpo-
eus xpucmm: 5 cxnaxa sympee
ueupam; 6 apuosume mensa
(no Anepmcy u coasm. u no e Bksy,
c usueeusuu)
1
2
3
4
5
6
P u c . 1 4.
Sonnasuamuvecxas cems:
1 mpyovxu anaxo (aapaynsp-
o) cemu; 2 ucmepm apaynsp-
o cemu; 3 apy+as sepas
ueupaa, noxpmmas puocouauu;
4 noposm xounnexc; 5 sympe-
ss sepas ueupaa (no lpcmuvy,
c usueeusuu)
Hoc1anc1no, oranunonnoo nny1onno momano, aanoAno-
no xoAAoupnwm +unorouopuo.tum+ +onpuuco+. On umoo1 moA-
xoaonuc1ym c1yx1yy u copoxu1 mnoxoc1no aaAunnwx qo-
mon1on. E ma1uxco 1axxo aaxAmnon coc1nonnw rono1unocxu
annaa1 mu1oxonpu (y ac1onu, xomo mu1oxonpu, HK co-
poxu1cn 1axxo u n xAoonAac1ax).
Co c1oonw ma1uxca x nonoxnoc1u xuc1 nuxonAono mno-
xoc1no aAox1ononAo1nwx cymu1oxonpuaArnwx aAomon1anwx
nac1u (po 4000 na 1 mxm
2
momanw). Kaxpan ua nux umoo1 qo-
my rua (cm. uc. 13). E a1ux nac1uax cocopo1ononw ATP-aaw -
qomon1w, nonocopc1nonno oocnonunammuo cun1oa u acnap ATP.
01u nooccw noaawnno cnnaanw c uxAom 1uxaononwx xuc-
Ao1 (uxAom Koca).
KoAunoc1no, aamow u acnoAoxonuo mu1oxonpu aanucn1
o1 qynxuu xAo1xu, n nac1noc1u o1 oo no1onoc1u n anoruu u o1
moc1a, rpo anorun acxopyo1cn. Tax, n opno nonononno xAo1xo
ux xoAunoc1no poc1urao1 2500. Mnoxoc1no xynnwx mu1oxonp-
u copoxu1cn n xapuomuou1ax u muocumnAac1ax mwmonnwx
noAoxon. E cnomunx ora1wo xuc1amu mu1oxonpuu oxyxam1
axconomy nomoxy1onno nac1u xry1uxa.
0nponaaamaxnnocuax coxn (0HC), uAu anponAaama1unocxu o-
1uxyAym (0P), nopc1anAno1 coo opunw nonownnw xomna1-
mon1, oranunonnw momano, oaaymmo mnoxoc1no unnaru-
nau u cxAapox (uc. 14). Hoa1omy na aAox1onno-muxocxonu-
nocxux qo1oraqunx anponAaama1unocxan co1r nwrAnpu1 n nupo mno-
xoc1na 1yonox, nAocxux uAu oxyrAwx uc1on, momannwx
nyawrxon. Ha momanax 0HC conomam1cn mnorooaanwo no-
nunnwo cun1oaw nomoc1n, nooxopumwx pAn xuanopon1oArnoc1u
xAo1xu. MoAoxyAw a1ux nomoc1n ypy1 nopnora1rcn paArnomum
xumunocxum nonamonunm n pyrux xomna1mon1ax xAo1xu.
EoArmunc1no nomoc1n cun1oauyo1cn na nayxno nonoxnoc1u
moman 0HC. 3a1om a1u nomoc1na noonocn1cn nooa momany nny1r
xomna1mon1a u 1am 1ancno1uym1cn x moc1am paArnomux uo-
xumunocxux nonamonu, n nac1noc1u x xomnAoxcy IoArpxu. Ha
xonax 1yonox 0HC onu naxanAunam1cn u aa1om o1poAnm1cn
o1 nux n nupo 1ancno1nwx nyawr-
xon. Kaxpw nyawox oxyxon, 1a-
xum oaaom, momano u noomoma-
o1cn n ruaAonAaamo x moc1y naanano-
nun. Kax ncorpa, n 1ancno1o nu-
numam1 ynac1uo muxo1yonxu.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 0HC: epou.np
uw (aonuc1ym, mooxona1ym) u oepo
u.npuw (rAapxym). Oo onu nopc1an-
Anm1 coo opunym c1yx1yy.
Hayxnan, oamonnan x ruaAon-
Aaamo c1oona momanw rpanyaxp-
no 0HC noxw1a uocomamu. 3pocr
ocymoc1nAno1cn cun1oa oAxon. E
xAo1xax, cnouaAuauymmuxcn na
cun1oao oAxon, ranyAnnan anpo-
nAaama1unocxan co1r nwrAnpu1 n nupo
naaAAoArnwx oxonna1wx (qonoc1u-
onannwx), coomammuxcn moxpy
coo u c nounyxAoanwm noc1an-
c1nom AamoAAnnwx c1yx1y, moxpy xo1owmu Aoxu1 mnoxo-
c1no cnoopnwx uocom.
Honoxnoc1r raapuo 0HC Aumona uocom. Cama co1r nop-
c1anAno1 coo mnoxoc1no moAxux 1yonox puamo1om oxoAo
50 nm xaxpan.
Ha momanax rAapxo co1u cun1oauym1cn yrAonopw u Aunupw,
copu nux - rAuxoron u xoAoc1oun. HnAnncr pono uonon xaArun,
rAapxan anponAaama1unocxan co1r ynac1nyo1 n coxamonuu xapuo-
muou1on u noAoxon cxoAo1no mwmonno 1xanu. Ona xo aaranu-
nunao1 ypymuo 1omou1w n moraxauou1ax. Hoanwnano nax-
na oo oAr n po1oxcuxauu rona1ou1amu nomoc1n, xo1owo noc1yna-
m1 ua noAoc1u xumxu no noo1no nono n nonononnwo xanuAAnw.
Ho nocno1am anponAaama1unocxo co1u cun1oauonannwo no-
moc1na 1ancno1uym1cn x xomnAoxcy IoArpxu (no nocno1w co1u
no coomam1cn c nocno1amu uc1on nocAopnoro). K xomnAoxcy
IoArpxu nomoc1na noc1ynam1 n nyawrxax, xo1owo cnanaAa o1-
mnyonwnam1cn o1 co1u, 1ancno1uym1cn x xomnAoxcy u, naxo-
no, cAunam1cn c num. O1 xomnAoxca IoArpxu nomoc1na 1ancno1u-
ym1cn x moc1am cnooro ucnoAraonanun 1axxo n momannwx
nyawrxax. CAopyo1 nopnoxny1r, n1o opno ua naxnomux qyn-
xu anponAaama1unocxo co1u nnAno1cn cun1oa oAxon u Aunu-
pon pAn ncox xAo1onnwx oranoAA.
Komnaouc Foanpmn (annaa1 IoArpxu, nny1uxAo1onnw co1-
na1w annaa1, KI) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r uc1on,
nyawrxon, nAac1unox, 1yonox, momonxon.
1
2
3
4
5
I II
!! !
P u c . 1 3 . Mumoxopus:
l oas cxeua cmpoeus: 1 apy+as
ueupaa; 2 sympess ueupaa;
3 xpucmm; 4 uampuxc; ll cxeua cmpo-
eus xpucmm: 5 cxnaxa sympee
ueupam; 6 apuosume mensa
(no Anepmcy u coasm. u no e Bksy,
c usueeusuu)
1
2
3
4
5
6
P u c . 1 4.
Sonnasuamuvecxas cems:
1 mpyovxu anaxo (aapaynsp-
o) cemu; 2 ucmepm apaynsp-
o cemu; 3 apy+as sepas
ueupaa, noxpmmas puocouauu;
4 noposm xounnexc; 5 sympe-
ss sepas ueupaa (no lpcmuvy,
c usueeusuu)
Hoc1anc1no, oranunonnoo nny1onno momano, aanoAno-
no xoAAoupnwm +unorouopuo.tum+ +onpuuco+. On umoo1 moA-
xoaonuc1ym c1yx1yy u copoxu1 mnoxoc1no aaAunnwx qo-
mon1on. E ma1uxco 1axxo aaxAmnon coc1nonnw rono1unocxu
annaa1 mu1oxonpu (y ac1onu, xomo mu1oxonpu, HK co-
poxu1cn 1axxo u n xAoonAac1ax).
Co c1oonw ma1uxca x nonoxnoc1u xuc1 nuxonAono mno-
xoc1no aAox1ononAo1nwx cymu1oxonpuaArnwx aAomon1anwx
nac1u (po 4000 na 1 mxm
2
momanw). Kaxpan ua nux umoo1 qo-
my rua (cm. uc. 13). E a1ux nac1uax cocopo1ononw ATP-aaw -
qomon1w, nonocopc1nonno oocnonunammuo cun1oa u acnap ATP.
01u nooccw noaawnno cnnaanw c uxAom 1uxaononwx xuc-
Ao1 (uxAom Koca).
KoAunoc1no, aamow u acnoAoxonuo mu1oxonpu aanucn1
o1 qynxuu xAo1xu, n nac1noc1u o1 oo no1onoc1u n anoruu u o1
moc1a, rpo anorun acxopyo1cn. Tax, n opno nonononno xAo1xo
ux xoAunoc1no poc1urao1 2500. Mnoxoc1no xynnwx mu1oxonp-
u copoxu1cn n xapuomuou1ax u muocumnAac1ax mwmonnwx
noAoxon. E cnomunx ora1wo xuc1amu mu1oxonpuu oxyxam1
axconomy nomoxy1onno nac1u xry1uxa.
0nponaaamaxnnocuax coxn (0HC), uAu anponAaama1unocxu o-
1uxyAym (0P), nopc1anAno1 coo opunw nonownnw xomna1-
mon1, oranunonnw momano, oaaymmo mnoxoc1no unnaru-
nau u cxAapox (uc. 14). Hoa1omy na aAox1onno-muxocxonu-
nocxux qo1oraqunx anponAaama1unocxan co1r nwrAnpu1 n nupo mno-
xoc1na 1yonox, nAocxux uAu oxyrAwx uc1on, momannwx
nyawrxon. Ha momanax 0HC conomam1cn mnorooaanwo no-
nunnwo cun1oaw nomoc1n, nooxopumwx pAn xuanopon1oArnoc1u
xAo1xu. MoAoxyAw a1ux nomoc1n ypy1 nopnora1rcn paArnomum
xumunocxum nonamonunm n pyrux xomna1mon1ax xAo1xu.
EoArmunc1no nomoc1n cun1oauyo1cn na nayxno nonoxnoc1u
moman 0HC. 3a1om a1u nomoc1na noonocn1cn nooa momany nny1r
xomna1mon1a u 1am 1ancno1uym1cn x moc1am paArnomux uo-
xumunocxux nonamonu, n nac1noc1u x xomnAoxcy IoArpxu. Ha
xonax 1yonox 0HC onu naxanAunam1cn u aa1om o1poAnm1cn
o1 nux n nupo 1ancno1nwx nyawr-
xon. Kaxpw nyawox oxyxon, 1a-
xum oaaom, momano u noomoma-
o1cn n ruaAonAaamo x moc1y naanano-
nun. Kax ncorpa, n 1ancno1o nu-
numam1 ynac1uo muxo1yonxu.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 0HC: epou.np
uw (aonuc1ym, mooxona1ym) u oepo
u.npuw (rAapxym). Oo onu nopc1an-
Anm1 coo opunym c1yx1yy.
Hayxnan, oamonnan x ruaAon-
Aaamo c1oona momanw rpanyaxp-
no 0HC noxw1a uocomamu. 3pocr
ocymoc1nAno1cn cun1oa oAxon. E
xAo1xax, cnouaAuauymmuxcn na
cun1oao oAxon, ranyAnnan anpo-
nAaama1unocxan co1r nwrAnpu1 n nupo
naaAAoArnwx oxonna1wx (qonoc1u-
onannwx), coomammuxcn moxpy
coo u c nounyxAoanwm noc1an-
c1nom AamoAAnnwx c1yx1y, moxpy xo1owmu Aoxu1 mnoxo-
c1no cnoopnwx uocom.
Honoxnoc1r raapuo 0HC Aumona uocom. Cama co1r nop-
c1anAno1 coo mnoxoc1no moAxux 1yonox puamo1om oxoAo
50 nm xaxpan.
Ha momanax rAapxo co1u cun1oauym1cn yrAonopw u Aunupw,
copu nux - rAuxoron u xoAoc1oun. HnAnncr pono uonon xaArun,
rAapxan anponAaama1unocxan co1r ynac1nyo1 n coxamonuu xapuo-
muou1on u noAoxon cxoAo1no mwmonno 1xanu. Ona xo aaranu-
nunao1 ypymuo 1omou1w n moraxauou1ax. Hoanwnano nax-
na oo oAr n po1oxcuxauu rona1ou1amu nomoc1n, xo1owo noc1yna-
m1 ua noAoc1u xumxu no noo1no nono n nonononnwo xanuAAnw.
Ho nocno1am anponAaama1unocxo co1u cun1oauonannwo no-
moc1na 1ancno1uym1cn x xomnAoxcy IoArpxu (no nocno1w co1u
no coomam1cn c nocno1amu uc1on nocAopnoro). K xomnAoxcy
IoArpxu nomoc1na noc1ynam1 n nyawrxax, xo1owo cnanaAa o1-
mnyonwnam1cn o1 co1u, 1ancno1uym1cn x xomnAoxcy u, naxo-
no, cAunam1cn c num. O1 xomnAoxca IoArpxu nomoc1na 1ancno1u-
ym1cn x moc1am cnooro ucnoAraonanun 1axxo n momannwx
nyawrxax. CAopyo1 nopnoxny1r, n1o opno ua naxnomux qyn-
xu anponAaama1unocxo co1u nnAno1cn cun1oa oAxon u Aunu-
pon pAn ncox xAo1onnwx oranoAA.
Komnaouc Foanpmn (annaa1 IoArpxu, nny1uxAo1onnw co1-
na1w annaa1, KI) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r uc1on,
nyawrxon, nAac1unox, 1yonox, momonxon.
1
2
3
4
5
I II
!# !"
P u c . 1 5. Pasnuvme qopum
xounnexca lons+u
(no Anepmcy u coasm.
u no lpcmuvy, c usueeusuu)
Hamo ncoro n KI nwnnAnm1cn 1u momannwx aAomon1a: yn-
Aomonnwo momonxu (uc1onw), nyawrxu u naxyoAu (uc. 15).
Ocnonnwo aAomon1w xomnAoxca IoArpxu - pux1uocomw (epeu.
dycIIon - co1r). HucAo ux xoAoAo1cn n aanwx xAo1xax o1 opno
po nocxoArxux co1on. Konw uc1on acmuonw. O1 nux o1mon-
Anm1cn nyawrxu u naxyoAu, oxyxonnwo momano u copoxa-
muo aaAunnwo nomoc1na.
HauoAoo muoxuo ynAomonnwo uc1onw oamonw n c1oo-
ny 0HC. K num nucoopunnm1cn 1ancno1nwo nyawrxu, nocy-
muo nomoc1na - nopyx1w nonunnwx cun1oaon. E uc1onax nu-
nocumwo maxomoAoxyAw mopuquuym1cn. 3pocr noucxopu1 cun-
1oa noAucaxaupon, mopuquxaun oAurocaxaupon, oaaonanuo
oAxono-yrAonopnwx xomnAoxcon u xonaAon1nan mopuquxaun no-
onocumwx maxomoAoxyA.
Ho moo mopuquxauu nomoc1na nooxopn1 ua opnux uc1on
n pyruo. Ha oxonwx nonoxnoc1nx uc1on noanuxam1 nwoc1w,
xypa noomomam1cn nomoc1na. Ewoc1w o1monAnm1cn n nupo ny-
awrxon, xo1owo ypaAnm1cn o1 KI n aaAunnwx nananAonunx
no ruaAonAaamo.
C1oony KI, xypa noc1ynam1 nomoc1na o1 0HC, naawnam1 uuc
no.wco+ (qomuymmancn nonoxnoc1r), no1unonoAoxnym -
npoucno.wco+ (aoAan nonoxnoc1r). Taxum oaaom, xomnAoxc
IoArpxu c1yx1yno u uoxumunocxu noAnuaonan.
Cypra nyawrxon, o1monAnmmuxcn o1 KI, aaAunna. Opnu
ua nux nananAnm1cn x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu u nwnopn1 cun1oau-
onannwo nomoc1na n moxxAo1onnw ma1uxc. Hac1r a1ux nomoc1n
nopc1anAno1 coo nopyx1w mo1aoAuama, nac1r xo - cnouaAr-
no cun1oauonannwo nopyx1w, oAapammuo uoAorunocxo ax-
1unnoc1rm (coxo1w). E noocco
ynaxonxu nomoc1n n nyawrxu
acxopyo1cn ananu1oArnoo xoAuno-
c1no ma1ouaAa moman. Copuo
+e+pou - ee oouo u: quuuuu
KI. 01a coxa conomao1cn ua no-
moc1n, noc1ynammux, xax ownno,
o1 0HC.
Eo ncox cAynanx nAuau xomn-
Aoxca IoArpxu xonon1uym1cn
mu1oxonpuu. 01o cnnaano c nouc-
xopnmumu n nom anoroaanucumw-
mu oaxunmu.
Anaocomm. Kaxpan Auaocoma
nopc1anAno1 coo momannw
nyawox puamo1om 0,4 - 0,5 mxm.
E nom copoxu1cn oxoAo 50 nupon
aaAunnwx rupoAu1unocxux qomon1on n poaax1unuonannom co-
c1onnuu (no1oaaw, Aunaaw, qocqoAunaaw, nyxAoaaw, rAuxoaupaaw,
qocqa1aaw, n 1om nucAo xucAan qocqa1aaa; nocAopnnn nnAno1cn ma-
xoom Auaocom). MoAoxyAw a1ux qomon1on, xax ncorpa, cun-
1oauym1cn na uocomax ranyAnno 0HC, o1xypa noonocn1cn
1ancno1nwmu nyawrxamu n KI, rpo mopuquuym1cn. O1 aoAo
nonoxnoc1u uc1on KI o1nonxonwnam1cn nopnnnnmo anaocomm.
Eco Auaocomw xAo1xu qomuym1 Auaocomnoo noc1anc1no, n
xo1oom c nomomrm no1onnoro nacoca noc1onnno noppoxunao1-
cn xucAan copa - H xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax 3,5 - 5,0. Momanw
Auaocom yc1onunw x aaxAmnonnwm n nux qomon1am u nopoxa-
nnm1 u1onAaamy o1 ux poc1nun.
ynxun Auaocom - nny1uxAo1onnw Auauc (noonaunanuo)
nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwx coopunonu u nac1u. 3axnanonnwo nac1u-
w ownno oxyxonw momano. Taxo xomnAoxc naawnam1 qa-
rocomo.
Hoocc nny1uxAo1onnoro Auauca ocymoc1nAno1cn n nocxoArxo
a1anon. CnanaAa nonunnan Auaocoma cAunao1cn c qarocomo. Hx
xomnAoxc naawnam1 nxopnnno anaocomo (qaroanaocomo). Eo
n1ounno Auaocomo qomon1w ax1unuym1cn u acmonAnm1 noc1y-
nunmuo n xAo1xy noAumow po monomoon. Hopyx1w acmonAonun
1ancno1uym1cn nooa Auaocomnym momany n u1oaoAr. Honoo-
naonnwo nomoc1na oc1am1cn n Auaocomo u mory1 coxann1rcn n xAo1xo
ononr poAro n nupo ocxaxonnmx xoao, oxyxonnwx momano.
Oc1a1onnwo 1oAra o1nocn1 no x oranoAAam, a x nxAmnonunm.
Eoamoxon u pyro ny1r nonamonu: nomoc1na n qarocomo ac-
monAnm1cn noAnoc1rm, nocAo noro momana qarocomw acnapa-
o1cn. E1ounnwo Auaocomw mory1 cAuna1rcn moxpy coo, a 1axxo c
pyrumu nonunnwmu Auaocomamu. Hu a1om unorpa oaaym1cn cno-
ooaanwo n1ounnwo Auaocomw - myanxnnoanuyaxpnmo xoana.
E noocco xuanopon1oArnoc1u xAo1xu na aanwx uoaxunoc-
xux yonnnx oo oranuaauu, nanunan o1 moAoxyA u xonnan ora-
noAAamu, noc1onnno noucxopu1 nooc1oxa c1yx1y. EAuau no-
noxponnwx uAu 1oymmux aamonw ynac1xon u1onAaamw, ownno
no cocopc1ny c xomnAoxcom IoArpxu, oaayo1cn noAyAynnan pno-
nan momana, xo1oan ac1o1, oxyxan co ncox c1oon nonoxpon-
nwo aonw. 3a1om a1a c1yx1ya cAunao1cn c Auaocomamu. E 1axo
ayxoqarocomo (ayxocomo) conomao1cn Auauc c1yx1y oranoAAw.
E pyrux cAynanx n noocco maxo- uAu muxoay1oqaruu nop-
Aoxamuo noonaunanum c1yx1yw (nanumo, ranyAw coxo-
1a) nnnnunam1cn n Auaocomnym momany, oxyxam1cn om u nop-
noram1cn noonaunanum. Oaayo1cn ay1oqarunocxan naxyoAr.
E oayAr1a1o mnoxoc1nonno muxoay1oqaruu 1oxo qomuym1cn
myanxnnoanuyaxpnmo xoana (nanumo, n noonax moara u xapu-
omuou1ax). Hanpy c ay1oqaruo n noxo1owx xAo1xax noucxopu1
u upnnoqarnx (epeu. krInoIn - nocouna1r, o1poAn1r) - cAunnuo
!# !"
P u c . 1 5. Pasnuvme qopum
xounnexca lons+u
(no Anepmcy u coasm.
u no lpcmuvy, c usueeusuu)
Hamo ncoro n KI nwnnAnm1cn 1u momannwx aAomon1a: yn-
Aomonnwo momonxu (uc1onw), nyawrxu u naxyoAu (uc. 15).
Ocnonnwo aAomon1w xomnAoxca IoArpxu - pux1uocomw (epeu.
dycIIon - co1r). HucAo ux xoAoAo1cn n aanwx xAo1xax o1 opno
po nocxoArxux co1on. Konw uc1on acmuonw. O1 nux o1mon-
Anm1cn nyawrxu u naxyoAu, oxyxonnwo momano u copoxa-
muo aaAunnwo nomoc1na.
HauoAoo muoxuo ynAomonnwo uc1onw oamonw n c1oo-
ny 0HC. K num nucoopunnm1cn 1ancno1nwo nyawrxu, nocy-
muo nomoc1na - nopyx1w nonunnwx cun1oaon. E uc1onax nu-
nocumwo maxomoAoxyAw mopuquuym1cn. 3pocr noucxopu1 cun-
1oa noAucaxaupon, mopuquxaun oAurocaxaupon, oaaonanuo
oAxono-yrAonopnwx xomnAoxcon u xonaAon1nan mopuquxaun no-
onocumwx maxomoAoxyA.
Ho moo mopuquxauu nomoc1na nooxopn1 ua opnux uc1on
n pyruo. Ha oxonwx nonoxnoc1nx uc1on noanuxam1 nwoc1w,
xypa noomomam1cn nomoc1na. Ewoc1w o1monAnm1cn n nupo ny-
awrxon, xo1owo ypaAnm1cn o1 KI n aaAunnwx nananAonunx
no ruaAonAaamo.
C1oony KI, xypa noc1ynam1 nomoc1na o1 0HC, naawnam1 uuc
no.wco+ (qomuymmancn nonoxnoc1r), no1unonoAoxnym -
npoucno.wco+ (aoAan nonoxnoc1r). Taxum oaaom, xomnAoxc
IoArpxu c1yx1yno u uoxumunocxu noAnuaonan.
Cypra nyawrxon, o1monAnmmuxcn o1 KI, aaAunna. Opnu
ua nux nananAnm1cn x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu u nwnopn1 cun1oau-
onannwo nomoc1na n moxxAo1onnw ma1uxc. Hac1r a1ux nomoc1n
nopc1anAno1 coo nopyx1w mo1aoAuama, nac1r xo - cnouaAr-
no cun1oauonannwo nopyx1w, oAapammuo uoAorunocxo ax-
1unnoc1rm (coxo1w). E noocco
ynaxonxu nomoc1n n nyawrxu
acxopyo1cn ananu1oArnoo xoAuno-
c1no ma1ouaAa moman. Copuo
+e+pou - ee oouo u: quuuuu
KI. 01a coxa conomao1cn ua no-
moc1n, noc1ynammux, xax ownno,
o1 0HC.
Eo ncox cAynanx nAuau xomn-
Aoxca IoArpxu xonon1uym1cn
mu1oxonpuu. 01o cnnaano c nouc-
xopnmumu n nom anoroaanucumw-
mu oaxunmu.
Anaocomm. Kaxpan Auaocoma
nopc1anAno1 coo momannw
nyawox puamo1om 0,4 - 0,5 mxm.
E nom copoxu1cn oxoAo 50 nupon
aaAunnwx rupoAu1unocxux qomon1on n poaax1unuonannom co-
c1onnuu (no1oaaw, Aunaaw, qocqoAunaaw, nyxAoaaw, rAuxoaupaaw,
qocqa1aaw, n 1om nucAo xucAan qocqa1aaa; nocAopnnn nnAno1cn ma-
xoom Auaocom). MoAoxyAw a1ux qomon1on, xax ncorpa, cun-
1oauym1cn na uocomax ranyAnno 0HC, o1xypa noonocn1cn
1ancno1nwmu nyawrxamu n KI, rpo mopuquuym1cn. O1 aoAo
nonoxnoc1u uc1on KI o1nonxonwnam1cn nopnnnnmo anaocomm.
Eco Auaocomw xAo1xu qomuym1 Auaocomnoo noc1anc1no, n
xo1oom c nomomrm no1onnoro nacoca noc1onnno noppoxunao1-
cn xucAan copa - H xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax 3,5 - 5,0. Momanw
Auaocom yc1onunw x aaxAmnonnwm n nux qomon1am u nopoxa-
nnm1 u1onAaamy o1 ux poc1nun.
ynxun Auaocom - nny1uxAo1onnw Auauc (noonaunanuo)
nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwx coopunonu u nac1u. 3axnanonnwo nac1u-
w ownno oxyxonw momano. Taxo xomnAoxc naawnam1 qa-
rocomo.
Hoocc nny1uxAo1onnoro Auauca ocymoc1nAno1cn n nocxoArxo
a1anon. CnanaAa nonunnan Auaocoma cAunao1cn c qarocomo. Hx
xomnAoxc naawnam1 nxopnnno anaocomo (qaroanaocomo). Eo
n1ounno Auaocomo qomon1w ax1unuym1cn u acmonAnm1 noc1y-
nunmuo n xAo1xy noAumow po monomoon. Hopyx1w acmonAonun
1ancno1uym1cn nooa Auaocomnym momany n u1oaoAr. Honoo-
naonnwo nomoc1na oc1am1cn n Auaocomo u mory1 coxann1rcn n xAo1xo
ononr poAro n nupo ocxaxonnmx xoao, oxyxonnwx momano.
Oc1a1onnwo 1oAra o1nocn1 no x oranoAAam, a x nxAmnonunm.
Eoamoxon u pyro ny1r nonamonu: nomoc1na n qarocomo ac-
monAnm1cn noAnoc1rm, nocAo noro momana qarocomw acnapa-
o1cn. E1ounnwo Auaocomw mory1 cAuna1rcn moxpy coo, a 1axxo c
pyrumu nonunnwmu Auaocomamu. Hu a1om unorpa oaaym1cn cno-
ooaanwo n1ounnwo Auaocomw - myanxnnoanuyaxpnmo xoana.
E noocco xuanopon1oArnoc1u xAo1xu na aanwx uoaxunoc-
xux yonnnx oo oranuaauu, nanunan o1 moAoxyA u xonnan ora-
noAAamu, noc1onnno noucxopu1 nooc1oxa c1yx1y. EAuau no-
noxponnwx uAu 1oymmux aamonw ynac1xon u1onAaamw, ownno
no cocopc1ny c xomnAoxcom IoArpxu, oaayo1cn noAyAynnan pno-
nan momana, xo1oan ac1o1, oxyxan co ncox c1oon nonoxpon-
nwo aonw. 3a1om a1a c1yx1ya cAunao1cn c Auaocomamu. E 1axo
ayxoqarocomo (ayxocomo) conomao1cn Auauc c1yx1y oranoAAw.
E pyrux cAynanx n noocco maxo- uAu muxoay1oqaruu nop-
Aoxamuo noonaunanum c1yx1yw (nanumo, ranyAw coxo-
1a) nnnnunam1cn n Auaocomnym momany, oxyxam1cn om u nop-
noram1cn noonaunanum. Oaayo1cn ay1oqarunocxan naxyoAr.
E oayAr1a1o mnoxoc1nonno muxoay1oqaruu 1oxo qomuym1cn
myanxnnoanuyaxpnmo xoana (nanumo, n noonax moara u xapu-
omuou1ax). Hanpy c ay1oqaruo n noxo1owx xAo1xax noucxopu1
u upnnoqarnx (epeu. krInoIn - nocouna1r, o1poAn1r) - cAunnuo
!% !$
muxo1yonox (A u E) u oxyxam1 on1aArnym xancyAy. O1
muxo1yonxu A x on1aArno xancyAo o1xopu1 apuaArnan
cnua. Ho nananAonum x cocopno 1yonxo E o1xopu1 naa
ynox, oaaonannwx, xax u cnuw, oAxom punounom. Cocop-
nuo pynAo1w muxo1yonxu coopunonw moxpy coo nonoonnw-
mu moc1uxamu, oaaonannwmu oAxom noxcunom.
Pocnunxu nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu no 1oArxo nonoxnoc1noro
xomnAoxca xAo1xu, no u xAo1onnoro on1a. E nanaAo ux aanu-
1un noucxopu1 mnoroxa1nan opynAuxaun on1uoAo. Honwo
on1uoAu naamu muruym1 x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu. 3pocr no-
ucxopu1 ux mopuquxaun.
Opna ua on1uoAo (npoucu+o.tuon) Aoxu1cn n nonoxnoc1-
nom xomnAoxco nAuau o1 u1oAommw y ocnonanun ypymo oc-
nunxu. yran on1uoAr (oucno.tuon) Aoxu1cn moxpy no u
u1oAommo. TunAo1w muxo1yonox puc1aArno on1uoAu c1a-
nonn1cn pynAo1amu, n noxcumaArno on1uoAu 1unAo1w coxa-
nnm1cn. E xAo1onnom on1o upo1 coxa muxo1yonox, onu
nananAnm1cn x puc1aArno on1uoAu u naamunam1 oo pAuny.
uc1aArnan on1uoAr ac1o1 u nAono1 aa coo u1oAommy.
Hryxnu ayxauo1unocxo xAo1xu (nanumo, cnomun) nano-
munao1 ocnunxy, no on pAunnoo.
Pecuuuuu u enuuu omno.unwn quuuuw ooueuun. HucAo
ocnunox poc1urao1 nocxoArxux co1on, nco onu conomam1 xoo-
punuonannwo xoAoa1oArnwo pnuxonun.
Huamnonnx. Eu.wueuun+u uo:moown cuon.euun oeecno o
u.enue, oo:uuuowue uou npoounm ee +enoo.u:+o.
PaaAunam1 1oqunocxuo, nurmon1nwo u coxo1onwo nxAmnonun.
Copu 1oqunocxux nxAmnonu ynomnnom xanAu xua, ranyAw rAu-
xorona, oAxonwo ranyAw. 01u nomoc1na naxanAunam1cn n xAo1xo,
a aa1om acxopym1cn om nu noanuxnononuu coo1no1c1nymmux qynx-
uonaArnwx no1onoc1o. EoArmunc1no 1oqunocxux nxAmnonu
Aoxu1 n ruaAonAaamo cnoopno. Hurmon1nwo nxAmnonun mory1 Ao-
xa1r u cnoopno, no mory1 w1r oxyxonw momano.
HPO
OqomAonnoo npo xAo1xu (uc. 1?) umoo1cn 1oArxo y ayxauo1.
V noxauo1 umom1cn 1axuo nponwo c1yx1yw, xax xomocomw, no
onu no aaxAmnonw n ocoom xomna1mon1o. V oArmunc1na xAo1ox
qoma npa maonupnan uAu onoupnan, opnaxo nc1onam1cn npa u
pyro qomw (xoAronupnwo, naAonxonupnwo, noo1ononupnwo, o-
onupnwo, cormon1uonannwo u p.). Paamow npo xoAoAm1cn n mu-
oxux nopoAax - o1 3 po 25 mxm. HauoAoo xynnwm npom oAapao1
noxAo1xa. EoArmunc1no xAo1ox noAonoxa umoo1 opno npo, opnaxo
umom1cn pnyxnponwo (nanumo, noxo1owo noonw, xAo1xu nono-
nu, xapuomuou1w). nyx-, a unorpa u mnoronponoc1r wnao1 cnn-
aana c noAunAoupuo (epeu. oIyIoos - mnoroxa1nw, oIdos - nup).
P u c . 1 6. Cmpoeue pecuvxu:
A. Pecuvxa a npoonso-nonepevou paspese:
l sexnemovas vacms; ll sympuxnemovas
vacms. 1 pecuvxa; 2 umoneuua; 3 em-
pansm ynnem; 4 nepuqepuvecxue ynnemm;
5 empansas xancyna; 6 uuxposopcuxu;
7 asansm xopeuox; 8 asansoe mense;
9 apy+me uuxpompyovxu. B. Honepevm
cpes vepes sexnemovyk vacms: 1 umoneu-
ua; 2 nepuqepuvecxue ynnemm; 3 empans-
m ynnem; 4 empansas xancyna; 5 cyqu-
punna a; 6 cyqupunna ; 7 ueu; 8 cnua.
B. Honepevm cpes vepes npoue+ymovyk o-
nacms, coeuskyk axcoeuy c asansmu
menseu: 1 mpunnemm uuxpompyovex. l. Cpes
vepes asansoe mense: 1 mpunnemm; 2 cnum;
3 empansm unup
nonunnwx Auaocom c coxo1onwmu
ranyAamu. E Auaocomax noononAnm-
muxcn xAo1ox n oayAr1a1o mnoroxa1-
noro ay1oqaruonanun naxanAunao1cn
Aunoqycun - nurmon1 c1aonun.
Hopoucncomm nopc1anAnm1 coo
momannwo nyawrxu puamo1om o1
0,2 po 0,5 mxm, xo1owo copoxa1
qomon1w (nooxcupaay, xa1aAaay u
oxcupaay D-amunoxucAo1). Hooxcu-
paaa ynac1nyo1 n omono nooxucnwx
coopunonu, n nac1noc1u nooxucu
nopoopa, xo1oan 1oxcunna pAn xAo1xu. An uoxumunocxux
oaxu n nooxcucomax ucnoArayo1cn moAoxyAnnw xucAoop.
Hooxcucomw 1axxo nunumam1 ynac1uo n no1aAuaauu mno-
rux pyrux 1oxcunocxux coopunonu, nanumo a1anoAa. Ka1aAa-
aa coc1anAno1 copu qomon1on nooxcucom oxoAo 40 % ncox oA-
xon. Hooxcucomw ynac1nym1 1axxo n omono Aunupon, xoAoc1o-
una u nyunon.
Homom6pannmo opranoaam
Pocnnnua (uc. 16) nopc1anAno1 coo nwoc1 xAo1xu, oxy-
xonnw u1oAommo. V ocnonanun ocnunxu na yonno xo1u-
xaArnoro cAon u1onAaamw naxopu1cn o:o.tuoe ne.tue (uuue
noco+o), xo1ooo oaaonano ponn1rm nouqounocxumu npun.e
no+u xoo1xux muxo1yonox.
Ha nonoonnom cononuu ocnunxu oo noanwmammancn nac1r na-
nomunao1 xoAoco c ponn1rm cnuamu, n on1o xo1ooro Aoxu1 no-
no1xo xon1yuymmancn on1aArnan xancyAa, oxyxamman pno
on1aArnwo opunonnwo muxo1yonxu, c xo1owmu ona cnnaana
oAxonwmu o1oc1xamu. Houqounocxuo pynAo1w coc1on1 ua pnyx
A
B
F
B
7
8
9
5
4
3
2
6
1
2
4
5
1
3
6
7
1
1
2
3
I
II
8
!% !$
muxo1yonox (A u E) u oxyxam1 on1aArnym xancyAy. O1
muxo1yonxu A x on1aArno xancyAo o1xopu1 apuaArnan
cnua. Ho nananAonum x cocopno 1yonxo E o1xopu1 naa
ynox, oaaonannwx, xax u cnuw, oAxom punounom. Cocop-
nuo pynAo1w muxo1yonxu coopunonw moxpy coo nonoonnw-
mu moc1uxamu, oaaonannwmu oAxom noxcunom.
Pocnunxu nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu no 1oArxo nonoxnoc1noro
xomnAoxca xAo1xu, no u xAo1onnoro on1a. E nanaAo ux aanu-
1un noucxopu1 mnoroxa1nan opynAuxaun on1uoAo. Honwo
on1uoAu naamu muruym1 x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu. 3pocr no-
ucxopu1 ux mopuquxaun.
Opna ua on1uoAo (npoucu+o.tuon) Aoxu1cn n nonoxnoc1-
nom xomnAoxco nAuau o1 u1oAommw y ocnonanun ypymo oc-
nunxu. yran on1uoAr (oucno.tuon) Aoxu1cn moxpy no u
u1oAommo. TunAo1w muxo1yonox puc1aArno on1uoAu c1a-
nonn1cn pynAo1amu, n noxcumaArno on1uoAu 1unAo1w coxa-
nnm1cn. E xAo1onnom on1o upo1 coxa muxo1yonox, onu
nananAnm1cn x puc1aArno on1uoAu u naamunam1 oo pAuny.
uc1aArnan on1uoAr ac1o1 u nAono1 aa coo u1oAommy.
Hryxnu ayxauo1unocxo xAo1xu (nanumo, cnomun) nano-
munao1 ocnunxy, no on pAunnoo.
Pecuuuuu u enuuu omno.unwn quuuuw ooueuun. HucAo
ocnunox poc1urao1 nocxoArxux co1on, nco onu conomam1 xoo-
punuonannwo xoAoa1oArnwo pnuxonun.
Huamnonnx. Eu.wueuun+u uo:moown cuon.euun oeecno o
u.enue, oo:uuuowue uou npoounm ee +enoo.u:+o.
PaaAunam1 1oqunocxuo, nurmon1nwo u coxo1onwo nxAmnonun.
Copu 1oqunocxux nxAmnonu ynomnnom xanAu xua, ranyAw rAu-
xorona, oAxonwo ranyAw. 01u nomoc1na naxanAunam1cn n xAo1xo,
a aa1om acxopym1cn om nu noanuxnononuu coo1no1c1nymmux qynx-
uonaArnwx no1onoc1o. EoArmunc1no 1oqunocxux nxAmnonu
Aoxu1 n ruaAonAaamo cnoopno. Hurmon1nwo nxAmnonun mory1 Ao-
xa1r u cnoopno, no mory1 w1r oxyxonw momano.
HPO
OqomAonnoo npo xAo1xu (uc. 1?) umoo1cn 1oArxo y ayxauo1.
V noxauo1 umom1cn 1axuo nponwo c1yx1yw, xax xomocomw, no
onu no aaxAmnonw n ocoom xomna1mon1o. V oArmunc1na xAo1ox
qoma npa maonupnan uAu onoupnan, opnaxo nc1onam1cn npa u
pyro qomw (xoAronupnwo, naAonxonupnwo, noo1ononupnwo, o-
onupnwo, cormon1uonannwo u p.). Paamow npo xoAoAm1cn n mu-
oxux nopoAax - o1 3 po 25 mxm. HauoAoo xynnwm npom oAapao1
noxAo1xa. EoArmunc1no xAo1ox noAonoxa umoo1 opno npo, opnaxo
umom1cn pnyxnponwo (nanumo, noxo1owo noonw, xAo1xu nono-
nu, xapuomuou1w). nyx-, a unorpa u mnoronponoc1r wnao1 cnn-
aana c noAunAoupuo (epeu. oIyIoos - mnoroxa1nw, oIdos - nup).
P u c . 1 6. Cmpoeue pecuvxu:
A. Pecuvxa a npoonso-nonepevou paspese:
l sexnemovas vacms; ll sympuxnemovas
vacms. 1 pecuvxa; 2 umoneuua; 3 em-
pansm ynnem; 4 nepuqepuvecxue ynnemm;
5 empansas xancyna; 6 uuxposopcuxu;
7 asansm xopeuox; 8 asansoe mense;
9 apy+me uuxpompyovxu. B. Honepevm
cpes vepes sexnemovyk vacms: 1 umoneu-
ua; 2 nepuqepuvecxue ynnemm; 3 empans-
m ynnem; 4 empansas xancyna; 5 cyqu-
punna a; 6 cyqupunna ; 7 ueu; 8 cnua.
B. Honepevm cpes vepes npoue+ymovyk o-
nacms, coeuskyk axcoeuy c asansmu
menseu: 1 mpunnemm uuxpompyovex. l. Cpes
vepes asansoe mense: 1 mpunnemm; 2 cnum;
3 empansm unup
nonunnwx Auaocom c coxo1onwmu
ranyAamu. E Auaocomax noononAnm-
muxcn xAo1ox n oayAr1a1o mnoroxa1-
noro ay1oqaruonanun naxanAunao1cn
Aunoqycun - nurmon1 c1aonun.
Hopoucncomm nopc1anAnm1 coo
momannwo nyawrxu puamo1om o1
0,2 po 0,5 mxm, xo1owo copoxa1
qomon1w (nooxcupaay, xa1aAaay u
oxcupaay D-amunoxucAo1). Hooxcu-
paaa ynac1nyo1 n omono nooxucnwx
coopunonu, n nac1noc1u nooxucu
nopoopa, xo1oan 1oxcunna pAn xAo1xu. An uoxumunocxux
oaxu n nooxcucomax ucnoArayo1cn moAoxyAnnw xucAoop.
Hooxcucomw 1axxo nunumam1 ynac1uo n no1aAuaauu mno-
rux pyrux 1oxcunocxux coopunonu, nanumo a1anoAa. Ka1aAa-
aa coc1anAno1 copu qomon1on nooxcucom oxoAo 40 % ncox oA-
xon. Hooxcucomw ynac1nym1 1axxo n omono Aunupon, xoAoc1o-
una u nyunon.
Homom6pannmo opranoaam
Pocnnnua (uc. 16) nopc1anAno1 coo nwoc1 xAo1xu, oxy-
xonnw u1oAommo. V ocnonanun ocnunxu na yonno xo1u-
xaArnoro cAon u1onAaamw naxopu1cn o:o.tuoe ne.tue (uuue
noco+o), xo1ooo oaaonano ponn1rm nouqounocxumu npun.e
no+u xoo1xux muxo1yonox.
Ha nonoonnom cononuu ocnunxu oo noanwmammancn nac1r na-
nomunao1 xoAoco c ponn1rm cnuamu, n on1o xo1ooro Aoxu1 no-
no1xo xon1yuymmancn on1aArnan xancyAa, oxyxamman pno
on1aArnwo opunonnwo muxo1yonxu, c xo1owmu ona cnnaana
oAxonwmu o1oc1xamu. Houqounocxuo pynAo1w coc1on1 ua pnyx
A
B
F
B
7
8
9
5
4
3
2
6
1
2
4
5
1
3
6
7
1
1
2
3
I
II
8
!' !&
Hooa noonwo xomnAoxcw ocymoc1nAno1cn uaua1oArnw
1ancno1 moAoxyA u nac1u ua npa n u1onAaamy u oa1no.
How mory1 aanuma1r po 25% nonoxnoc1u npa. KoAunoc1no no
y opnoro npa poc1urao1 3000 - 4000, a ux nAo1noc1r coc1anAno1
oxoAo 11 na 1 mxm
2
npono ooAonxu. Ha npa n u1onAaamy
1ancno1uym1cn n ocnonnom aanwo nupw PHK. Ha u1onAaamw
n npo noc1ynam1 nco qomon1w, nooxopumwo pAn cun1oaa PHK u
oryAnuu un1oncunnoc1u a1oro cun1oaa. E noxo1owx xAo1xax mo-
AoxyAw romonon, xo1owo 1oxo oryAuym1 ax1unnoc1r cun1oaa
PHK, noc1ynam1 ua u1onAaamw n npo.
Eny1onnnn nonoxnoc1r xauo1oxu cnnaana c mnoronucAonnw-
mu nomoxy1onnwmu quAamon1amu. E conoxynnoc1u onu oaaym1
apocr 1onxym nAac1unxy, naawnaomym xpopno aamnno. K no
nuxonAonw xomocomw. Hponan nAac1unxa cnnaana c noonwmu
xomnAoxcamu u urao1 rAannym oAr n noppoxanuu qomw npa.
Ona noc1oona ua nomoxy1onnwx quAamon1on ocoo c1yx1yw.
HyxAoonAaama nopc1anAno1 coo xoAAoup (ownno n qomo roAn).
Ho no 1ancno1uym1cn aaAunnwo moAoxyAw, ona copoxu1
mnoxoc1no aanooaanwx qomon1on, n noo c xomocom noc1ynam1
PHK. E xunwx xAo1xax ona nnomno romoronna.
HocAo quxcauu u oao1xu 1xano pAn cno1ono uAu aAox1-
onno muxocxonuu n xauonAaamo c1anonn1cn nupnwmu pna 1una
xoma1una (epeu. chroma - xacxa): xoomo oxamunammucn
aAox1ononAo1nw ro1ooxoma1un, oaaonannw ocmuoquArnw-
mu ranyAamu aamoom 10 - 15 nm u quuAAnnwmu c1yx1ya-
mu 1oAmuno oxoAo 5 nm, u cno1Aw ayxoma1un.
Ieneporpo+onuu acnoAoxon n ocnonnom nAuau nny1onno
npono momanw, xon1ax1uyn c npono nAac1unxo u oc1an-
Ann cnoopnwmu now, u noxyr npwmxa. 3rpo+onuu naxopu1cn
moxpy cxonAonunmu ro1ooxoma1una. Ho cy1u poAa, xoma1un -
a1o xomnAoxcw nomoc1n, xo1owmu oaaonanw xomocomw - HK,
oAox u PHK n coo1nomonuu 1 : 1,3 : 2. Ocnona xaxpo xomoco-
mw oaaonana HK, moAoxyAa xo1oo umoo1 nup cnuaAu. Ona
ynaxonana aaAunnwmu oAxamu, copu xo1owx aaAunam1 ruc-
1ononwo u noruc1ononwo. E oayAr1a1o accouauu HK c oAxa-
mu oaaym1cn poaoxcunyxAoono1oupw (HH).
Xpomocomm n xppmmun. E xomocomo (uc. 19) moAoxyAa HK
ynaxonana xomnax1no. Tax, unqomaun, aaAoxonnan n nocAo-
pona1oArnoc1u 1 mAn nyxAoo1upon nu Aunonom acnoAoxonuu,
aannAa w o1oaox pAuno 0,34 mm. E oayAr1a1o xomnax1uaa-
uu ona aanumao1 o+om 10
-15
cm
3
. Auna opno xomocomw noAo-
noxa n ac1nny1om nupo oxoAo 5 cm, pAuna ncox xomocom oxoAo
1?0 cm, a ux macca 6 10
-12
r.
HK accouuonana c oAxamu-ruc1onamu, n oayAr1a1o noro
oaaym1cn nyxAoocomw, nnAnmmuocn c1yx1ynwmu opunuamu
xoma1una. HyxAoocomw, nanomunammuo ycunw puamo1om 10 nm,
Ho.un.ououn - a1o ynoAunonuo
nucAa xomocomnwx naoon n
npax xAo1ox.
V ayxauo1 xomocomw coco-
po1ononw nny1u npa u o1poAo-
nw o1 u1onAaamw npono ooAon-
xo, uAu uapnoxouo. Kauo1oxa o-
aayo1cn aa cno1 acmuonun u cAunnun pyr c pyrom uc1on
anponAaama1unocxo co1u. Hoa1omy xauo1oxa oaaonana pnymn
momanamu - nny1onno u nayxno. Hoc1anc1no moxpy numu
naawnam1 nopnnyuaoapnmm npocxpancxnom. Ono umoo1 muuny
20 - 50 nm u coxanno1 coomonuo c noAoc1nmu anponAaama1unoc-
xo co1u. Co c1oonw u1onAaamw nayxnan momana noopxo
noxw1a uocomamu.
Moc1amu nny1onnnn u nayxnan momanw xauo1oxu cAu-
nam1cn, a n moc1o cAunnun oaayo1cn noa. Hoa no auno1: mox-
py oo xanmu ynonpononno acnoAaram1cn oAxonwo moAoxyAw,
1ax n1o n oAom qomuyo1cn noponm uomnaouc.
KomnAoxc now (uc. 18) nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym c1yx-
1yy, coc1onmym ua pnyx npon cnnaannwx moxpy coo oAxo-
nwx ranyA, xaxpan ua xo1owx copoxu1 no 8 ranyA, acnoAara-
mmuxcn na annom acc1onnuu pyr o1 pyra no oo c1oonw npo-
no ooAonxu. 01u ranyAw no aamoam nonocxopn1 uocomw.
IanyAw, acnoAoxonnwo na u1onAaama1unocxo c1oono now,
oycAonAunam1 ocmuoquArnw ma1ouaA, oxyxammu noy.
E on1o o1noc1un now unorpa umoo1cn xynnan on1aArnan
ranyAa, cnnaannan c ranyAamu, onucannwmu nwmo (noamoxno,
a1o nac1uw, 1ancno1uymmuocn ua npa n u1onAaamy).
P u c . 1 8. Hoposm xounnexc:
A npocmpacmseas pexocmpyxus; B cxeua ocosmx cmpyxmyp; B cxeua uone-
xynspo opaausauu; 1 nepuqepuvecxue apaynm; 2 empansas apayna; 3 ua-
qpaaua nopm (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
A
1 2
3
B
B
1
2
P u c . 1 7. Fpo xnemxu:
1 apy+as ueupaa xapuomexu (apy+-
as sepas ueupaa); 2 nepuyxneap-
oe npocmpacmso; 3 sympess ueu-
paa xapuomexu (sympess sepas
ueupaa); 4 sepas nauua; 5 nopo-
sm xounnexc; 6 puocoum; 7 yxneon-
nasua (sepm cox); 8 xpouamu; 9 u-
cmepa apaynspo sonnasuamuvecxo
cemu; 10 spmuxo (no Anepmcy u
coasm., c usueeusuu)
!' !&
Hooa noonwo xomnAoxcw ocymoc1nAno1cn uaua1oArnw
1ancno1 moAoxyA u nac1u ua npa n u1onAaamy u oa1no.
How mory1 aanuma1r po 25% nonoxnoc1u npa. KoAunoc1no no
y opnoro npa poc1urao1 3000 - 4000, a ux nAo1noc1r coc1anAno1
oxoAo 11 na 1 mxm
2
npono ooAonxu. Ha npa n u1onAaamy
1ancno1uym1cn n ocnonnom aanwo nupw PHK. Ha u1onAaamw
n npo noc1ynam1 nco qomon1w, nooxopumwo pAn cun1oaa PHK u
oryAnuu un1oncunnoc1u a1oro cun1oaa. E noxo1owx xAo1xax mo-
AoxyAw romonon, xo1owo 1oxo oryAuym1 ax1unnoc1r cun1oaa
PHK, noc1ynam1 ua u1onAaamw n npo.
Eny1onnnn nonoxnoc1r xauo1oxu cnnaana c mnoronucAonnw-
mu nomoxy1onnwmu quAamon1amu. E conoxynnoc1u onu oaaym1
apocr 1onxym nAac1unxy, naawnaomym xpopno aamnno. K no
nuxonAonw xomocomw. Hponan nAac1unxa cnnaana c noonwmu
xomnAoxcamu u urao1 rAannym oAr n noppoxanuu qomw npa.
Ona noc1oona ua nomoxy1onnwx quAamon1on ocoo c1yx1yw.
HyxAoonAaama nopc1anAno1 coo xoAAoup (ownno n qomo roAn).
Ho no 1ancno1uym1cn aaAunnwo moAoxyAw, ona copoxu1
mnoxoc1no aanooaanwx qomon1on, n noo c xomocom noc1ynam1
PHK. E xunwx xAo1xax ona nnomno romoronna.
HocAo quxcauu u oao1xu 1xano pAn cno1ono uAu aAox1-
onno muxocxonuu n xauonAaamo c1anonn1cn nupnwmu pna 1una
xoma1una (epeu. chroma - xacxa): xoomo oxamunammucn
aAox1ononAo1nw ro1ooxoma1un, oaaonannw ocmuoquArnw-
mu ranyAamu aamoom 10 - 15 nm u quuAAnnwmu c1yx1ya-
mu 1oAmuno oxoAo 5 nm, u cno1Aw ayxoma1un.
Ieneporpo+onuu acnoAoxon n ocnonnom nAuau nny1onno
npono momanw, xon1ax1uyn c npono nAac1unxo u oc1an-
Ann cnoopnwmu now, u noxyr npwmxa. 3rpo+onuu naxopu1cn
moxpy cxonAonunmu ro1ooxoma1una. Ho cy1u poAa, xoma1un -
a1o xomnAoxcw nomoc1n, xo1owmu oaaonanw xomocomw - HK,
oAox u PHK n coo1nomonuu 1 : 1,3 : 2. Ocnona xaxpo xomoco-
mw oaaonana HK, moAoxyAa xo1oo umoo1 nup cnuaAu. Ona
ynaxonana aaAunnwmu oAxamu, copu xo1owx aaAunam1 ruc-
1ononwo u noruc1ononwo. E oayAr1a1o accouauu HK c oAxa-
mu oaaym1cn poaoxcunyxAoono1oupw (HH).
Xpomocomm n xppmmun. E xomocomo (uc. 19) moAoxyAa HK
ynaxonana xomnax1no. Tax, unqomaun, aaAoxonnan n nocAo-
pona1oArnoc1u 1 mAn nyxAoo1upon nu Aunonom acnoAoxonuu,
aannAa w o1oaox pAuno 0,34 mm. E oayAr1a1o xomnax1uaa-
uu ona aanumao1 o+om 10
-15
cm
3
. Auna opno xomocomw noAo-
noxa n ac1nny1om nupo oxoAo 5 cm, pAuna ncox xomocom oxoAo
1?0 cm, a ux macca 6 10
-12
r.
HK accouuonana c oAxamu-ruc1onamu, n oayAr1a1o noro
oaaym1cn nyxAoocomw, nnAnmmuocn c1yx1ynwmu opunuamu
xoma1una. HyxAoocomw, nanomunammuo ycunw puamo1om 10 nm,
Ho.un.ououn - a1o ynoAunonuo
nucAa xomocomnwx naoon n
npax xAo1ox.
V ayxauo1 xomocomw coco-
po1ononw nny1u npa u o1poAo-
nw o1 u1onAaamw npono ooAon-
xo, uAu uapnoxouo. Kauo1oxa o-
aayo1cn aa cno1 acmuonun u cAunnun pyr c pyrom uc1on
anponAaama1unocxo co1u. Hoa1omy xauo1oxa oaaonana pnymn
momanamu - nny1onno u nayxno. Hoc1anc1no moxpy numu
naawnam1 nopnnyuaoapnmm npocxpancxnom. Ono umoo1 muuny
20 - 50 nm u coxanno1 coomonuo c noAoc1nmu anponAaama1unoc-
xo co1u. Co c1oonw u1onAaamw nayxnan momana noopxo
noxw1a uocomamu.
Moc1amu nny1onnnn u nayxnan momanw xauo1oxu cAu-
nam1cn, a n moc1o cAunnun oaayo1cn noa. Hoa no auno1: mox-
py oo xanmu ynonpononno acnoAaram1cn oAxonwo moAoxyAw,
1ax n1o n oAom qomuyo1cn noponm uomnaouc.
KomnAoxc now (uc. 18) nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym c1yx-
1yy, coc1onmym ua pnyx npon cnnaannwx moxpy coo oAxo-
nwx ranyA, xaxpan ua xo1owx copoxu1 no 8 ranyA, acnoAara-
mmuxcn na annom acc1onnuu pyr o1 pyra no oo c1oonw npo-
no ooAonxu. 01u ranyAw no aamoam nonocxopn1 uocomw.
IanyAw, acnoAoxonnwo na u1onAaama1unocxo c1oono now,
oycAonAunam1 ocmuoquArnw ma1ouaA, oxyxammu noy.
E on1o o1noc1un now unorpa umoo1cn xynnan on1aArnan
ranyAa, cnnaannan c ranyAamu, onucannwmu nwmo (noamoxno,
a1o nac1uw, 1ancno1uymmuocn ua npa n u1onAaamy).
P u c . 1 8. Hoposm xounnexc:
A npocmpacmseas pexocmpyxus; B cxeua ocosmx cmpyxmyp; B cxeua uone-
xynspo opaausauu; 1 nepuqepuvecxue apaynm; 2 empansas apayna; 3 ua-
qpaaua nopm (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
A
1 2
3
B
B
1
2
P u c . 1 7. Fpo xnemxu:
1 apy+as ueupaa xapuomexu (apy+-
as sepas ueupaa); 2 nepuyxneap-
oe npocmpacmso; 3 sympess ueu-
paa xapuomexu (sympess sepas
ueupaa); 4 sepas nauua; 5 nopo-
sm xounnexc; 6 puocoum; 7 yxneon-
nasua (sepm cox); 8 xpouamu; 9 u-
cmepa apaynspo sonnasuamuvecxo
cemu; 10 spmuxo (no Anepmcy u
coasm., c usueeusuu)
" "
aapoAonnwo on1omoo. E aanucumoc1u o1 oo acnoAoxonun u
naaumnoro acnoAoxonun nAon nwpoAnm1 1u 1una xomocom: +e
noueunpuuecuue, umommuo numono opunaxonwo nAonu; oupoueu
npuuecuue, umommuo opno ononr xoo1xoo u opno pAunnoo nAono;
c+enoueunpuuecuue, y xo1owx opno pAunnoo u opno oAoo xo-
o1xoo nAono. Hoxo1owo axoon1unocxuo xomocomw umom1
cny1nuxon (ca1oAAu1on) - moAxuo ynac1xu xoo1xoro nAona, coopu-
nonnwo c num 1onxum nooxamunammumcn qarmon1om (n1oun-
nan noo1nxxa). E xomocomo umom1cn ay- u ro1ooxoma1uno-
nwo ynac1xu. HocAopnuo n nopoAnmomcn npo (nno mu1oaa) oc1a-
m1cn xomnax1nwmu. Hooponanuo ay- u ro1ooxoma1unonwx yna-
c1xon ucnoAraym1 pAn upon1uquxauu xomocom.
Mo1aqaanan xomocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx coopunonnwx on1o-
moo coc1uncxux xoma1up, xaxpan ua xo1owx copoxu1 opny
moAoxyAy HH, yAoxonnym n nupo cynocnuaAu. Hu cnuaAuaa-
uu ynac1xu ay- u ro1ooxoma1una yxAapwnam1cn aaxonomonwm
oaaom, 1ax n1o na no1nxonuu xoma1up oaaym1cn noopymmu-
ocn nonoonnwo noAocw. Hx nwnnAnm1 nu nomomu cnouaArnwx
oxacox. Honoxnoc1r xomocom noxw1a aaAunnwmu moAoxyAamu,
rAannwm oaaom, uonyxAoono1ounamu (PHH). E coma1unoc-
xux xAo1xax umom1cn no pno xonuu xaxpo xomocomw, ux naaw-
nam1 romoAorunnwmu. Onu opunaxonw no pAuno, qomo, c1oo-
num, acnoAoxonum noAoc, nocy1 opnu u 1o xo ronw, xo1owo
AoxaAuaonanw opunaxono. IomoAorunnwo xomocomw mory1 aa-
Auna1rcn aAAoAnmu ronon, copoxamuxcn n nux. Ieu - ono uo
cnou +o.eu.m [HK, uo uonopo+ cuune:upencn ounuouon
+o.eu.o PHK. Ionw, nxopnmuo n coc1an xomocom noAonoxa, mory1
copoxa1r po pnyx mAn na nyxAoo1upon.
ocnuaAuaonannwo ax1unnwo ynac1xu xomocom no nupnw nop
muxocxonom. umr cAaan romoronnan aaoquAun nyxAoonAaamw
yxaawnao1 na nucy1c1nuo HK; ux moxno nwnnu1r 1axxo ruc1oxu-
munocxumu mo1opamu. Taxuo ynac1xu o1nocn1 x orpo+onuu. Ho-
ax1unnwo cuArno cnuaAuaonannwo xomnAoxcw HK u nwcoxomoAo-
xyAnnwx oAxon nwpoAnm1cn nu oxacxax n nupo rAwox eenepor
po+onuuo. Xomocomw quxcuonanw na nny1onno nonoxnoc1u
xauo1oxu x npono Aamuno.
Xomocomw n qynxuonuymmo xAo1xo oocnonunam1 cun1oa
PHK, nooxopumwx pAn nocAopymmoro cun1oaa oAxon. Hu a1om ocy-
moc1nAno1cn cnu1wnanuo rono1unocxo unqomauu - oo xpancupnn-
nx. Ho ncn xomocoma nunumao1 n no nonocopc1nonnoo ynac1uo.
Paanwo ynac1xu xomocom oocnonunam1 cun1oa aaAunnwx PHK.
Ocoonno nwpoAnm1cn ynac1xu, cun1oauymmuo uocomnwo PHK
(PHK); umu oAapam1 no nco xomocomw. 01u ynac1xu naawnam1
nopmuuoom+u opeouu:onopo+u. Hpwmxonwo oranuaa1ow o-
aaym1 no1Au. Eoxymxu no1oAr aanwx xomocom 1nro1om1 pyr
coc1on1 ua 8 moAoxyA ruc1onon (no pno moAoxyAw ruc1onon H2A, H2E,
H3 u H4), noxyr xo1owx aaxynon ynac1ox HK, nxAmnammu
146 na nyxAoo1upon. Moxpy nyxAoocomamu acnoAaram1cn Aun-
xonwo ynac1xu HK, coc1onmuo ua 60 na nyxAoo1upon, a ruc1on
H1

oocnonunao1 naaumnw xon1ax1 cocopnux nyxAoocom. HyxAoo-
comw - a1o Aumr nonw yononr yxAapxu HK.
Xoma1un nopc1anAon n nupo quuAA 1oAmuno oxoAo 30 nm,
oaaymmux no1Au pAuno oxoAo 0,4 mxm xaxpan, copoxamuo
o1 20 000 po 30 000 na nyxAoo1upon, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr,
omo oArmo xomnax1uauym1cn, 1ax n1o mo1aqaanan xomoco-
ma umoo1 copnuo aamow 5 1,4 mxm.
E oayAr1a1o cynocnuaAuaauu HH n poAnmomcn npo xomo-
comw (epeu. chroma - xacxa, soma - 1oAo) c1anonn1cn nupumwmu
nu ynoAunonuu cno1onoro muxocxona. Kampax xpomocoma o6pa-
aonana opno pannno moaouyao HH. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo
ypAunonnwo naAonxonupnwo c1yx1yw, umommuo pna nAona,
3
2
1
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
5
4
P u c . 1 9. Yposu ynaxosxu
BHl s xpouocoue:
l soas cnupans uonexynm BHl;
ll yxneocouas ums: 1 aucmo
H1; 2 BHl; 3 npovue aucmom;
lll xpouamuosas qupunna; lV ce-
pus nemensmx oueos; V xo-
ecuposam xpouamu s cocma-
se nemensoao ouea; Vl uema-
qasas xpouocoua: 4 empouepa;
5 cecmpucxue xpouamum
5'
3'
5'
3'
A
C
C
C
C
A
A A
A
G
G
G
G
T
T
T
T
T
2 uu
11 uu
30 uu
300 uu
700 uu
1400 uu
" "
aapoAonnwo on1omoo. E aanucumoc1u o1 oo acnoAoxonun u
naaumnoro acnoAoxonun nAon nwpoAnm1 1u 1una xomocom: +e
noueunpuuecuue, umommuo numono opunaxonwo nAonu; oupoueu
npuuecuue, umommuo opno ononr xoo1xoo u opno pAunnoo nAono;
c+enoueunpuuecuue, y xo1owx opno pAunnoo u opno oAoo xo-
o1xoo nAono. Hoxo1owo axoon1unocxuo xomocomw umom1
cny1nuxon (ca1oAAu1on) - moAxuo ynac1xu xoo1xoro nAona, coopu-
nonnwo c num 1onxum nooxamunammumcn qarmon1om (n1oun-
nan noo1nxxa). E xomocomo umom1cn ay- u ro1ooxoma1uno-
nwo ynac1xu. HocAopnuo n nopoAnmomcn npo (nno mu1oaa) oc1a-
m1cn xomnax1nwmu. Hooponanuo ay- u ro1ooxoma1unonwx yna-
c1xon ucnoAraym1 pAn upon1uquxauu xomocom.
Mo1aqaanan xomocoma coc1ou1 ua pnyx coopunonnwx on1o-
moo coc1uncxux xoma1up, xaxpan ua xo1owx copoxu1 opny
moAoxyAy HH, yAoxonnym n nupo cynocnuaAu. Hu cnuaAuaa-
uu ynac1xu ay- u ro1ooxoma1una yxAapwnam1cn aaxonomonwm
oaaom, 1ax n1o na no1nxonuu xoma1up oaaym1cn noopymmu-
ocn nonoonnwo noAocw. Hx nwnnAnm1 nu nomomu cnouaArnwx
oxacox. Honoxnoc1r xomocom noxw1a aaAunnwmu moAoxyAamu,
rAannwm oaaom, uonyxAoono1ounamu (PHH). E coma1unoc-
xux xAo1xax umom1cn no pno xonuu xaxpo xomocomw, ux naaw-
nam1 romoAorunnwmu. Onu opunaxonw no pAuno, qomo, c1oo-
num, acnoAoxonum noAoc, nocy1 opnu u 1o xo ronw, xo1owo
AoxaAuaonanw opunaxono. IomoAorunnwo xomocomw mory1 aa-
Auna1rcn aAAoAnmu ronon, copoxamuxcn n nux. Ieu - ono uo
cnou +o.eu.m [HK, uo uonopo+ cuune:upencn ounuouon
+o.eu.o PHK. Ionw, nxopnmuo n coc1an xomocom noAonoxa, mory1
copoxa1r po pnyx mAn na nyxAoo1upon.
ocnuaAuaonannwo ax1unnwo ynac1xu xomocom no nupnw nop
muxocxonom. umr cAaan romoronnan aaoquAun nyxAoonAaamw
yxaawnao1 na nucy1c1nuo HK; ux moxno nwnnu1r 1axxo ruc1oxu-
munocxumu mo1opamu. Taxuo ynac1xu o1nocn1 x orpo+onuu. Ho-
ax1unnwo cuArno cnuaAuaonannwo xomnAoxcw HK u nwcoxomoAo-
xyAnnwx oAxon nwpoAnm1cn nu oxacxax n nupo rAwox eenepor
po+onuuo. Xomocomw quxcuonanw na nny1onno nonoxnoc1u
xauo1oxu x npono Aamuno.
Xomocomw n qynxuonuymmo xAo1xo oocnonunam1 cun1oa
PHK, nooxopumwx pAn nocAopymmoro cun1oaa oAxon. Hu a1om ocy-
moc1nAno1cn cnu1wnanuo rono1unocxo unqomauu - oo xpancupnn-
nx. Ho ncn xomocoma nunumao1 n no nonocopc1nonnoo ynac1uo.
Paanwo ynac1xu xomocom oocnonunam1 cun1oa aaAunnwx PHK.
Ocoonno nwpoAnm1cn ynac1xu, cun1oauymmuo uocomnwo PHK
(PHK); umu oAapam1 no nco xomocomw. 01u ynac1xu naawnam1
nopmuuoom+u opeouu:onopo+u. Hpwmxonwo oranuaa1ow o-
aaym1 no1Au. Eoxymxu no1oAr aanwx xomocom 1nro1om1 pyr
coc1on1 ua 8 moAoxyA ruc1onon (no pno moAoxyAw ruc1onon H2A, H2E,
H3 u H4), noxyr xo1owx aaxynon ynac1ox HK, nxAmnammu
146 na nyxAoo1upon. Moxpy nyxAoocomamu acnoAaram1cn Aun-
xonwo ynac1xu HK, coc1onmuo ua 60 na nyxAoo1upon, a ruc1on
H1

oocnonunao1 naaumnw xon1ax1 cocopnux nyxAoocom. HyxAoo-
comw - a1o Aumr nonw yononr yxAapxu HK.
Xoma1un nopc1anAon n nupo quuAA 1oAmuno oxoAo 30 nm,
oaaymmux no1Au pAuno oxoAo 0,4 mxm xaxpan, copoxamuo
o1 20 000 po 30 000 na nyxAoo1upon, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr,
omo oArmo xomnax1uauym1cn, 1ax n1o mo1aqaanan xomoco-
ma umoo1 copnuo aamow 5 1,4 mxm.
E oayAr1a1o cynocnuaAuaauu HH n poAnmomcn npo xomo-
comw (epeu. chroma - xacxa, soma - 1oAo) c1anonn1cn nupumwmu
nu ynoAunonuu cno1onoro muxocxona. Kampax xpomocoma o6pa-
aonana opno pannno moaouyao HH. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo
ypAunonnwo naAonxonupnwo c1yx1yw, umommuo pna nAona,
3
2
1
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
5
4
P u c . 1 9. Yposu ynaxosxu
BHl s xpouocoue:
l soas cnupans uonexynm BHl;
ll yxneocouas ums: 1 aucmo
H1; 2 BHl; 3 npovue aucmom;
lll xpouamuosas qupunna; lV ce-
pus nemensmx oueos; V xo-
ecuposam xpouamu s cocma-
se nemensoao ouea; Vl uema-
qasas xpouocoua: 4 empouepa;
5 cecmpucxue xpouamum
5'
3'
5'
3'
A
C
C
C
C
A
A A
A
G
G
G
G
T
T
T
T
T
2 uu
11 uu
30 uu
300 uu
700 uu
1400 uu
"! "
P u c . 2 1. Peenmopo-
onocpeosam
soumos:
l oxauneas suxa;
ll npoue+ymovas cmaus;
lll oxaunem nysmpex;
1 nuaam; 2 ueupa-
me peenmopm; 3 xnam-
pu (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
0npocomw noryxam1cn n u1onAaamy u nc1onam1cn c Auaoco-
mamu. Hx momanw cAunam1cn. E noanuxmo 1axum oaaom n1o-
unno Auaocomo nomoc1na, noc1ynunmuo n xAo1xy, nopnoram1-
cn aanooaanwm uoxumunocxum nonamonunm.
maronxoa. EcAu xynnan nac1ua umoo1 na nonoxnoc1u moAoxy-
Annwo rynnuonxu, xo1owo mory1 acnoanana1rcn oon1oamu xAo1-
xu, ona cnnawnao1cn. Eoxyr nac1uw nw1nrunam1cn nwoc1w u-
1onAaamw qarou1a. Onu oxna1wnam1 nonoxnoc1r nac1uw u o+o-
punnm1cn nap no. Hayxnwo Auc1xu nwoc1on cAunam1cn, aamw-
xan nonoxnoc1r xAo1xu (uc. 22).
IAyoxuo Auc1xu nwoc1on oaaym1 momany noxyr norAo-
monno nac1uw - qomuyo1cn qoeoco+o. arocoma cAunao1cn c
Auaocomamu, n oayAr1a1o noro noanuxao1 ux xomnAoxc - eenepo.u
:oco+o (eenepoco+o, uAu qoeo.u:oco+o). E no noucxopu1 Auauc
aaxnanonnwx xomnonon1on nac1uw.
0uaonxoa. Ewnoponuo nomoc1n ua xAo1xu ocymoc1nAno1cn Aa-
ropan cymoc1nonanum nocxoArxux moxanuamon. Opun ua nux -
naccunnw 1ancno1 ncAopc1nuo aanoc1u xonon-
1au nny1u u nno u1oAommw. yro - a1o
ax1unnw 1ancno1. Taxum ny1om nwnopn1cn ua
xAo1xu uonw u moAxuo moAoxyAw (cm. aapoA Euo-
Aorunocxuo momanw). To1u moxanuam ooc-
nonunao1 nwnoponuo xynnomoAoxyAnnwx coopu-
nonu.
CnanaAa xynnomoAoxyAnnwo coopunonun cor-
oruym1cn n xomnAoxco IoArpxu n nupo 1ancno-
1nwx nyawrxon. HocAopnuo c ynac1uom muxo1y-
onox nananAnm1cn x xAo1onno nonoxnoc1u.
Momana nyawrxa nc1aunao1cn n u1oAommy,
u copoxumoo nyawrxa oxaawnao1cn aa nopo-
Aamu xAo1xu (uc. 23).
CAunnuo nyawrxa c u1oAommo moxo1 co-
noma1rcn oa xaxux-Auo ponoAnu1oArnwx curna-
Aon. Taxo axaou1oa naawnam1 uoncxnxyxnn-
nmm. Tax nwnopu1cn ua xAo1xu oArmunc1no
P u c . 2 2.
1aaoumos:
1 axmepus; 2 nces-
onouu qaaouma
(no Anepmcy u co-
asm., c usueeusuu)
1
2
P u c . 2 0. Cmpoeue
spmuxa:
l cxeua: 1 xapuomexa; 2 sep-
as nauua; 3 spmuxosme
opaausamopm xpouocou; 4 xo-
m xpouocou, csssame c sep-
o nauuo; ll spmuxo s
spe xnemxu (snexmpoouux-
pocxonuvecxas qomoapaqus)
(no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
x pyry u nc1onam1cn nmoc1o. Taxum oaaom qomuyo1cn c1yx-
1ya npa, umonyoman nopmuuo+ (uc. 20). E nom aaAunam1 1u
xomnonon1a: cAaooxamonnw xomnonon1 coo1no1c1nyo1 no1Anm
xomocom, quuAAnnw - 1ancxuuonanno PHK u rAoy-
Annw - nopmoc1nonnuxam uocom.
Xpo+oco+m no.nwncn oeou+u uo+noueuno+u u.enuu, pee
.upwu+u oce o+euume npoueccm: .wme +enoo.uuecuue peou
uuu oo:+oum no.tuo c uocnue+ qep+eunoo, qep+eunm e oce
eoo e.uu, e.uu cuune:upwncn no.tuo c uocnue+ PHK.
Emoc1o c 1om xomocomw nnAnm1cn u xanu1oAnmu nacAopc1non-
nwx cnoc1n oranuama. Hmonno noc.eoooone.tuocnt uu.eonu
ooo o uennr [HK onpeoe.nen eeuenuuecuuu uoo.
UEROCTHLE PEAKUHH KRETKH
An ocymoc1nAonun uoxumunocxux oaxu nooxopumo noc1yn-
Aonuo nomoc1n n xAo1xy - ouoouuno:, omon nomoc1n n xAo1xo -
+enoo.u:+ u nwnoponuo nopyx1on mo1aoAuama - ou:ouuno:.
0nponxoa. Cymoc1nyo1 nocxoArxo cnocoon anpou1oaa (epeu. on-
don - nny1u, kyIos - xAo1xa). Hoc1ynAonuo xupxux xoAAoupnwx
nac1u naawnao1cn nunou1oaom, a xynnwx 1nopwx nac1u - qa-
rou1oaom. E omom nupo noc1ynAonuo n xAo1xy 1nopwx nac1u uAu
xanoAr xupxoc1u uanno naawnao1cn ro1ooqaruo (epeu. hoIoros - uno).
Hnnonxoa. An 1oro n1ow nnomnuo moAoxyAw noc1ynuAu n
xAo1xy, onu poAxnw w1r cnanaAa cnnaanw oon1oamu rAuxo-
xaAuxca (uc. 21).
E moc1o 1axoro cnnawnanun nop u1oAommo onayxunam1cn
moAoxyAw oAxa u.onpuuo. Hu1oAomma nmoc1o c nucoopunonnwmu
uanno moAoxyAamu u nopc1uAaoman co c1oonw u1onAaamw xAa1-
unom nanunao1 nnnnuna1rcn. Ennnunanuo c1anonu1cn nco rAy-
xo, oro xan cAuxam1cn u aa1om cmwxam1cn. E oayAr1a1o o1
u1oAommw o1monAno1cn nyawox, nocymu n coo aaxnanonnwo
moAoxyAw (anpocoma). KAa1un na oro nonoxnoc1u nwrAnpu1 na
aAox1onnwx muxoqo1oraqunx xax noonnan xaomxa, noa1omy
1axuo nyawrxu noAynuAu naananuo ouou+.euumr.
II I
1
2
3
4
"! "
P u c . 2 1. Peenmopo-
onocpeosam
soumos:
l oxauneas suxa;
ll npoue+ymovas cmaus;
lll oxaunem nysmpex;
1 nuaam; 2 ueupa-
me peenmopm; 3 xnam-
pu (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
0npocomw noryxam1cn n u1onAaamy u nc1onam1cn c Auaoco-
mamu. Hx momanw cAunam1cn. E noanuxmo 1axum oaaom n1o-
unno Auaocomo nomoc1na, noc1ynunmuo n xAo1xy, nopnoram1-
cn aanooaanwm uoxumunocxum nonamonunm.
maronxoa. EcAu xynnan nac1ua umoo1 na nonoxnoc1u moAoxy-
Annwo rynnuonxu, xo1owo mory1 acnoanana1rcn oon1oamu xAo1-
xu, ona cnnawnao1cn. Eoxyr nac1uw nw1nrunam1cn nwoc1w u-
1onAaamw qarou1a. Onu oxna1wnam1 nonoxnoc1r nac1uw u o+o-
punnm1cn nap no. Hayxnwo Auc1xu nwoc1on cAunam1cn, aamw-
xan nonoxnoc1r xAo1xu (uc. 22).
IAyoxuo Auc1xu nwoc1on oaaym1 momany noxyr norAo-
monno nac1uw - qomuyo1cn qoeoco+o. arocoma cAunao1cn c
Auaocomamu, n oayAr1a1o noro noanuxao1 ux xomnAoxc - eenepo.u
:oco+o (eenepoco+o, uAu qoeo.u:oco+o). E no noucxopu1 Auauc
aaxnanonnwx xomnonon1on nac1uw.
0uaonxoa. Ewnoponuo nomoc1n ua xAo1xu ocymoc1nAno1cn Aa-
ropan cymoc1nonanum nocxoArxux moxanuamon. Opun ua nux -
naccunnw 1ancno1 ncAopc1nuo aanoc1u xonon-
1au nny1u u nno u1oAommw. yro - a1o
ax1unnw 1ancno1. Taxum ny1om nwnopn1cn ua
xAo1xu uonw u moAxuo moAoxyAw (cm. aapoA Euo-
Aorunocxuo momanw). To1u moxanuam ooc-
nonunao1 nwnoponuo xynnomoAoxyAnnwx coopu-
nonu.
CnanaAa xynnomoAoxyAnnwo coopunonun cor-
oruym1cn n xomnAoxco IoArpxu n nupo 1ancno-
1nwx nyawrxon. HocAopnuo c ynac1uom muxo1y-
onox nananAnm1cn x xAo1onno nonoxnoc1u.
Momana nyawrxa nc1aunao1cn n u1oAommy,
u copoxumoo nyawrxa oxaawnao1cn aa nopo-
Aamu xAo1xu (uc. 23).
CAunnuo nyawrxa c u1oAommo moxo1 co-
noma1rcn oa xaxux-Auo ponoAnu1oArnwx curna-
Aon. Taxo axaou1oa naawnam1 uoncxnxyxnn-
nmm. Tax nwnopu1cn ua xAo1xu oArmunc1no
P u c . 2 2.
1aaoumos:
1 axmepus; 2 nces-
onouu qaaouma
(no Anepmcy u co-
asm., c usueeusuu)
1
2
P u c . 2 0. Cmpoeue
spmuxa:
l cxeua: 1 xapuomexa; 2 sep-
as nauua; 3 spmuxosme
opaausamopm xpouocou; 4 xo-
m xpouocou, csssame c sep-
o nauuo; ll spmuxo s
spe xnemxu (snexmpoouux-
pocxonuvecxas qomoapaqus)
(no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
x pyry u nc1onam1cn nmoc1o. Taxum oaaom qomuyo1cn c1yx-
1ya npa, umonyoman nopmuuo+ (uc. 20). E nom aaAunam1 1u
xomnonon1a: cAaooxamonnw xomnonon1 coo1no1c1nyo1 no1Anm
xomocom, quuAAnnw - 1ancxuuonanno PHK u rAoy-
Annw - nopmoc1nonnuxam uocom.
Xpo+oco+m no.nwncn oeou+u uo+noueuno+u u.enuu, pee
.upwu+u oce o+euume npoueccm: .wme +enoo.uuecuue peou
uuu oo:+oum no.tuo c uocnue+ qep+eunoo, qep+eunm e oce
eoo e.uu, e.uu cuune:upwncn no.tuo c uocnue+ PHK.
Emoc1o c 1om xomocomw nnAnm1cn u xanu1oAnmu nacAopc1non-
nwx cnoc1n oranuama. Hmonno noc.eoooone.tuocnt uu.eonu
ooo o uennr [HK onpeoe.nen eeuenuuecuuu uoo.
UEROCTHLE PEAKUHH KRETKH
An ocymoc1nAonun uoxumunocxux oaxu nooxopumo noc1yn-
Aonuo nomoc1n n xAo1xy - ouoouuno:, omon nomoc1n n xAo1xo -
+enoo.u:+ u nwnoponuo nopyx1on mo1aoAuama - ou:ouuno:.
0nponxoa. Cymoc1nyo1 nocxoArxo cnocoon anpou1oaa (epeu. on-
don - nny1u, kyIos - xAo1xa). Hoc1ynAonuo xupxux xoAAoupnwx
nac1u naawnao1cn nunou1oaom, a xynnwx 1nopwx nac1u - qa-
rou1oaom. E omom nupo noc1ynAonuo n xAo1xy 1nopwx nac1u uAu
xanoAr xupxoc1u uanno naawnao1cn ro1ooqaruo (epeu. hoIoros - uno).
Hnnonxoa. An 1oro n1ow nnomnuo moAoxyAw noc1ynuAu n
xAo1xy, onu poAxnw w1r cnanaAa cnnaanw oon1oamu rAuxo-
xaAuxca (uc. 21).
E moc1o 1axoro cnnawnanun nop u1oAommo onayxunam1cn
moAoxyAw oAxa u.onpuuo. Hu1oAomma nmoc1o c nucoopunonnwmu
uanno moAoxyAamu u nopc1uAaoman co c1oonw u1onAaamw xAa1-
unom nanunao1 nnnnuna1rcn. Ennnunanuo c1anonu1cn nco rAy-
xo, oro xan cAuxam1cn u aa1om cmwxam1cn. E oayAr1a1o o1
u1oAommw o1monAno1cn nyawox, nocymu n coo aaxnanonnwo
moAoxyAw (anpocoma). KAa1un na oro nonoxnoc1u nwrAnpu1 na
aAox1onnwx muxoqo1oraqunx xax noonnan xaomxa, noa1omy
1axuo nyawrxu noAynuAu naananuo ouou+.euumr.
II I
1
2
3
4
"# ""
P u c . 2 4. Cxeua cumesa enxa
(osceus s mexcme)
EAaropan naAunum npono ooAonxu n xAo1xax noAonoxa (u
pyrux ayxauo1) nooccw 1ancxunuu u 1ancAnuu noxo-
pn1 n aanwx c1yx1yax u aapoAonw no nomonu.
Cun1oa oAxa (1ancAnun) cnnaan c nooccom 1ancxun-
uu - noonucwnanun unqomauu, xannmocn n HK, noa1o-
my mw nanunaom onucanuo c nocAopnoro.
Tpancupnnnx ocymoc1nAno1cn n npo (uc. 24). Hnqomaun o
c1yx1yo oAxa, aaxAmnonnan n HK, noonucwnao1cn na uuqop
+ouuouuw (mocconpxo, ma1unnym) PHK (mPHK). Hu a1om c
opnoro rona moxo1 noonucwna1rcn mnoxoc1no moAoxyA mPHK.
Onu nopnoram1cn n npo nooccunry, nocAo noro 1ancno1uym1-
cn ua npa n u1onAaamy, rpo u nwnoAnnm1 cnou qynxuu. Hooc-
cunr (oue.. rocossIng - oao1xa) - conoxynnoc1r oaxu, nopy-
mux x nonamonum nonunnwx noax1unnwx 1ancxun1on n qynx-
uonuymmuo moAoxyAw.
E xAo1xax cymoc1nyo1 1u 1una PHK. Copu nux uuqop+ouuou
uon (mPHK) noonocu1 unqomaum o nyxAoo1upno nocAopona-
1oArnoc1u HK x uocomam. E oaaonanuu uocom ynac1nyo1
puoco+uon PHK (PHK). HooArmuo npoucnopnume PHK (1PHK)
nwnoAnnm1 pnonym qynxum: onu nucoopunnm1 moAoxyAy amu-
noxucAo1w, 1ancno1uym1 oo x uocomo u yanam1 1unAo1, coo1-
no1c1nymmu a1o amunoxucAo1o n moAoxyAo mPHK.
E coopuno moAoxyAw 1PHK umoo1cn rynnuonxa ua 1ox aao-
1uc1wx ocnonanu, naawnaoman ou
nuuooouo+. An1uxopon moxo1 cnn-
aa1rcn c onopoAonno rynnuonxo
1ox ocnonanu na mPHK - c uooo
uo+. oc1nu1oArno, nocAo cAuxo-
nun moAoxyA an1uxopon 1PHK yana-
o1 xopon mPHK u cnaunao1cn c num.
Fonoxnnocun uop, acmuqo-
nannw n 60-x ropax XX n. M. Hnpon-
6oprom, . Xoaaom n X. Kopano, oc-
nonan na 1unAo1ax, uAu xoponax, -
1u nyxAoo1upa onopoAnm1 nucoo-
punonuo x noAunon1upno onu opno
amunoxucAo1w (1aA. 6).
Iono1unocxu xop o1Aunao1cn
npom naxnwx cnoc1n. On npun.e
neu - umonno 1u nyxAoo1upa ono-
poAnm1 nucoopunonuo x noAunon-
1upno onu opno amunoxucAo1w.
Iono1unocxu xop ompooeu, 1.o.
oArmunc1no amunoxucAo1 xopuy-
m1cn oAoo nom opnum 1unAo1om.
nopyx1on oo coc1nonnoro mo1aoAuama. Pnp xAo1ox, opnaxo,
nopnaananon pAn cun1oaa cnouaArnwx coopunonu - coxo1on,
xo1owo ucnoAraym1cn n oranuamo n pyrux oro nac1nx. An
1oro n1ow 1ancno1nw nyawox c coxo1om cAuAcn c u1oAom-
mo, nooxopumw curnaAw uanno. ToArxo 1orpa nouaopo1 cAu-
nnuo u coxo1 ocnoopu1cn. Taxo axaou1oa naawnam1 poryan-
pyommm. CurnaArnwo moAoxyAw, cnococ1nymmuo nwnoponum cox-
o1on, naawnam1 .uepuuo+u (pu.u:uueqounopo+u), a nonn1-
c1nymmuo nwnoponum - cnonuuo+u.
Momana 1ancno1noro nyawrxa nc1aunao1cn n u1oAom-
my u c1anonu1cn oo nac1rm. H ou:ouuno:, u oo:opon +e+pou
ouooco+ o uop+o.tuo quuuuouupweu u.enue poouooeueum c
noe.oeuue+ +e+pou o rooe nuuo u qoeouuno:o.
HHTPHKAETOHHLE HHOXHMHHECKHE
PEAKJHH
Cnnxoa 6oauon. Cun1oa xaxporo onopoAonnoro cnouqunoc-
xoro oAxa onopoAno1cn ynac1xom HK (ronom) c onopoAonno
nocAopona1oArnoc1rm nyxAoo1upon.
Hon1aArnan porma conomonno uoAoruu xaax1ouayo1 opny
ua ocnon xuanu cAopymmum oaaom:
Hnwmu cAonamu, nacAopc1nonnan unqomaun, aaxAmnonnan n
HK, noopao1cn no nacAopc1ny Aaropan oo camoypnoonum (on-
Auxauu). Iono1unocxan unqomaun, aanucannan n nupo nocAo-
pona1oArnoc1u nyxAoo1upon HK, n noocco 1ancxunuu noo-
nucwnao1cn n nyxAoo1upnym nocAopona1oArnoc1r PHK, xo1oan, n
cnom onoopr, onopoAno1 nocAopona1oArnoc1r amunoxucAo1 coo1-
no1c1nymmo oAxono moAoxyAw.
P u c . 2 3. Sxsoumos
(osceus s mexcme) (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
"# ""
P u c . 2 4. Cxeua cumesa enxa
(osceus s mexcme)
EAaropan naAunum npono ooAonxu n xAo1xax noAonoxa (u
pyrux ayxauo1) nooccw 1ancxunuu u 1ancAnuu noxo-
pn1 n aanwx c1yx1yax u aapoAonw no nomonu.
Cun1oa oAxa (1ancAnun) cnnaan c nooccom 1ancxun-
uu - noonucwnanun unqomauu, xannmocn n HK, noa1o-
my mw nanunaom onucanuo c nocAopnoro.
Tpancupnnnx ocymoc1nAno1cn n npo (uc. 24). Hnqomaun o
c1yx1yo oAxa, aaxAmnonnan n HK, noonucwnao1cn na uuqop
+ouuouuw (mocconpxo, ma1unnym) PHK (mPHK). Hu a1om c
opnoro rona moxo1 noonucwna1rcn mnoxoc1no moAoxyA mPHK.
Onu nopnoram1cn n npo nooccunry, nocAo noro 1ancno1uym1-
cn ua npa n u1onAaamy, rpo u nwnoAnnm1 cnou qynxuu. Hooc-
cunr (oue.. rocossIng - oao1xa) - conoxynnoc1r oaxu, nopy-
mux x nonamonum nonunnwx noax1unnwx 1ancxun1on n qynx-
uonuymmuo moAoxyAw.
E xAo1xax cymoc1nyo1 1u 1una PHK. Copu nux uuqop+ouuou
uon (mPHK) noonocu1 unqomaum o nyxAoo1upno nocAopona-
1oArnoc1u HK x uocomam. E oaaonanuu uocom ynac1nyo1
puoco+uon PHK (PHK). HooArmuo npoucnopnume PHK (1PHK)
nwnoAnnm1 pnonym qynxum: onu nucoopunnm1 moAoxyAy amu-
noxucAo1w, 1ancno1uym1 oo x uocomo u yanam1 1unAo1, coo1-
no1c1nymmu a1o amunoxucAo1o n moAoxyAo mPHK.
E coopuno moAoxyAw 1PHK umoo1cn rynnuonxa ua 1ox aao-
1uc1wx ocnonanu, naawnaoman ou
nuuooouo+. An1uxopon moxo1 cnn-
aa1rcn c onopoAonno rynnuonxo
1ox ocnonanu na mPHK - c uooo
uo+. oc1nu1oArno, nocAo cAuxo-
nun moAoxyA an1uxopon 1PHK yana-
o1 xopon mPHK u cnaunao1cn c num.
Fonoxnnocun uop, acmuqo-
nannw n 60-x ropax XX n. M. Hnpon-
6oprom, . Xoaaom n X. Kopano, oc-
nonan na 1unAo1ax, uAu xoponax, -
1u nyxAoo1upa onopoAnm1 nucoo-
punonuo x noAunon1upno onu opno
amunoxucAo1w (1aA. 6).
Iono1unocxu xop o1Aunao1cn
npom naxnwx cnoc1n. On npun.e
neu - umonno 1u nyxAoo1upa ono-
poAnm1 nucoopunonuo x noAunon-
1upno onu opno amunoxucAo1w.
Iono1unocxu xop ompooeu, 1.o.
oArmunc1no amunoxucAo1 xopuy-
m1cn oAoo nom opnum 1unAo1om.
nopyx1on oo coc1nonnoro mo1aoAuama. Pnp xAo1ox, opnaxo,
nopnaananon pAn cun1oaa cnouaArnwx coopunonu - coxo1on,
xo1owo ucnoAraym1cn n oranuamo n pyrux oro nac1nx. An
1oro n1ow 1ancno1nw nyawox c coxo1om cAuAcn c u1oAom-
mo, nooxopumw curnaAw uanno. ToArxo 1orpa nouaopo1 cAu-
nnuo u coxo1 ocnoopu1cn. Taxo axaou1oa naawnam1 poryan-
pyommm. CurnaArnwo moAoxyAw, cnococ1nymmuo nwnoponum cox-
o1on, naawnam1 .uepuuo+u (pu.u:uueqounopo+u), a nonn1-
c1nymmuo nwnoponum - cnonuuo+u.
Momana 1ancno1noro nyawrxa nc1aunao1cn n u1oAom-
my u c1anonu1cn oo nac1rm. H ou:ouuno:, u oo:opon +e+pou
ouooco+ o uop+o.tuo quuuuouupweu u.enue poouooeueum c
noe.oeuue+ +e+pou o rooe nuuo u qoeouuno:o.
HHTPHKAETOHHLE HHOXHMHHECKHE
PEAKJHH
Cnnxoa 6oauon. Cun1oa xaxporo onopoAonnoro cnouqunoc-
xoro oAxa onopoAno1cn ynac1xom HK (ronom) c onopoAonno
nocAopona1oArnoc1rm nyxAoo1upon.
Hon1aArnan porma conomonno uoAoruu xaax1ouayo1 opny
ua ocnon xuanu cAopymmum oaaom:
Hnwmu cAonamu, nacAopc1nonnan unqomaun, aaxAmnonnan n
HK, noopao1cn no nacAopc1ny Aaropan oo camoypnoonum (on-
Auxauu). Iono1unocxan unqomaun, aanucannan n nupo nocAo-
pona1oArnoc1u nyxAoo1upon HK, n noocco 1ancxunuu noo-
nucwnao1cn n nyxAoo1upnym nocAopona1oArnoc1r PHK, xo1oan, n
cnom onoopr, onopoAno1 nocAopona1oArnoc1r amunoxucAo1 coo1-
no1c1nymmo oAxono moAoxyAw.
P u c . 2 3. Sxsoumos
(osceus s mexcme) (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
"% "$
Ho moxo1 w1r 1axo cu1yauu n nunoponnom numoo, xorpa
ocnonanuo UUC xopuyo1 opny amunoxucAo1y, UCA - pyrym, a
CAU - 1o1rm u 1. p.
Kop uuoepco.eu, 1. o. nco xunwo oranuamw na nAano1o 3omAn
(nxAmnan nuycw) umom1 opun u 1o1 xo xop. Pamxa cnu1wnanun
onopoAno1 noAoxonuo nonoro nyxAoo1upa xopona rona (uAu mPHK).
PHK cun1oauyo1cn na onucannwx npwmxonwx oranuaa1o-
ax - ynac1xax HK, umommux qomy no1oAr, xo1owo naxopn1cn
n npwmxo. Hopmoc1nonnux PHK, cun1oauonannw na npwm-
xonom oranuaa1oo, n npwmxo coopunno1cn c uocomnwmu oA-
xamu, cun1oauonannwmu n u1onAaamo u 1ancno1uonannwmu n
npo, oaayn xynnwo uonyxAoono1oupnwo nac1uw. HocAopnuo
no1ononam1 nooccunr, n oayAr1a1o xo1ooro n npo oaaym1-
cn oArman u maAan cy+opunuw uocom. Hopmoc1nonnuxu u-
ocom 1ancno1uym1cn n u1onAaamy, rpo n xopo cun1oaa oAxa u
noucxopu1 coxa camux uocom.
Cun1oa camo moAoxyAw oAxa (cm. uc. 24) nanunao1cn c 1oro,
n1o moAoxyAa 1PHK cnnawnao1cn c coo1no1c1nymmo amunoxucAo-
1o, n oayAr1a1o noro oaayo1cn amunoauA-1PHK. MaAan cy+o-
punua uocomw cnnawnao1cn c unuua1ono 1PHK, nocymo
moAoxyAy mo1uAmo1uonuna. 01o1 xomnAoxc nucoopunno1cn x unu-
ua1onomy xopony mPHK (AUO). HocAo a1oro x maAo nucoopu-
nno1cn oArman cy+opunua uocomw. Poaxuu cun1oaa oAxa
ocymoc1nAnm1 uocomw, xo1owo cnu1wnam1 unqomaum, aaAo-
xonnym n mPHK, nopnurancr npoAr noo n nananAonuu 5 3.
Puocoma cnnawnao1 pno moAoxyAw 1PHK: ynac1ox A uoco-
mw cnnawnao1 amunoauA-1PHK, ynac1ox P uocomw - amunoa-
uA-1PHK, cnnaannym c ac1ymo noAunon1upno onrm. Oo
1PHK cnnawnam1cn c cocopnumu xoponamu mPHK. K uocomo
nopxopu1 cAopymman amunoauA-1PHK, u oaayo1cn nonan non-
1upnan cnnar.
Hoomomancr no onu mPHK, uocoma nucoopunno1 cAopy-
mmuo amunoxucAo1w, xo1owo cnnawnam1cn moxpy coo, a mo-
AoxyAw 1PHK o1poAnm1cn, n1ow ncxoo nucoopunu1r nonym amu-
noxucAo1y. Hu poc1uxonuu uocomo c1on-xopona cun1oa no-
xamao1cn, no1omy n1o x c1on-xoponam no1 coo1no1c1nymmux an-
1uxoponon nu y opno 1PHK. HoAunon1upnan onr o1poAno1cn o1
uocomw.
Ocnonnmo poaunn xuanonoro o6mona
E xAo1xax noc1onnno ocymoc1nAno1cn moxa6oanam (epeu. moIabo-
Io - noomona, nonamonuo), uAu omon nomoc1n, xo1ow nop-
c1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r nooccon occu+u.nuuu (oaxu uo-
cun1oaa cAoxnwx uoAorunocxux moAoxyA ua oAoo noc1wx) u ouc
cu+u.nuuu (oaxu acmonAonun). E oayAr1a1o puccumuAnuu
Tpunnemme xouuauu asomucmmx ocosau uPHl (U, C, A, G) onpeenskm
cneykue auuoxucnomm: Phe qeunanau, Leu neu, l/e usoneu,
Met uemuou, Va/ sanu, Ser cepu, Pro nponu, Thr mpeou,
A/a anau, Tyr muposu, H/s aucmuu, G/n anymauu, Asn acnapaau,
Lys nusu, Asp acnapaauosas xucnoma, G/u anymauuosas xucnoma,
Cys ucmeu, Try mpunmoqa, Arg apauu, G/y anuu.
3sesovxo oosavem cmapmosme xoom; mpunnemm ?DHA, =>AH u F=
ecmsykm xax cmon-xoom (no Cr/ck)
To . u u o 6
Fonoxnnocun uop
Hu a1om opna u 1a xo amunoxucAo1a moxo1 xopuona1rcn aanwmu
1unAo1amu, opnaxo nonwo pna nyxAoo1upa pAn nux ncorpa opunaxo-
nw. Hanumo, 1unAo1 -C-C-C- xopuyo1 noAun. Komo 1oro, nxAm-
nonuo noAuna moxo1 xopuona1rcn 1unAo1amu CCU, CCA, CCO. Tun-
Ao1 AUO xopuyo1 nonym amunoxucAo1y - mo1uAmo1uonun, c xo1o-
o nanunao1cn cun1oa Amo noAunon1upno onu. Ecoro n rono1u-
nocxom xopo umoo1cn 64 xopona, 1u ua xo1owx (UAA, UOA u UAO)
nnAnm1cn c1on-xoponamu, aanomammumu cun1oa noAunon1upno onu.
Iono1unocxu xop ue nepeupmooencn, xo1n n nom o1cy1c1ny-
m1 anaxu, o1poAnmmuo opun 1unAo1 o1 pyroro. Hanumo, n
nocAopona1oArnoc1u ocnonanu UUCAUUOUU nonwo 1u ocno-
nanun xopuym1 opny amunoxucAo1y, n1owo 1u - pyrym u 1. p.
"% "$
Ho moxo1 w1r 1axo cu1yauu n nunoponnom numoo, xorpa
ocnonanuo UUC xopuyo1 opny amunoxucAo1y, UCA - pyrym, a
CAU - 1o1rm u 1. p.
Kop uuoepco.eu, 1. o. nco xunwo oranuamw na nAano1o 3omAn
(nxAmnan nuycw) umom1 opun u 1o1 xo xop. Pamxa cnu1wnanun
onopoAno1 noAoxonuo nonoro nyxAoo1upa xopona rona (uAu mPHK).
PHK cun1oauyo1cn na onucannwx npwmxonwx oranuaa1o-
ax - ynac1xax HK, umommux qomy no1oAr, xo1owo naxopn1cn
n npwmxo. Hopmoc1nonnux PHK, cun1oauonannw na npwm-
xonom oranuaa1oo, n npwmxo coopunno1cn c uocomnwmu oA-
xamu, cun1oauonannwmu n u1onAaamo u 1ancno1uonannwmu n
npo, oaayn xynnwo uonyxAoono1oupnwo nac1uw. HocAopnuo
no1ononam1 nooccunr, n oayAr1a1o xo1ooro n npo oaaym1-
cn oArman u maAan cy+opunuw uocom. Hopmoc1nonnuxu u-
ocom 1ancno1uym1cn n u1onAaamy, rpo n xopo cun1oaa oAxa u
noucxopu1 coxa camux uocom.
Cun1oa camo moAoxyAw oAxa (cm. uc. 24) nanunao1cn c 1oro,
n1o moAoxyAa 1PHK cnnawnao1cn c coo1no1c1nymmo amunoxucAo-
1o, n oayAr1a1o noro oaayo1cn amunoauA-1PHK. MaAan cy+o-
punua uocomw cnnawnao1cn c unuua1ono 1PHK, nocymo
moAoxyAy mo1uAmo1uonuna. 01o1 xomnAoxc nucoopunno1cn x unu-
ua1onomy xopony mPHK (AUO). HocAo a1oro x maAo nucoopu-
nno1cn oArman cy+opunua uocomw. Poaxuu cun1oaa oAxa
ocymoc1nAnm1 uocomw, xo1owo cnu1wnam1 unqomaum, aaAo-
xonnym n mPHK, nopnurancr npoAr noo n nananAonuu 5 3.
Puocoma cnnawnao1 pno moAoxyAw 1PHK: ynac1ox A uoco-
mw cnnawnao1 amunoauA-1PHK, ynac1ox P uocomw - amunoa-
uA-1PHK, cnnaannym c ac1ymo noAunon1upno onrm. Oo
1PHK cnnawnam1cn c cocopnumu xoponamu mPHK. K uocomo
nopxopu1 cAopymman amunoauA-1PHK, u oaayo1cn nonan non-
1upnan cnnar.
Hoomomancr no onu mPHK, uocoma nucoopunno1 cAopy-
mmuo amunoxucAo1w, xo1owo cnnawnam1cn moxpy coo, a mo-
AoxyAw 1PHK o1poAnm1cn, n1ow ncxoo nucoopunu1r nonym amu-
noxucAo1y. Hu poc1uxonuu uocomo c1on-xopona cun1oa no-
xamao1cn, no1omy n1o x c1on-xoponam no1 coo1no1c1nymmux an-
1uxoponon nu y opno 1PHK. HoAunon1upnan onr o1poAno1cn o1
uocomw.
Ocnonnmo poaunn xuanonoro o6mona
E xAo1xax noc1onnno ocymoc1nAno1cn moxa6oanam (epeu. moIabo-
Io - noomona, nonamonuo), uAu omon nomoc1n, xo1ow nop-
c1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r nooccon occu+u.nuuu (oaxu uo-
cun1oaa cAoxnwx uoAorunocxux moAoxyA ua oAoo noc1wx) u ouc
cu+u.nuuu (oaxu acmonAonun). E oayAr1a1o puccumuAnuu
Tpunnemme xouuauu asomucmmx ocosau uPHl (U, C, A, G) onpeenskm
cneykue auuoxucnomm: Phe qeunanau, Leu neu, l/e usoneu,
Met uemuou, Va/ sanu, Ser cepu, Pro nponu, Thr mpeou,
A/a anau, Tyr muposu, H/s aucmuu, G/n anymauu, Asn acnapaau,
Lys nusu, Asp acnapaauosas xucnoma, G/u anymauuosas xucnoma,
Cys ucmeu, Try mpunmoqa, Arg apauu, G/y anuu.
3sesovxo oosavem cmapmosme xoom; mpunnemm ?DHA, =>AH u F=
ecmsykm xax cmon-xoom (no Cr/ck)
To . u u o 6
Fonoxnnocun uop
Hu a1om opna u 1a xo amunoxucAo1a moxo1 xopuona1rcn aanwmu
1unAo1amu, opnaxo nonwo pna nyxAoo1upa pAn nux ncorpa opunaxo-
nw. Hanumo, 1unAo1 -C-C-C- xopuyo1 noAun. Komo 1oro, nxAm-
nonuo noAuna moxo1 xopuona1rcn 1unAo1amu CCU, CCA, CCO. Tun-
Ao1 AUO xopuyo1 nonym amunoxucAo1y - mo1uAmo1uonun, c xo1o-
o nanunao1cn cun1oa Amo noAunon1upno onu. Ecoro n rono1u-
nocxom xopo umoo1cn 64 xopona, 1u ua xo1owx (UAA, UOA u UAO)
nnAnm1cn c1on-xoponamu, aanomammumu cun1oa noAunon1upno onu.
Iono1unocxu xop ue nepeupmooencn, xo1n n nom o1cy1c1ny-
m1 anaxu, o1poAnmmuo opun 1unAo1 o1 pyroro. Hanumo, n
nocAopona1oArnoc1u ocnonanu UUCAUUOUU nonwo 1u ocno-
nanun xopuym1 opny amunoxucAo1y, n1owo 1u - pyrym u 1. p.
"' "&
nomoc1n, naawnao1cn omrouue+. EcAu a1o1 noocc upo1 oa ynac-
1un moAoxyAnnoro xucAoopa, 1o a1o ouoopouoe omrouue, ocAu c
ynac1uom - oopouoe omrouue. Anaaonoo pwxanuo roaapo monoo
aqqox1unno, nom aaonoo, - nu acmonAonuu moAoxyAw rAm-
xoaw n noocco anaaonoro pwxanun nwpoAno1cn 2? xxaA, 1orpa
xax nu aaonom pwxanuu - 6?4 xxaA.
E oayAr1a1o oxucAonun uoAorunocxux moAoxyA xAo1xa noAyna-
o1 anorum, nooxopumym pAn oo xuanopon1oArnoc1u. 01o oxucAo-
nuo ocymoc1nAno1cn n nocAopona1oArno onu xa1aAuauyomwx qo-
mon1amu oaxu, connxonnwx c oaaonanuom maxoarunocxoro
coopunonun - ooeuo:uunpuqocqono (ATP). KonaAon1nwo cnnau, nu
rupoAuao xo1owx nwpoAno1cn oAoo 30 Kx,moAr anoruu, naaw-
nam1cn maxoarunocxumu. ATP - nyxAoo1up, coc1onmu ua aponu-
na, uoaw u 1ox oc1a1xon qocqono xucAo1w. ATP xnaxoxcx ynn-
nopcaannmm noponocnnuom n ocnonnmm auuymyaxxopom anoprnn n
uaoxuo, uoxopax aauamnona n nmcouoanoproxnnocunx cnxaxx mom-
py xpomx ocxaxuamn qocqopno uncaoxm. Hu o1monAonuu o1 ATP
opno qocqa1no rynnw oaayo1cn ADP (aponoaunpuqocqonan
xucAo1a) u qocqa1 u nwpoAno1cn cnoopnan anorun, xo1oan uc-
noArayo1cn xAo1xo pAn ocymoc1nAonun ao1w - uocun1oa, ax1un-
nw 1ancno1 nomoc1n nooa uoAorunocxuo momanw, pnuxonuo
u noopana rono1unocxo unqomauu. O1monAnmmucn nooranu-
nocxu qocqa1 (PI) ucnoArayo1cn pAn qocqouAuonanun caxaon,
xunwx xucAo1, amunoxucAo1 u pyrux nopyx1on.
ATP nnAno1cn anuonom c nwcoxum aanpom (xumunocxu nwco-
xoc1auArnwm), oro anorun no accounao1cn n nupo 1onAa; Aaropa-
n maAwm aamoam moAoxyAa ATP Aorxo puqqynpuyo1 n aaAun-
nwo xAo1onnwo xomna1mon1w; copnnn nopoAxu1oArnoc1r xua-
nu moAoxyAw ATP oxoAo 1,3 c. Eco a1u cnoc1na poAam1 oro ynu-
nocaArno qomo aanacanun xumunocxo anoruu n xAo1xo.
Hanpy c ATP xAo1xa aanacao1 eouo:uunpuqocqon (GTP), xo1o-
w ynac1nyo1 n nooccax uocun1oaa oAxa u PHK; puouunpu
qocqon (UTP), ynac1nymmu n cun1oao non1uporAuxana xAo1on-
no c1onxu u noAucaxaupon, aaAunnwx nupon PHK; uunuouun
puqocqon (CTP), ynac1nymmu n cun1oao Aunupon u PHK.
E nooccax anaoAuama noucxopu1 uocun1oa moAoxyA, xo-
1ow oocnonunao1cn anoruo aa cno1 rupoAuaa ATP, unwmu
cAonamu, anaoAuam u xa1aoAuam connxonw. EuoAorunocxoo
oxucAonuo Aoxu1 n ocnono ocnooxponun anoruu, aaxAmnonno n
numonwx nomoc1nax.
Cxoma1unno xa1aoAuam numonwx nomoc1n moxno nopc1anu1r
cAopymmum oaaom (uc. 25). E nono c1apuu noucxopu1 ux
acmonAonuo po monomoon. V mnoroxAo1onnwx oranuamon a1o
ocymoc1nAno1cn n numonau1oArnom 1ax1o nop noapoc1nuom coo1-
no1c1nymmux qomon1on, nocAo noro noAynonnwo monomow nca-
cwnam1cn n xonr (monocaxaupw u amunoxucAo1w) u n Aumqy
ocnooxpao1cn anorun, aaxAmnonnan n xumunocxux cnnanx numo-
nwx nomoc1n. 01a anorun ucnoArayo1cn xAo1xo pAn ocymoc1nAo-
nun aaAunno ao1w, n 1om nucAo u accumuAnuu. V ncox uanoc-
1nwx na 3omAo xunwx oranuamon anoro1unocxuo nooccw nocr-
ma cxopnw. Eco cow1un, no1oxammuo n xunwx oranuamax, nop-
nunnm1cn aaxonam 1omopunamuxu. Hunan cuc1oma nyxpao1cn n
noc1onnnom nu1oxo anoruu uanno. 0norun EcoAonno noc1ynao1
na 3omAm n nupo coAnonno anoruu, poc1ynno xunwm cuc1omam,
nocymum n coo aaxopuonannym unqomaum. 01u cuc1omw oAa-
pam1 moxanuamamu cnnawnanun, nonamonun, aanacanun u ucnoAr-
aonanun anoruu, Aaropan nomy noamoxna xuanopon1oArnoc1r
oranuamon, 1o oc1r ux nwxunanuo, a 1axxo aamnoxonuo. Hanpy
c a1um cymoc1nyo1 rynna noxauo1, cnoconwx noAyna1r nooxo-
pumym pAn cun1oaa oranunocxux nomoc1n anorum n xopo xumu-
nocxux oaxu nooranunocxux nomoc1n (oAoo nopono o a1om
accxaaano n aapoAo, nocnnmonnom muxooranuamam).
0norun coAnonnoro cno1a ucnoArayo1cn xunwmu oranuama-
mu na 3omAo 1oArxo Aaropan qo1ocun1oay, n xopo xo1ooro no-
ucxopu1 nocnun1uo anoruu aAox1onamu xAooquAAa u nocAopy-
mmoo oo nooaaonanuo n anorum xumunocxux cnnao rAmxoaw
u pyrux oranunocxux coopunonu. Hu a1om CO
2
quxcuyo1cn u
nwpoAno1cn O
2
. Poaxun nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
anorun coAnonnoro cno1a - CO
2
- H
2
O
oranunocxuo nomoc1na - O
2
.
Eco oranuamw, no cnoconwo x qo1ocun1oay, noAynam1 anorum
aa cno1 no1oAonun aoAonwx ac1onu (nonocopc1nonno uAu onoco-
ponanno). Pao1a Amwx moxanuamon, ocnonannwx na no1oAonuu
oranunocxux nomoc1n, oocnonunao1cn nupouamononno coAnonno
anoruo. H paxo n ocnono xaxporo namoro pnuxonun (ypr 1o uonuo
copa uAu pnuxonuo rAaa) Aoxu1 Ayn cno1a, xo1ow xorpa-1o ynaA
na aoAonw Auc1 u paA anorum aAox1ony, nupouamononnym nnocAop-
c1nuu n xumunocxym cnnar. Taxum oaaom, oo:oeuumu ouepeueu
co.ueuuoeo coeno o.eunpou r.opoqu..o no.nencn +onepuo.tuou oc
uooou ocer ouepeenuuecuur npoueccoo, npoucroonur o uomr cucne
+or, nocuo.tu .wou u: onur npoueccoo ocecno.nencn .oeooopn
ouepeuu, uonopw oo:oeuumu o.eunpou onooen, oo:opoonct uo
coou ucrooumu cnouuouopumu pooeut. Huxo mw nopono accmo1-
um noamoxnwo nananAonun pnuxonun 1axoro aAox1ona.
E nuopo noucxopu1 noc1onnnw xyronoo1 yrAoopa, aao-
1a u xucAoopa, xo1ow cnnawnao1 moxpy coo aaAunnwo xu-
nwo oranuamw. E noocco xa1aoAuama noc1ynammuo n ora-
nuam numonwo nomoc1na acmonAnm1cn po amunoxucAo1, noc1wx
caxaon, xunwx xucAo1 u rAuouna.
Conoxynnoc1r uoxumunocxux oaxu, oayAr1a1om xo1owx
nnAno1cn y1uAuaaun anoruu xumunocxux cnnao oranunocxux
"' "&
nomoc1n, naawnao1cn omrouue+. EcAu a1o1 noocc upo1 oa ynac-
1un moAoxyAnnoro xucAoopa, 1o a1o ouoopouoe omrouue, ocAu c
ynac1uom - oopouoe omrouue. Anaaonoo pwxanuo roaapo monoo
aqqox1unno, nom aaonoo, - nu acmonAonuu moAoxyAw rAm-
xoaw n noocco anaaonoro pwxanun nwpoAno1cn 2? xxaA, 1orpa
xax nu aaonom pwxanuu - 6?4 xxaA.
E oayAr1a1o oxucAonun uoAorunocxux moAoxyA xAo1xa noAyna-
o1 anorum, nooxopumym pAn oo xuanopon1oArnoc1u. 01o oxucAo-
nuo ocymoc1nAno1cn n nocAopona1oArno onu xa1aAuauyomwx qo-
mon1amu oaxu, connxonnwx c oaaonanuom maxoarunocxoro
coopunonun - ooeuo:uunpuqocqono (ATP). KonaAon1nwo cnnau, nu
rupoAuao xo1owx nwpoAno1cn oAoo 30 Kx,moAr anoruu, naaw-
nam1cn maxoarunocxumu. ATP - nyxAoo1up, coc1onmu ua aponu-
na, uoaw u 1ox oc1a1xon qocqono xucAo1w. ATP xnaxoxcx ynn-
nopcaannmm noponocnnuom n ocnonnmm auuymyaxxopom anoprnn n
uaoxuo, uoxopax aauamnona n nmcouoanoproxnnocunx cnxaxx mom-
py xpomx ocxaxuamn qocqopno uncaoxm. Hu o1monAonuu o1 ATP
opno qocqa1no rynnw oaayo1cn ADP (aponoaunpuqocqonan
xucAo1a) u qocqa1 u nwpoAno1cn cnoopnan anorun, xo1oan uc-
noArayo1cn xAo1xo pAn ocymoc1nAonun ao1w - uocun1oa, ax1un-
nw 1ancno1 nomoc1n nooa uoAorunocxuo momanw, pnuxonuo
u noopana rono1unocxo unqomauu. O1monAnmmucn nooranu-
nocxu qocqa1 (PI) ucnoArayo1cn pAn qocqouAuonanun caxaon,
xunwx xucAo1, amunoxucAo1 u pyrux nopyx1on.
ATP nnAno1cn anuonom c nwcoxum aanpom (xumunocxu nwco-
xoc1auArnwm), oro anorun no accounao1cn n nupo 1onAa; Aaropa-
n maAwm aamoam moAoxyAa ATP Aorxo puqqynpuyo1 n aaAun-
nwo xAo1onnwo xomna1mon1w; copnnn nopoAxu1oArnoc1r xua-
nu moAoxyAw ATP oxoAo 1,3 c. Eco a1u cnoc1na poAam1 oro ynu-
nocaArno qomo aanacanun xumunocxo anoruu n xAo1xo.
Hanpy c ATP xAo1xa aanacao1 eouo:uunpuqocqon (GTP), xo1o-
w ynac1nyo1 n nooccax uocun1oaa oAxa u PHK; puouunpu
qocqon (UTP), ynac1nymmu n cun1oao non1uporAuxana xAo1on-
no c1onxu u noAucaxaupon, aaAunnwx nupon PHK; uunuouun
puqocqon (CTP), ynac1nymmu n cun1oao Aunupon u PHK.
E nooccax anaoAuama noucxopu1 uocun1oa moAoxyA, xo-
1ow oocnonunao1cn anoruo aa cno1 rupoAuaa ATP, unwmu
cAonamu, anaoAuam u xa1aoAuam connxonw. EuoAorunocxoo
oxucAonuo Aoxu1 n ocnono ocnooxponun anoruu, aaxAmnonno n
numonwx nomoc1nax.
Cxoma1unno xa1aoAuam numonwx nomoc1n moxno nopc1anu1r
cAopymmum oaaom (uc. 25). E nono c1apuu noucxopu1 ux
acmonAonuo po monomoon. V mnoroxAo1onnwx oranuamon a1o
ocymoc1nAno1cn n numonau1oArnom 1ax1o nop noapoc1nuom coo1-
no1c1nymmux qomon1on, nocAo noro noAynonnwo monomow nca-
cwnam1cn n xonr (monocaxaupw u amunoxucAo1w) u n Aumqy
ocnooxpao1cn anorun, aaxAmnonnan n xumunocxux cnnanx numo-
nwx nomoc1n. 01a anorun ucnoArayo1cn xAo1xo pAn ocymoc1nAo-
nun aaAunno ao1w, n 1om nucAo u accumuAnuu. V ncox uanoc-
1nwx na 3omAo xunwx oranuamon anoro1unocxuo nooccw nocr-
ma cxopnw. Eco cow1un, no1oxammuo n xunwx oranuamax, nop-
nunnm1cn aaxonam 1omopunamuxu. Hunan cuc1oma nyxpao1cn n
noc1onnnom nu1oxo anoruu uanno. 0norun EcoAonno noc1ynao1
na 3omAm n nupo coAnonno anoruu, poc1ynno xunwm cuc1omam,
nocymum n coo aaxopuonannym unqomaum. 01u cuc1omw oAa-
pam1 moxanuamamu cnnawnanun, nonamonun, aanacanun u ucnoAr-
aonanun anoruu, Aaropan nomy noamoxna xuanopon1oArnoc1r
oranuamon, 1o oc1r ux nwxunanuo, a 1axxo aamnoxonuo. Hanpy
c a1um cymoc1nyo1 rynna noxauo1, cnoconwx noAyna1r nooxo-
pumym pAn cun1oaa oranunocxux nomoc1n anorum n xopo xumu-
nocxux oaxu nooranunocxux nomoc1n (oAoo nopono o a1om
accxaaano n aapoAo, nocnnmonnom muxooranuamam).
0norun coAnonnoro cno1a ucnoArayo1cn xunwmu oranuama-
mu na 3omAo 1oArxo Aaropan qo1ocun1oay, n xopo xo1ooro no-
ucxopu1 nocnun1uo anoruu aAox1onamu xAooquAAa u nocAopy-
mmoo oo nooaaonanuo n anorum xumunocxux cnnao rAmxoaw
u pyrux oranunocxux coopunonu. Hu a1om CO
2
quxcuyo1cn u
nwpoAno1cn O
2
. Poaxun nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
anorun coAnonnoro cno1a - CO
2
- H
2
O
oranunocxuo nomoc1na - O
2
.
Eco oranuamw, no cnoconwo x qo1ocun1oay, noAynam1 anorum
aa cno1 no1oAonun aoAonwx ac1onu (nonocopc1nonno uAu onoco-
ponanno). Pao1a Amwx moxanuamon, ocnonannwx na no1oAonuu
oranunocxux nomoc1n, oocnonunao1cn nupouamononno coAnonno
anoruo. H paxo n ocnono xaxporo namoro pnuxonun (ypr 1o uonuo
copa uAu pnuxonuo rAaa) Aoxu1 Ayn cno1a, xo1ow xorpa-1o ynaA
na aoAonw Auc1 u paA anorum aAox1ony, nupouamononnym nnocAop-
c1nuu n xumunocxym cnnar. Taxum oaaom, oo:oeuumu ouepeueu
co.ueuuoeo coeno o.eunpou r.opoqu..o no.nencn +onepuo.tuou oc
uooou ocer ouepeenuuecuur npoueccoo, npoucroonur o uomr cucne
+or, nocuo.tu .wou u: onur npoueccoo ocecno.nencn .oeooopn
ouepeuu, uonopw oo:oeuumu o.eunpou onooen, oo:opoonct uo
coou ucrooumu cnouuouopumu pooeut. Huxo mw nopono accmo1-
um noamoxnwo nananAonun pnuxonun 1axoro aAox1ona.
E nuopo noucxopu1 noc1onnnw xyronoo1 yrAoopa, aao-
1a u xucAoopa, xo1ow cnnawnao1 moxpy coo aaAunnwo xu-
nwo oranuamw. E noocco xa1aoAuama noc1ynammuo n ora-
nuam numonwo nomoc1na acmonAnm1cn po amunoxucAo1, noc1wx
caxaon, xunwx xucAo1 u rAuouna.
Conoxynnoc1r uoxumunocxux oaxu, oayAr1a1om xo1owx
nnAno1cn y1uAuaaun anoruu xumunocxux cnnao oranunocxux
# #
P u c . 2 5. Tpu cmauu xamaonusua
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
P u c . 2 6. Oas cxeua ouea seecms s xnemxe u pons CoA s eu
(no Peu+epy, c usueeusuu)
(xunwo xucAo1w). PacmonAonuo axaoronnwx oranunocxux nomoc1n
y noc1omux noucxopu1 n numonau1oArnwx naxyoAnx, c xo1o-
wmu cAunam1cn nonunnwo Auaocomw.
Eo n1oo c1apuu, noaanucumo o1 nuopw numonoro nopyx1a,
oaayo1cn ao1uAxoanaum A (ao1uA-CoA). 01o coopunonuo, a 1axxo
pyruo qomon1w, nxAmnammuo n con KoA, nnAnm1cn xAmnonwmu
anonrnmu mnoxoc1na aanooaanwx uoxumunocxux oaxu
(uc. 26). E III c1apuu noucxopu1 noAnoo oxucAonuo ao1uArno
rynnw ao1uA-CoA po H
2
O u CO
2
, nu a1om oArmoo xoAunoc1no
aAox1onon u no1onon aanacao1cn na moAoxyAax NADH. E paAr-
nomom anorun aAox1onon ucnoArayo1cn pAn oaaonanun no-
1onnoro rapuon1a, n1o oocnonunao1 nocAopymmu cun1oa ATP.
Paccmo1um oAoo po1aArno anoro1unocxu omon na numoo
acmonAonun rAmxoaw (uc. 2?). CnanaAa ona 1ancno1uyo1cn
nooa nAaama1unocxym momany n u1onAaamy xAo1xu. E ma1ux-
co u1onAaamw noucxopu1 oo ocxucAoopnoo acmonAonuo, uAu
ranuoana, - mnoroc1ynonna1w qomon1a1unnw noocc, n oayAr-
1a1o xo1ooro ua opno moAoxyAw rAmxoaw oaaym1cn pno moAo-
xyAw nuyna1a (nuonunorapno xucAo1w - HEK) u no1wo moAo-
xyAw aponoaun1uqocqono xucAo1w (ATP). Opnaxo noAoanw
nwxop ATP nu rAuxoAuao opno moAoxyAw rAmxoaw coc1anAno1
ncoro pno moAoxyAw, nocxoArxy pno moAoxyAw ATP ucnoAraonaAucr
na annux c1apunx noocca (uc. 28). HEK nnAno1cn ynunocaAr-
no moAoxyAo, xo1oan ucnoArayo1cn aaAunnwmu ny1nmu n aanu-
cumoc1u o1 oranuama uAu ycAonu mo1aoAuama.
HocAopona1oArnoc1r oaxu rAuxoAuaa wAa o1xw1a n 1upa-
1wo ropw XX n. nocxoArxumu ynonwmu (I. 0mpon, H.O. Hanac,
O. Mooroq, .A. Hnanon, C.H. Koc1wnon u A.H. oopon). Hoocc
nanunao1cn c qocqouAuonanun rAmxoaw aa cno1 ATP - nopnax po-
aunx. 01o nepoon nqcuooon peouuun rAuxoAuaa. Eo oayAr1a1om nn-
Ano1cn rAmxoao-6-qocqa1, umommu o1ua1oArnw aanp. CAopyo1
o1mo1u1r, n1o n rAuxoAua moxo1 nonAoxa1rcn no 1oArxo rAmxoaa, no u
pyruo roxcoaw (nanumo, qyx1oaa), opnaxo n oayAr1a1o qocqou-
Auonanun u ax1unauu nco anno oaayo1cn rAmxoao-6-qocqa1.
Eo nxopo poaunn noucxopu1 uaomouaaun (nny1umoAo-
xyAnnwo nooc1oxu) rAmxoao-6-qocqa1a no qyx1oao-6-qocqa1.
E xpoxno poaunn noucxopu1 qocqouAuonanuo (nucoopuno-
nuo oc1a1xa o1oqocqono xucAo1w) qyx1oao-6-qocqa1a c oa-
aonanuom qyx1oao-1,6-puqocqa1a. Hu a1om aa1anunao1cn omo
opna moAoxyAa ATP (yxo n1oan) - a1o onopon nqcuooon peouuun
rAuxoAuaa.
# #
P u c . 2 5. Tpu cmauu xamaonusua
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
P u c . 2 6. Oas cxeua ouea seecms s xnemxe u pons CoA s eu
(no Peu+epy, c usueeusuu)
(xunwo xucAo1w). PacmonAonuo axaoronnwx oranunocxux nomoc1n
y noc1omux noucxopu1 n numonau1oArnwx naxyoAnx, c xo1o-
wmu cAunam1cn nonunnwo Auaocomw.
Eo n1oo c1apuu, noaanucumo o1 nuopw numonoro nopyx1a,
oaayo1cn ao1uAxoanaum A (ao1uA-CoA). 01o coopunonuo, a 1axxo
pyruo qomon1w, nxAmnammuo n con KoA, nnAnm1cn xAmnonwmu
anonrnmu mnoxoc1na aanooaanwx uoxumunocxux oaxu
(uc. 26). E III c1apuu noucxopu1 noAnoo oxucAonuo ao1uArno
rynnw ao1uA-CoA po H
2
O u CO
2
, nu a1om oArmoo xoAunoc1no
aAox1onon u no1onon aanacao1cn na moAoxyAax NADH. E paAr-
nomom anorun aAox1onon ucnoArayo1cn pAn oaaonanun no-
1onnoro rapuon1a, n1o oocnonunao1 nocAopymmu cun1oa ATP.
Paccmo1um oAoo po1aArno anoro1unocxu omon na numoo
acmonAonun rAmxoaw (uc. 2?). CnanaAa ona 1ancno1uyo1cn
nooa nAaama1unocxym momany n u1onAaamy xAo1xu. E ma1ux-
co u1onAaamw noucxopu1 oo ocxucAoopnoo acmonAonuo, uAu
ranuoana, - mnoroc1ynonna1w qomon1a1unnw noocc, n oayAr-
1a1o xo1ooro ua opno moAoxyAw rAmxoaw oaaym1cn pno moAo-
xyAw nuyna1a (nuonunorapno xucAo1w - HEK) u no1wo moAo-
xyAw aponoaun1uqocqono xucAo1w (ATP). Opnaxo noAoanw
nwxop ATP nu rAuxoAuao opno moAoxyAw rAmxoaw coc1anAno1
ncoro pno moAoxyAw, nocxoArxy pno moAoxyAw ATP ucnoAraonaAucr
na annux c1apunx noocca (uc. 28). HEK nnAno1cn ynunocaAr-
no moAoxyAo, xo1oan ucnoArayo1cn aaAunnwmu ny1nmu n aanu-
cumoc1u o1 oranuama uAu ycAonu mo1aoAuama.
HocAopona1oArnoc1r oaxu rAuxoAuaa wAa o1xw1a n 1upa-
1wo ropw XX n. nocxoArxumu ynonwmu (I. 0mpon, H.O. Hanac,
O. Mooroq, .A. Hnanon, C.H. Koc1wnon u A.H. oopon). Hoocc
nanunao1cn c qocqouAuonanun rAmxoaw aa cno1 ATP - nopnax po-
aunx. 01o nepoon nqcuooon peouuun rAuxoAuaa. Eo oayAr1a1om nn-
Ano1cn rAmxoao-6-qocqa1, umommu o1ua1oArnw aanp. CAopyo1
o1mo1u1r, n1o n rAuxoAua moxo1 nonAoxa1rcn no 1oArxo rAmxoaa, no u
pyruo roxcoaw (nanumo, qyx1oaa), opnaxo n oayAr1a1o qocqou-
Auonanun u ax1unauu nco anno oaayo1cn rAmxoao-6-qocqa1.
Eo nxopo poaunn noucxopu1 uaomouaaun (nny1umoAo-
xyAnnwo nooc1oxu) rAmxoao-6-qocqa1a no qyx1oao-6-qocqa1.
E xpoxno poaunn noucxopu1 qocqouAuonanuo (nucoopuno-
nuo oc1a1xa o1oqocqono xucAo1w) qyx1oao-6-qocqa1a c oa-
aonanuom qyx1oao-1,6-puqocqa1a. Hu a1om aa1anunao1cn omo
opna moAoxyAa ATP (yxo n1oan) - a1o onopon nqcuooon peouuun
rAuxoAuaa.
#! #
noucxopu1 noonoc qocqa1no rynnw c 1o1roro a1oma yrAoopa
na n1oo. E oayAr1a1o oaayo1cn 2-qocqorAuoa1 (2-qocqor-
Auounonan xucAo1a). onxxax poaunx cononoxpao1cn nny1-
umoAoxyAnnwmu oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwmu noocca-
mu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx oaayo1cn qocqoonoAnuyna1 (qocqoo-
noAnuonunorapnan xucAo1a) c nwcoxoanoro1unocxo cnnarm no
n1oom a1omo yrAoopa u o1monAno1cn moAoxyAa nopw. E xopo po-
cxxo poaunn qocqouArnan rynna noonocu1cn na ADP. Hu
a1om cun1oauyo1cn ATP u nuyna1 (nuonunorapnan xucAo1a).
01a oaxun 1axxo nooa1uma, nocxoArxy nwcoxoaxaoronunna.
Puc. 28. Peaxuu anuxonusa:
s pauxu noueem ucxome cycmpamm u xoevme npoyxmm anuxonusa; uqpauu
s cxoxax oosaveo vucno uonexyn
P u c . 2 7. Smanm
pacenneus ankxosm u
+upmx xucnom s xnemxe:
1 anuxonus s umosone; 2 oxuc-
numensoe qocqopunuposaue
s uumoxopusx; Hn umo-
neuua; Bu u Hu sympess
u apy+as ueupam uumo-
xopuu (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu).
Homoxu sa+euux uemaonu-
mos, nocmynakux s uumoxo-
puk u smxosux us ee. Hu-
pysam u +upme xucnomm sxo-
sm s uumoxopuk u uemao-
nusupykmcs s uxne nuuoo
xucnomm, s xomopou opasyem-
cs NADH. 3ameu s xoe oxuc-
numensoao qocqopunuposa-
us oaamme sepaue snexm-
pom NADH nepeakmcs a
xucnopo c nouosk mxa-
menso enu, axosecs so
sympee ueupae; npu
smou naaoaps xeuuocuomu-
vecxouy uexausuy opasyem-
cs ATP. NADH, opasosam s
umosone npu anuxonuse, mo+e
Ona upo1 n nucy1c1nuu Mg
2-
u nnAno1cn nooa1umo, nocxoAr-
xy cononoxpao1cn macm1anwm ymonrmonuom cnoopno anoruu.
E noxnopxo poaunn noucxopu1 acmonAonuo qyx1oao-1,6-puqoc-
qa1a na pno moAoxyAw rAuoaArporup-3-qocqa1a. E nxxo poaunn
noucxopu1 uaomouaaun noAynonnwx 1uoaoqocqa1on. Ha a1om aa-
xannunao1cn nonan c1apun rAuxoAuaa - nopro1onu1oArnan (nanom-
num, n1o a1a c1apun nxAmnao1 n con oaxuu c nono no nn1ym).
Eo n1oo c1apuu (ona nxAmnao1 n con oaxuu c moc1o no
pocn1ym) rAuxoAuaa noucxopn1 oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwo
oaxuu, a 1axxo oaxuu qocqouAuonanun. E mocxo poaunn
noucxopu1 oxucAonuo aArporupno rynnw po xaoxcuArno. Ew-
poAunmucn H
-
axon1uyo1cn NAD, xo1ow nocc1ananAunao1cn
po NADH. Ocnooxpammancn anorun aa1anunao1cn pAn oaao-
nanun nwcoxoanoro1unocxo cnnau 1,3-uqocqorAuoa1a (1,3-
uqocqorAuounonan xucAo1a). E copnmo poaunn qocqouAr-
nan rynna 1,3-uqocqorAuoa1a noonocu1cn na ADP, n oayAr-
1a1o noro oaayo1cn ATP (nanomunaom, n1o cAopyo1 umo1r n nupy
pno naaAAoArnwo onu oaxu, c ynac1uom pnyx moAoxyA 1uoa,
oaaonanmuxcn ua opno moAoxyAw roxcoaw, cAopona1oArno, cun-
1oauyo1cn no opna, a pno moAoxyAw ATP). E nocnmo poaunn
nepeaem csou snexmpom s mxamensyk ens (e noxasao). Tax xax NADH e cnoco-
e npoxoums vepes sympekk ueupay, nepeoc eao snexmpoos ocyecmsnsemcs
enpsumu nymeu npu nouou oo us ecxonsxux venovmx cucmeu, mpacnopmupy-
kux s uumoxopuk pyaoe soccmaosneoe coeueue; nocne oxucneus smo coeu-
eue sosspaaemcs s umosons, ae soss soccmaasnusaemcs c nouosk NADH.
#! #
noucxopu1 noonoc qocqa1no rynnw c 1o1roro a1oma yrAoopa
na n1oo. E oayAr1a1o oaayo1cn 2-qocqorAuoa1 (2-qocqor-
Auounonan xucAo1a). onxxax poaunx cononoxpao1cn nny1-
umoAoxyAnnwmu oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwmu noocca-
mu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx oaayo1cn qocqoonoAnuyna1 (qocqoo-
noAnuonunorapnan xucAo1a) c nwcoxoanoro1unocxo cnnarm no
n1oom a1omo yrAoopa u o1monAno1cn moAoxyAa nopw. E xopo po-
cxxo poaunn qocqouArnan rynna noonocu1cn na ADP. Hu
a1om cun1oauyo1cn ATP u nuyna1 (nuonunorapnan xucAo1a).
01a oaxun 1axxo nooa1uma, nocxoArxy nwcoxoaxaoronunna.
Puc. 28. Peaxuu anuxonusa:
s pauxu noueem ucxome cycmpamm u xoevme npoyxmm anuxonusa; uqpauu
s cxoxax oosaveo vucno uonexyn
P u c . 2 7. Smanm
pacenneus ankxosm u
+upmx xucnom s xnemxe:
1 anuxonus s umosone; 2 oxuc-
numensoe qocqopunuposaue
s uumoxopusx; Hn umo-
neuua; Bu u Hu sympess
u apy+as ueupam uumo-
xopuu (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu).
Homoxu sa+euux uemaonu-
mos, nocmynakux s uumoxo-
puk u smxosux us ee. Hu-
pysam u +upme xucnomm sxo-
sm s uumoxopuk u uemao-
nusupykmcs s uxne nuuoo
xucnomm, s xomopou opasyem-
cs NADH. 3ameu s xoe oxuc-
numensoao qocqopunuposa-
us oaamme sepaue snexm-
pom NADH nepeakmcs a
xucnopo c nouosk mxa-
menso enu, axosecs so
sympee ueupae; npu
smou naaoaps xeuuocuomu-
vecxouy uexausuy opasyem-
cs ATP. NADH, opasosam s
umosone npu anuxonuse, mo+e
Ona upo1 n nucy1c1nuu Mg
2-
u nnAno1cn nooa1umo, nocxoAr-
xy cononoxpao1cn macm1anwm ymonrmonuom cnoopno anoruu.
E noxnopxo poaunn noucxopu1 acmonAonuo qyx1oao-1,6-puqoc-
qa1a na pno moAoxyAw rAuoaArporup-3-qocqa1a. E nxxo poaunn
noucxopu1 uaomouaaun noAynonnwx 1uoaoqocqa1on. Ha a1om aa-
xannunao1cn nonan c1apun rAuxoAuaa - nopro1onu1oArnan (nanom-
num, n1o a1a c1apun nxAmnao1 n con oaxuu c nono no nn1ym).
Eo n1oo c1apuu (ona nxAmnao1 n con oaxuu c moc1o no
pocn1ym) rAuxoAuaa noucxopn1 oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwo
oaxuu, a 1axxo oaxuu qocqouAuonanun. E mocxo poaunn
noucxopu1 oxucAonuo aArporupno rynnw po xaoxcuArno. Ew-
poAunmucn H
-
axon1uyo1cn NAD, xo1ow nocc1ananAunao1cn
po NADH. Ocnooxpammancn anorun aa1anunao1cn pAn oaao-
nanun nwcoxoanoro1unocxo cnnau 1,3-uqocqorAuoa1a (1,3-
uqocqorAuounonan xucAo1a). E copnmo poaunn qocqouAr-
nan rynna 1,3-uqocqorAuoa1a noonocu1cn na ADP, n oayAr-
1a1o noro oaayo1cn ATP (nanomunaom, n1o cAopyo1 umo1r n nupy
pno naaAAoArnwo onu oaxu, c ynac1uom pnyx moAoxyA 1uoa,
oaaonanmuxcn ua opno moAoxyAw roxcoaw, cAopona1oArno, cun-
1oauyo1cn no opna, a pno moAoxyAw ATP). E nocnmo poaunn
nepeaem csou snexmpom s mxamensyk ens (e noxasao). Tax xax NADH e cnoco-
e npoxoums vepes sympekk ueupay, nepeoc eao snexmpoos ocyecmsnsemcs
enpsumu nymeu npu nouou oo us ecxonsxux venovmx cucmeu, mpacnopmupy-
kux s uumoxopuk pyaoe soccmaosneoe coeueue; nocne oxucneus smo coeu-
eue sosspaaemcs s umosons, ae soss soccmaasnusaemcs c nouosk NADH.
## #"
ocAu oranuam maAo1onuonan. PoryAnnwo quaunocxuo ynax-
nonun noanoAnm1 yAynmu1r xonocnaxonuo mwm u ycxou1r
acnap moAonno xucAo1w.
Cymoc1nyo1 nocxoArxo pyrux ny1o ocxucAoopnoro acmon-
Aonun cyc1a1a, oAoo nopono o nux accxaaano n aapoAo, no-
cnnmonnom muxooranuamam.
aArnomuo a1anw oxucAonun noucxopn1 n mu1oxonpunx.
E oayAr1a1o rAuxoAuaa ocnooxpao1cn Aumr oxoAo 5% ano-
ruu, aaxAmnonno n xumunocxux cnnanx moAoxyAw rAmxoaw, oc-
1aArnan xo ocnooxpao1cn n mu1oxonpunx n noocco aaonoro
oxucAonun u 1oxo aanacao1cn n ATP. E mu1oxonpunx ADP, co-
opunnncr c oc1a1xom qocqono xucAo1w, nonamao1cn n ATP:
ATP ADP - PI (PI - oranunocxu qocqa1). E pocuene uo oouu
+o.t e.wuo:m opo:encn 36 +o.t ATP.
Xumunocxum u1orom n1oo c1apuu xa1aoAuama nnAno1cn o-
aaonanuo ao1uA-CoA. Hu rAuxoAuao a1o coopunonuo oaayo1cn
n oayAr1a1o naaumopoc1nun nuyna1a c xoanaumom-A. Hu a1om
o1 1oxyrAoopnoro nuyna1a oc1ao1cn pnyxyrAoopnan ao1uArnan
rynna, xo1oan u nucoopunno1cn x CoA, oaayn ao1uA-CoA.
Oc1anmucn o1 nuyna1a a1om yrAoopa nwpoAno1cn n nupo moAoxy-
Aw CO
2
. HauoAoo naxnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu n xAo1xo nnAnm1cn
xuw, ux anoro1unocxan onnoc1r nwmo, nom onnoc1r rAuxoro-
na, oAoo nom n 6 aa, a aanacw xua n oranuamo noAonoxa numo-
no n 30 aa oArmo, nom aanacw rAuxorona. PacmonAonuo xuon
upo1 unano. HocxoArxy xuw nopc1anAnm1 coo cAoxnwo aqu-
w, nu nonunnom acmonAonuu oaaym1cn xunwo xucAo1w
u 1oxa1omnw cnu1 rAuoun. 3a1om xunwo xucAo1w (1ax xo
xax u nuyna1) noc1ynam1 n ma1uxc mu1oxonpu (momanw mu-
1oxonpu nonuaomw pAn a1ux coopunonu), rpo nc1ynam1 n cAox-
nw uxA xumunocxux oaxu. E oayAr1a1o a1ux oaxu nocAo
xaxporo uxAa o1 moAoxyAw xuno xucAo1w o1poAnm1cn pna a1o-
ma yrAoopa, xo1owo u upy1 na oaaonanuo ao1uA-CoA. Hu ac-
monAonuu xunwx xucAo1 ucnoAraym1cn nco a1omw yrAoopa, 1or-
pa xax nu rAuxoAuao 1o1rn nac1r yrAoopa 1ono1cn n nupo CO
2
(n
oayAr1a1o oxucAu1oArnoro poxaoxcuAuonanun nuyna1a).
Poaxuu oxucAonun, nunopnmuo x ocnooxponum anoruu, ocy-
moc1nAnm1cn ny1om o1nn1un y oxucAnomo moAoxyAw o1ua1oArno
aanxonnoro aAox1ona, xo1ow cnnaan c a1omom nopoopa (H
-
).
Axon1oamu aAox1onon cAyxa1 moAoxyAw nuxo1unamupaponunpu-
nyxAoo1upa (NAD
-
), qAanunaponunpunyxAoo1upa (FAD). Onu u nu-
coopunnm1 x coo a1o1 uon nopoopa (oaxun nocc1anonAonun). Eoc-
c1anonAonnan moAoxyAa nuxo1unamupaponunpunyxAoo1upa ooana-
nao1cn xax NADH, qAanunaponunpunyxAoo1upa - FADH
2
. Eco a1u
nooccw ocymoc1nAnm1cn n ma1uxco mu1oxonpu nu ynac1uu
naxopnmuxcn 1am qomon1on n uuu.e .u+ouuou uuc.onm (oro 1ax-
xo naawnam1 uuu.o+ npuuopouoomr uuc.on, uAu uuu. Kpeco).
EcAu nocAo rAuxoAuaa cAopyo1 aaonoo acmonAonuo, nuyna1
muruyo1 n ma1uxc mu1oxonpu, rpo, naaumopoc1nyn c xoanau-
mom-A, ynac1nyo1 n oaaonanuu ao1uA-CoA. E anaaonwx ycAo-
nunx nuyna1 nu ynac1uu NADH nocc1ananAunao1cn po Aax1a1a
(moAonno xucAo1w), xo1ow nu a1om nnAno1cn xononnwm no-
pyx1om rAuxoAuaa. 3a1om n aaonwx ycAonunx Aax1a1 moxo1 o-
a1no nona1u1rcn n nuyna1 u oxucAu1rcn n mu1oxonpunx. Op-
naxo Arman oro nac1r (oxoAo 80%) ocun1oauyo1cn n rAuxoron.
IAuxoAua nnAno1cn nauoAoo wc1wm cnocoom noAynonun
ATP, opnaxo anoro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r oro nonoAuxa. Ewxop
anoruu nu a1om coc1anAno1:
rAmxoaa 2 moAonnan xucAo1a - 2H
-
, DO
0

(H ?)
196 xx,moAr.
Tax xax noAoanw nwxop ATP nu rAuxoAuao opno moAoxyAw
rAmxoaw coc1anAno1 pno moAoxyAw, 1o KH a1oro noocca:
ADP - H
3
PO
4
ATP - H
2
O, DO
0
(H ?) - 34,5 xx,moAr,
34,5 xx,moAr 2 69 xx,moAr
- coc1anAno1 35%. Hocmo1n na o1nocu1oArno nuaxym aqqox-
1unnoc1r, rAuxoAua umoo1 oArmoo ananonuo pAn xunwx oranua-
mon. V anaaonwx oranuamon ocxucAoopnoo acmonAonuo cy-
c1a1a nnAno1cn opunc1nonnwm uc1onnuxom ATP. Hunom copu
1axux oranuamon nucy1c1nym1 no 1oArxo noxauo1w, no u np
mnoroxAo1onnwx (nanumo, mnoruo roArmun1w).
Hoanwnano naxon rAuxoAua u pAn aaonwx oranuamon, no-
cxoArxy noanoAno1 wc1o noAynu1r ATP n ycAonunx poquu1a xuc-
Aoopa. Hanumo, oaxoo nonwmonuo ao1w cxoAo1nwx mwm
nunopu1 x nonouonaArnomy ynoAunonum mo1aoAuama (aqqox1
onna). Coo1no1c1nonno noaac1ao1 yononr no1oAonun ATP muo-
u1amu oAoo nom n 100 aa no cannonum c noxoom. Hmonno rAuxo-
Aua oocnonunao1 ananu1oArnym nac1r nooxopumoro nu a1om ATP,
nocxoArxy n xopo oro ATP cun1oauyo1cn n 2 - 3 aaa wc1oo, nom
nu aaonom pwxanuu. Hoa1omy n caxonAaamo muou1on aanaca-
m1cn ranyAw rAuxorona, nu ux rupoAuao oaayo1cn rAmxoaa.
Opnaxo noamoxnoc1u rAuxoAuaa no oaranunnw. Ha-aa nopoc1a1-
xa xucAoopa n un1oncunno ao1ammux mwmax cun1oauyo1cn
oArmoo xoAunoc1no moAonno xucAo1w, noa1omy aanunao1cn mo-
1aoAunocxu aupoa, oranununammu ao1ocnoconoc1r mwm
(oryn-cnun1o no moxo1 oxa1r c maxcumaArno cxooc1rm o-
Aoo 30 coxynp). Haxonunmancn n mwmax moAonnan xucAo1a 1o-
yo1 oxucAonun, n1o nunopu1 x oaxomy ycuAonum non1uAnuu
Aorxux (xomy no anaxomo 1nxoAoo u nac1oo pwxanuo nocAo wc1o-
ro ora uAu uno naryaxu?) u nocAopymmo mwmonno oAu,
## #"
ocAu oranuam maAo1onuonan. PoryAnnwo quaunocxuo ynax-
nonun noanoAnm1 yAynmu1r xonocnaxonuo mwm u ycxou1r
acnap moAonno xucAo1w.
Cymoc1nyo1 nocxoArxo pyrux ny1o ocxucAoopnoro acmon-
Aonun cyc1a1a, oAoo nopono o nux accxaaano n aapoAo, no-
cnnmonnom muxooranuamam.
aArnomuo a1anw oxucAonun noucxopn1 n mu1oxonpunx.
E oayAr1a1o rAuxoAuaa ocnooxpao1cn Aumr oxoAo 5% ano-
ruu, aaxAmnonno n xumunocxux cnnanx moAoxyAw rAmxoaw, oc-
1aArnan xo ocnooxpao1cn n mu1oxonpunx n noocco aaonoro
oxucAonun u 1oxo aanacao1cn n ATP. E mu1oxonpunx ADP, co-
opunnncr c oc1a1xom qocqono xucAo1w, nonamao1cn n ATP:
ATP ADP - PI (PI - oranunocxu qocqa1). E pocuene uo oouu
+o.t e.wuo:m opo:encn 36 +o.t ATP.
Xumunocxum u1orom n1oo c1apuu xa1aoAuama nnAno1cn o-
aaonanuo ao1uA-CoA. Hu rAuxoAuao a1o coopunonuo oaayo1cn
n oayAr1a1o naaumopoc1nun nuyna1a c xoanaumom-A. Hu a1om
o1 1oxyrAoopnoro nuyna1a oc1ao1cn pnyxyrAoopnan ao1uArnan
rynna, xo1oan u nucoopunno1cn x CoA, oaayn ao1uA-CoA.
Oc1anmucn o1 nuyna1a a1om yrAoopa nwpoAno1cn n nupo moAoxy-
Aw CO
2
. HauoAoo naxnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu n xAo1xo nnAnm1cn
xuw, ux anoro1unocxan onnoc1r nwmo, nom onnoc1r rAuxoro-
na, oAoo nom n 6 aa, a aanacw xua n oranuamo noAonoxa numo-
no n 30 aa oArmo, nom aanacw rAuxorona. PacmonAonuo xuon
upo1 unano. HocxoArxy xuw nopc1anAnm1 coo cAoxnwo aqu-
w, nu nonunnom acmonAonuu oaaym1cn xunwo xucAo1w
u 1oxa1omnw cnu1 rAuoun. 3a1om xunwo xucAo1w (1ax xo
xax u nuyna1) noc1ynam1 n ma1uxc mu1oxonpu (momanw mu-
1oxonpu nonuaomw pAn a1ux coopunonu), rpo nc1ynam1 n cAox-
nw uxA xumunocxux oaxu. E oayAr1a1o a1ux oaxu nocAo
xaxporo uxAa o1 moAoxyAw xuno xucAo1w o1poAnm1cn pna a1o-
ma yrAoopa, xo1owo u upy1 na oaaonanuo ao1uA-CoA. Hu ac-
monAonuu xunwx xucAo1 ucnoAraym1cn nco a1omw yrAoopa, 1or-
pa xax nu rAuxoAuao 1o1rn nac1r yrAoopa 1ono1cn n nupo CO
2
(n
oayAr1a1o oxucAu1oArnoro poxaoxcuAuonanun nuyna1a).
Poaxuu oxucAonun, nunopnmuo x ocnooxponum anoruu, ocy-
moc1nAnm1cn ny1om o1nn1un y oxucAnomo moAoxyAw o1ua1oArno
aanxonnoro aAox1ona, xo1ow cnnaan c a1omom nopoopa (H
-
).
Axon1oamu aAox1onon cAyxa1 moAoxyAw nuxo1unamupaponunpu-
nyxAoo1upa (NAD
-
), qAanunaponunpunyxAoo1upa (FAD). Onu u nu-
coopunnm1 x coo a1o1 uon nopoopa (oaxun nocc1anonAonun). Eoc-
c1anonAonnan moAoxyAa nuxo1unamupaponunpunyxAoo1upa ooana-
nao1cn xax NADH, qAanunaponunpunyxAoo1upa - FADH
2
. Eco a1u
nooccw ocymoc1nAnm1cn n ma1uxco mu1oxonpu nu ynac1uu
naxopnmuxcn 1am qomon1on n uuu.e .u+ouuou uuc.onm (oro 1ax-
xo naawnam1 uuu.o+ npuuopouoomr uuc.on, uAu uuu. Kpeco).
EcAu nocAo rAuxoAuaa cAopyo1 aaonoo acmonAonuo, nuyna1
muruyo1 n ma1uxc mu1oxonpu, rpo, naaumopoc1nyn c xoanau-
mom-A, ynac1nyo1 n oaaonanuu ao1uA-CoA. E anaaonwx ycAo-
nunx nuyna1 nu ynac1uu NADH nocc1ananAunao1cn po Aax1a1a
(moAonno xucAo1w), xo1ow nu a1om nnAno1cn xononnwm no-
pyx1om rAuxoAuaa. 3a1om n aaonwx ycAonunx Aax1a1 moxo1 o-
a1no nona1u1rcn n nuyna1 u oxucAu1rcn n mu1oxonpunx. Op-
naxo Arman oro nac1r (oxoAo 80%) ocun1oauyo1cn n rAuxoron.
IAuxoAua nnAno1cn nauoAoo wc1wm cnocoom noAynonun
ATP, opnaxo anoro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r oro nonoAuxa. Ewxop
anoruu nu a1om coc1anAno1:
rAmxoaa 2 moAonnan xucAo1a - 2H
-
, DO
0

(H ?)
196 xx,moAr.
Tax xax noAoanw nwxop ATP nu rAuxoAuao opno moAoxyAw
rAmxoaw coc1anAno1 pno moAoxyAw, 1o KH a1oro noocca:
ADP - H
3
PO
4
ATP - H
2
O, DO
0
(H ?) - 34,5 xx,moAr,
34,5 xx,moAr 2 69 xx,moAr
- coc1anAno1 35%. Hocmo1n na o1nocu1oArno nuaxym aqqox-
1unnoc1r, rAuxoAua umoo1 oArmoo ananonuo pAn xunwx oranua-
mon. V anaaonwx oranuamon ocxucAoopnoo acmonAonuo cy-
c1a1a nnAno1cn opunc1nonnwm uc1onnuxom ATP. Hunom copu
1axux oranuamon nucy1c1nym1 no 1oArxo noxauo1w, no u np
mnoroxAo1onnwx (nanumo, mnoruo roArmun1w).
Hoanwnano naxon rAuxoAua u pAn aaonwx oranuamon, no-
cxoArxy noanoAno1 wc1o noAynu1r ATP n ycAonunx poquu1a xuc-
Aoopa. Hanumo, oaxoo nonwmonuo ao1w cxoAo1nwx mwm
nunopu1 x nonouonaArnomy ynoAunonum mo1aoAuama (aqqox1
onna). Coo1no1c1nonno noaac1ao1 yononr no1oAonun ATP muo-
u1amu oAoo nom n 100 aa no cannonum c noxoom. Hmonno rAuxo-
Aua oocnonunao1 ananu1oArnym nac1r nooxopumoro nu a1om ATP,
nocxoArxy n xopo oro ATP cun1oauyo1cn n 2 - 3 aaa wc1oo, nom
nu aaonom pwxanuu. Hoa1omy n caxonAaamo muou1on aanaca-
m1cn ranyAw rAuxorona, nu ux rupoAuao oaayo1cn rAmxoaa.
Opnaxo noamoxnoc1u rAuxoAuaa no oaranunnw. Ha-aa nopoc1a1-
xa xucAoopa n un1oncunno ao1ammux mwmax cun1oauyo1cn
oArmoo xoAunoc1no moAonno xucAo1w, noa1omy aanunao1cn mo-
1aoAunocxu aupoa, oranununammu ao1ocnoconoc1r mwm
(oryn-cnun1o no moxo1 oxa1r c maxcumaArno cxooc1rm o-
Aoo 30 coxynp). Haxonunmancn n mwmax moAonnan xucAo1a 1o-
yo1 oxucAonun, n1o nunopu1 x oaxomy ycuAonum non1uAnuu
Aorxux (xomy no anaxomo 1nxoAoo u nac1oo pwxanuo nocAo wc1o-
ro ora uAu uno naryaxu?) u nocAopymmo mwmonno oAu,
#% #$
xa1aAuauyo1cn u1a1-cun1aao, xo1oan nnAno1cn opnum ua o-
ryAn1onwx qomon1on, Aumu1uymmux cxooc1r uxAa Koca.
2. Honamonuo u1a1a n uaou1a1 nu ynac1uu axonu1a1-
rupa1aaw (cAoxnoro qomon1a, copoxamoro Fo
2-
u xucAo1oAa-
uArnwo a1omw cow, oaaymmuo xoAoao-conwo on1w) nooa
nomoxy1onnym c1apum uc-axonu1a1a, cnnaannoro c qomon1om.
3. orupuonanuo (1ax naawnao1cn ypaAonuo ua moAoxyAw a1o-
mon nopoopa) u1a1a c oaaonanuom -xo1orAy1aa1a u CO
2
nu
ynac1uu uaou1a1poruporonaaw, xo1oan qynxuonuyo1 nu
naAunuu Mg
2-
u Mn
2-
.
4. OxucAu1oArnoo poxaoxcuAuonanuo -xo1orAy1aa1a po
nwcoxoanoro1unocxoro cyxunuA-CoA. Poaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn
-xo1orAy1aa1poruporonaanwm xomnAoxcom (Mg
2-
), xo1ow no-
xox na nuyna1poruporonaanw xomnAoxc.
5. Honamonuo cyxunuA-CoA nop nAunnuom cyxunuA-CoA-
cun1o1aaw n cyxuna1 c o1monAonuom CoA. 01a oaxun connxo-
na c oaaonanuom ryanoaun1uqocqa1a (OTP) ua ODP u qocqa1a
u 1axxo xa1aAuauyo1cn yxaaannwm qomon1om.
6. Ka1aAuauyomoo cyxuna1poruporonaao, copoxamo xo-
naAon1no cnnaannw FAD u pna xoAoao-conwx on1a, porupu-
onanuo cyxuna1a c oaaonanuom qymaa1a.
?. Oa1uman rupa1aun qymaa1a c oaaonanuom L-maAa1a,
xa1aAuauyoman qymaa1-rupa1aao uAu qymaaao.
8. Ka1aAuauyomoo NAD-aanucumo L-maAa1poruporonaao
porupuonanuo L-maAa1a c oaaonanuom oxcaAoao1a1a. 01a o-
axun aamwxao1 uxA Koca u noc1anAno1 oxcaAoao1a1 pAn no-
noro uxAa. EoArmunc1no oaxu uxAa Koca oa1umw.
H1ax, o uuu.e Kpeco ue npoucrooun uenocpeocnoeuumu cuune:
ATP. Oououo opo:oooouuucn GTP (peouuun , +oen uocnoooont
o cuune:e ATP. E uuu.e .u+ouuou uuc.onm uoen ouuc.euue +o
.eu., onoe.euue uenmper nop H
-
, uonopme ucno.t:wncn o.n
ooccnouoo.euun NAD
-
u EAD, nepeuoc uenmper nop omcouoouep
eenuuecuur o.eunpouoo o omrone.tuw uent (uent nepeuoco o.eu
npouoo,, onuoo ouu no:e nepeoowncn uo +o.eu.npumu uuc
.opoo - uoueuumu ouuennop o.eunpouoo, o pe:.tnone ueeo opo
:encn H
z
O. Ponr o a1om nopo1 nuxo.
Ocnonnan nac1r ATP cun1oauyo1cn n noocco oxucAu1oArnoro
qocqouAuonanun. mxaxoannax onn, uAu onr noonoca aAox1-
onon, nnAno1cn rAanno cuc1omo nonamonun anoruu. Cun1oa
ATP xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om ATP-cun1o1aao. E 1961 r. H. Mnx-
noaa nopAoxuA xomuocmo1unocxym runo1oay oxucAu1oArnoro qoc-
qouAuonanun numonu1oArno x mu1oxonpunm. CorAacno a1o
runo1oao nu 1ancno1o aAox1onon no pwxa1oArno onu no1onw
o1xanunam1cn ua ma1uxca na nayxnym nonoxnoc1r nny1onno
momanw mu1oxonpu (moxmomannoo noc1anc1no), n1o nw-
awnao1 noanuxnononuo aAox1oxumunocxoro no1onnoro rapuon1a
Jnua anmonno uncaoxm - on1aArnw noocc mo1aoAuama.
O1xw1uo uxAa I. Kocom nnAno1cn opnum ua nauoAoo nwpammux-
cn poc1uxonu conomonno uoxumuu, aa xo1ooo n 1953 r. an1o
wA ypoc1oon HooAoncxo nomuu. HuxA nanunao1cn co naaumopo-
c1nun oxcaAoao1a1a (puxaonono manoAono-yxcycno xucAo1w) c
ao1uA-CoA. HocAo a1oro xoanaum A o1poAno1cn, a ao1uArnan rynna
(nanomunaom, n1o ona oaaonaAacr n oayAr1a1o nopnau1oArnoro
acmonAonun yrAonopon, xuon u amunoxucAo1) ynac1nyo1 n xumunoc-
xux nonamonunx oaaonanmorocn u1a1a (1uxaonono Aumon-
no xucAo1w) n xopo nocAopymmux oaxu. Ho moo ocymoc1nAonun
a1ux oaxu oa a1oma yrAoopa ao1uArno rynnw nocAopona1oAr-
no o1poAnm1cn n nupo moAoxyA CO
2
. Hc1onnuxom xucAoopa pAn a1oro
cAyxu1 nopa, a no1onw u ora1wo anoruo aAox1onw axon1uym1-
cn NAD- u FAD. Komo 1oro, n xopo xaxporo uxAa cun1oauyo1cn no
moAoxyAo OTP. HocAo ocnooxponun ncox a1omon nucoopunonno n
nanaAo uxAa x oxcaAoao1a1y ao1uArno rynnw oxcaAoao1a1 noc-
c1ananAunao1cn, on nnonr naaumopoc1nyo1 c ao1uA-CoA u nucoopu-
nno1 x coo onoopnym ao1uArnym rynny.
Paccmo1um a1o1 noocc oAoo nopono. HuxA Koca nouc-
xopu1 n aaonwx ycAonunx u nxAmnao1 nocomr c1apu (uc. 29).
1. Konponcaun ao1uA-CoA c oxcaAoao1a1om, n oayAr1a1o
noro oaayo1cn u1a1, a xoqomon1 A ocnooxpao1cn. Poaxun
P u c . 2 9. Uuxn nuuoo
xucnomm (uxn lpeca)
#% #$
xa1aAuauyo1cn u1a1-cun1aao, xo1oan nnAno1cn opnum ua o-
ryAn1onwx qomon1on, Aumu1uymmux cxooc1r uxAa Koca.
2. Honamonuo u1a1a n uaou1a1 nu ynac1uu axonu1a1-
rupa1aaw (cAoxnoro qomon1a, copoxamoro Fo
2-
u xucAo1oAa-
uArnwo a1omw cow, oaaymmuo xoAoao-conwo on1w) nooa
nomoxy1onnym c1apum uc-axonu1a1a, cnnaannoro c qomon1om.
3. orupuonanuo (1ax naawnao1cn ypaAonuo ua moAoxyAw a1o-
mon nopoopa) u1a1a c oaaonanuom -xo1orAy1aa1a u CO
2
nu
ynac1uu uaou1a1poruporonaaw, xo1oan qynxuonuyo1 nu
naAunuu Mg
2-
u Mn
2-
.
4. OxucAu1oArnoo poxaoxcuAuonanuo -xo1orAy1aa1a po
nwcoxoanoro1unocxoro cyxunuA-CoA. Poaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn
-xo1orAy1aa1poruporonaanwm xomnAoxcom (Mg
2-
), xo1ow no-
xox na nuyna1poruporonaanw xomnAoxc.
5. Honamonuo cyxunuA-CoA nop nAunnuom cyxunuA-CoA-
cun1o1aaw n cyxuna1 c o1monAonuom CoA. 01a oaxun connxo-
na c oaaonanuom ryanoaun1uqocqa1a (OTP) ua ODP u qocqa1a
u 1axxo xa1aAuauyo1cn yxaaannwm qomon1om.
6. Ka1aAuauyomoo cyxuna1poruporonaao, copoxamo xo-
naAon1no cnnaannw FAD u pna xoAoao-conwx on1a, porupu-
onanuo cyxuna1a c oaaonanuom qymaa1a.
?. Oa1uman rupa1aun qymaa1a c oaaonanuom L-maAa1a,
xa1aAuauyoman qymaa1-rupa1aao uAu qymaaao.
8. Ka1aAuauyomoo NAD-aanucumo L-maAa1poruporonaao
porupuonanuo L-maAa1a c oaaonanuom oxcaAoao1a1a. 01a o-
axun aamwxao1 uxA Koca u noc1anAno1 oxcaAoao1a1 pAn no-
noro uxAa. EoArmunc1no oaxu uxAa Koca oa1umw.
H1ax, o uuu.e Kpeco ue npoucrooun uenocpeocnoeuumu cuune:
ATP. Oououo opo:oooouuucn GTP (peouuun , +oen uocnoooont
o cuune:e ATP. E uuu.e .u+ouuou uuc.onm uoen ouuc.euue +o
.eu., onoe.euue uenmper nop H
-
, uonopme ucno.t:wncn o.n
ooccnouoo.euun NAD
-
u EAD, nepeuoc uenmper nop omcouoouep
eenuuecuur o.eunpouoo o omrone.tuw uent (uent nepeuoco o.eu
npouoo,, onuoo ouu no:e nepeoowncn uo +o.eu.npumu uuc
.opoo - uoueuumu ouuennop o.eunpouoo, o pe:.tnone ueeo opo
:encn H
z
O. Ponr o a1om nopo1 nuxo.
Ocnonnan nac1r ATP cun1oauyo1cn n noocco oxucAu1oArnoro
qocqouAuonanun. mxaxoannax onn, uAu onr noonoca aAox1-
onon, nnAno1cn rAanno cuc1omo nonamonun anoruu. Cun1oa
ATP xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om ATP-cun1o1aao. E 1961 r. H. Mnx-
noaa nopAoxuA xomuocmo1unocxym runo1oay oxucAu1oArnoro qoc-
qouAuonanun numonu1oArno x mu1oxonpunm. CorAacno a1o
runo1oao nu 1ancno1o aAox1onon no pwxa1oArno onu no1onw
o1xanunam1cn ua ma1uxca na nayxnym nonoxnoc1r nny1onno
momanw mu1oxonpu (moxmomannoo noc1anc1no), n1o nw-
awnao1 noanuxnononuo aAox1oxumunocxoro no1onnoro rapuon1a
Jnua anmonno uncaoxm - on1aArnw noocc mo1aoAuama.
O1xw1uo uxAa I. Kocom nnAno1cn opnum ua nauoAoo nwpammux-
cn poc1uxonu conomonno uoxumuu, aa xo1ooo n 1953 r. an1o
wA ypoc1oon HooAoncxo nomuu. HuxA nanunao1cn co naaumopo-
c1nun oxcaAoao1a1a (puxaonono manoAono-yxcycno xucAo1w) c
ao1uA-CoA. HocAo a1oro xoanaum A o1poAno1cn, a ao1uArnan rynna
(nanomunaom, n1o ona oaaonaAacr n oayAr1a1o nopnau1oArnoro
acmonAonun yrAonopon, xuon u amunoxucAo1) ynac1nyo1 n xumunoc-
xux nonamonunx oaaonanmorocn u1a1a (1uxaonono Aumon-
no xucAo1w) n xopo nocAopymmux oaxu. Ho moo ocymoc1nAonun
a1ux oaxu oa a1oma yrAoopa ao1uArno rynnw nocAopona1oAr-
no o1poAnm1cn n nupo moAoxyA CO
2
. Hc1onnuxom xucAoopa pAn a1oro
cAyxu1 nopa, a no1onw u ora1wo anoruo aAox1onw axon1uym1-
cn NAD- u FAD. Komo 1oro, n xopo xaxporo uxAa cun1oauyo1cn no
moAoxyAo OTP. HocAo ocnooxponun ncox a1omon nucoopunonno n
nanaAo uxAa x oxcaAoao1a1y ao1uArno rynnw oxcaAoao1a1 noc-
c1ananAunao1cn, on nnonr naaumopoc1nyo1 c ao1uA-CoA u nucoopu-
nno1 x coo onoopnym ao1uArnym rynny.
Paccmo1um a1o1 noocc oAoo nopono. HuxA Koca nouc-
xopu1 n aaonwx ycAonunx u nxAmnao1 nocomr c1apu (uc. 29).
1. Konponcaun ao1uA-CoA c oxcaAoao1a1om, n oayAr1a1o
noro oaayo1cn u1a1, a xoqomon1 A ocnooxpao1cn. Poaxun
P u c . 2 9. Uuxn nuuoo
xucnomm (uxn lpeca)
#' #&
xo1owo, o1pan cnom anorum pAn noonoca no1onon n moxmom-
annoo noc1anc1no, c1aAu anoro1unocxu nonyxnwmu, c moAoxy-
Annwm xucAoopom, n1o nunopu1 x oaaonanum nopw (uc. 31).
Taxum oaaom, nocmo1n na naananuo ncoro noocca - xucAoop-
noo pwxanuo, O
2
no nunumao1 nonocopc1nonnoro ynac1un n no-
occax noonoca anoruu, a Aumr nwnoAnno1 oAr cnoooaanoro
mycomuxa, cnnawnan nonyxnwo no1onw u aAox1onw. Ho
cymoc1ny, o omrone.tuou uenu npoucrooun ouuc.euue oooopooo:
H
2
- 1,2 O
2
H
2
O.
Opnaxo a1o1 noocc noucxopu1 mnoroc1ynonna1o, nunom
a1omw nopoopa acmonAnm1cn na no1onw, noc1ynammuo n nop-
nym copy, u nwcoxoanoro1unocxuo aAox1onw, xo1owo 1anc-
no1uym1cn no pwxa1oArno onu; nwpoAnoman umu nounmu
(xnan1amu) anorun acxopyo1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP ua ADP u PI.
umr na aanomammom a1ano n xono pwxa1oArno onu no1onw
coopunnm1cn c aAox1onamu.
E coc1an pmxaxoanno onn nxopn1 pna qAanono1oupnwx qo-
mon1a (cyxuna1-poruporonaaa u NAD-poruporonaaa), no1wo
u1oxoma, noromunonoo xoAoao, mopr u xoqomon1 Q (yuxunon).
CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm pwxa1oArnan onr coc1o-
u1 ua 1ox ocnonnwx cnnaannwx c momanamu qomon1nwx xom-
nAoxcon. Kax u noAoxono ncom momannwm moAoxyAam, a1u oA-
xu oAapam1 nwcoxo Aa1oaArno nopnuxnoc1rm u, c1aAxunancr
moxpy coo, onu nocAopona1oArno noopam1 aAox1onw pyr pyry.
Hu xaxpom nooxopo na cAopymmu noonocnux aAox1on 1on-
o1 nac1r cnoo anoruu, no oxaawnao1cn nco Auxo x moxmoman-
nomy noc1anc1ny, coo1no1c1nonno aa num noomomao1cn u no-
1unonoAoxno aanxonnw no1on. E u1oro ncn uaw1onnan ano-
run aAox1ona aa1anunao1cn na nw1aAxunanuo no1ona n mox-
momannoo noc1anc1no. Tancno1 aAox1onon o1 NADH no onu
noonocnuxon nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom.
1. NADH-poruporonaanw xomnAoxc, xo1ow nunumao1 aAox-
1onw o1 NADH u nooa qAanun noopao1 ux na noonocnux aAox-
1onon yuxunon (n mu1oxonpunx u y ramo1ua1oArnwx ax1o-
u) Auo na naq1oxunonw (y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx ax1ou).
2. Vuxunon noonocu1 aAox1onw na pumonw xomnAoxc
xoAoaocopoxamux oAxon - u1oxomon. 01o1 cAoxnw xomn-
Aoxc naawnao1cn xomnAoxc bc
1
, on noopao1 aAox1onw na nooAr-
mo nouqounocxu oAox u1oxom c.
3. Hu1oxom c noonocu1 aAox1onw na u1oxomoxcupaanw
xomnAoxc, xo1ow noopao1 ux xononnomy axon1oy aAox1o-
non - xucAoopy.
Taxum oaaom, nu nooxopo aAox1onon o1 opnoro noonocnuxa
x pyromy ux cnoopnan anorun ywnao1, a ocnooxpammancn ano-
run nocAopona1oArno ucnoArayo1cn pAn o1xanunanun no1onon
P u c . 3 0. Becmsue ATP-cumemasm:
1 sympess uumoxopuansas ueupaa; 2 uampuxc; xou-
nnexc F
0
F
1
-ATP-asm (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
no ooum c1oonam nny1onno mu1oxonpuaArno momanw. Hu
noanuxnononuu oArmoro no1onnoro rapuon1a no1onw nanuna-
m1 noomoma1rcn nooa ATP-cun1o1aay n ma1uxc (xomo a1ux
1ancmomannwx oAxon, nny1onnnn momana mu1oxonpu no-
nonuaoma pAn no1onon), u anorun ux oa1noro 1oxa acxopy-
o1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP (uc. 30).
Opnaxo nu a1om ynoAununao1cn xonon1aun cnoopnwx no-
1onon n ma1uxco, n1o unruuyo1 ax1unnoc1r qomon1on uxAa
Koca u 1om camwm Aoxuyo1 noocc aaonoro pwxanun. H1o-
w a1oro no noucxopuAo, nooxopumo noc1onnno cnnawna1r noc1y-
nunmuo n ma1uxc cnoopnwo no1onw. Hmonno a1o u noucxopu1
nu naaumopoc1nuu no1onon u y1a1unmux anorum aAox1onon,
P u c . 3 1. Uens nepeoca snexmpoos c NADH x O
2
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
MEXMEMEPAHHOE
HPOCTPAHCTBO
nH
+
nH
+
nH
+
Uufoxpor c
2H
+
+2e+
1
/
2
O
2
H
2
O
Yuxuuou
NAD
+
NADH + H
+
Mafpukc
Buyfpeu-
unn rufo-
xouppu-
anuuan
rerpaua
NADH
perupporeuasuu
kornnekc
Kornnekc
b-c
1
Uufoxpor-
okcupasuu
kornnekc
#' #&
xo1owo, o1pan cnom anorum pAn noonoca no1onon n moxmom-
annoo noc1anc1no, c1aAu anoro1unocxu nonyxnwmu, c moAoxy-
Annwm xucAoopom, n1o nunopu1 x oaaonanum nopw (uc. 31).
Taxum oaaom, nocmo1n na naananuo ncoro noocca - xucAoop-
noo pwxanuo, O
2
no nunumao1 nonocopc1nonnoro ynac1un n no-
occax noonoca anoruu, a Aumr nwnoAnno1 oAr cnoooaanoro
mycomuxa, cnnawnan nonyxnwo no1onw u aAox1onw. Ho
cymoc1ny, o omrone.tuou uenu npoucrooun ouuc.euue oooopooo:
H
2
- 1,2 O
2
H
2
O.
Opnaxo a1o1 noocc noucxopu1 mnoroc1ynonna1o, nunom
a1omw nopoopa acmonAnm1cn na no1onw, noc1ynammuo n nop-
nym copy, u nwcoxoanoro1unocxuo aAox1onw, xo1owo 1anc-
no1uym1cn no pwxa1oArno onu; nwpoAnoman umu nounmu
(xnan1amu) anorun acxopyo1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP ua ADP u PI.
umr na aanomammom a1ano n xono pwxa1oArno onu no1onw
coopunnm1cn c aAox1onamu.
E coc1an pmxaxoanno onn nxopn1 pna qAanono1oupnwx qo-
mon1a (cyxuna1-poruporonaaa u NAD-poruporonaaa), no1wo
u1oxoma, noromunonoo xoAoao, mopr u xoqomon1 Q (yuxunon).
CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm pwxa1oArnan onr coc1o-
u1 ua 1ox ocnonnwx cnnaannwx c momanamu qomon1nwx xom-
nAoxcon. Kax u noAoxono ncom momannwm moAoxyAam, a1u oA-
xu oAapam1 nwcoxo Aa1oaArno nopnuxnoc1rm u, c1aAxunancr
moxpy coo, onu nocAopona1oArno noopam1 aAox1onw pyr pyry.
Hu xaxpom nooxopo na cAopymmu noonocnux aAox1on 1on-
o1 nac1r cnoo anoruu, no oxaawnao1cn nco Auxo x moxmoman-
nomy noc1anc1ny, coo1no1c1nonno aa num noomomao1cn u no-
1unonoAoxno aanxonnw no1on. E u1oro ncn uaw1onnan ano-
run aAox1ona aa1anunao1cn na nw1aAxunanuo no1ona n mox-
momannoo noc1anc1no. Tancno1 aAox1onon o1 NADH no onu
noonocnuxon nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom.
1. NADH-poruporonaanw xomnAoxc, xo1ow nunumao1 aAox-
1onw o1 NADH u nooa qAanun noopao1 ux na noonocnux aAox-
1onon yuxunon (n mu1oxonpunx u y ramo1ua1oArnwx ax1o-
u) Auo na naq1oxunonw (y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx ax1ou).
2. Vuxunon noonocu1 aAox1onw na pumonw xomnAoxc
xoAoaocopoxamux oAxon - u1oxomon. 01o1 cAoxnw xomn-
Aoxc naawnao1cn xomnAoxc bc
1
, on noopao1 aAox1onw na nooAr-
mo nouqounocxu oAox u1oxom c.
3. Hu1oxom c noonocu1 aAox1onw na u1oxomoxcupaanw
xomnAoxc, xo1ow noopao1 ux xononnomy axon1oy aAox1o-
non - xucAoopy.
Taxum oaaom, nu nooxopo aAox1onon o1 opnoro noonocnuxa
x pyromy ux cnoopnan anorun ywnao1, a ocnooxpammancn ano-
run nocAopona1oArno ucnoArayo1cn pAn o1xanunanun no1onon
P u c . 3 0. Becmsue ATP-cumemasm:
1 sympess uumoxopuansas ueupaa; 2 uampuxc; xou-
nnexc F
0
F
1
-ATP-asm (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
no ooum c1oonam nny1onno mu1oxonpuaArno momanw. Hu
noanuxnononuu oArmoro no1onnoro rapuon1a no1onw nanuna-
m1 noomoma1rcn nooa ATP-cun1o1aay n ma1uxc (xomo a1ux
1ancmomannwx oAxon, nny1onnnn momana mu1oxonpu no-
nonuaoma pAn no1onon), u anorun ux oa1noro 1oxa acxopy-
o1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP (uc. 30).
Opnaxo nu a1om ynoAununao1cn xonon1aun cnoopnwx no-
1onon n ma1uxco, n1o unruuyo1 ax1unnoc1r qomon1on uxAa
Koca u 1om camwm Aoxuyo1 noocc aaonoro pwxanun. H1o-
w a1oro no noucxopuAo, nooxopumo noc1onnno cnnawna1r noc1y-
nunmuo n ma1uxc cnoopnwo no1onw. Hmonno a1o u noucxopu1
nu naaumopoc1nuu no1onon u y1a1unmux anorum aAox1onon,
P u c . 3 1. Uens nepeoca snexmpoos c NADH x O
2
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
MEXMEMEPAHHOE
HPOCTPAHCTBO
nH
+
nH
+
nH
+
Uufoxpor c
2H
+
+2e+
1
/
2
O
2
H
2
O
Yuxuuou
NAD
+
NADH + H
+
Mafpukc
Buyfpeu-
unn rufo-
xouppu-
anuuan
rerpaua
NADH
perupporeuasuu
kornnekc
Kornnekc
b-c
1
Uufoxpor-
okcupasuu
kornnekc
$ $
P u c . 3 2. lnemovm uxn:
l nocneosamensocms qas xnemovoao uxna; ll xnemxa s umepqase nocne pennuxa-
uu xpouocou u empuone; lll npoqasa; lV uemaqasa; V uemaqasas xpouocoua;
Vl aaqasa; Vll menoqasa; Vlll cecmpucxue xnemxu; 1 spo; 2 cqopuuposasueecs
uumomuvecxoe sepemeo; 3 xpouocoum; 4 acmpansme uuxpompyovxu; 5 nonkc-
me uuxpompyovxu; 6 nonkc sepemea; 7 xpouamum; 8 empouepa; 9 empo-
uepme uuxpompyovxu; 10 cecmpucxue xpouamum; 11 empouepme (xuemoxop-
me) uuxpompyovxu; 12 passu+eue nonkcos s aaqase; 13 soss opasosame
spa; 14 soccmaosneue umepqasmx uuxpompyovex, pacmyux om empocoum;
15 ocmamxu nonkcmx uuxpompyovex; 16 oposa eneus (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
na nayxnym c1oony momanw, n oayAr1a1o noro u coapao1cn
aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. Hnwmu cAonamu, ouep
eun, ocoooooe+on o npouecce nepeuoco o.eunpouoo no omrone.t
uou uenu, :onocoencn o qop+e o.eunporu+uuecuoeo nponouuoeo
epooueuno uo +e+poue, o uonopw ocnpoeuo omrone.tuon uent.
ATP-cun1o1aaa nopc1anAno1 coo momannw oAxonw xom-
nAoxc, xo1ow umoo1cn no ncox momanax, ocymoc1nAnmmux
oxucAu1oArnoo qocqouAuonanuo. CorAacno xomuocmo1unocxo
runo1oao anorun noomomonun no1onon nooa ATP-cun1o1aay n
oa1nom nananAonuu (c nayxno c1oonw momanw na nny1-
onnmm) ucnoArayo1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP. 01a runo1oaa numonuma
u x cun1oay ATP n xAoonAac1ax, c 1o Aumr aanuo, n1o ocAu
n mu1oxonpunx no1onw noop cun1oaom ATP pononuym1cn n
moxmomannom noc1anc1no, 1o n xAoonAac1ax a1o noucxopu1
n noAoc1u 1uAaxoupon (oAoo nopono o a1om accxaaano n aa-
poAo, nocnnmonnom qo1ocun1oay).
Opnaxo ATP-cun1o1aaa ocymoc1nAno1 no 1oArxo cun1oa, no u
rupoAua ATP. H 1o1 u pyro noocc connxon c noopnuxonu-
om no1onon:
ADP - PI ATP

ATP-cun1o1aaa.
HH3HEHHLH HTL KAETOK
KAo1xu no noanuxam1 camu no coo, a oaaym1cn 1oArxo nu
poAonuu pyrux.
Kaoxonnm nua (uc. 32) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r
nooccon, noucxopnmux n xAo1xo nu nopro1onxo oo x poAonum
u no nomn coc1nonno poAonun, n oayAr1a1o noro ma1ouncxan
xAo1xa poAu1cn na pno pononuo. E uxAo nwpoAnm1 pno qaaw:
an1ocun1o1unocxym, uAu uunepqo: (nopro1onxa xAo1xu x poAo-
num), nxAmnammym nocun1o1unocxu (O
1
,

oue.. ga - nomoxy-
1ox), cun1o1unocxu (S) u noc1cun1o1unocxu (O
2
) nouopw, u po-
Aonuo xAo1xu - +uno:.
Hnxopqaaa - nocAopona1oArnoc1r cow1u, nopro1anAunam-
mux mu1oa. Eocrma naxnwm n un1oqaao nnAno1cn maxpnnnm
cnnxoa HK u ypnoonno xpomocom - S-qaaa. Homoxy1ox mox-
py poAonuom u nac1ynAonuom S-qaaw naawnao1cn qaao G
1
(noc1-
mu1o1unocxan, uAu nocun1o1unocxan, qaaa), a moxpy S-qaao u
mu1oaom - qaao G
2
(noc1cun1o1unocxan, uAu nomu1o1unocxan,
qaaa). E 1ononuo qaaw O
1
xAo1xa punAoupna, n 1ononuo qaaw S
nAoupnoc1r noaac1ao1 po no1wox, n qaao O
2
xAo1xa 1o1anAoupna.
E un1oqaao ypnaunao1cn macca xAo1xu u ncox oo xomnonon1on, a
1axxo noucxopu1 ypnoonuo on1uoAo.
12
9
10
8
7
5
6
4
3
2
1
6 11
13
14
16 15
10
E 1ononuo nocun1o1unocxo qaaw O
1
n xAo1xo yxo ycuAonw uo-
cun1o1unocxuo nooccw u noucxopu1 nopro1onxa x ypnoonum HK.
Hu a1om aanunam1cn noumymoc1nonno 1o oranoAAw, xo1owo no-
oxopumw pAn cun1oaa qomon1on, oocnonunammux, n cnom onoopr,
nopc1onmoo ypnoonuo HK (noxpo ncoro a1o uocomw). Ha ma1o-
uncxo on1uoAu xAo1onnoro on1a ynoAununao1cn xoAunoc1no
ca1oAAu1on. aaa O
1
pAu1cn o1 nocxoArxux nacon po cy1ox u oAoo.
$ $
P u c . 3 2. lnemovm uxn:
l nocneosamensocms qas xnemovoao uxna; ll xnemxa s umepqase nocne pennuxa-
uu xpouocou u empuone; lll npoqasa; lV uemaqasa; V uemaqasas xpouocoua;
Vl aaqasa; Vll menoqasa; Vlll cecmpucxue xnemxu; 1 spo; 2 cqopuuposasueecs
uumomuvecxoe sepemeo; 3 xpouocoum; 4 acmpansme uuxpompyovxu; 5 nonkc-
me uuxpompyovxu; 6 nonkc sepemea; 7 xpouamum; 8 empouepa; 9 empo-
uepme uuxpompyovxu; 10 cecmpucxue xpouamum; 11 empouepme (xuemoxop-
me) uuxpompyovxu; 12 passu+eue nonkcos s aaqase; 13 soss opasosame
spa; 14 soccmaosneue umepqasmx uuxpompyovex, pacmyux om empocoum;
15 ocmamxu nonkcmx uuxpompyovex; 16 oposa eneus (no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
na nayxnym c1oony momanw, n oayAr1a1o noro u coapao1cn
aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. Hnwmu cAonamu, ouep
eun, ocoooooe+on o npouecce nepeuoco o.eunpouoo no omrone.t
uou uenu, :onocoencn o qop+e o.eunporu+uuecuoeo nponouuoeo
epooueuno uo +e+poue, o uonopw ocnpoeuo omrone.tuon uent.
ATP-cun1o1aaa nopc1anAno1 coo momannw oAxonw xom-
nAoxc, xo1ow umoo1cn no ncox momanax, ocymoc1nAnmmux
oxucAu1oArnoo qocqouAuonanuo. CorAacno xomuocmo1unocxo
runo1oao anorun noomomonun no1onon nooa ATP-cun1o1aay n
oa1nom nananAonuu (c nayxno c1oonw momanw na nny1-
onnmm) ucnoArayo1cn pAn cun1oaa ATP. 01a runo1oaa numonuma
u x cun1oay ATP n xAoonAac1ax, c 1o Aumr aanuo, n1o ocAu
n mu1oxonpunx no1onw noop cun1oaom ATP pononuym1cn n
moxmomannom noc1anc1no, 1o n xAoonAac1ax a1o noucxopu1
n noAoc1u 1uAaxoupon (oAoo nopono o a1om accxaaano n aa-
poAo, nocnnmonnom qo1ocun1oay).
Opnaxo ATP-cun1o1aaa ocymoc1nAno1 no 1oArxo cun1oa, no u
rupoAua ATP. H 1o1 u pyro noocc connxon c noopnuxonu-
om no1onon:
ADP - PI ATP

ATP-cun1o1aaa.
HH3HEHHLH HTL KAETOK
KAo1xu no noanuxam1 camu no coo, a oaaym1cn 1oArxo nu
poAonuu pyrux.
Kaoxonnm nua (uc. 32) nopc1anAno1 coo conoxynnoc1r
nooccon, noucxopnmux n xAo1xo nu nopro1onxo oo x poAonum
u no nomn coc1nonno poAonun, n oayAr1a1o noro ma1ouncxan
xAo1xa poAu1cn na pno pononuo. E uxAo nwpoAnm1 pno qaaw:
an1ocun1o1unocxym, uAu uunepqo: (nopro1onxa xAo1xu x poAo-
num), nxAmnammym nocun1o1unocxu (O
1
,

oue.. ga - nomoxy-
1ox), cun1o1unocxu (S) u noc1cun1o1unocxu (O
2
) nouopw, u po-
Aonuo xAo1xu - +uno:.
Hnxopqaaa - nocAopona1oArnoc1r cow1u, nopro1anAunam-
mux mu1oa. Eocrma naxnwm n un1oqaao nnAno1cn maxpnnnm
cnnxoa HK u ypnoonno xpomocom - S-qaaa. Homoxy1ox mox-
py poAonuom u nac1ynAonuom S-qaaw naawnao1cn qaao G
1
(noc1-
mu1o1unocxan, uAu nocun1o1unocxan, qaaa), a moxpy S-qaao u
mu1oaom - qaao G
2
(noc1cun1o1unocxan, uAu nomu1o1unocxan,
qaaa). E 1ononuo qaaw O
1
xAo1xa punAoupna, n 1ononuo qaaw S
nAoupnoc1r noaac1ao1 po no1wox, n qaao O
2
xAo1xa 1o1anAoupna.
E un1oqaao ypnaunao1cn macca xAo1xu u ncox oo xomnonon1on, a
1axxo noucxopu1 ypnoonuo on1uoAo.
12
9
10
8
7
5
6
4
3
2
1
6 11
13
14
16 15
10
E 1ononuo nocun1o1unocxo qaaw O
1
n xAo1xo yxo ycuAonw uo-
cun1o1unocxuo nooccw u noucxopu1 nopro1onxa x ypnoonum HK.
Hu a1om aanunam1cn noumymoc1nonno 1o oranoAAw, xo1owo no-
oxopumw pAn cun1oaa qomon1on, oocnonunammux, n cnom onoopr,
nopc1onmoo ypnoonuo HK (noxpo ncoro a1o uocomw). Ha ma1o-
uncxo on1uoAu xAo1onnoro on1a ynoAununao1cn xoAunoc1no
ca1oAAu1on. aaa O
1
pAu1cn o1 nocxoArxux nacon po cy1ox u oAoo.
$! $
T
o

.
u
u
o
7
K
a
o
x
o
n
n
m

n
u
a
.

H
p
o

o
c
c
m
,

n
p
o
n
c
x
o
p
x
m
n
o

n

u
a
o
x
u
o
Ponanuanx (.on. roIIcaIIo - non1oonuo) - axo npoocc no-
popann ronoxnnocuo nnqopmann, xpanxmocx n popnxoancuo
HK, nyxom xonnoro oo nocnponanoponnx n ponopno uaoxuo. Hu
a1om xaxpan opu1oArcxan onr HK nnAno1cn ma1uo pAn cun-
1oaa ponono (ma1unnw cun1oa HK).
PonAuxaun ocnonana na xomnAomon1anom cnaunanuu ocno-
nanu. EnanaAo n opno 1onxo HK oo oo onu acxopn1cn, oa-
ayn acummo1unnym onAuxauonnym nuAxy. omon1 HK-
noAumoaaa xa1aAuauyo1 noocc noAumouaauu nyxAoo1upon
1oArxo n nananAonuu 5 3. Hanomnum, n1o oo onu HK
an1unaaAAoArnw, noa1omy cun1oa opno ua pononux ono no-
ucxopu1 nonownno (Aupuymman onr), pyro (o1c1ammo) - n
nupo o1poArnwx qarmon1on aamoamu 10 - 200 nyxAoo1upon
(qarmon1w Oxaaaxu). EnocAopc1nuu a1u qarmon1w coopunnm1cn
nop poc1nuom qomon1a HK-Auraaw.
PonAuxaun nanunao1cn o1 coopunw xaxporo nAona, o1 ynac-
1xa, naawnaomoro couno+ uuuuuouuu pen.uuouuu. Pacnoc1ann-
ncr x 1oAomoam, onAuxaun poxopu1 po nux u oc1ananAunao1cn.
nurancr x coopuno xomocomw, onAuxaun poxopu1 po on1o-
mow u 1oxo oc1ananAunao1cn, opnaxo on1omonan oAac1r no
ypnaunao1cn. E oayAr1a1o xaxpan xomocoma umoo1 1onor pno
onu HK. Kaxpan onr c oxyxammumu ux oAxamu oaayo1
cecmpuucuue rpomomum. S-qaaa pAu1cn 8 - 12 nacon.
E xaxpo xomocomo no nomn S-nouopa oaaym1cn rynnw
onAuxauonnwx nuAox (20 - 80), xo1owo noanuxam1 opnono-
monno y ncox xomocom. Hu a1om nuAxu acnoAoxonw naamu,
xo1owo pnuxy1cn n no1unonoAoxnwx nananAonunx po 1ox no,
noxa no nc1o1n1 cocopnmm nuAxy, 1ax n1o oaaym1cn pno po-
nonuo cnuaAu. E oayAr1a1o onAuxauu xaxpan ua pnyx pono-
nux moAoxyA HK coc1ou1 ua opno c1ao u opno nono onu.
E u1onAaamo n 1ononuo S-qaaw ypnaunam1cn no 1oArxo onu
HK, no u xaxpan ua on1uoAo xAo1onnoro on1a.
E 1ononuo nomu1o1unocxo qaaw O
2
conomam1cn cun1oaw,
nooxopumwo pAn oocnononun nonocopc1nonno noocca poAonun.
KoAunoc1no HK u on1uoAo n xAo1xo yxo ypnoono. aaa O
2
nopoAxao1cn po 6 nacon.
Mnxoa. Korpa nopro1onxa x poAonum aaxannunao1cn, nanuna-
o1cn nonocopc1nonno mnxoa (epeu. mIIos - nu1r). E nom aaAuna-
m1 no1wo ocnonnwo qaaw: npoqo:, +enoqo:, ouoqo: u ne.o
qo: (cm. uc. 32, 1aA. ?). Hnorpa nwpoAnm1 moc1r qaa: noqa-
ay, nomo1aqaay, mo1aqaay, anaqaay, 1oAoqaay u u1oxunoa.
K nanaAy n o qa a w xoma1un xonponcuyo1cn, n oayAr1a1o
noro n npo oaayo1cn nAo1nw xAyox. K xony noqaaw a1o1
xAyox aawxAno1cn (wxAw xAyox), c1anonn1cn nupumwmu
Jrpo+oco+m, uooon u: uonopmr cocnoun u: oor rpo+onuo
(crpo+oco+), Aoxamux naaAAoArno pyr pyry u cnnaannwx moxpy
$! $
T
o

.
u
u
o
7
K
a
o
x
o
n
n
m

n
u
a
.

H
p
o

o
c
c
m
,

n
p
o
n
c
x
o
p
x
m
n
o

n

u
a
o
x
u
o
Ponanuanx (.on. roIIcaIIo - non1oonuo) - axo npoocc no-
popann ronoxnnocuo nnqopmann, xpanxmocx n popnxoancuo
HK, nyxom xonnoro oo nocnponanoponnx n ponopno uaoxuo. Hu
a1om xaxpan opu1oArcxan onr HK nnAno1cn ma1uo pAn cun-
1oaa ponono (ma1unnw cun1oa HK).
PonAuxaun ocnonana na xomnAomon1anom cnaunanuu ocno-
nanu. EnanaAo n opno 1onxo HK oo oo onu acxopn1cn, oa-
ayn acummo1unnym onAuxauonnym nuAxy. omon1 HK-
noAumoaaa xa1aAuauyo1 noocc noAumouaauu nyxAoo1upon
1oArxo n nananAonuu 5 3. Hanomnum, n1o oo onu HK
an1unaaAAoArnw, noa1omy cun1oa opno ua pononux ono no-
ucxopu1 nonownno (Aupuymman onr), pyro (o1c1ammo) - n
nupo o1poArnwx qarmon1on aamoamu 10 - 200 nyxAoo1upon
(qarmon1w Oxaaaxu). EnocAopc1nuu a1u qarmon1w coopunnm1cn
nop poc1nuom qomon1a HK-Auraaw.
PonAuxaun nanunao1cn o1 coopunw xaxporo nAona, o1 ynac-
1xa, naawnaomoro couno+ uuuuuouuu pen.uuouuu. Pacnoc1ann-
ncr x 1oAomoam, onAuxaun poxopu1 po nux u oc1ananAunao1cn.
nurancr x coopuno xomocomw, onAuxaun poxopu1 po on1o-
mow u 1oxo oc1ananAunao1cn, opnaxo on1omonan oAac1r no
ypnaunao1cn. E oayAr1a1o xaxpan xomocoma umoo1 1onor pno
onu HK. Kaxpan onr c oxyxammumu ux oAxamu oaayo1
cecmpuucuue rpomomum. S-qaaa pAu1cn 8 - 12 nacon.
E xaxpo xomocomo no nomn S-nouopa oaaym1cn rynnw
onAuxauonnwx nuAox (20 - 80), xo1owo noanuxam1 opnono-
monno y ncox xomocom. Hu a1om nuAxu acnoAoxonw naamu,
xo1owo pnuxy1cn n no1unonoAoxnwx nananAonunx po 1ox no,
noxa no nc1o1n1 cocopnmm nuAxy, 1ax n1o oaaym1cn pno po-
nonuo cnuaAu. E oayAr1a1o onAuxauu xaxpan ua pnyx pono-
nux moAoxyA HK coc1ou1 ua opno c1ao u opno nono onu.
E u1onAaamo n 1ononuo S-qaaw ypnaunam1cn no 1oArxo onu
HK, no u xaxpan ua on1uoAo xAo1onnoro on1a.
E 1ononuo nomu1o1unocxo qaaw O
2
conomam1cn cun1oaw,
nooxopumwo pAn oocnononun nonocopc1nonno noocca poAonun.
KoAunoc1no HK u on1uoAo n xAo1xo yxo ypnoono. aaa O
2
nopoAxao1cn po 6 nacon.
Mnxoa. Korpa nopro1onxa x poAonum aaxannunao1cn, nanuna-
o1cn nonocopc1nonno mnxoa (epeu. mIIos - nu1r). E nom aaAuna-
m1 no1wo ocnonnwo qaaw: npoqo:, +enoqo:, ouoqo: u ne.o
qo: (cm. uc. 32, 1aA. ?). Hnorpa nwpoAnm1 moc1r qaa: noqa-
ay, nomo1aqaay, mo1aqaay, anaqaay, 1oAoqaay u u1oxunoa.
K nanaAy n o qa a w xoma1un xonponcuyo1cn, n oayAr1a1o
noro n npo oaayo1cn nAo1nw xAyox. K xony noqaaw a1o1
xAyox aawxAno1cn (wxAw xAyox), c1anonn1cn nupumwmu
Jrpo+oco+m, uooon u: uonopmr cocnoun u: oor rpo+onuo
(crpo+oco+), Aoxamux naaAAoArno pyr pyry u cnnaannwx moxpy
$# $"
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
.

7
$# $"
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
.

7
$% $$
a n a qa a w noucxopu1 wc1an onAuxaun HK n oAac1u on-
1omow, n1o u cAyxu1 curnaAom x nanaAy anaqaaw. Anaqaaa
nanunao1cn nnoaanno c oaxoro aapoAonun omo on1omow
d-xomocomw, n oayAr1a1o noro coc1uncxuo xoma1upw c1ano-
nn1cn camoc1on1oArnwmu s-xomocomamu.
Muxo1yonxu nanunam1 yxoanuna1rcn: y xuno1oxoon no-
ucxopu1 ux aaoxa. E oayAr1a1o a1oro xoma1upw nop1nrunam1-
cn x on1uoAnm. E a1o nomn s-xomocomw nanunam1 noopnura1r-
cn u c opunaxono cxooc1rm (oxoAo 1 mxm n muny1y) nananAnm1-
cn x noAmcam xAo1xu. Camu on1uoAu ypaAnm1cn pyr o1 pyra n
c1oony noAmcon xAo1xu. Oaaym1cn pno oouepuur :oe:om.
T o A o qa a a aanomao1 poAonuo. PaapoAunmuocn rynnw xo-
mocom nopxopn1 x noAmcam, 1onm1 xomocomnwo muxo1yonxu,
aawxAnm1cn, poxonponcuym1cn, nooxopn n xoma1un, u nanu-
nam1 1ancxuuona1r PHK. Humono n coopuno 1oAoqaaw na-
nunao1cn oaaonanuo nu1na1o, a aa1om ranyAnno nac1o nyx-
AooAonomw. K xony 1oAoqaaw (nocAo nocc1anonAonun npono oo-
Aonxu!) npwmxo noAnoc1rm cqomuonano. Ha momannwx ny-
awrxon couam1cn xomnAoxc IoArpxu u 0HC.
Hponan ooAonxa oaayo1cn ua momannwx qarmon1on nna-
naAo n nupo nooArmux manonox, acnoAoxonnwx na nonoxnoc1u
qomuymmuxcn rAwox xoma1una. armon1w ooAonxu ac-
1y1, cAunam1cn moxpy coo, oxyxan nco npo x xony 1oAoqa-
aw. Hu a1om nocc1ananAunam1cn nponwo now u noonwo xomn-
Aoxcw, poqocqouAuym1cn oAxu npono nAac1unxu, n1o nu-
nopu1 x oo nocc1anonAonum.
Hoo1nxxa c1anonu1cn nco oAoo rAyoxo, u n oayAr1a1o opna
xAo1xa aapoAno1cn na pno ( u 1 o x u n o a), xaxpan ua xo1owx
punAoupnan.
Mooa. V oranuamon, aamnoxammuxcn noAonwm ny1om, umo-
m1cn pno xa1orouu xAo1ox: punAoupnwo u ranAoupnwo. K nonwm
o1nocn1cn coma1unocxuo u nopmoc1nonnuw noAonwx xAo1ox, xo
n1owm - aoAwo noAonwo (eo+enm). Vmonrmonuo xoAunoc1na xo-
mocom n pna aaa poc1urao1cn Aaropan mooay (uc. 33, 1aA. 8). On
nxAmnao1 n con pna nocAopona1oArnwx poAonun. HocAo cAunnun ra-
mo1 noanuxao1 nonw opnoxAo1onnw punAoupnw oranuam (:ueo
no), xo1ow no noc1o noco1 cymmy nuanaxon cnoux opu1oAo, a
nnAno1cn unpunupyymom c nucymumu 1oArxo omy cnoc1namu.
Hu paArnomom mu1o1unocxom poAonuu auro1w oaaym1cn
punAoupnwo xAo1xu, copoxamuo no pna axaomnAna xaxpo xo-
mocomw, xo1owo naawnam1cn romoAorunnwmu. IomoAorunnwo
xomocomw, umommuo opunaxonym pAuny u opunaxonoo acnoAo-
xonuo on1omo, copoxa1 opunaxonoo xoAunoc1no ronon, a a1u
ronw umom1 opny u 1y xo Aunonym nocAopona1oArnoc1r. Kaxpan
ua naw romoAorunnwx xomocom punAoupnoro oranuama nouc-
xopu1 Auo ua npa cnomun, Auo ua npa noxAo1xu.
coo n oAac1u on1omow. Hon1uoAu nonano acxopn1cn x no-
1unonoAoxnwm xonam xAo1xu, xo1owo 1onor naawnam1 noAmcamu.
Opnonomonno na ca1oAAu1ax on1uoAo upo1 un1oncunnan coxa
muxo1yonox.
Cow1un mo 1 a qa a w nanunam1cn n u1onAaamo. uaocomw
ac1nonm1 nponym ooAonxy, 1ax n1o cnuaAuaonannwo xomo-
comw u xAo1onnwo on1w oxaawnam1cn n omom xomna1mon1o.
Ha xaxpo on1omoo nwnnAno1cn cxonAonuo cnouaArnwx oA-
xon - uuuenorop (epeu. kInoo - nopnuxnw, choroo - upy nnoop).
Coxa muxo1yonox na ma1ouncxux on1uoAnx nopoA-
xao1cn, 1ax n1o n oayAr1a1o noanuxao1 unoAnnoo mu1o1unoc-
xoo noo1ono, coc1onmoo ua a1ux muxo1yonox u accouuonan-
nwx c numu oAxon. PaaAunam1 nocxoArxo nupon muxo1yonox.
Mnoruo nu1u acxopn1cn o1 on1uoAo (xax o1 noAmcon) no nco
c1oonw. Hac1r ux oaayo1 nananAonnym x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu
ocnpo.tuw .uucnocnt. yran ux nac1r nananAona x axna1o-
y xAo1xu - a1o 1ax naawnaomwo no.npume +uuponpouuu.
V axna1oa noAnnwo muxo1yonxu, cnnaannwo c aanwmu no-
Amcamu, nooxwnam1 pyr pyra. Komo ac1aArnwx u noAn-
nwx muxo1yonox o1 noAmcon o1xopn1 uuuenoropume - 1o, xo-
1owo n oAac1u axna1oa nuxonAnm1cn x xuno1oxoam xomo-
com. E xAo1xax noAonoxa xaxpw xuno1oxo cnnaan c 20 - 40 mux-
o1yonxamu. HuxonAonuo muxo1yonox x coc1uncxum
xoma1upam romoAorunnwx xomocom noucxopu1 cAynano.
E xopo mo1aqaaw xomocomw noomomam1cn u acnoAaram1cn
n opno nAocxoc1u nononpuxyAnno x ocu moxpy noAmcamu.
Oaayo1cn qurya, naawnaoman +onepuucuou :oe:oou. Hu a1om nco
xomocomw acnoAaram1cn 1ax, n1o ux on1omow naxopn1cn n axna-
1ouaArno nAocxoc1u, noocoxammo nopoArnym ocr noo1ona nop
nnmwm yrAom (mo1aqaanan nAac1unxa), nunom xaxpw xuno1oxo
opno d-xomocomw oamon x opnomy ua noAmcon xAo1xu.
E oayAr1a1o ynonpononun noAoxonun xomocom cuc1oma mux-
o1yonox 1oxo ynonponunao1cn. Onu 1onor oaaym1 oepene
uo oe.euun (mu1o1unocxoo noo1ono). Xoma1upw nonno nucoo-
punnm1cn x noo1ony Aaropan naaumopoc1num xuno1oxonwx
1yonox c nouon1uoAnnwm nomoc1nom.
Kaxpan ua mo1aqaanwx xomocom coc1ou1 ua pnyx quuAA
puamo1om 20 - 50 nm, xo1owo yAoxonw n nAo1nw cxAapna1w
xAyox. uuAAw umom1 aonuc1w nup, 1ax xax coa nonaa1a
noxopu1 nooa a1o1 xAyox mnoxoc1no aa. Hu a1om HK umoo1
oAoo nwcoxym aAox1onnym nAo1noc1r, nom cnnaannw c nom o-
Aox. Hanomnum, n1o umonno n mo1aqaao mu1oaa onopoAnm1 xauo-
1un (cm. anoo).
E S-nouopo ypnaunao1cn no ncn HK opno xomocomw, a oc-
1ao1cn noonAuuonannwm on1omonw ynac1ox. E nanaAo
$% $$
a n a qa a w noucxopu1 wc1an onAuxaun HK n oAac1u on-
1omow, n1o u cAyxu1 curnaAom x nanaAy anaqaaw. Anaqaaa
nanunao1cn nnoaanno c oaxoro aapoAonun omo on1omow
d-xomocomw, n oayAr1a1o noro coc1uncxuo xoma1upw c1ano-
nn1cn camoc1on1oArnwmu s-xomocomamu.
Muxo1yonxu nanunam1 yxoanuna1rcn: y xuno1oxoon no-
ucxopu1 ux aaoxa. E oayAr1a1o a1oro xoma1upw nop1nrunam1-
cn x on1uoAnm. E a1o nomn s-xomocomw nanunam1 noopnura1r-
cn u c opunaxono cxooc1rm (oxoAo 1 mxm n muny1y) nananAnm1-
cn x noAmcam xAo1xu. Camu on1uoAu ypaAnm1cn pyr o1 pyra n
c1oony noAmcon xAo1xu. Oaaym1cn pno oouepuur :oe:om.
T o A o qa a a aanomao1 poAonuo. PaapoAunmuocn rynnw xo-
mocom nopxopn1 x noAmcam, 1onm1 xomocomnwo muxo1yonxu,
aawxAnm1cn, poxonponcuym1cn, nooxopn n xoma1un, u nanu-
nam1 1ancxuuona1r PHK. Humono n coopuno 1oAoqaaw na-
nunao1cn oaaonanuo nu1na1o, a aa1om ranyAnno nac1o nyx-
AooAonomw. K xony 1oAoqaaw (nocAo nocc1anonAonun npono oo-
Aonxu!) npwmxo noAnoc1rm cqomuonano. Ha momannwx ny-
awrxon couam1cn xomnAoxc IoArpxu u 0HC.
Hponan ooAonxa oaayo1cn ua momannwx qarmon1on nna-
naAo n nupo nooArmux manonox, acnoAoxonnwx na nonoxnoc1u
qomuymmuxcn rAwox xoma1una. armon1w ooAonxu ac-
1y1, cAunam1cn moxpy coo, oxyxan nco npo x xony 1oAoqa-
aw. Hu a1om nocc1ananAunam1cn nponwo now u noonwo xomn-
Aoxcw, poqocqouAuym1cn oAxu npono nAac1unxu, n1o nu-
nopu1 x oo nocc1anonAonum.
Hoo1nxxa c1anonu1cn nco oAoo rAyoxo, u n oayAr1a1o opna
xAo1xa aapoAno1cn na pno ( u 1 o x u n o a), xaxpan ua xo1owx
punAoupnan.
Mooa. V oranuamon, aamnoxammuxcn noAonwm ny1om, umo-
m1cn pno xa1orouu xAo1ox: punAoupnwo u ranAoupnwo. K nonwm
o1nocn1cn coma1unocxuo u nopmoc1nonnuw noAonwx xAo1ox, xo
n1owm - aoAwo noAonwo (eo+enm). Vmonrmonuo xoAunoc1na xo-
mocom n pna aaa poc1urao1cn Aaropan mooay (uc. 33, 1aA. 8). On
nxAmnao1 n con pna nocAopona1oArnwx poAonun. HocAo cAunnun ra-
mo1 noanuxao1 nonw opnoxAo1onnw punAoupnw oranuam (:ueo
no), xo1ow no noc1o noco1 cymmy nuanaxon cnoux opu1oAo, a
nnAno1cn unpunupyymom c nucymumu 1oArxo omy cnoc1namu.
Hu paArnomom mu1o1unocxom poAonuu auro1w oaaym1cn
punAoupnwo xAo1xu, copoxamuo no pna axaomnAna xaxpo xo-
mocomw, xo1owo naawnam1cn romoAorunnwmu. IomoAorunnwo
xomocomw, umommuo opunaxonym pAuny u opunaxonoo acnoAo-
xonuo on1omo, copoxa1 opunaxonoo xoAunoc1no ronon, a a1u
ronw umom1 opny u 1y xo Aunonym nocAopona1oArnoc1r. Kaxpan
ua naw romoAorunnwx xomocom punAoupnoro oranuama nouc-
xopu1 Auo ua npa cnomun, Auo ua npa noxAo1xu.
coo n oAac1u on1omow. Hon1uoAu nonano acxopn1cn x no-
1unonoAoxnwm xonam xAo1xu, xo1owo 1onor naawnam1 noAmcamu.
Opnonomonno na ca1oAAu1ax on1uoAo upo1 un1oncunnan coxa
muxo1yonox.
Cow1un mo 1 a qa a w nanunam1cn n u1onAaamo. uaocomw
ac1nonm1 nponym ooAonxy, 1ax n1o cnuaAuaonannwo xomo-
comw u xAo1onnwo on1w oxaawnam1cn n omom xomna1mon1o.
Ha xaxpo on1omoo nwnnAno1cn cxonAonuo cnouaArnwx oA-
xon - uuuenorop (epeu. kInoo - nopnuxnw, choroo - upy nnoop).
Coxa muxo1yonox na ma1ouncxux on1uoAnx nopoA-
xao1cn, 1ax n1o n oayAr1a1o noanuxao1 unoAnnoo mu1o1unoc-
xoo noo1ono, coc1onmoo ua a1ux muxo1yonox u accouuonan-
nwx c numu oAxon. PaaAunam1 nocxoArxo nupon muxo1yonox.
Mnoruo nu1u acxopn1cn o1 on1uoAo (xax o1 noAmcon) no nco
c1oonw. Hac1r ux oaayo1 nananAonnym x nonoxnoc1u xAo1xu
ocnpo.tuw .uucnocnt. yran ux nac1r nananAona x axna1o-
y xAo1xu - a1o 1ax naawnaomwo no.npume +uuponpouuu.
V axna1oa noAnnwo muxo1yonxu, cnnaannwo c aanwmu no-
Amcamu, nooxwnam1 pyr pyra. Komo ac1aArnwx u noAn-
nwx muxo1yonox o1 noAmcon o1xopn1 uuuenoropume - 1o, xo-
1owo n oAac1u axna1oa nuxonAnm1cn x xuno1oxoam xomo-
com. E xAo1xax noAonoxa xaxpw xuno1oxo cnnaan c 20 - 40 mux-
o1yonxamu. HuxonAonuo muxo1yonox x coc1uncxum
xoma1upam romoAorunnwx xomocom noucxopu1 cAynano.
E xopo mo1aqaaw xomocomw noomomam1cn u acnoAaram1cn
n opno nAocxoc1u nononpuxyAnno x ocu moxpy noAmcamu.
Oaayo1cn qurya, naawnaoman +onepuucuou :oe:oou. Hu a1om nco
xomocomw acnoAaram1cn 1ax, n1o ux on1omow naxopn1cn n axna-
1ouaArno nAocxoc1u, noocoxammo nopoArnym ocr noo1ona nop
nnmwm yrAom (mo1aqaanan nAac1unxa), nunom xaxpw xuno1oxo
opno d-xomocomw oamon x opnomy ua noAmcon xAo1xu.
E oayAr1a1o ynonpononun noAoxonun xomocom cuc1oma mux-
o1yonox 1oxo ynonponunao1cn. Onu 1onor oaaym1 oepene
uo oe.euun (mu1o1unocxoo noo1ono). Xoma1upw nonno nucoo-
punnm1cn x noo1ony Aaropan naaumopoc1num xuno1oxonwx
1yonox c nouon1uoAnnwm nomoc1nom.
Kaxpan ua mo1aqaanwx xomocom coc1ou1 ua pnyx quuAA
puamo1om 20 - 50 nm, xo1owo yAoxonw n nAo1nw cxAapna1w
xAyox. uuAAw umom1 aonuc1w nup, 1ax xax coa nonaa1a
noxopu1 nooa a1o1 xAyox mnoxoc1no aa. Hu a1om HK umoo1
oAoo nwcoxym aAox1onnym nAo1noc1r, nom cnnaannw c nom o-
Aox. Hanomnum, n1o umonno n mo1aqaao mu1oaa onopoAnm1 xauo-
1un (cm. anoo).
E S-nouopo ypnaunao1cn no ncn HK opno xomocomw, a oc-
1ao1cn noonAuuonannwm on1omonw ynac1ox. E nanaAo
$' $&
T
o

.
u
u
o

S
M
o

o
a
$' $&
T
o

.
u
u
o

S
M
o

o
a
% %
P u c . 3 3. Meos:
l u ll xpouamum s npoqase ueosa; lll cnapeme aouonoauvme xpouocoum npu
nepexoe x nepso uemaqase ueosa; lV pacxo+eue aouonoauvmx xpouocou s nep-
so aaqase ueosa; V smopas uemaqasa; Vl pacxo+eue cecmpucxux xpouamu so
smopo aaqase; 1, 2, 3, 4 xpouamum; 5 coeuskuecs xuemoxopme umu;
6 xuemoxop; 7, 8 nnevu cecmpucxux xpouamu (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
Hu oaaonanuu ramo1 n aoAom oranuamo n oayAr1a1o moo-
aa n xaxpym pononmm xAo1xy o1 xaxpo naw romoAorunnwx xo-
mocom nonapao1 Aumr no opno ua nux. 01o c1anonu1cn noamoxnwm
no1omy, n1o nu mooao noucxopu1 Aumr opna onAuxaun HK,
aa xo1oo cAopym1 pna nocAopona1oArnwx poAonun npo (nonoo u
n1ooo poAonuo mooaa) oa non1onoro cun1oaa HK. E oayAr1a1o
ua opno punAoupno oaaym1cn no1wo ranAoupnwo xAo1xu.
Hanomnum, n1o noop nanaAom mooaa n un1oqaao xAo1xa no-
mAa ownnwo qaaw O
1
, S u O
2
, 1ax n1o c1aAa 1o1anAoupno. Hna-
no ronon, nouaomAa onAuxaun HK u oAxon-ruc1onon xomo-
com, a coc1uncxuo xoma1upw nu a1om oc1aAucr cnnaannwmu cno-
umu on1omoamu, 1ax n1o n npo umoo1cn no no1wo naoa xax-
po xomocomw. VnoAunona macca xAo1xu u oo oranoAA.
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
.

S
% %
P u c . 3 3. Meos:
l u ll xpouamum s npoqase ueosa; lll cnapeme aouonoauvme xpouocoum npu
nepexoe x nepso uemaqase ueosa; lV pacxo+eue aouonoauvmx xpouocou s nep-
so aaqase ueosa; V smopas uemaqasa; Vl pacxo+eue cecmpucxux xpouamu so
smopo aaqase; 1, 2, 3, 4 xpouamum; 5 coeuskuecs xuemoxopme umu;
6 xuemoxop; 7, 8 nnevu cecmpucxux xpouamu (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
Hu oaaonanuu ramo1 n aoAom oranuamo n oayAr1a1o moo-
aa n xaxpym pononmm xAo1xy o1 xaxpo naw romoAorunnwx xo-
mocom nonapao1 Aumr no opno ua nux. 01o c1anonu1cn noamoxnwm
no1omy, n1o nu mooao noucxopu1 Aumr opna onAuxaun HK,
aa xo1oo cAopym1 pna nocAopona1oArnwx poAonun npo (nonoo u
n1ooo poAonuo mooaa) oa non1onoro cun1oaa HK. E oayAr1a1o
ua opno punAoupno oaaym1cn no1wo ranAoupnwo xAo1xu.
Hanomnum, n1o noop nanaAom mooaa n un1oqaao xAo1xa no-
mAa ownnwo qaaw O
1
, S u O
2
, 1ax n1o c1aAa 1o1anAoupno. Hna-
no ronon, nouaomAa onAuxaun HK u oAxon-ruc1onon xomo-
com, a coc1uncxuo xoma1upw nu a1om oc1aAucr cnnaannwmu cno-
umu on1omoamu, 1ax n1o n npo umoo1cn no no1wo naoa xax-
po xomocomw. VnoAunona macca xAo1xu u oo oranoAA.
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
.

S
%! %
xomocomamu. Hmonno
n oayAr1a1o a1oro romo-
Aorunnwo xomocomw
conAnm1cn moxpy co-
o u oaaym1 unaAon-
1w, 46 d-xomocom o-
aaym1 23 unaAon1a.
Koomu uoo.eun co
cnoun u: oor Jrpo+o
co+, n. e. u: uenmper
rpo+onuo.
K xony auro1onw
xaxpan naa romoAorunnwx xomocom cnnaana moxpy coo c no-
momrm cunan1onomaArnwx xomnAoxcon. umr noAonwo xomoco-
mw X u Y xon+mruym1 nonoAnoc1rm, 1ax xax onu nonoAnoc1rm
romoAorunnw.
Horuue+o (epeu. ahys - 1oAc1w) nopoAxao1cn no monoo no-
cxoArxux cy1ox. Hooccw aanoanunam1cn noc1ononno. Xomo-
comw nocxoArxo yxoanunam1cn u y1oAmam1cn. Moxpy xoma1u-
pamu ma1ouncxoro u o1oncxoro noucxoxponun n nocxoArxux
moc1ax noanuxam1 coopunonun - xnaamm (epeu. chIasma - noo-
xoc1), uAu pouom6nnanxnmo yaoaun. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo
oAxonwo xomnAoxcw aamoamu oxoAo 90 nm. E oAac1u xaxpo
xuaamw noucxopu1 omon coo1no1c1nymmux ynac1xon romoAorun-
nwx xomocom - o1 o1oncxo x ma1ouncxo u naooo1. 01o1
noocc naawnam1 upoccnnronopom (oue.. crossIng-ovor - noo-
xoc1). Taxum oaaom, xoccunrono oocnonunao1 mnoronucAon-
nwo rono1unocxuo oxomunauu (uc. 34).
E xaxpom unaAon1o noAonoxa n noqaao-I xoccunrono no-
ucxopu1 n copnom n pnyx-1ox ynac1xax. KoAunoc1no oxomu-
nan1nwx yaoAxon anno xoAunoc1ny nooxoc1xon.
Ho oxonnanuu xoccunronoa xoma1upw aa+opunnm1cn, no
oc1am1cn cnnaannwmu n oAac1u xuaam. Hac1ynao1 c1apun oun.o
ue+m.
E punAonomo (epeu. dIIoos - pnono) cunan1onomaArnwo xom-
nAoxcw acnapam1cn, xon+mruonanmuo xomocomw aapnuram1-
cn u romoAorunnwo xomocomw xaxporo unaAon1a o1opnuram1cn
pyr o1 pyra, no cnnar moxpy numu coxanno1cn n aonax xuaam.
Moxpy punAonomo u ououuue:o+ (ron. dIa - aa-, kInoo -
nunoxy n pnuxonuo) no1 no1xo moqoAorunocxo ranuw, an-
no xax u aaranunonu no nomonu. E puaxunoao nopoAxao1cn
xonponcaun xomocom, onu o1poAnm1cn o1 nyxAooAommw, no ro-
moAorunnwo d-xomocomw nopoAxam1 omo oc1ana1rcn cnnaan-
nwmu moxpy coo xuaamamu, a coc1uncxuo xoma1upw xaxpo
d-xomocomw - on1omoamu. EAaropan naAunum nocxoArxux
P u c . 3 4. Cxeua xpoccuaosepa:
A cuanc u opasosaue mempam; B xpoccuaosep;
B aeemuvecxuxas pexouuaus (no Topmopa u coasm.)
A B B
Kaxpoo ua pnyx poAonu mooaa (poAonun I u II) umoo1 cnou
o1Aunu1oArnwo no1w. Ocoonnoc1r poAonun I coc1ou1 n noown-
nom u cAoxnom noxoxponuu npoqaam (npoqaaa-I). Ona nopaa-
poAno1cn na nocxoArxo c1apu: npo.ennoue+, .ennoue+, :ueo
ue+, noruue+, oun.oue+ u ououuue:.
Eo nomn npo.ennoue+m ( epeu. ro - nouop, IoIos - 1onxu,
noma - nu1r) noucxopu1 ananu1oArnan, no no noAnan cnuaAuaaun
xomocom. Hponan ooAonxa coxanno1cn, npwmxo no acnapao1-
cn. Hoa1omy no nomn noqaaw mooaa noamoxnw cun1oaw noxo1o-
wx PHK u oAxon. 3a cno1 a1ux cun1oaon n noAonwx xAo1xax (oco-
onno n xoncxo) coapam1cn aanacw nomoc1n, xo1owo ypy1 nooxo-
pumw pAn onAopo1noonun u annux c1apu aanu1un aaopwma.
Eo nomn .ennoue+m xomocomw omo oArmo cnuaAuaym1-
cn, u n npo c1anonn1cn nupnwmu 1onxuo nu1onupnwo d-xomoco-
mw (ux 46, 1. o. pna naoa). Hopnoxnom, n1o xaxpan romoAo-
runnan xomocoma yxo onAuuonana u coc1ou1 ua pnyx coc1-
uncxux xoma1up. Kaxpan xomocoma nopc1anAno1 coo 1on-
xym quuAAy, coc1onmym ua ocono oAxono nu1u, x xo1oo
nuxonAno1cn xoma1un coc1uncxux xoma1up (no1Au HK).
Xomocomw c nomomrm oAxonwx cxonAonu - npuupenune.t
umr oucuoo - aaxonAonw ooumu cnoumu xonamu na nny1on-
no momano npono ooAonxu (nponan ooAonxa coxanno1-
cn, npwmxo xoomo nupno).
Eo nomn :ueoue+m (epeu. zygon - nanw) romoAorunnwo pun-
Aoupnwo xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn npom, onunam1 pyr pyra,
yxoanunam1cn u conAnm1cn moxpy coo (uouzweouun). Oaay-
m1cn 1ax naawnaomwo 1o1anAoupnwo uoo.eunm (.on. bI - pno-
no, vaIons - cuArnw). Hanomnum, n1o xaxpan punAoupnan xomo-
coma ua opnoro unaAon1a noucxopu1 Auo o1 o1a, Auo o1 ma1ou.
HoAonwo xomocomw acnoAaram1cn oxoAo nny1onno npono mom-
anw. OAac1r, aann1an umu, naawnao1cn no.oom+ n:mptuo+.
E auronomo romoAorunnwo d-xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn npom,
cAuxam1cn, moxpy numu oaaym1cn cnouaAuauonannwo cu-
nan1onomaArnwo xomnAoxcw (epeu. synasIs - cnnar, coopunonuo),
xo1owo nopc1anAnm1 coo oAxonwo c1yx1yw. Hu nooAr-
mom aAox1onno-muxocxonunocxom ynoAunonuu cunan1onomaAr-
nw xomnAoxc nwrAnpu1 n nupo pnyx aAox1ononAo1nwx noAoc,
aapoAonnwx cno1Ao noAoco. Hu oArmom ynoAunonuu n xomn-
Aoxco nupnw pno naaAAoArnwo oxonwo oAxonwo nu1u pAuno
120 - 150 nm u 1oAmuno 10 nm xaxpan, coopunonnwo 1onxumu
nonoonnwmu noAocamu aamoamu oxoAo ? nm, no oo c1oonw o1
nux Aoxa1 d-xomocomw. Hx HK qomuyo1 mnoxoc1no no1oAr.
E on1o xomnAoxca noxopu1 ocono aAomon1 1oAmuno 20 -
40 nm. Cunan1onomaArnw xomnAoxc ypanno cannunam1 c noo-
nonno Aoc1nuo, c1oonw xo1oo oaaonanw romoAorunnwmu
%! %
xomocomamu. Hmonno
n oayAr1a1o a1oro romo-
Aorunnwo xomocomw
conAnm1cn moxpy co-
o u oaaym1 unaAon-
1w, 46 d-xomocom o-
aaym1 23 unaAon1a.
Koomu uoo.eun co
cnoun u: oor Jrpo+o
co+, n. e. u: uenmper
rpo+onuo.
K xony auro1onw
xaxpan naa romoAorunnwx xomocom cnnaana moxpy coo c no-
momrm cunan1onomaArnwx xomnAoxcon. umr noAonwo xomoco-
mw X u Y xon+mruym1 nonoAnoc1rm, 1ax xax onu nonoAnoc1rm
romoAorunnw.
Horuue+o (epeu. ahys - 1oAc1w) nopoAxao1cn no monoo no-
cxoArxux cy1ox. Hooccw aanoanunam1cn noc1ononno. Xomo-
comw nocxoArxo yxoanunam1cn u y1oAmam1cn. Moxpy xoma1u-
pamu ma1ouncxoro u o1oncxoro noucxoxponun n nocxoArxux
moc1ax noanuxam1 coopunonun - xnaamm (epeu. chIasma - noo-
xoc1), uAu pouom6nnanxnmo yaoaun. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo
oAxonwo xomnAoxcw aamoamu oxoAo 90 nm. E oAac1u xaxpo
xuaamw noucxopu1 omon coo1no1c1nymmux ynac1xon romoAorun-
nwx xomocom - o1 o1oncxo x ma1ouncxo u naooo1. 01o1
noocc naawnam1 upoccnnronopom (oue.. crossIng-ovor - noo-
xoc1). Taxum oaaom, xoccunrono oocnonunao1 mnoronucAon-
nwo rono1unocxuo oxomunauu (uc. 34).
E xaxpom unaAon1o noAonoxa n noqaao-I xoccunrono no-
ucxopu1 n copnom n pnyx-1ox ynac1xax. KoAunoc1no oxomu-
nan1nwx yaoAxon anno xoAunoc1ny nooxoc1xon.
Ho oxonnanuu xoccunronoa xoma1upw aa+opunnm1cn, no
oc1am1cn cnnaannwmu n oAac1u xuaam. Hac1ynao1 c1apun oun.o
ue+m.
E punAonomo (epeu. dIIoos - pnono) cunan1onomaArnwo xom-
nAoxcw acnapam1cn, xon+mruonanmuo xomocomw aapnuram1-
cn u romoAorunnwo xomocomw xaxporo unaAon1a o1opnuram1cn
pyr o1 pyra, no cnnar moxpy numu coxanno1cn n aonax xuaam.
Moxpy punAonomo u ououuue:o+ (ron. dIa - aa-, kInoo -
nunoxy n pnuxonuo) no1 no1xo moqoAorunocxo ranuw, an-
no xax u aaranunonu no nomonu. E puaxunoao nopoAxao1cn
xonponcaun xomocom, onu o1poAnm1cn o1 nyxAooAommw, no ro-
moAorunnwo d-xomocomw nopoAxam1 omo oc1ana1rcn cnnaan-
nwmu moxpy coo xuaamamu, a coc1uncxuo xoma1upw xaxpo
d-xomocomw - on1omoamu. EAaropan naAunum nocxoArxux
P u c . 3 4. Cxeua xpoccuaosepa:
A cuanc u opasosaue mempam; B xpoccuaosep;
B aeemuvecxuxas pexouuaus (no Topmopa u coasm.)
A B B
Kaxpoo ua pnyx poAonu mooaa (poAonun I u II) umoo1 cnou
o1Aunu1oArnwo no1w. Ocoonnoc1r poAonun I coc1ou1 n noown-
nom u cAoxnom noxoxponuu npoqaam (npoqaaa-I). Ona nopaa-
poAno1cn na nocxoArxo c1apu: npo.ennoue+, .ennoue+, :ueo
ue+, noruue+, oun.oue+ u ououuue:.
Eo nomn npo.ennoue+m ( epeu. ro - nouop, IoIos - 1onxu,
noma - nu1r) noucxopu1 ananu1oArnan, no no noAnan cnuaAuaaun
xomocom. Hponan ooAonxa coxanno1cn, npwmxo no acnapao1-
cn. Hoa1omy no nomn noqaaw mooaa noamoxnw cun1oaw noxo1o-
wx PHK u oAxon. 3a cno1 a1ux cun1oaon n noAonwx xAo1xax (oco-
onno n xoncxo) coapam1cn aanacw nomoc1n, xo1owo ypy1 nooxo-
pumw pAn onAopo1noonun u annux c1apu aanu1un aaopwma.
Eo nomn .ennoue+m xomocomw omo oArmo cnuaAuaym1-
cn, u n npo c1anonn1cn nupnwmu 1onxuo nu1onupnwo d-xomoco-
mw (ux 46, 1. o. pna naoa). Hopnoxnom, n1o xaxpan romoAo-
runnan xomocoma yxo onAuuonana u coc1ou1 ua pnyx coc1-
uncxux xoma1up. Kaxpan xomocoma nopc1anAno1 coo 1on-
xym quuAAy, coc1onmym ua ocono oAxono nu1u, x xo1oo
nuxonAno1cn xoma1un coc1uncxux xoma1up (no1Au HK).
Xomocomw c nomomrm oAxonwx cxonAonu - npuupenune.t
umr oucuoo - aaxonAonw ooumu cnoumu xonamu na nny1on-
no momano npono ooAonxu (nponan ooAonxa coxanno1-
cn, npwmxo xoomo nupno).
Eo nomn :ueoue+m (epeu. zygon - nanw) romoAorunnwo pun-
Aoupnwo xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn npom, onunam1 pyr pyra,
yxoanunam1cn u conAnm1cn moxpy coo (uouzweouun). Oaay-
m1cn 1ax naawnaomwo 1o1anAoupnwo uoo.eunm (.on. bI - pno-
no, vaIons - cuArnw). Hanomnum, n1o xaxpan punAoupnan xomo-
coma ua opnoro unaAon1a noucxopu1 Auo o1 o1a, Auo o1 ma1ou.
HoAonwo xomocomw acnoAaram1cn oxoAo nny1onno npono mom-
anw. OAac1r, aann1an umu, naawnao1cn no.oom+ n:mptuo+.
E auronomo romoAorunnwo d-xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn npom,
cAuxam1cn, moxpy numu oaaym1cn cnouaAuauonannwo cu-
nan1onomaArnwo xomnAoxcw (epeu. synasIs - cnnar, coopunonuo),
xo1owo nopc1anAnm1 coo oAxonwo c1yx1yw. Hu nooAr-
mom aAox1onno-muxocxonunocxom ynoAunonuu cunan1onomaAr-
nw xomnAoxc nwrAnpu1 n nupo pnyx aAox1ononAo1nwx noAoc,
aapoAonnwx cno1Ao noAoco. Hu oArmom ynoAunonuu n xomn-
Aoxco nupnw pno naaAAoArnwo oxonwo oAxonwo nu1u pAuno
120 - 150 nm u 1oAmuno 10 nm xaxpan, coopunonnwo 1onxumu
nonoonnwmu noAocamu aamoamu oxoAo ? nm, no oo c1oonw o1
nux Aoxa1 d-xomocomw. Hx HK qomuyo1 mnoxoc1no no1oAr.
E on1o xomnAoxca noxopu1 ocono aAomon1 1oAmuno 20 -
40 nm. Cunan1onomaArnw xomnAoxc ypanno cannunam1 c noo-
nonno Aoc1nuo, c1oonw xo1oo oaaonanw romoAorunnwmu
%# %"
To . u u o 9
Cpannnxoannax xapauxopncxnua mnxoaa n mooaa
xuaam unaAon1w oaaym1 no1Au. E a1o nomn aaymam1cn npo-
nan ooAonxa u npwmxu. PonAuuonannwo on1uoAu nanan-
Anm1cn x noAmcam, oaayo1cn noo1ono poAonun.
EcAopc1nuo cuArno aa1nny1o punAonomw noqaaa mooaa ononr
pAu1oArna. Hu aanu1uu cnomuon ona moxo1 pAu1rcn nocxoAr-
xo cy1ox, a nu aanu1uu noxAo1ox - n 1ononuo mnorux Ao1.
HoAonwo xAo1xu n noqaao mooaa naawnam1cn ramoxonxamn
nopnoro nopxpua (nonunnwmu ramo1ou1amu, ramo1ou1amu I).
Moxaqaaa-I nanomunao1 anaAorunnym c1apum mu1oaa. Xomo-
comw yc1ananAunam1cn n axna1ouaArno nAocxoc1u, oaayn mo-
1aqaanym nAac1unxy. E o1Aunuo o1 mu1oaa, xomocomnwo muxo-
1yonxu nuxonAnm1cn x on1omoo Aumr c opno c1oonw (co
c1oonw noAmca), a on1omow romoAorunnwx d-xomocom ac-
noAoxonw no ooum c1oonam axna1oa. Cnnar moxpy xomocoma-
mu c nomomrm xuaam nopoAxao1 coxann1rcn.
E anaqaao-I xuaamw acnapam1cn, romoAorunnwo d-xomoco-
mw o1poAnm1cn pyr o1 pyra u acxopn1cn x noAmcam. Hon1omo-
w a1ux xomocom, opnaxo, n o1Aunuo o1 anaqaaw mu1oaa, no on-
Auuym1cn, a ananu1, coc1uncxuo xoma1upw no acxopn1cn.
E xoaoqaao-I qomuym1cn nponan ooAonxa u npwmxo, o-
aayo1cn u yrAyAno1cn ooapa poAonun, noucxopu1 xauoxu-
noa. CnanaAa naow romoAorunnwx d-xomocom naxopn1cn y noAm-
con. Xo1n ux nucAo ymonrmuAocr npnoo, xaxpan ua nux coc1ou1 ua
pnyx rono1unocxu aaAunnwx xoma1up. E oayAr1a1o u1oxunoaa
n xaxpo ponono xAo1xo cocopo1onunao1cn no 23 d-xomoco-
mw. Oaaonanmuocn xAo1xu naawnam1 ramoxonxamn nxoporo no-
pxpua (n1ounnwmu ramo1ou1amu, ramo1ou1amu II).
Hnxopqaaa-II ononr xoo1xan. Eo naxnoman ocoonnoc1r co-
c1ou1 n 1om, n1o no opynAuuyo1cn HK, 1. o. o1cy1c1nyo1 S-qaaa.
oAonuo ramo1ou1a n1ooro nonpxa conomao1cn nooa npo
qo:II, +enoqo:II, ouoqo:II u ne.oqo:II. Hpoqaaa-II
no pAu1oArna, u xon+mrauu xomocom nu a1om no nac1ynao1.
E moxaqaao-II 23 xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn n nAocxoc1u axna1o-
a. E anaqaao-II HK n oAac1u on1omow onAuuyo1cn, xax
a1o noucxopu1 u n anaqaao mu1oaa, xomocomw acxopn1cn x no-
Amcam. E xoaoqaao-II oaaym1cn pno pononuo xAo1xu.
Hanomnum, n1o no II-o poAonuo nc1ynaAu no 1o1anAoupnwo xAo1-
xu, xax nu ownnom mu1oao, a punAoupnwo. Hoa1omy xaxpan ua
nonwx xAo1ox ranAoupna. Eoccnouoo.euue oun.ououocnu npou:ou
oen .uut o pe:.tnone c.unuun +cuou u eucuou eo+en, no
ecnt npu on.ooonoopeuuu - opo:ooouuu uoooeo opeouu:+o.
H1ax, n oayAr1a1o pnyx nocAopona1oArnwx poAonu mooaa-II
oaaym1cn 4 xAo1xu, xaxpan ua xo1owx noco1 ranAoupnw na-
o s-xomocom. E 1aA. 9 nunoponw ocnonnwo cxopc1na u aaAu-
nun moxpy mu1oaom u mooaom.
%# %"
To . u u o 9
Cpannnxoannax xapauxopncxnua mnxoaa n mooaa
xuaam unaAon1w oaaym1 no1Au. E a1o nomn aaymam1cn npo-
nan ooAonxa u npwmxu. PonAuuonannwo on1uoAu nanan-
Anm1cn x noAmcam, oaayo1cn noo1ono poAonun.
EcAopc1nuo cuArno aa1nny1o punAonomw noqaaa mooaa ononr
pAu1oArna. Hu aanu1uu cnomuon ona moxo1 pAu1rcn nocxoAr-
xo cy1ox, a nu aanu1uu noxAo1ox - n 1ononuo mnorux Ao1.
HoAonwo xAo1xu n noqaao mooaa naawnam1cn ramoxonxamn
nopnoro nopxpua (nonunnwmu ramo1ou1amu, ramo1ou1amu I).
Moxaqaaa-I nanomunao1 anaAorunnym c1apum mu1oaa. Xomo-
comw yc1ananAunam1cn n axna1ouaArno nAocxoc1u, oaayn mo-
1aqaanym nAac1unxy. E o1Aunuo o1 mu1oaa, xomocomnwo muxo-
1yonxu nuxonAnm1cn x on1omoo Aumr c opno c1oonw (co
c1oonw noAmca), a on1omow romoAorunnwx d-xomocom ac-
noAoxonw no ooum c1oonam axna1oa. Cnnar moxpy xomocoma-
mu c nomomrm xuaam nopoAxao1 coxann1rcn.
E anaqaao-I xuaamw acnapam1cn, romoAorunnwo d-xomoco-
mw o1poAnm1cn pyr o1 pyra u acxopn1cn x noAmcam. Hon1omo-
w a1ux xomocom, opnaxo, n o1Aunuo o1 anaqaaw mu1oaa, no on-
Auuym1cn, a ananu1, coc1uncxuo xoma1upw no acxopn1cn.
E xoaoqaao-I qomuym1cn nponan ooAonxa u npwmxo, o-
aayo1cn u yrAyAno1cn ooapa poAonun, noucxopu1 xauoxu-
noa. CnanaAa naow romoAorunnwx d-xomocom naxopn1cn y noAm-
con. Xo1n ux nucAo ymonrmuAocr npnoo, xaxpan ua nux coc1ou1 ua
pnyx rono1unocxu aaAunnwx xoma1up. E oayAr1a1o u1oxunoaa
n xaxpo ponono xAo1xo cocopo1onunao1cn no 23 d-xomoco-
mw. Oaaonanmuocn xAo1xu naawnam1 ramoxonxamn nxoporo no-
pxpua (n1ounnwmu ramo1ou1amu, ramo1ou1amu II).
Hnxopqaaa-II ononr xoo1xan. Eo naxnoman ocoonnoc1r co-
c1ou1 n 1om, n1o no opynAuuyo1cn HK, 1. o. o1cy1c1nyo1 S-qaaa.
oAonuo ramo1ou1a n1ooro nonpxa conomao1cn nooa npo
qo:II, +enoqo:II, ouoqo:II u ne.oqo:II. Hpoqaaa-II
no pAu1oArna, u xon+mrauu xomocom nu a1om no nac1ynao1.
E moxaqaao-II 23 xomocomw nwc1aunam1cn n nAocxoc1u axna1o-
a. E anaqaao-II HK n oAac1u on1omow onAuuyo1cn, xax
a1o noucxopu1 u n anaqaao mu1oaa, xomocomw acxopn1cn x no-
Amcam. E xoaoqaao-II oaaym1cn pno pononuo xAo1xu.
Hanomnum, n1o no II-o poAonuo nc1ynaAu no 1o1anAoupnwo xAo1-
xu, xax nu ownnom mu1oao, a punAoupnwo. Hoa1omy xaxpan ua
nonwx xAo1ox ranAoupna. Eoccnouoo.euue oun.ououocnu npou:ou
oen .uut o pe:.tnone c.unuun +cuou u eucuou eo+en, no
ecnt npu on.ooonoopeuuu - opo:ooouuu uoooeo opeouu:+o.
H1ax, n oayAr1a1o pnyx nocAopona1oArnwx poAonu mooaa-II
oaaym1cn 4 xAo1xu, xaxpan ua xo1owx noco1 ranAoupnw na-
o s-xomocom. E 1aA. 9 nunoponw ocnonnwo cxopc1na u aaAu-
nun moxpy mu1oaom u mooaom.
%% %$
7
8
9
10
11
5
4
2
6
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1
6
11
20
20
3
Annapaf
Fonupu
Ocfafku nonkcuLx rukpofpyoek aepefeua Cfeuka rafepuucko knefku
HysLpuku c npepmecfaeu-
uukaru knefouo cfeuku
uakannuaakfcn a skaafo-
puanuuo soue nepekpL-
aauun rukpofpyoek u
cnuaakfcn, opasyn pau-
ukk knefouyk nnacfuu-
ky
Hppo a nospue
fenoqase
HysLpuku kornnekca
Fonupu nopxopnf
k rukpofpyokar
u pauyfcn k skaafopy
Ho repe aknkeuun ra-
fepuana a knefouyk
cfeuky, opasykykcn
auyfpu knefouo nna-
cfuuku, y kpaea
knefouo nnacfuuku
uakannuaakfcn uoaLe
nysLpuku kornnekca
Fonupu; ouu cnuaakf-
cn c ue u pacmupnkf ee
Cpepuuuan
nnacfuuka
Pauunn
knefouan
nnacfuuka
Mukpofpyoku qparronnacfa pacnapakfcn u
qoprupykfcn sauoao ua nepuqepuu pauue
knefouo nnacfuuku
Pacmupnkancn rerpaua
ua knefouo nnacfuuke
cnuaaefcn c nnasrafuec-
ko rerpauo; rafepuan
knefouo cfeuku npopon-
aef ofknapLaafucn, noka
ue ypef rofoaa uoaan
cfeuka
HnasropecrL repy
cocepuuru knefkaru
Boccfauoauameecn uufepqasuoe pacno-
noeuue kopfukanuuLx rukpofpyoek
Pu c . 3 6. Xo umoxuesa s xnemxax smcuux pacmeu,
uuekux +ecmxyk xnemovyk cmpyxmypy
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
CTPOEHHE PACTHTERLHOH KRETKH
Kax u nco xunwo oranuamw, ac1onun umom1 xAo1onnoo c1oo-
nuo u coo1no1c1nym1 ncom noAoxonunm onucanno xAo1onno 1oo-
uu. Eco ocnonnwo xomnonon1w ayxauo1unocxo xAo1xu nucy1-
c1nym1 u n xAo1xax ac1onu. Opnaxo xAo1xu ac1onu oAapam1
noxo1owmu xaax1onwmu ocoonnoc1nmu, xo1owo nununuaAr-
no o1Aunam1 ux o1 xAo1ox xuno1nwx. 01u ocoonnoc1u nonocop-
c1nonno cnnaanw c ycAonunmu qynxuonuonanun ac1onu.
Ha nucymux xuno1no xAo1xo oranoAA y ac1u1oArno on
cncnown no.tuo ueunpuo.u, xo1owo mory1 umo1r noxo1owo
ac1onun, umommuo monapnym qomy, aa1o umoo1cn np xaax1o-
nwx c1yx1y, ua xo1owx noxpo ncoro cAopyo1 nwpoAu1r xoc1-
xym u.enouuw cneuu, n.ocnuom u oouo.u (uc. 35).
KAovouno cvonuo oAapam1 no 1oArxo ac1onun, no u ruw, a
1axxo mnoruo noxauo1w. Camo o1xw1uo Poo1om Iyxom xAo1xu
cnnaano umonno c a1o c1yx1yo. An nonumanun yc1oc1na xAo-
1onno c1onxu noAoano accmo1o1r moxanuam oo oaaonanun. Kax
uanoc1no, u1oxunoa (noocc aa-
poAonun xAo1ox no aanomonuu
mu1oaa) n xAo1xax xuno1nwx
ocymoc1nAno1cn nocopc1nom ux
o1mnyonxu, y ac1onu a1o
noucxopu1 conomonno unano.
CnanaAa n axna1ouaArno nAocxoc1u poAnmocn xAo1xu ua muxo-
1yonox oaayo1cn uAunpunocxo qomw c1yx1ya, xo1oan na-
awnao1cn qpoe+on.ocno+. 3a1om npoAr a1ux muxo1yonox 1anc-
no1uym1cn momannwo nyawrxu, xo1owo o1mnyonwnam1cn o1
momonxon xomnAoxcom IoArpxu. 01u nyawrxu cAunam1cn, oaayn
Pu c . 3 5. Cospeueas
(ooeas) cxeua cmpoeus
pacmumenso xnemxu,
cocmasneas no amu
snexmpoo-uuxpocxonuvecxoao
uccneosaus pasmx
pacmumensmx xnemox:
1 annapam lons+u; 2 csooo pac-
nono+eme puocoum; 3 xnoponnac-
mm; 4 ue+xnemovme npocmpacmsa;
5 nonucoum (ecxonsxo csssamx
ue+y coo puocou); 6 uumoxo-
puu; 7 nusocoum; 8 apaynspas
(uepoxosamas) sonnasuamuvecxas
cems; 9 aapaynspas (anaxas) s-
onnasuamuvecxas cems; 10 uuxpo-
mpyovxu; 11 nnacmum; 12 nnas-
uoecum, npoxosue cxsoss oonov-
xy; 13 xnemovas oonovxa; 14 s-
pmuxo; 15 spo (s spe sum cnupa-
nu BHl); 16 nopm s sepo oonovxe;
17 nnasuaneuua; 18 auanonnasua
(umosons); 19 moonnacm; 20 saxy-
onu (no Appoem)
%% %$
7
8
9
10
11
5
4
2
6
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
1
6
11
20
20
3
Annapaf
Fonupu
Ocfafku nonkcuLx rukpofpyoek aepefeua Cfeuka rafepuucko knefku
HysLpuku c npepmecfaeu-
uukaru knefouo cfeuku
uakannuaakfcn a skaafo-
puanuuo soue nepekpL-
aauun rukpofpyoek u
cnuaakfcn, opasyn pau-
ukk knefouyk nnacfuu-
ky
Hppo a nospue
fenoqase
HysLpuku kornnekca
Fonupu nopxopnf
k rukpofpyokar
u pauyfcn k skaafopy
Ho repe aknkeuun ra-
fepuana a knefouyk
cfeuky, opasykykcn
auyfpu knefouo nna-
cfuuku, y kpaea
knefouo nnacfuuku
uakannuaakfcn uoaLe
nysLpuku kornnekca
Fonupu; ouu cnuaakf-
cn c ue u pacmupnkf ee
Cpepuuuan
nnacfuuka
Pauunn
knefouan
nnacfuuka
Mukpofpyoku qparronnacfa pacnapakfcn u
qoprupykfcn sauoao ua nepuqepuu pauue
knefouo nnacfuuku
Pacmupnkancn rerpaua
ua knefouo nnacfuuke
cnuaaefcn c nnasrafuec-
ko rerpauo; rafepuan
knefouo cfeuku npopon-
aef ofknapLaafucn, noka
ue ypef rofoaa uoaan
cfeuka
HnasropecrL repy
cocepuuru knefkaru
Boccfauoauameecn uufepqasuoe pacno-
noeuue kopfukanuuLx rukpofpyoek
Pu c . 3 6. Xo umoxuesa s xnemxax smcuux pacmeu,
uuekux +ecmxyk xnemovyk cmpyxmypy
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
CTPOEHHE PACTHTERLHOH KRETKH
Kax u nco xunwo oranuamw, ac1onun umom1 xAo1onnoo c1oo-
nuo u coo1no1c1nym1 ncom noAoxonunm onucanno xAo1onno 1oo-
uu. Eco ocnonnwo xomnonon1w ayxauo1unocxo xAo1xu nucy1-
c1nym1 u n xAo1xax ac1onu. Opnaxo xAo1xu ac1onu oAapam1
noxo1owmu xaax1onwmu ocoonnoc1nmu, xo1owo nununuaAr-
no o1Aunam1 ux o1 xAo1ox xuno1nwx. 01u ocoonnoc1u nonocop-
c1nonno cnnaanw c ycAonunmu qynxuonuonanun ac1onu.
Ha nucymux xuno1no xAo1xo oranoAA y ac1u1oArno on
cncnown no.tuo ueunpuo.u, xo1owo mory1 umo1r noxo1owo
ac1onun, umommuo monapnym qomy, aa1o umoo1cn np xaax1o-
nwx c1yx1y, ua xo1owx noxpo ncoro cAopyo1 nwpoAu1r xoc1-
xym u.enouuw cneuu, n.ocnuom u oouo.u (uc. 35).
KAovouno cvonuo oAapam1 no 1oArxo ac1onun, no u ruw, a
1axxo mnoruo noxauo1w. Camo o1xw1uo Poo1om Iyxom xAo1xu
cnnaano umonno c a1o c1yx1yo. An nonumanun yc1oc1na xAo-
1onno c1onxu noAoano accmo1o1r moxanuam oo oaaonanun. Kax
uanoc1no, u1oxunoa (noocc aa-
poAonun xAo1ox no aanomonuu
mu1oaa) n xAo1xax xuno1nwx
ocymoc1nAno1cn nocopc1nom ux
o1mnyonxu, y ac1onu a1o
noucxopu1 conomonno unano.
CnanaAa n axna1ouaArno nAocxoc1u poAnmocn xAo1xu ua muxo-
1yonox oaayo1cn uAunpunocxo qomw c1yx1ya, xo1oan na-
awnao1cn qpoe+on.ocno+. 3a1om npoAr a1ux muxo1yonox 1anc-
no1uym1cn momannwo nyawrxu, xo1owo o1mnyonwnam1cn o1
momonxon xomnAoxcom IoArpxu. 01u nyawrxu cAunam1cn, oaayn
Pu c . 3 5. Cospeueas
(ooeas) cxeua cmpoeus
pacmumenso xnemxu,
cocmasneas no amu
snexmpoo-uuxpocxonuvecxoao
uccneosaus pasmx
pacmumensmx xnemox:
1 annapam lons+u; 2 csooo pac-
nono+eme puocoum; 3 xnoponnac-
mm; 4 ue+xnemovme npocmpacmsa;
5 nonucoum (ecxonsxo csssamx
ue+y coo puocou); 6 uumoxo-
puu; 7 nusocoum; 8 apaynspas
(uepoxosamas) sonnasuamuvecxas
cems; 9 aapaynspas (anaxas) s-
onnasuamuvecxas cems; 10 uuxpo-
mpyovxu; 11 nnacmum; 12 nnas-
uoecum, npoxosue cxsoss oonov-
xy; 13 xnemovas oonovxa; 14 s-
pmuxo; 15 spo (s spe sum cnupa-
nu BHl); 16 nopm s sepo oonovxe;
17 nnasuaneuua; 18 auanonnasua
(umosons); 19 moonnacm; 20 saxy-
onu (no Appoem)
%' %&
oxyxonnw momano pucx (uc. 36). Taxo pucx nnAno1cn pou
ueu u.enouuou n.ocnuuuou, c no noc1onnno cAunam1cn nco nonwo
nyawrxu. E u1oro annnn xAo1onnan nAac1unxa poc1urao1 nAaama1u-
nocxo momanw u cAunao1cn c no, aapoAnn pononuo xAo1xu.
Hnmwo coomonun moxpy ac1u1oArnwmu xAo1xamu naawnam1cn
n.o:+ooec+o+u. Onu cnouqunnw pAn ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox. Hy-
awrxu xomnAoxca IoArpxu, ua xo1ooro oaaonaAacr annnn xAo-
1onnan c1onxa, copoxa1 aaAunnwo noAucaxaupw, ocnonnwo ua
xo1owx nox1unw u romuoAAmAoaa. Cnnawnancr moxpy coo, a1u
nomoc1na oaaym1 cpeouuuw n.ocnuuu, xo1oan n ocnonnom co-
c1ou1 ua nox1una. Hoaxo n oo coc1an nxopn1 oAoo nAo1nwo nomo-
c1na - oAAmAoaa u Aurnun. Kaxpan xAo1xa co ncox c1oon oxyxo-
na copunno nAac1unxo.
Ha cAopymmux a1anax qomuym1cn cnanaAa nepouuuon, a aa-
1om onopuuuon u.enouuon cneuuo. E xAo1onnwx c1onxax nucy1-
c1nym1 xaxac u cnnaymmoo nomoc1no. Taxan xonc1yxun oAa-
pao1 nomaAo nonnoc1rm. Hoac1nxumwo aAomon1w xaxaca -
nynxu moAoxyA oAAmAoaw, a cnnaymm xomnonon1 - romuoA-
AmAoaw u nox1unw, xo1owo oaaym1 ma1uxc xAo1onno c1on-
xu. Eco a1u nomoc1na 1ancno1uym1cn n nyawrxax xomnAoxca
IoArpxu x nAaama1unocxo momano, rpo nyawrxu cAunam1cn c
no u nocopc1nom axaou1oaa nwacwnam1 copoxamuocn n no
nomoc1na nayxy. 01u nomoc1na, nonapan n noc1anc1no moxpy
nAaama1unocxo momano u copunno nAac1unxo, cAyxa1 ma-
1ouaAom pAn oaaonanun xAo1onno c1onxu.
Honunnan xAo1onnan c1onxa copoxu1 po 90% nopw. Ona xa-
ax1ona rAannwm oaaom pAn mouc1oma1unocxux (mouc1oma-
1unocxuo xAo1xu - a1o xAo1xu, cnoconwo noc1onnno poAu1rcn) u
maAopuqqoonuonannwx (puqqoonuaun - nuoo1onuo xAo1-
xo moqoAorunocxux ocoonnoc1o, cnnaannwx c qynxuonaAr-
no cnouaAuaauo xAo1xu) xAo1ox. Taxuo xAo1xu cnoconw ana-
nu1oArno ynoAununa1r cno o+om u, coo1no1c1nonno, aamow.
Hooxopumo ynu1wna1r, n1o oAAmAoanwo quuAAw noac1nxu-
mw, a ynoAunonuo Aunonwx aamoon ocymoc1nAno1cn aa cno1 cmo-
monun o1nocu1oArno pyr pyra ynomnny1wx quuAA.
Hoxo1owo xAo1xu, n nac1noc1u moaoquAAa Auc1ron (moaoquAA -
qo1ocun1oauymman naonxuma noro1a1unnwx Auc1ron), no poc1uxo-
nuu cnoux oxonna1oArnwx aamoon nooc1am1 o1xAapwna1r aAomon-
1w ooAonxu. H y nux n 1ononuo nco xuanu coxanno1cn nonunnan
ooAonxa. Ho y oArmunc1na xAo1ox a1o1 noocc no noxamao1cn.
E a1om cAynao moxpy nAaama1unocxo momano u nonunno c1onxo
o1xAapwnao1cn n1ounnan. Eo c1oonuo n nununo cxopno c nonun-
no c1onxo, no coo1nomonuo xomnonon1on aaAunno. E1ounnan c1onxa
copoxu1 ananu1oArno oArmo oAAmAoaw u monrmo nopw.
Eo n1ounno c1onxo ownno nwpoAnm1 1u cAon - nayxnw,
camw momnw copnu u nny1onnu (uc. 3?). E no (no n1ounno
Pu c . 3 7. Cxeua cmpoeus
xnemovo cmexu:
A ou su; B vacms oo-
novxu npu onsuou ysenuveuu;
B su csepxy; 1 cpeuas
nnacmuxa; 2, 3, 4 coomsem-
cmseo seuu, cpeu u
sympeu cnou smopuvo
oonovxu; 5 nopa; 6 cnenas
nopa; 7 nnasuoecueme
xaansm; 8 noposoe none
(no lynsesy)
c1onxo) umoo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no no.
Hoa nopc1anAno1 coo yrAyAonuo no
n1ounno c1onxo. Honunnan c1onxa u
copunnan nAac1unxa oc1am1cn nu a1om
un1ax1nwmu. Hocmo1n na a1o, nooa now
aqqox1unno ocymoc1nAno1cn 1ancno1, a
y noxo1owx ac1onu (nanumo, y roAo-
comonnwx) 1ancno1 nopw no xcuAomo
ocymoc1nAno1cn 1oArxo nooa now. How
mory1 w1r noc1wmu (uc. 38) u oxamAon-
nwmu (uc. 39). OxamAonnwo now xno-
nwx Aaropan naAunum 1axo c1yx1y-
w, xax 1oyc, cnoconw ax1unno nAun1r
na un1oncunnoc1r 1ancno1a. Toyc, cmo-
mancr, moxo1 nooxwna1r no1ox nopw
(xo1ow n nomaArnom noAoxonuu o1o-
xao1 oro no xanm). Cmoc1unmucr, 1oyc
yxo no cnocoon oArmo nony1rcn n no-
nonanaArnoo noAoxonuo.
Tancno1 1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn no-
oa moAxuo (po 30 - 60 nm) cxnoanwo
o1noc1un, xo1owo nopy1 n xanaAw, no-
nuawnammuo xAo1onnwo c1onxu cocopnux
xAo1ox nmoc1o c coopunno nAac1unxo, -
n.o:+ooec+m. 01u xanaAw no nco pAuno nwc1Aanw nAaama1unoc-
xo momano. Hooa nAaamopocmw noxopu1 noAan oec+on
.o, nooa noo aAomon1w anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma cocop-
nux xAo1ox coomam1cn moxpy coo. Moxpy nAaama1unocxo
momano u pocmo1yyAo ncorpa umoo1cn nooArmoo xoAunoc1no
euo.on.o:+m. HAaamopocmw noanoAnm1 nomoc1nam cnoopno mur-
uona1r ua opno xAo1xu n pyrym, munyn nu a1om coroanwo
arow.
Hu qomuonanuu n1ounno xAo1onno c1onxu Aunonw oc1
xAo1ox c1anonu1cn nonoamoxon, noa1omy a1o1 noocc ncorpa co-
nonoxpao1cn ymonrmonuom o+oma no1onAac1a (no1onAac1 -
copoxumoo xuno xAo1xu, aa ucxAmnonuom xAo1onno ooAonxu).
1
2 2
3
4
5
P u c . 3 8. Hpocmme nopm
s oonovxax xaueucmmx xnemox
(cxnepexuue ) us ceueo xo+ypm
apexoao opexa:
1 smopuvas oonovxa cocmoum us
uoaux napannensmx cnoes, omno+e-
mx nymeu annosuuu; 2 nonocms
xnemxu; 3 noposm xaan; 4 semsuc-
mas nopa; 5 cpeuas nnacmuxa,
cnusuascs c nepsuvo oonovxo
(no laycuay)
%' %&
oxyxonnw momano pucx (uc. 36). Taxo pucx nnAno1cn pou
ueu u.enouuou n.ocnuuuou, c no noc1onnno cAunam1cn nco nonwo
nyawrxu. E u1oro annnn xAo1onnan nAac1unxa poc1urao1 nAaama1u-
nocxo momanw u cAunao1cn c no, aapoAnn pononuo xAo1xu.
Hnmwo coomonun moxpy ac1u1oArnwmu xAo1xamu naawnam1cn
n.o:+ooec+o+u. Onu cnouqunnw pAn ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox. Hy-
awrxu xomnAoxca IoArpxu, ua xo1ooro oaaonaAacr annnn xAo-
1onnan c1onxa, copoxa1 aaAunnwo noAucaxaupw, ocnonnwo ua
xo1owx nox1unw u romuoAAmAoaa. Cnnawnancr moxpy coo, a1u
nomoc1na oaaym1 cpeouuuw n.ocnuuu, xo1oan n ocnonnom co-
c1ou1 ua nox1una. Hoaxo n oo coc1an nxopn1 oAoo nAo1nwo nomo-
c1na - oAAmAoaa u Aurnun. Kaxpan xAo1xa co ncox c1oon oxyxo-
na copunno nAac1unxo.
Ha cAopymmux a1anax qomuym1cn cnanaAa nepouuuon, a aa-
1om onopuuuon u.enouuon cneuuo. E xAo1onnwx c1onxax nucy1-
c1nym1 xaxac u cnnaymmoo nomoc1no. Taxan xonc1yxun oAa-
pao1 nomaAo nonnoc1rm. Hoac1nxumwo aAomon1w xaxaca -
nynxu moAoxyA oAAmAoaw, a cnnaymm xomnonon1 - romuoA-
AmAoaw u nox1unw, xo1owo oaaym1 ma1uxc xAo1onno c1on-
xu. Eco a1u nomoc1na 1ancno1uym1cn n nyawrxax xomnAoxca
IoArpxu x nAaama1unocxo momano, rpo nyawrxu cAunam1cn c
no u nocopc1nom axaou1oaa nwacwnam1 copoxamuocn n no
nomoc1na nayxy. 01u nomoc1na, nonapan n noc1anc1no moxpy
nAaama1unocxo momano u copunno nAac1unxo, cAyxa1 ma-
1ouaAom pAn oaaonanun xAo1onno c1onxu.
Honunnan xAo1onnan c1onxa copoxu1 po 90% nopw. Ona xa-
ax1ona rAannwm oaaom pAn mouc1oma1unocxux (mouc1oma-
1unocxuo xAo1xu - a1o xAo1xu, cnoconwo noc1onnno poAu1rcn) u
maAopuqqoonuonannwx (puqqoonuaun - nuoo1onuo xAo1-
xo moqoAorunocxux ocoonnoc1o, cnnaannwx c qynxuonaAr-
no cnouaAuaauo xAo1xu) xAo1ox. Taxuo xAo1xu cnoconw ana-
nu1oArno ynoAununa1r cno o+om u, coo1no1c1nonno, aamow.
Hooxopumo ynu1wna1r, n1o oAAmAoanwo quuAAw noac1nxu-
mw, a ynoAunonuo Aunonwx aamoon ocymoc1nAno1cn aa cno1 cmo-
monun o1nocu1oArno pyr pyra ynomnny1wx quuAA.
Hoxo1owo xAo1xu, n nac1noc1u moaoquAAa Auc1ron (moaoquAA -
qo1ocun1oauymman naonxuma noro1a1unnwx Auc1ron), no poc1uxo-
nuu cnoux oxonna1oArnwx aamoon nooc1am1 o1xAapwna1r aAomon-
1w ooAonxu. H y nux n 1ononuo nco xuanu coxanno1cn nonunnan
ooAonxa. Ho y oArmunc1na xAo1ox a1o1 noocc no noxamao1cn.
E a1om cAynao moxpy nAaama1unocxo momano u nonunno c1onxo
o1xAapwnao1cn n1ounnan. Eo c1oonuo n nununo cxopno c nonun-
no c1onxo, no coo1nomonuo xomnonon1on aaAunno. E1ounnan c1onxa
copoxu1 ananu1oArno oArmo oAAmAoaw u monrmo nopw.
Eo n1ounno c1onxo ownno nwpoAnm1 1u cAon - nayxnw,
camw momnw copnu u nny1onnu (uc. 3?). E no (no n1ounno
Pu c . 3 7. Cxeua cmpoeus
xnemovo cmexu:
A ou su; B vacms oo-
novxu npu onsuou ysenuveuu;
B su csepxy; 1 cpeuas
nnacmuxa; 2, 3, 4 coomsem-
cmseo seuu, cpeu u
sympeu cnou smopuvo
oonovxu; 5 nopa; 6 cnenas
nopa; 7 nnasuoecueme
xaansm; 8 noposoe none
(no lynsesy)
c1onxo) umoo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no no.
Hoa nopc1anAno1 coo yrAyAonuo no
n1ounno c1onxo. Honunnan c1onxa u
copunnan nAac1unxa oc1am1cn nu a1om
un1ax1nwmu. Hocmo1n na a1o, nooa now
aqqox1unno ocymoc1nAno1cn 1ancno1, a
y noxo1owx ac1onu (nanumo, y roAo-
comonnwx) 1ancno1 nopw no xcuAomo
ocymoc1nAno1cn 1oArxo nooa now. How
mory1 w1r noc1wmu (uc. 38) u oxamAon-
nwmu (uc. 39). OxamAonnwo now xno-
nwx Aaropan naAunum 1axo c1yx1y-
w, xax 1oyc, cnoconw ax1unno nAun1r
na un1oncunnoc1r 1ancno1a. Toyc, cmo-
mancr, moxo1 nooxwna1r no1ox nopw
(xo1ow n nomaArnom noAoxonuu o1o-
xao1 oro no xanm). Cmoc1unmucr, 1oyc
yxo no cnocoon oArmo nony1rcn n no-
nonanaArnoo noAoxonuo.
Tancno1 1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn no-
oa moAxuo (po 30 - 60 nm) cxnoanwo
o1noc1un, xo1owo nopy1 n xanaAw, no-
nuawnammuo xAo1onnwo c1onxu cocopnux
xAo1ox nmoc1o c coopunno nAac1unxo, -
n.o:+ooec+m. 01u xanaAw no nco pAuno nwc1Aanw nAaama1unoc-
xo momano. Hooa nAaamopocmw noxopu1 noAan oec+on
.o, nooa noo aAomon1w anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma cocop-
nux xAo1ox coomam1cn moxpy coo. Moxpy nAaama1unocxo
momano u pocmo1yyAo ncorpa umoo1cn nooArmoo xoAunoc1no
euo.on.o:+m. HAaamopocmw noanoAnm1 nomoc1nam cnoopno mur-
uona1r ua opno xAo1xu n pyrym, munyn nu a1om coroanwo
arow.
Hu qomuonanuu n1ounno xAo1onno c1onxu Aunonw oc1
xAo1ox c1anonu1cn nonoamoxon, noa1omy a1o1 noocc ncorpa co-
nonoxpao1cn ymonrmonuom o+oma no1onAac1a (no1onAac1 -
copoxumoo xuno xAo1xu, aa ucxAmnonuom xAo1onno ooAonxu).
1
2 2
3
4
5
P u c . 3 8. Hpocmme nopm
s oonovxax xaueucmmx xnemox
(cxnepexuue ) us ceueo xo+ypm
apexoao opexa:
1 smopuvas oonovxa cocmoum us
uoaux napannensmx cnoes, omno+e-
mx nymeu annosuuu; 2 nonocms
xnemxu; 3 noposm xaan; 4 semsuc-
mas nopa; 5 cpeuas nnacmuxa,
cnusuascs c nepsuvo oonovxo
(no laycuay)
& &
nwaxonnoro n1ounnoro y1oAmonun. 01o ocoonno xaax1ono pAn
1annnuc1wx ac1onu. E xAo1onnwx c1onxax aanacam1cn nu1a-
1oArnwo nomoc1na.
KAo1onnwo c1onxu aapoAnm1 oranuam ac1onun na pna no-
c1anc1na. To ua nux, xo1ooo o+opunno1 moxpy coo nco no1o-
nAac1w, cnnaannwo moxpy coo nocopc1nom nAaamopocm, naawna-
o1cn cu+n.ocno+. Hoc1anc1no, xo1ooo o1ranunono xAo1onnw-
mu c1onxamu u nxAmnao1 n con moxxAo1nuxu, naawnao1cn onon.o
cno+. Coo1no1c1nonno 1ancno1 nooa nAaamopocmw naawnao1cn
cu+n.ocnuuecuu+, a 1ancno1 no ooAonxam u moxxAo1nuxam -
onon.ocnuuecuu+.
Pac1u1oArnwo xAo1xu ponoArno nonno cnnaanw moxpy coo
n ocnonnom aa cno1 copunno nAac1unxu.
HAACTHL
HAacvnpm xnAxmvcx opranoAAamn, npncymnmn ncuAmunvoAn-
no pacvonnxm. E aaAunnwx xoAunoc1nax onu nucy1c1nym1 n
Amo xuno ac1u1oArno xAo1xo u n cnoo conoxynnoc1u o-
aaym1 n.ocnuoo+ u.enuu. HonyAnun nAac1up ro1ooronna.
EwpoAnm1 1u ocnonnwx 1una nAac1up: r.opon.ocnm (aoAonwo),
rpo+on.ocnm (aaAunnwo nAac1upw o1 xoA1oro po xacnoro no-
1on) u .euuon.ocnm (ocno1nwo). Ecox ux o+opunno1 omoo
noucxoxponuo, naAunuo nny1onnux moman, a 1axxo coc1non-
noro ronoma u annaa1a uocun1oaa oAxa, n1o ronou1 o noxo1o-
o an1onomnoc1u a1ux oranoAA. Ownno n xaxpo xAo1xo moxno
onayxu1r 1oArxo opun 1un nAac1up.
XAoponAacvm umom1 nauoArmoo ananonuo pAn ac1onun. Onu
nc1onam1cn y oArmunc1na xunwx xAo1ox aoAonwx oranon ac-
1onun u nac1o aanumam1 oArmym nac1r o+oma no1onAac1a. o-
ma xAoonAac1on namo ncoro wnao1 Aunaonupno, xo1n y nopooc-
Ao (y nux namo ncoro nucy1c1nyo1 ncoro opun oromnw xAoon-
Aac1, naawnaomw rpo+onoqopo+) ona moxo1 w1r ononr aano-
oaano - namooaano, cnuaAonupno u p. XAoonAac1w -
ononr xynnwo nny1uxAo1onnwo c1yx1yw. Hoopxo ux aamo
nonwmao1 aamo npa, no ownno muuna 2 - 4 mxm u pAuna -
5 - 10 mxm. Xoma1oqow nopoocAo omo oArmo - po 50 mxm n
pAuny. HucAonnoc1r xAoonAac1on n aaAunnwx xAo1xax ononr
naruyo1 - o1 5 - ? n xAo1xax anupomw 1onoAn po 1000 n ruran1-
cxux xAo1xax moaoquAAa Auc1ron maxoxu. XAoonAac1w ocoon-
no mnoronucAonnw n 1ox xAo1xax, xo1owo xoomo ocnomonw, xAo1-
xu xonn, xax nanuAo, no umom1 a1ux nAac1up. Ho1 ux u n nwpo-
Au1oArnwx xAo1xax. Oman nucAonnoc1r xAoonAac1on naocAoro
poona moxo1 poxopu1r po c1a muAAuapon.
E xAo1xo xAoonAac1 ownno acnoAarao1cn n nuc1ononno u-
1onAaamo, nunom ux qoma u nucAonnoc1r moxo1 uamonn1rcn n o1no1
1
2
3
4
5
6
A B
P u c . 3 9. Cxeua
cmpoeus napm
oxaunemx nop:
A omxpmmoe nono+e-
ue noposo ueupam:
1 nepsuvme oonovxu
syx coceux xnemox
(u ue+xnemovm cno
ue+y uuu); 2 smopuv-
as oonovxa; 3 nopo-
soe oxauneue; 4 no-
posas ueupaa (cocmo-
sas us syx nepsuvmx
oonovex coceux xne-
mox u ue+xnemovoao
cnos ue+y uuu); 5 noposas xauepa; 6 mopyc; B saxpmmoe nono+eue noposo
ueupam (no Fexo-Xuenescxouy)
E noxo1owx cAynanx xAo1xu, umommuo n1ounnwo y1oAmonun oo-
Aonox, coxannm1 xuno qynxuonuymmu no1onAac1 (x nu-
moy, xAo1xu xoAAonxumw - moxanunocxo 1xanu, xo1n apocr oo-
Aonxa y1oAmao1cn no noapo, a Aumr n onopoAonnwx ynac1xax), no
ononr nac1o y1oAmonuo nunopu1 x coroanomy naymonum 1anc-
no1a nomoc1n, n oayAr1a1o noro no1onAac1 o1muao1, a rAannym
qynxum nwnoAnno1 momnan ooAonxa (nanumo, cxAoonxuma -
cm. uc. 38). E a1om cAynao ooAonxu oponocnonam1, 1. o. nonu-
1wnam1cn Aurnunom (.on. IIgnum - ponocuna). Oponocnonuo na-
Ampao1cn y ncox nwcmux ac1onu, aa ucxAmnonuom moxooaa-
nwx. E oayAr1a1o nonwmao1cn moxanunocxan nonnoc1r u nonu-
xao1cn nopononuaomoc1r.
Komo Aurnuna, n ooAonxo xAo1ox noxo1owx nocnouaAuauo-
nannwx 1xano mory1 naxanAuna1rcn nomoc1na, oAapammuo rupo-
qonwmu cnoc1namu: ac1u1oArnwo nocxa, xy1un u cyoun (.on.
subor - noxa). KAo1onnan c1onxa nwnoAnno1 mnoxoc1no qynxu,
no nauoAoo naxnwmu nnAnm1cn pno: po.t uopuoeo cue.eno u
oecneueuue oo:+ouocnu npeopo (.on. Iurgoscoro - nayxa1r).
HaAunuo ooAonxu Aumao1 xAo1xy noamoxnoc1u uamonn1r
cnom qomy. Hoc1xan ooAonxa quxcuyo1 xAo1xy. Ocoonno
no1xo oAr xAo1onno c1onxu nupna y nwcmux naaomnwx ac1o-
nu - ona noppoxao1 1oAo nap aomAo. 3nanu1oArnan nac1r xAo-
1ox xunoro ac1onun mo1na, a qynxuonuym1 y nux umonno
1oAc1wo ooAonxu (xcuAoma - 1un nonopnmo 1xanu, no xo1oo
ocymoc1nAno1cn 1ancno1 nopw c ac1noonnwmu n no muno-
aArnwmu nomoc1namu no nananAonum o1 xonn xo ncom c1yx-
1yam noora, cxAoonxuma

- 1un moxanunocxo 1xanu, oaao-
nanno ucxAmnu1oArno 1oAc1oc1onnwmu mo1nwmu xAo1xamu).
Hunan ac1u1oArnan xAo1xa xaax1ouayo1cn 1yroom - pan-
Aonuom, xo1ooo oxaawnao1 no1onAac1 na xAo1onnym c1onxy, u,
ocAu w oo no wAo, xAo1xa aaonaAacr w. Tyro nwnoAnno1
qynxum onow y xunwx xAo1ox, c1onxu xo1owx no umom1 cuArno
& &
nwaxonnoro n1ounnoro y1oAmonun. 01o ocoonno xaax1ono pAn
1annnuc1wx ac1onu. E xAo1onnwx c1onxax aanacam1cn nu1a-
1oArnwo nomoc1na.
KAo1onnwo c1onxu aapoAnm1 oranuam ac1onun na pna no-
c1anc1na. To ua nux, xo1ooo o+opunno1 moxpy coo nco no1o-
nAac1w, cnnaannwo moxpy coo nocopc1nom nAaamopocm, naawna-
o1cn cu+n.ocno+. Hoc1anc1no, xo1ooo o1ranunono xAo1onnw-
mu c1onxamu u nxAmnao1 n con moxxAo1nuxu, naawnao1cn onon.o
cno+. Coo1no1c1nonno 1ancno1 nooa nAaamopocmw naawnao1cn
cu+n.ocnuuecuu+, a 1ancno1 no ooAonxam u moxxAo1nuxam -
onon.ocnuuecuu+.
Pac1u1oArnwo xAo1xu ponoArno nonno cnnaanw moxpy coo
n ocnonnom aa cno1 copunno nAac1unxu.
HAACTHL
HAacvnpm xnAxmvcx opranoAAamn, npncymnmn ncuAmunvoAn-
no pacvonnxm. E aaAunnwx xoAunoc1nax onu nucy1c1nym1 n
Amo xuno ac1u1oArno xAo1xo u n cnoo conoxynnoc1u o-
aaym1 n.ocnuoo+ u.enuu. HonyAnun nAac1up ro1ooronna.
EwpoAnm1 1u ocnonnwx 1una nAac1up: r.opon.ocnm (aoAonwo),
rpo+on.ocnm (aaAunnwo nAac1upw o1 xoA1oro po xacnoro no-
1on) u .euuon.ocnm (ocno1nwo). Ecox ux o+opunno1 omoo
noucxoxponuo, naAunuo nny1onnux moman, a 1axxo coc1non-
noro ronoma u annaa1a uocun1oaa oAxa, n1o ronou1 o noxo1o-
o an1onomnoc1u a1ux oranoAA. Ownno n xaxpo xAo1xo moxno
onayxu1r 1oArxo opun 1un nAac1up.
XAoponAacvm umom1 nauoArmoo ananonuo pAn ac1onun. Onu
nc1onam1cn y oArmunc1na xunwx xAo1ox aoAonwx oranon ac-
1onun u nac1o aanumam1 oArmym nac1r o+oma no1onAac1a. o-
ma xAoonAac1on namo ncoro wnao1 Aunaonupno, xo1n y nopooc-
Ao (y nux namo ncoro nucy1c1nyo1 ncoro opun oromnw xAoon-
Aac1, naawnaomw rpo+onoqopo+) ona moxo1 w1r ononr aano-
oaano - namooaano, cnuaAonupno u p. XAoonAac1w -
ononr xynnwo nny1uxAo1onnwo c1yx1yw. Hoopxo ux aamo
nonwmao1 aamo npa, no ownno muuna 2 - 4 mxm u pAuna -
5 - 10 mxm. Xoma1oqow nopoocAo omo oArmo - po 50 mxm n
pAuny. HucAonnoc1r xAoonAac1on n aaAunnwx xAo1xax ononr
naruyo1 - o1 5 - ? n xAo1xax anupomw 1onoAn po 1000 n ruran1-
cxux xAo1xax moaoquAAa Auc1ron maxoxu. XAoonAac1w ocoon-
no mnoronucAonnw n 1ox xAo1xax, xo1owo xoomo ocnomonw, xAo1-
xu xonn, xax nanuAo, no umom1 a1ux nAac1up. Ho1 ux u n nwpo-
Au1oArnwx xAo1xax. Oman nucAonnoc1r xAoonAac1on naocAoro
poona moxo1 poxopu1r po c1a muAAuapon.
E xAo1xo xAoonAac1 ownno acnoAarao1cn n nuc1ononno u-
1onAaamo, nunom ux qoma u nucAonnoc1r moxo1 uamonn1rcn n o1no1
1
2
3
4
5
6
A B
P u c . 3 9. Cxeua
cmpoeus napm
oxaunemx nop:
A omxpmmoe nono+e-
ue noposo ueupam:
1 nepsuvme oonovxu
syx coceux xnemox
(u ue+xnemovm cno
ue+y uuu); 2 smopuv-
as oonovxa; 3 nopo-
soe oxauneue; 4 no-
posas ueupaa (cocmo-
sas us syx nepsuvmx
oonovex coceux xne-
mox u ue+xnemovoao
cnos ue+y uuu); 5 noposas xauepa; 6 mopyc; B saxpmmoe nono+eue noposo
ueupam (no Fexo-Xuenescxouy)
E noxo1owx cAynanx xAo1xu, umommuo n1ounnwo y1oAmonun oo-
Aonox, coxannm1 xuno qynxuonuymmu no1onAac1 (x nu-
moy, xAo1xu xoAAonxumw - moxanunocxo 1xanu, xo1n apocr oo-
Aonxa y1oAmao1cn no noapo, a Aumr n onopoAonnwx ynac1xax), no
ononr nac1o y1oAmonuo nunopu1 x coroanomy naymonum 1anc-
no1a nomoc1n, n oayAr1a1o noro no1onAac1 o1muao1, a rAannym
qynxum nwnoAnno1 momnan ooAonxa (nanumo, cxAoonxuma -
cm. uc. 38). E a1om cAynao ooAonxu oponocnonam1, 1. o. nonu-
1wnam1cn Aurnunom (.on. IIgnum - ponocuna). Oponocnonuo na-
Ampao1cn y ncox nwcmux ac1onu, aa ucxAmnonuom moxooaa-
nwx. E oayAr1a1o nonwmao1cn moxanunocxan nonnoc1r u nonu-
xao1cn nopononuaomoc1r.
Komo Aurnuna, n ooAonxo xAo1ox noxo1owx nocnouaAuauo-
nannwx 1xano mory1 naxanAuna1rcn nomoc1na, oAapammuo rupo-
qonwmu cnoc1namu: ac1u1oArnwo nocxa, xy1un u cyoun (.on.
subor - noxa). KAo1onnan c1onxa nwnoAnno1 mnoxoc1no qynxu,
no nauoAoo naxnwmu nnAnm1cn pno: po.t uopuoeo cue.eno u
oecneueuue oo:+ouocnu npeopo (.on. Iurgoscoro - nayxa1r).
HaAunuo ooAonxu Aumao1 xAo1xy noamoxnoc1u uamonn1r
cnom qomy. Hoc1xan ooAonxa quxcuyo1 xAo1xy. Ocoonno
no1xo oAr xAo1onno c1onxu nupna y nwcmux naaomnwx ac1o-
nu - ona noppoxao1 1oAo nap aomAo. 3nanu1oArnan nac1r xAo-
1ox xunoro ac1onun mo1na, a qynxuonuym1 y nux umonno
1oAc1wo ooAonxu (xcuAoma - 1un nonopnmo 1xanu, no xo1oo
ocymoc1nAno1cn 1ancno1 nopw c ac1noonnwmu n no muno-
aArnwmu nomoc1namu no nananAonum o1 xonn xo ncom c1yx-
1yam noora, cxAoonxuma

- 1un moxanunocxo 1xanu, oaao-
nanno ucxAmnu1oArno 1oAc1oc1onnwmu mo1nwmu xAo1xamu).
Hunan ac1u1oArnan xAo1xa xaax1ouayo1cn 1yroom - pan-
Aonuom, xo1ooo oxaawnao1 no1onAac1 na xAo1onnym c1onxy, u,
ocAu w oo no wAo, xAo1xa aaonaAacr w. Tyro nwnoAnno1
qynxum onow y xunwx xAo1ox, c1onxu xo1owx no umom1 cuArno
&! &
Hopono mu1oxonpunm, xAoonAac1w umom1 coc1nonnym HK,
xo1oan naxopu1cn n c1omo u nopc1anAno1 coo xoAronym moAo-
xyAy, a 1axxo uocomw. XAoonAac1w cnoconw camoc1on1oArno
cun1oauona1r oxoAo co1nu oAxon, xo1owo, n nac1noc1u, nxopn1 n
coc1an uocom u moman 1uAaxoupon. Opnaxo an1onomun paAoxo no
noAnan u oranoAAw nyxpam1cn n oAxax, cun1oa xo1owx onopoAn-
o1cn ronomom npa. HoAaram1, n1o nu opun ua cun1oauonannwx n
nAac1upo oAxon no noxupao1 oranoAA.
XpomonAacvm nopc1anAnm1 coo nupouamononnwo xAoonAac-
1w (uc. 41). Coxannn omu 1un c1oonun, xomonAac1w umom1
np cymoc1nonnwx o1Aunu. Paamow y nux monrmo, o1cy1c1nyo1
nny1onnnn momannan cuc1oma, noa1omy no1 u xAooquAAa. Kac-
nw no1 oycAonAon nurmon1amu, xo1owo o1nocn1 x nucAy xao-
1unoupon. 01u nomoc1na mory1 naxopu1rcn n c1omo xomonAac1a n
pnyx coc1onnunx. HocxoArxy xao1unoupw nunapAoxa1 x nucAy
xuoac1noumwx coopunonu, ux moxno onayxu1r ac1no-
onnwmu n xanAnx xua. Taxuo xanAu naawnam1cn n.ocnoe.o
.o+u. Onu mory1 aanuma1r ananu1oArnw o+om xAoonAac1a.
XomonAac1w Aorxo onayxu1r n xAo1xax Aonoc1xon no1on
(n1o nupao1 no1am nxoc1r u, nocomnonno, cnococ1nyo1 nu-
nAononum nacoxomwx-onwAu1oAo), aoAwx nAopon, oxo n noro-
1a1unnwx oranax (cnoxAa, moxonr, Auc1rn n nouop onaponun).
AouonAacvm. E o1Aunuo o1 nopwpymux, a1o1 1un nAac1up
noomo no copoxu1 nuxaxux nurmon1on (cm. uc. 41). oxonAa-
c1w umom1 c1oonuo, omoo pAn ncox nAac1up, no nny1onnnn
momannan cuc1oma, xo1r u nucy1c1nyo1, aanu1a cAao. Mox-
no onayxu1r nuxax no ouon1uonannwo 1uAaxoupw uAu mom-
annwo nyawrxu. HonyAnun AoxonAac1on ro1ooronna. Ona
nxAmnao1 n con nocxoArxo rynn nooxamonnwx nAac1up, aa-
Aunammuxcn, n ocnonnom, no qynxunm.
oxonAac1w, n xo1owx aanacao1cn xaxmaA, naawnam1cn o+u
.on.ocno+u, oAxu - nponeuuon.ocno+u, xuw - o.ouon.ocno+u
(uAu o.eon.ocno+u). Eocno1nwo nAac1upw ac1onu, xo1owo nw-
amunaAu oa ocnomonun, naawnam1cn onuon.ocno+u (nu naAu-
nuu cno1a onu Aorxo nonamam1cn n xAoonAac1w).
Pu c . 4 1. Pasnuvme munm nnacmu:
A xpouonnacmm s xnemxax xopennoa uopxosu; B xpouo-
nnacmm s xnemxax oxononnouxa xpacoao nepa; B ne-
xonnacmm, capynnuposame soxpya spa s snuepuanso xnemxe mpaecxauu:
1 spo; 2 spmuxo; 3 nexonnacmm (no Tymakx, c usueeusuu)
1
2
3
A
B
B
na poc1nuo noxo1owx qax1oon oxyxammo copw. Hanumo, y
ac1ymux n 1onu ac1onu xAoonAac1w c1anonn1cn xynnoo u o-
rano xAooquAAom. HoAoxonuo a1ux oranoAA n xAo1xo 1axxo no-
noc1onnno u aanucu1 o1 un1oncunnoc1u ocnomonun.
XAoonAac1w no mnorom cxopnw c mu1oxonpunmu (uc. 40). Onu
umom1 ooAonxy, oaaonannym pnymn momanamu, moxpy xo1owmu na-
xopu1cn moxmomannoo noc1anc1no muuno oxoAo 20 - 30 nm. Oo-
Aonxa oranununao1 copoxumoo xAoonAac1a, aanoAnonnoo c1omo (oo
1axxo naawnam1 ma1uxcom). E o1Aunuo o1 mu1oxonpu, xAoonAac1w
umom1 omo u 1o1rm momannym cuc1omy - .o+e..npuw. Ona noucxo-
pu1 o1 nny1onno momanw ooAonxu, no cnnar oo c AamoAAamu y naoc-
Aoro xAoonAac1a nopc1anAno1cn cnono.
Eny1onnuo momanw oaaym1 momonxu pnyx 1unon. Opnu ua
nux umom1 nup nooArmoro pucxa c moxmomannwm noc1an-
c1nom oxoAo 20 - 30 nm. Taxuo pucxu naawnam1cn nu.ououoo+u.
Onu oaaym1 c1onxu - epoum, xo1owo Aoxa1 ononr 1ocno, no no
coomam1cn moxpy coo. KoAunoc1no 1uAaxoupon n rano poc1u-
rao1 nocxoArxux pocn1xon, noa1omy ranw moxno aaAunu1r paxo
nop cno1onwm muxocxonom.
yro 1un momonxon
naawnam1 .o+e..o+u cnpo
+m, uAu +eepouum+u nu
.ououoo+u. Onu umom1 ro-
aapo oArmym pAuny u
noc1uam1cn o1 opno ra-
nw po pyro.
HaAunuo u xoAunoc1no
1uAaxoupon cnupo1oArc1nyo1
o un1oncunnoc1u qo1ocun1o-
1unocxux oaxu, no1omy
n1o umonno n ux momanax
naxopn1cn coopunonun, ocy-
moc1nAnmmuo qo1ocun1oa.
Pu c . 4 0. Cmpoeue xnoponnacma:
A npoonsm paspes vepes xnoponnacm:
1 apy+as ueupaa; 2 sympess
ueupaa; 3 ue+ueupaoe npocmpa-
cmso; 4 cmpoua (uampuxc); 5 apam
(cmonxu) munaxouos; 6 nauennm cmpoum
(ue+apam munaxou); 7 xannu +upa;
8 xpaxuansoe sepo; 9 BHl; 10 pu-
ocoua; B mpexuepas cxeua pacnono+e-
us u ssauuocsssu nauenn u apa sympu
xnoponnacma: 1 apam; 2 nauennm (no
Appoem, c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
2 1
B
A
1
2
3
4
10
5
7
8
6
9
&! &
Hopono mu1oxonpunm, xAoonAac1w umom1 coc1nonnym HK,
xo1oan naxopu1cn n c1omo u nopc1anAno1 coo xoAronym moAo-
xyAy, a 1axxo uocomw. XAoonAac1w cnoconw camoc1on1oArno
cun1oauona1r oxoAo co1nu oAxon, xo1owo, n nac1noc1u, nxopn1 n
coc1an uocom u moman 1uAaxoupon. Opnaxo an1onomun paAoxo no
noAnan u oranoAAw nyxpam1cn n oAxax, cun1oa xo1owx onopoAn-
o1cn ronomom npa. HoAaram1, n1o nu opun ua cun1oauonannwx n
nAac1upo oAxon no noxupao1 oranoAA.
XpomonAacvm nopc1anAnm1 coo nupouamononnwo xAoonAac-
1w (uc. 41). Coxannn omu 1un c1oonun, xomonAac1w umom1
np cymoc1nonnwx o1Aunu. Paamow y nux monrmo, o1cy1c1nyo1
nny1onnnn momannan cuc1oma, noa1omy no1 u xAooquAAa. Kac-
nw no1 oycAonAon nurmon1amu, xo1owo o1nocn1 x nucAy xao-
1unoupon. 01u nomoc1na mory1 naxopu1rcn n c1omo xomonAac1a n
pnyx coc1onnunx. HocxoArxy xao1unoupw nunapAoxa1 x nucAy
xuoac1noumwx coopunonu, ux moxno onayxu1r ac1no-
onnwmu n xanAnx xua. Taxuo xanAu naawnam1cn n.ocnoe.o
.o+u. Onu mory1 aanuma1r ananu1oArnw o+om xAoonAac1a.
XomonAac1w Aorxo onayxu1r n xAo1xax Aonoc1xon no1on
(n1o nupao1 no1am nxoc1r u, nocomnonno, cnococ1nyo1 nu-
nAononum nacoxomwx-onwAu1oAo), aoAwx nAopon, oxo n noro-
1a1unnwx oranax (cnoxAa, moxonr, Auc1rn n nouop onaponun).
AouonAacvm. E o1Aunuo o1 nopwpymux, a1o1 1un nAac1up
noomo no copoxu1 nuxaxux nurmon1on (cm. uc. 41). oxonAa-
c1w umom1 c1oonuo, omoo pAn ncox nAac1up, no nny1onnnn
momannan cuc1oma, xo1r u nucy1c1nyo1, aanu1a cAao. Mox-
no onayxu1r nuxax no ouon1uonannwo 1uAaxoupw uAu mom-
annwo nyawrxu. HonyAnun AoxonAac1on ro1ooronna. Ona
nxAmnao1 n con nocxoArxo rynn nooxamonnwx nAac1up, aa-
Aunammuxcn, n ocnonnom, no qynxunm.
oxonAac1w, n xo1owx aanacao1cn xaxmaA, naawnam1cn o+u
.on.ocno+u, oAxu - nponeuuon.ocno+u, xuw - o.ouon.ocno+u
(uAu o.eon.ocno+u). Eocno1nwo nAac1upw ac1onu, xo1owo nw-
amunaAu oa ocnomonun, naawnam1cn onuon.ocno+u (nu naAu-
nuu cno1a onu Aorxo nonamam1cn n xAoonAac1w).
Pu c . 4 1. Pasnuvme munm nnacmu:
A xpouonnacmm s xnemxax xopennoa uopxosu; B xpouo-
nnacmm s xnemxax oxononnouxa xpacoao nepa; B ne-
xonnacmm, capynnuposame soxpya spa s snuepuanso xnemxe mpaecxauu:
1 spo; 2 spmuxo; 3 nexonnacmm (no Tymakx, c usueeusuu)
1
2
3
A
B
B
na poc1nuo noxo1owx qax1oon oxyxammo copw. Hanumo, y
ac1ymux n 1onu ac1onu xAoonAac1w c1anonn1cn xynnoo u o-
rano xAooquAAom. HoAoxonuo a1ux oranoAA n xAo1xo 1axxo no-
noc1onnno u aanucu1 o1 un1oncunnoc1u ocnomonun.
XAoonAac1w no mnorom cxopnw c mu1oxonpunmu (uc. 40). Onu
umom1 ooAonxy, oaaonannym pnymn momanamu, moxpy xo1owmu na-
xopu1cn moxmomannoo noc1anc1no muuno oxoAo 20 - 30 nm. Oo-
Aonxa oranununao1 copoxumoo xAoonAac1a, aanoAnonnoo c1omo (oo
1axxo naawnam1 ma1uxcom). E o1Aunuo o1 mu1oxonpu, xAoonAac1w
umom1 omo u 1o1rm momannym cuc1omy - .o+e..npuw. Ona noucxo-
pu1 o1 nny1onno momanw ooAonxu, no cnnar oo c AamoAAamu y naoc-
Aoro xAoonAac1a nopc1anAno1cn cnono.
Eny1onnuo momanw oaaym1 momonxu pnyx 1unon. Opnu ua
nux umom1 nup nooArmoro pucxa c moxmomannwm noc1an-
c1nom oxoAo 20 - 30 nm. Taxuo pucxu naawnam1cn nu.ououoo+u.
Onu oaaym1 c1onxu - epoum, xo1owo Aoxa1 ononr 1ocno, no no
coomam1cn moxpy coo. KoAunoc1no 1uAaxoupon n rano poc1u-
rao1 nocxoArxux pocn1xon, noa1omy ranw moxno aaAunu1r paxo
nop cno1onwm muxocxonom.
yro 1un momonxon
naawnam1 .o+e..o+u cnpo
+m, uAu +eepouum+u nu
.ououoo+u. Onu umom1 ro-
aapo oArmym pAuny u
noc1uam1cn o1 opno ra-
nw po pyro.
HaAunuo u xoAunoc1no
1uAaxoupon cnupo1oArc1nyo1
o un1oncunnoc1u qo1ocun1o-
1unocxux oaxu, no1omy
n1o umonno n ux momanax
naxopn1cn coopunonun, ocy-
moc1nAnmmuo qo1ocun1oa.
Pu c . 4 0. Cmpoeue xnoponnacma:
A npoonsm paspes vepes xnoponnacm:
1 apy+as ueupaa; 2 sympess
ueupaa; 3 ue+ueupaoe npocmpa-
cmso; 4 cmpoua (uampuxc); 5 apam
(cmonxu) munaxouos; 6 nauennm cmpoum
(ue+apam munaxou); 7 xannu +upa;
8 xpaxuansoe sepo; 9 BHl; 10 pu-
ocoua; B mpexuepas cxeua pacnono+e-
us u ssauuocsssu nauenn u apa sympu
xnoponnacma: 1 apam; 2 nauennm (no
Appoem, c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
2 1
B
A
1
2
3
4
10
5
7
8
6
9
&# &"
Copoxumoo naxyoAo naawnao1cn u.enouum+ couo+. Ocnonnym
nac1r oro coc1anAno1 nopa, n xo1oo ac1noonw aaAunnwo nomoc1na.
EaxyoAr nnAno1cn nny1uxAo1onnwm oaonyaom uonon Na
-
, xo1owo
uaua1oArno norAomam1cn 1ononAac1om. E oayAr1a1o xonon1aun
Na
-
n xAo1onnom coxo c1anonu1cn n 4 - 5 aa oArmo, nom n ruaAonAaa-
mo. Komo a1oro, n xAo1onnom coxo nucy1c1nym1 mo1aoAu1w nonun-
noro omona (yrAonopw, oAxu, oranunocxuo xucAo1w) u n1ounnoro
(nurmon1w, aAxaAoupw, 1anunw).
E naxyoAnx aoAwx nAopon n oArmom xoAunoc1no naxanAunam1cn
yrAonopw n nupo monocaxaupon (rAmxoaa u qyx1oaa no mnorux nAo-
pax) u pucaxaupon (caxaoaa n naxyoAnx caxanwx 1oc1nuxa u cnox-
Aw). Poxo naxanAunam1cn noAucaxaupw (n nupo cAuao y xax1yco-
nwx). Touuum o1nocn1 x pyuArnwm nomoc1nam. Onu nupam1 nnxy-
mu nxyc u n nauoArmux xoAunoc1nax nucy1c1nym1 n xoo c1oAo u
xono. A.uo.ouom nxAmnam1 n con rynny aao1copoxamux no-
moc1n. K num o1nocn1 xoqoun, moqun, xopoun, xunun, xaynyx u p.
E coc1an xAo1onnoro coxa mory1 1axxo nxopu1r nue+eunm ua rynnw
ounouuouoo. Onu umom1 xoA1w, xacnw uAu cunu no1 u nanpy c
nAac1upamu onopoAnm1 nxym oxacxy Aonoc1xon no1xon, n1o cnoco-
c1nyo1 nunAononum nacoxomwx-onwAu1oAo.
mynunn nauyoAo aanooaanw, no nauoAoo cymoc1nonnw-
mu nnAnm1cn no1wo: coapanuo 1yroa, aanacanuo nooxopumwx
xAo1xo nomoc1n u o1Aoxonuo nomoc1n, nopnwx pAn xAo1xu, a 1ax-
xo qomon1a1unnoo acmonAonuo oranunocxux coopunonu.
Komo noAoanwx nomoc1n, n naxyoAnx mory1 1axxo naxanAu-
na1rcn u 1oxcunnwo coopunonun.
DuAmuonnx pacvnvoAnno uAovun. An ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox
nxAmnonun xaax1onw n 1o xo moo, n1o u pAn xuno1nwx.
Tpoqnuocuno nuAmuonnx xaax1onw pAn ncox xAo1ox, no oco-
onno mnoronucAonnw n oranax, xo1owo aanacam1 nu1a1oArnwo
nomoc1na (nanumo, n xonnx, naonxumo nooron, comonax u p.).
Toqunocxuo nxAmnonun wnam1 1ox 1unon: upor+o.tume :epuo,
e.uoome epou.m uAu upucno..m u .unuoume uon.u.
Kpor+o.tume :epuo nopc1anAnm1 coo noAumo rAmxoaw. Xu-
munocxu xaxmaA Auaox x oAAmAoao u coc1ou1 ua pnyx xomno-
non1on: amuAoaw, n xo1oo oc1a1xu acnoAaram1cn Aunono, u
amuAonox1una, umommoro mnoronucAonnwo o1no1nAonun o1 ocnon-
no yrAoopno onu.
Ee.uoome epou.m moxno onayxu1r n aaAunnwx c1yx1y-
ax xAo1xu - ruaAonAaamo, nAac1upax, anponAaama1unocxo co1u
naxyoAnx, a 1axxo n npo. E xAo1xax cyxux comnn copoxanuo
aanaconnoro oAxa moxo1 poc1ura1r 25% maccw. EoAxonwo o1Aoxo-
nun nc1onam1cn n amoqnom u xuc1aAAunocxom coc1onnunx, namo
ncoro onayxunam1cn o.eupouoome :epuo. 01u oaaonanun no-
xw1w momano.
P u c . 4 2.
1opuuposaue saxyone:
1 cmexa; 2 umonnasua;
3 spo; 4 spmuxo; 5 sa-
xyonu (no Poucy, Buepy
u Cmoxuay)
1
4
3
2
5
Paamnoxonno n paannvno nAacvnp. Xoma-
1oqow nopoocAo poAn1cn noo1nxxo, u a1o1
noocc ownno cnnaan c poAonuom xAo1xu. XAo-
onAac1w nwcmux ac1onu 1axxo cnoconw
poAu1rcn, xo1n y nux a1o1 noocc noxopu1
nonac1o, a nu nuaxux 1omnoa1yax oc1anan-
Aunao1cn concom. V nwcmux ac1onu nco nAa-
c1upw noucxopn1 o1 omoro nopmoc1nonnu-
xa - npon.ocnuo, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr,
aanunam1cn ua pnyxmomannwx uuuuuo.tumr
uocnuu. 01u nac1uw nacAopym1cn voAnuo no
mavopnncuo Annnn uopoa xouAovuy, cnop-
mnn nx no copopxav.
HonAac1upw nopc1anAnm1 coo nac-
1uw maonupno qomw puamo1om 0,4 -
1 mxm. Hamo ncoro onu nc1onam1cn n xAo1-
xax mouc1omw, rpo mory1 aamnoxa1rcn
ny1om poAonun uAu nonxonanuom. Ha no-
nAac1up aanunam1cn AoxonAac1w (onu
ownno umom1 oAoo xynnwo aamow), ua
nux - xAoonAac1w, xo1owo, n cnom ono-
opr, aa1om c1anonn1cn xomonAac1amu.
DauyAoAn. Hax1unocxu xaxpan ac1u-
1oArnan xAo1xa copoxu1 naxyoAu. Ho, n o1-
Aunuo o1 xuno1nwx xAo1ox, y xo1owx 1axuo c1yx1yw 1oxo oc1r,
naxyoAu ac1onu nwnoAnnm1 roaapo oArmo qynxu. EcAu n xu-
no1no xAo1xo nunn1o nwpoAn1r 1u ocnonnwx oo xomnonon1a - u-
1oAommy, u1onAaamy u npo, 1o n xAo1xax ac1onu xynnwo naxyoAu
cnanopAuno accma1una1r xax no1no1w xomnonon1, 1. x. no npy
nunun ux noAran o1noc1u x oranoAAam u1onAaamw.
Eouo.u oaaym1cn ua npooouo.eu - nooArmux momannwx
nyawrxon, xo1owo o1mnyonwnam1cn o1 aAomon1on rAapxoro uAu
mooxona1oro anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma uAu o1 momonxon
xomnAoxca IoArpxu. Taxuo momannwo c1yx1yw moxno ona-
yxu1r yxo n mouc1oma1unocxux xAo1xax. 3a1om nyawrxu cAu-
nam1cn u oaaym1 naxyoAu ananu1oArnwx aamoon (uc. 42). Onu n
copnom aanumam1 oxoAo 30% o+oma no1onAac1a. Opnaxo n c1awx
xAo1xax nco naxyoAu mory1 cAuna1rcn n opny ruran1cxym ueunpo.t
uw oouo.t. Ona nac1o aanumao1 po 90% o+oma no1onAac1a, a unorpa
paxo oAoo. E noocco oc1a xAo1xu oo o+om ynoAununao1cn :o cuen
oe.uueuun oze+o oouo.u, a no u1onAaamw.
O1 u1onAaamw naxyoAr o1poAona coc1nonno momano, xo1oan
naawnao1cn nouon.ocno+ (.on. Ionus - nannxonuo, epeu. IasIos -
oqomAonnw). ToAmuna 1ononAac1a nocxoArxo oArmo, nom y moman
anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma, no monrmo, nom y u1oAommw. Oc-
nonnan oro qynxun - 1ancno1 nomoc1n.
&# &"
Copoxumoo naxyoAo naawnao1cn u.enouum+ couo+. Ocnonnym
nac1r oro coc1anAno1 nopa, n xo1oo ac1noonw aaAunnwo nomoc1na.
EaxyoAr nnAno1cn nny1uxAo1onnwm oaonyaom uonon Na
-
, xo1owo
uaua1oArno norAomam1cn 1ononAac1om. E oayAr1a1o xonon1aun
Na
-
n xAo1onnom coxo c1anonu1cn n 4 - 5 aa oArmo, nom n ruaAonAaa-
mo. Komo a1oro, n xAo1onnom coxo nucy1c1nym1 mo1aoAu1w nonun-
noro omona (yrAonopw, oAxu, oranunocxuo xucAo1w) u n1ounnoro
(nurmon1w, aAxaAoupw, 1anunw).
E naxyoAnx aoAwx nAopon n oArmom xoAunoc1no naxanAunam1cn
yrAonopw n nupo monocaxaupon (rAmxoaa u qyx1oaa no mnorux nAo-
pax) u pucaxaupon (caxaoaa n naxyoAnx caxanwx 1oc1nuxa u cnox-
Aw). Poxo naxanAunam1cn noAucaxaupw (n nupo cAuao y xax1yco-
nwx). Touuum o1nocn1 x pyuArnwm nomoc1nam. Onu nupam1 nnxy-
mu nxyc u n nauoArmux xoAunoc1nax nucy1c1nym1 n xoo c1oAo u
xono. A.uo.ouom nxAmnam1 n con rynny aao1copoxamux no-
moc1n. K num o1nocn1 xoqoun, moqun, xopoun, xunun, xaynyx u p.
E coc1an xAo1onnoro coxa mory1 1axxo nxopu1r nue+eunm ua rynnw
ounouuouoo. Onu umom1 xoA1w, xacnw uAu cunu no1 u nanpy c
nAac1upamu onopoAnm1 nxym oxacxy Aonoc1xon no1xon, n1o cnoco-
c1nyo1 nunAononum nacoxomwx-onwAu1oAo.
mynunn nauyoAo aanooaanw, no nauoAoo cymoc1nonnw-
mu nnAnm1cn no1wo: coapanuo 1yroa, aanacanuo nooxopumwx
xAo1xo nomoc1n u o1Aoxonuo nomoc1n, nopnwx pAn xAo1xu, a 1ax-
xo qomon1a1unnoo acmonAonuo oranunocxux coopunonu.
Komo noAoanwx nomoc1n, n naxyoAnx mory1 1axxo naxanAu-
na1rcn u 1oxcunnwo coopunonun.
DuAmuonnx pacvnvoAnno uAovun. An ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox
nxAmnonun xaax1onw n 1o xo moo, n1o u pAn xuno1nwx.
Tpoqnuocuno nuAmuonnx xaax1onw pAn ncox xAo1ox, no oco-
onno mnoronucAonnw n oranax, xo1owo aanacam1 nu1a1oArnwo
nomoc1na (nanumo, n xonnx, naonxumo nooron, comonax u p.).
Toqunocxuo nxAmnonun wnam1 1ox 1unon: upor+o.tume :epuo,
e.uoome epou.m uAu upucno..m u .unuoume uon.u.
Kpor+o.tume :epuo nopc1anAnm1 coo noAumo rAmxoaw. Xu-
munocxu xaxmaA Auaox x oAAmAoao u coc1ou1 ua pnyx xomno-
non1on: amuAoaw, n xo1oo oc1a1xu acnoAaram1cn Aunono, u
amuAonox1una, umommoro mnoronucAonnwo o1no1nAonun o1 ocnon-
no yrAoopno onu.
Ee.uoome epou.m moxno onayxu1r n aaAunnwx c1yx1y-
ax xAo1xu - ruaAonAaamo, nAac1upax, anponAaama1unocxo co1u
naxyoAnx, a 1axxo n npo. E xAo1xax cyxux comnn copoxanuo
aanaconnoro oAxa moxo1 poc1ura1r 25% maccw. EoAxonwo o1Aoxo-
nun nc1onam1cn n amoqnom u xuc1aAAunocxom coc1onnunx, namo
ncoro onayxunam1cn o.eupouoome :epuo. 01u oaaonanun no-
xw1w momano.
P u c . 4 2.
1opuuposaue saxyone:
1 cmexa; 2 umonnasua;
3 spo; 4 spmuxo; 5 sa-
xyonu (no Poucy, Buepy
u Cmoxuay)
1
4
3
2
5
Paamnoxonno n paannvno nAacvnp. Xoma-
1oqow nopoocAo poAn1cn noo1nxxo, u a1o1
noocc ownno cnnaan c poAonuom xAo1xu. XAo-
onAac1w nwcmux ac1onu 1axxo cnoconw
poAu1rcn, xo1n y nux a1o1 noocc noxopu1
nonac1o, a nu nuaxux 1omnoa1yax oc1anan-
Aunao1cn concom. V nwcmux ac1onu nco nAa-
c1upw noucxopn1 o1 omoro nopmoc1nonnu-
xa - npon.ocnuo, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr,
aanunam1cn ua pnyxmomannwx uuuuuo.tumr
uocnuu. 01u nac1uw nacAopym1cn voAnuo no
mavopnncuo Annnn uopoa xouAovuy, cnop-
mnn nx no copopxav.
HonAac1upw nopc1anAnm1 coo nac-
1uw maonupno qomw puamo1om 0,4 -
1 mxm. Hamo ncoro onu nc1onam1cn n xAo1-
xax mouc1omw, rpo mory1 aamnoxa1rcn
ny1om poAonun uAu nonxonanuom. Ha no-
nAac1up aanunam1cn AoxonAac1w (onu
ownno umom1 oAoo xynnwo aamow), ua
nux - xAoonAac1w, xo1owo, n cnom ono-
opr, aa1om c1anonn1cn xomonAac1amu.
DauyAoAn. Hax1unocxu xaxpan ac1u-
1oArnan xAo1xa copoxu1 naxyoAu. Ho, n o1-
Aunuo o1 xuno1nwx xAo1ox, y xo1owx 1axuo c1yx1yw 1oxo oc1r,
naxyoAu ac1onu nwnoAnnm1 roaapo oArmo qynxu. EcAu n xu-
no1no xAo1xo nunn1o nwpoAn1r 1u ocnonnwx oo xomnonon1a - u-
1oAommy, u1onAaamy u npo, 1o n xAo1xax ac1onu xynnwo naxyoAu
cnanopAuno accma1una1r xax no1no1w xomnonon1, 1. x. no npy
nunun ux noAran o1noc1u x oranoAAam u1onAaamw.
Eouo.u oaaym1cn ua npooouo.eu - nooArmux momannwx
nyawrxon, xo1owo o1mnyonwnam1cn o1 aAomon1on rAapxoro uAu
mooxona1oro anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma uAu o1 momonxon
xomnAoxca IoArpxu. Taxuo momannwo c1yx1yw moxno ona-
yxu1r yxo n mouc1oma1unocxux xAo1xax. 3a1om nyawrxu cAu-
nam1cn u oaaym1 naxyoAu ananu1oArnwx aamoon (uc. 42). Onu n
copnom aanumam1 oxoAo 30% o+oma no1onAac1a. Opnaxo n c1awx
xAo1xax nco naxyoAu mory1 cAuna1rcn n opny ruran1cxym ueunpo.t
uw oouo.t. Ona nac1o aanumao1 po 90% o+oma no1onAac1a, a unorpa
paxo oAoo. E noocco oc1a xAo1xu oo o+om ynoAununao1cn :o cuen
oe.uueuun oze+o oouo.u, a no u1onAaamw.
O1 u1onAaamw naxyoAr o1poAona coc1nonno momano, xo1oan
naawnao1cn nouon.ocno+ (.on. Ionus - nannxonuo, epeu. IasIos -
oqomAonnw). ToAmuna 1ononAac1a nocxoArxo oArmo, nom y moman
anponAaama1unocxoro o1uxyAyma, no monrmo, nom y u1oAommw. Oc-
nonnan oro qynxun - 1ancno1 nomoc1n.
&% &$
(nanomunaom, n1o qo1o1oqamu naawna-
m1cn an1o1oqnwo oranuamw, cnoconwo
x qo1ocun1oay). XAooquAA noopnoopon,
nacnu1wnao1cn cnwmo pocn1xa aoAonwx nur-
mon1on, o1Aunammuxcn pyr o1 pyra a1om-
nwmu rynnamu, nucoopunonnwmu x nu-
oArnwm c1yx1yam noquunonoro xoAra,
a 1axxo no noxo1owm pyrum xaax1ouc1u-
xam. Hoa1omy oAocooaano nana1r c xumunocxo
xaax1ouc1uxu xAooquAAa u pyrux qo1ocun1o1u-
nocxux nurmon1on.
Xumunocxu xAooquAA nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnw
aqu puxaonono xucAo1w xAooquAAuna c pnymn cnu-
1amu - qu1oAom u mo1anoAom. Hoc1anc1nonnan c1yx-
1ya moAoxyAw onopoAno1 cnoc1na xAooquAAa. Ocno-
no nnAno1cn nAocxoo noquunonoo npo, oaaonannoo
no1wrmn nuoArnwmu xoAramu, coopunonnwmu mox-
py coo mo1unonwmu moc1uxamu, c a1omom marnun n
on1o (uc. 43). E noquunonom npo, xomo co-
c1nonno nuoAa, copoxa1cn 1axxo oro uaomo - nu-
oAonun u nopyx1 nonoAnoro nocc1anonAonun nuo-
Aa- nuoAun. HocxoArxy n a1ux uxAunocxux coopu-
nonunx, nomumo a1omon yrAoopa, nucy1c1nyo1 ro1o-
oa1om (epeu. hoIoros - pyro) - aao1, onu naawnam1cn
eenepouuu.uuecuu+u. HaAunuo pnonwx cnnao noanoAn-
o1 o1noc1u ux x nonacwmonnwm ro1oouxAam. A1omw
yrAoopa, acnoAoxonnwo n ro1oouxAo npom c ro1oo-
a1omom - aao1om, ooananam1cn xax -a1omw, a ypaAon-
nwo o1 noro - -a1omw. HocxoArxy nco cnnau -yrAoopnwx a1omon n
moAoxyAo xAooquAAa aann1w n qomuonanuu noquunonoro xoAr-
a, onu no onopoAnm1 cnouquxy aaAunnwx nupon xAooquAAa, a1y
qynxum nwnoAnnm1 -yrAoopnwo a1omw. Camu a1omw aao1a naaumo-
poc1nym1 c acnoAoxonnwm n on1o npa a1omom mo1aAAa - marnuom
(o1mo1um, n1o y Auaxoro no c1oonum roma, nxopnmoro n coc1an romor-
Aouna, muorAouna uAu u1oxoma, n on1o npa naxopu1cn a1om
xoAoaa). Tax xax n noquunonom npo umom1cn mnoronucAonnwo
pnonwo cnnau, 1am nucy1c1nym1 poAoxaAuaonannwo (oAoo nop-
nuxnwo) -aAox1onw, xo1owx n npo nacnu1wnao1cn 18. Hoapnoo mw
accxaxom o ananonuu 1axux aAox1onon pAn qo1ocun1oaa.
u1oA o1nocu1cn x pu1ononam, ocnony xo1owx coc1anAnm1 oc1a1-
xu uaonona.
Junuoume uon.u nnAnm1cn naxnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu n xAo1-
xo. Copoxanuo Aunupon n xAo1xax aoAwx comnn (nanumo, aaxu-
ca uAu nopcoAnonnuxa) moxo1 poc1ura1r 40% cyxo maccw. 3a op-
xum ucxAmnonuom ac1u1oArnwo xuw umom1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no
nonacwmonnwx xunwx xucAo1.
E1oym rynny nxAmnonu coc1anAnm1 nomoc1na, no umommuo
anoro1unocxo onnoc1u. Kax nanuAo, a1u nxAmnonun nnAnm1cn
o1xopamu xuanopon1oArnoc1u xAo1xu.
mOTOCHHTE3
Huanr na 3omAo noamoxna Aaropan cno1ono (rAannwm oa-
aom, coAnonno) anoruu, xo1oan nooaayo1cn n anorum xumu-
nocxux cnnao oranunocxux nomoc1n, oaaymmuxcn n noocco
qo1ocun1oaa. o1ocun1oaom oAapam1 nco ac1onun u noxo1owo
noxauo1w (qo1ocun1oauymmuo ax1ouu u cuno-aoAonwo nopo-
ocAu - uanoax1ouu). Oranuamw, cnoconwo x qo1ocun1oay,
naawnam1cn qo1o1oqamu.
V nwcmux ac1onu noor aanuAcn xax oran noapymnoro nu-
1anun. Hoa1omy, nanpy c aamnoxonuom, oro ocnonno qynxuo
nnAno1cn oocnononuo ncoro ac1u1oArnoro oranuama oranunoc-
xumu nomoc1namu, oaaonannwmu n noocco qonocuune:o (epeu.
hos, hoIos- cno1, synIhosIs - coopunonuo, cono1anuo, coc1anAonuo).
01o1 noocc nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym onr oaxu, n oayAr1a-
1o xo1owx ua yrAoopa u nopoopa, noAynonnwx ua nooranunocxux
uc1onnuxon, oaaym1cn oranunocxuo coopunonun. An nomaArnoro
1ononun a1ux oaxu nooxopuma anorun. Pac1onun noAynam1 oo o1
napammoro cno1a, n1o u paAo naananuo ncomy nooccy. Cno1 yAanAu-
nao1cn ocowmu moAoxyAamu, xo1owo noAynuAu naananuo qonocuu
nenuuecuur nue+eunoo (.on. IgmonIum - xacxa). O nux cAopyo1
accxaaa1r noponoo.
movocnnvovnuocuno nnrmonvm
Onu nopc1anAonw moAoxyAamu, cnoconwmu norAoma1r xnan1w
(ue+. QuanIum- xoAunoc1no, .on. quanIum - cxoArxo) cno1a. Ho-
cxoArxy nu a1om norAomao1cn cno1 Aumr onopoAonno pAunw noA-
nw, nac1r cno1onwx noAn no norAomao1cn, a o1axao1cn. E aanucu-
moc1u o1 cnox1aArnoro coc1ana o1axonnoro cno1a nurmon1w nuo-
o1am1 oxacxy - aoAonym, xoA1ym, xacnym u p. E nac1onmoo nomn
aaAunam1 1u xAacca qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on - r.opoqu..m,
uoponuuouom u quuou.uum.
Camwm acnoc1anonnwm u nauoAoo naxnwm qo1ocun1o1unoc-
xum nurmon1om nnAno1cn xAopoqnAA (epeu. chIoros - aoAonona1w,
hyIIon - Auc1), xo1ow umoo1cn nax1unocxu y ncox qo1o1oqon
P u c . 4 3. Cmpoeue xnopoqunna a:
1, 2, 3, 4 nupponsme xonsa; cepmu smeneo
nopqupuosoe spo c enoxanusosamuu -snexm-
poauu (nosceus s mexcme)
&% &$
(nanomunaom, n1o qo1o1oqamu naawna-
m1cn an1o1oqnwo oranuamw, cnoconwo
x qo1ocun1oay). XAooquAA noopnoopon,
nacnu1wnao1cn cnwmo pocn1xa aoAonwx nur-
mon1on, o1Aunammuxcn pyr o1 pyra a1om-
nwmu rynnamu, nucoopunonnwmu x nu-
oArnwm c1yx1yam noquunonoro xoAra,
a 1axxo no noxo1owm pyrum xaax1ouc1u-
xam. Hoa1omy oAocooaano nana1r c xumunocxo
xaax1ouc1uxu xAooquAAa u pyrux qo1ocun1o1u-
nocxux nurmon1on.
Xumunocxu xAooquAA nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnw
aqu puxaonono xucAo1w xAooquAAuna c pnymn cnu-
1amu - qu1oAom u mo1anoAom. Hoc1anc1nonnan c1yx-
1ya moAoxyAw onopoAno1 cnoc1na xAooquAAa. Ocno-
no nnAno1cn nAocxoo noquunonoo npo, oaaonannoo
no1wrmn nuoArnwmu xoAramu, coopunonnwmu mox-
py coo mo1unonwmu moc1uxamu, c a1omom marnun n
on1o (uc. 43). E noquunonom npo, xomo co-
c1nonno nuoAa, copoxa1cn 1axxo oro uaomo - nu-
oAonun u nopyx1 nonoAnoro nocc1anonAonun nuo-
Aa- nuoAun. HocxoArxy n a1ux uxAunocxux coopu-
nonunx, nomumo a1omon yrAoopa, nucy1c1nyo1 ro1o-
oa1om (epeu. hoIoros - pyro) - aao1, onu naawnam1cn
eenepouuu.uuecuu+u. HaAunuo pnonwx cnnao noanoAn-
o1 o1noc1u ux x nonacwmonnwm ro1oouxAam. A1omw
yrAoopa, acnoAoxonnwo n ro1oouxAo npom c ro1oo-
a1omom - aao1om, ooananam1cn xax -a1omw, a ypaAon-
nwo o1 noro - -a1omw. HocxoArxy nco cnnau -yrAoopnwx a1omon n
moAoxyAo xAooquAAa aann1w n qomuonanuu noquunonoro xoAr-
a, onu no onopoAnm1 cnouquxy aaAunnwx nupon xAooquAAa, a1y
qynxum nwnoAnnm1 -yrAoopnwo a1omw. Camu a1omw aao1a naaumo-
poc1nym1 c acnoAoxonnwm n on1o npa a1omom mo1aAAa - marnuom
(o1mo1um, n1o y Auaxoro no c1oonum roma, nxopnmoro n coc1an romor-
Aouna, muorAouna uAu u1oxoma, n on1o npa naxopu1cn a1om
xoAoaa). Tax xax n noquunonom npo umom1cn mnoronucAonnwo
pnonwo cnnau, 1am nucy1c1nym1 poAoxaAuaonannwo (oAoo nop-
nuxnwo) -aAox1onw, xo1owx n npo nacnu1wnao1cn 18. Hoapnoo mw
accxaxom o ananonuu 1axux aAox1onon pAn qo1ocun1oaa.
u1oA o1nocu1cn x pu1ononam, ocnony xo1owx coc1anAnm1 oc1a1-
xu uaonona.
Junuoume uon.u nnAnm1cn naxnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu n xAo1-
xo. Copoxanuo Aunupon n xAo1xax aoAwx comnn (nanumo, aaxu-
ca uAu nopcoAnonnuxa) moxo1 poc1ura1r 40% cyxo maccw. 3a op-
xum ucxAmnonuom ac1u1oArnwo xuw umom1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no
nonacwmonnwx xunwx xucAo1.
E1oym rynny nxAmnonu coc1anAnm1 nomoc1na, no umommuo
anoro1unocxo onnoc1u. Kax nanuAo, a1u nxAmnonun nnAnm1cn
o1xopamu xuanopon1oArnoc1u xAo1xu.
mOTOCHHTE3
Huanr na 3omAo noamoxna Aaropan cno1ono (rAannwm oa-
aom, coAnonno) anoruu, xo1oan nooaayo1cn n anorum xumu-
nocxux cnnao oranunocxux nomoc1n, oaaymmuxcn n noocco
qo1ocun1oaa. o1ocun1oaom oAapam1 nco ac1onun u noxo1owo
noxauo1w (qo1ocun1oauymmuo ax1ouu u cuno-aoAonwo nopo-
ocAu - uanoax1ouu). Oranuamw, cnoconwo x qo1ocun1oay,
naawnam1cn qo1o1oqamu.
V nwcmux ac1onu noor aanuAcn xax oran noapymnoro nu-
1anun. Hoa1omy, nanpy c aamnoxonuom, oro ocnonno qynxuo
nnAno1cn oocnononuo ncoro ac1u1oArnoro oranuama oranunoc-
xumu nomoc1namu, oaaonannwmu n noocco qonocuune:o (epeu.
hos, hoIos- cno1, synIhosIs - coopunonuo, cono1anuo, coc1anAonuo).
01o1 noocc nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym onr oaxu, n oayAr1a-
1o xo1owx ua yrAoopa u nopoopa, noAynonnwx ua nooranunocxux
uc1onnuxon, oaaym1cn oranunocxuo coopunonun. An nomaArnoro
1ononun a1ux oaxu nooxopuma anorun. Pac1onun noAynam1 oo o1
napammoro cno1a, n1o u paAo naananuo ncomy nooccy. Cno1 yAanAu-
nao1cn ocowmu moAoxyAamu, xo1owo noAynuAu naananuo qonocuu
nenuuecuur nue+eunoo (.on. IgmonIum - xacxa). O nux cAopyo1
accxaaa1r noponoo.
movocnnvovnuocuno nnrmonvm
Onu nopc1anAonw moAoxyAamu, cnoconwmu norAoma1r xnan1w
(ue+. QuanIum- xoAunoc1no, .on. quanIum - cxoArxo) cno1a. Ho-
cxoArxy nu a1om norAomao1cn cno1 Aumr onopoAonno pAunw noA-
nw, nac1r cno1onwx noAn no norAomao1cn, a o1axao1cn. E aanucu-
moc1u o1 cnox1aArnoro coc1ana o1axonnoro cno1a nurmon1w nuo-
o1am1 oxacxy - aoAonym, xoA1ym, xacnym u p. E nac1onmoo nomn
aaAunam1 1u xAacca qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on - r.opoqu..m,
uoponuuouom u quuou.uum.
Camwm acnoc1anonnwm u nauoAoo naxnwm qo1ocun1o1unoc-
xum nurmon1om nnAno1cn xAopoqnAA (epeu. chIoros - aoAonona1w,
hyIIon - Auc1), xo1ow umoo1cn nax1unocxu y ncox qo1o1oqon
P u c . 4 3. Cmpoeue xnopoqunna a:
1, 2, 3, 4 nupponsme xonsa; cepmu smeneo
nopqupuosoe spo c enoxanusosamuu -snexm-
poauu (nosceus s mexcme)
&' &&
P u c . 4 4. Cnexmpm noanoeus nuauemos
xnoponnacmos:
1 xnopoqunn a; 2 xnopoqunn b; 3 b-xapomu; 4 quxoenum
nurmon1w umom1 aaAunnym oxacxy - o1 xoA1o po xacno. Onu copo-
xa1cn no ncox oxamonnwx nAac1upax (xAoonAac1ax u xomonAac1ax)
ac1onu. Hunom n aoAonwx nac1nx ac1onu xAooquAA macxuyo1 xa-
o1unoupw, poAan ux noaamo1nwmu po nac1ynAonun xoAopon. Oconrm ao-
Aonwo nurmon1w aaymam1cn, u xao1unoupw c1anonn1cn xoomo aa-
mo1nwmu, onopoAnn oxacxy oconnux Auc1ron. Komo ac1onu, xao1u-
noupw cun1oauym1 qo1o1oqnwo ax1ouu u ruw.
Kao1unoupw n ac1u1oArnom oranuamo nwnoAnnm1 np qynxu,
copu xo1owx nauoAoo ononupnwmu nnAnm1cn cAopymmuo: ynac1uo n
qo1ocun1oao n xanoc1no ponoAnu1oArnwx nurmon1on an1onnwx xomn-
Aoxcon. Onu cnoconw norAoma1r cno1, no poc1ynnw pAn pyrux nur-
mon1on, u noopana1r oro xAooquAAam. Komo 1oro, xao1unoupw oc-
AaAnm1 qo1ooxucAonuo xAooquAAa n nucy1c1nuu xucAoopa.
To1ro rynno qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on nnAnm1cn qu
uou.uum (epeu. hykos - nopoocAr, .on. bIIIs - xoAnr), xo1owo
nucy1c1nym1 y noxo1owx nopoocAo (xacnwx) u uanoax1o-
u. O1poArnwmu moAoxyAamu quxouAunw, xax nanuAo, no nop-
c1anAonw, a oaaym1 xomnAoxcw c oAxamu, c xo1owmu onu, n
o1Aunuo o1 xAooquAAon, cnnaanw nonnwmu xonaAon1nwmu cnnan-
mu. KomnAoxcw 1axux nurmon1on c oAxamu naawnam1cn quuou
.unponeuoo+u (xomono1oupamu).
Coe.ocuo nepoo+ :ouou nep+oouuo+uuu ouepeun ue +oen
ucue:ont u.u oo:uuuont uuonuoo - ouo +oen .uut neperoount
u: oouoeo cocnonuun o opeoe. Coe.ocuo onopo+ :ouou nep+oouuo
+uuu uocnt ouepeuu o npouecce nouoeo neperooo nepnencn o ouoe
nen.o u::o ounponuu, npuue+ oe.uuuuo ounponuu oo:pocnoen npu
ueoponu+mr npoueccor (uonpu+ep, nen.onpoooouocnt, ouqq:un,
u ocnoencn nocnonuuou npu oponu+mr. Hoa1omy nu moxmoAo-
xyAnno noopano moAoxyAa ncorpa o1pao1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no ano-
ruu, nom oo n u1oro noAynao1 moAoxyAa-axon1o.
Taxan c1yx1ya moAoxyAw onopoAno1 cnoc1na xAooquAAa -
rupoqonw qu1oArnw xnoc1 napoxno ypoxunao1 moAoxyAy
n rupoqono nac1u momanw 1uAaxoupa xAoonAac1a, a
rupoquArnoo noquunonoo npo oamono x c1omo xAoonAac-
1a. Hu a1om camo npo ouon1uonano naaAAoArno momano, n
xo1oo naxopu1cn xAooquAA.
Cun1oa xAooquAAa ponoArno cAoxon u nxAmnao1 n con 15 oax-
u, xo1owo moxno aapoAu1r na 1u a1ana. Hcxopnwmu nomoc1na-
mu pAn cun1oaa xAooquAAa nnAnm1cn rAuun u ao1a1. Ha nonom
a1ano oaayo1cn -amunoAonyAunonan xucAo1a. Ha n1oom a1ano no-
ucxopu1 cun1oa opno moAoxyAw no1onoquuna ua no1wox nu-
oArnwx xoAo. To1u a1an nopc1anAno1 coo oaaonanuo u no-
namonuo marnunoquunon.
Eco nuamuo u nwcmuo ac1onun, a 1axxo uanoax1ouu copo-
xa1 aaAunnwo r.opoqu..m nuno o. V nwcmux ac1onu, aoAonwx
u anrAononwx nopoocAo umoo1cn r.opoqu.. b (on oaayo1cn ua
xAooquAAa o), xo1ow o1Aunao1cn o1 xAooquAAa o nucy1c1nu-
om qomuArno rynnw -CHO, nmoc1o mo1uArno (-CH
3
) y 1o1r-
oro a1oma yrAoopa. Eywo u pua1omonwo nopoocAu nmoc1o xAoo-
quAAa b copoxa1 r.opoqu.. c, no umommu oc1a1xa qu1oAa, a
xacnwo nopoocAu - r.opoqu.. J, xo1ow o1Aunao1cn o1 xAoo-
quAAa o 1om, n1o nu yrAoopnom a1omo 2 noquunonoro xoAra
nmoc1o nunuArno rynnw umoo1cn qomuArnw apuxaA. XAooquA-
Aw ax1ou umom1 noxo1owo cnouqunocxuo ocoonnoc1u u naawna-
m1cn ounepuor.opoqu..o+u.
MoAoxyAw xAooquAAon cnoconw, naaumopoc1nyn pyr c py-
rom u moAoxyAamu oAxon, coapana1r aroruonannwo qomw, aaAu-
nammuocn no pAuno noAn norAomonnoro cno1a. XAooquAA o umoo1
pna no1xo nwaxonnwx maxcumyma norAomonun - 660 - 663 nm u
428- 430 nm. XAooquAA b norAomao1 oAoo xoo1xuo noAnw n
xacno nac1u cnox1a u oAoo pAunnwo n cuno. Ero maxcumymw
norAomonun ypy1 642 - 644 nm u 452 - 455 nm coo1no1c1nonno. Eco
xAooquAAw cAao norAomam1 xoA1w u oanxonw cno1, a aoAo-
nw onu o1axam1, n1o u onopoAno1 aoAonym oxacxy a1oro xAacca
nurmon1on (uc. 44).
Eax1ouoxAooquAAw o1Aunam1cn o1 nonux 1unon xAooquA-
Aon 1om, n1o cnoconw norAoma1r xacnw cno1 roaapo oArmo
pAunw, nom xAooquAAw ac1onu. Tax, ax1ouoxAooquAA aoAo-
nwx ax1ou y1uAuauyo1 noAnw pAuno 850 nm, ax1ouoxAoo-
quAA o nynynwx ax1ou po 900 nm, a ax1ouoxAooquAA b
nynynwx ax1ou - po 1100 nm. 01o oc1on1oArc1no noanoAno1
ax1ounm, ocoonno nynynwm, ax1unno ac1u nu naAunuu Aumr
no nupumwx noAononocxum rAaaom unqaxacnwx Ayno.
yrym onaa1oArnym rynny qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on oa-
aym1 xao1unoupw (.on. caroIa - moxonr). 01u xuoac1noumwo
&' &&
P u c . 4 4. Cnexmpm noanoeus nuauemos
xnoponnacmos:
1 xnopoqunn a; 2 xnopoqunn b; 3 b-xapomu; 4 quxoenum
nurmon1w umom1 aaAunnym oxacxy - o1 xoA1o po xacno. Onu copo-
xa1cn no ncox oxamonnwx nAac1upax (xAoonAac1ax u xomonAac1ax)
ac1onu. Hunom n aoAonwx nac1nx ac1onu xAooquAA macxuyo1 xa-
o1unoupw, poAan ux noaamo1nwmu po nac1ynAonun xoAopon. Oconrm ao-
Aonwo nurmon1w aaymam1cn, u xao1unoupw c1anonn1cn xoomo aa-
mo1nwmu, onopoAnn oxacxy oconnux Auc1ron. Komo ac1onu, xao1u-
noupw cun1oauym1 qo1o1oqnwo ax1ouu u ruw.
Kao1unoupw n ac1u1oArnom oranuamo nwnoAnnm1 np qynxu,
copu xo1owx nauoAoo ononupnwmu nnAnm1cn cAopymmuo: ynac1uo n
qo1ocun1oao n xanoc1no ponoAnu1oArnwx nurmon1on an1onnwx xomn-
Aoxcon. Onu cnoconw norAoma1r cno1, no poc1ynnw pAn pyrux nur-
mon1on, u noopana1r oro xAooquAAam. Komo 1oro, xao1unoupw oc-
AaAnm1 qo1ooxucAonuo xAooquAAa n nucy1c1nuu xucAoopa.
To1ro rynno qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on nnAnm1cn qu
uou.uum (epeu. hykos - nopoocAr, .on. bIIIs - xoAnr), xo1owo
nucy1c1nym1 y noxo1owx nopoocAo (xacnwx) u uanoax1o-
u. O1poArnwmu moAoxyAamu quxouAunw, xax nanuAo, no nop-
c1anAonw, a oaaym1 xomnAoxcw c oAxamu, c xo1owmu onu, n
o1Aunuo o1 xAooquAAon, cnnaanw nonnwmu xonaAon1nwmu cnnan-
mu. KomnAoxcw 1axux nurmon1on c oAxamu naawnam1cn quuou
.unponeuoo+u (xomono1oupamu).
Coe.ocuo nepoo+ :ouou nep+oouuo+uuu ouepeun ue +oen
ucue:ont u.u oo:uuuont uuonuoo - ouo +oen .uut neperoount
u: oouoeo cocnonuun o opeoe. Coe.ocuo onopo+ :ouou nep+oouuo
+uuu uocnt ouepeuu o npouecce nouoeo neperooo nepnencn o ouoe
nen.o u::o ounponuu, npuue+ oe.uuuuo ounponuu oo:pocnoen npu
ueoponu+mr npoueccor (uonpu+ep, nen.onpoooouocnt, ouqq:un,
u ocnoencn nocnonuuou npu oponu+mr. Hoa1omy nu moxmoAo-
xyAnno noopano moAoxyAa ncorpa o1pao1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no ano-
ruu, nom oo n u1oro noAynao1 moAoxyAa-axon1o.
Taxan c1yx1ya moAoxyAw onopoAno1 cnoc1na xAooquAAa -
rupoqonw qu1oArnw xnoc1 napoxno ypoxunao1 moAoxyAy
n rupoqono nac1u momanw 1uAaxoupa xAoonAac1a, a
rupoquArnoo noquunonoo npo oamono x c1omo xAoonAac-
1a. Hu a1om camo npo ouon1uonano naaAAoArno momano, n
xo1oo naxopu1cn xAooquAA.
Cun1oa xAooquAAa ponoArno cAoxon u nxAmnao1 n con 15 oax-
u, xo1owo moxno aapoAu1r na 1u a1ana. Hcxopnwmu nomoc1na-
mu pAn cun1oaa xAooquAAa nnAnm1cn rAuun u ao1a1. Ha nonom
a1ano oaayo1cn -amunoAonyAunonan xucAo1a. Ha n1oom a1ano no-
ucxopu1 cun1oa opno moAoxyAw no1onoquuna ua no1wox nu-
oArnwx xoAo. To1u a1an nopc1anAno1 coo oaaonanuo u no-
namonuo marnunoquunon.
Eco nuamuo u nwcmuo ac1onun, a 1axxo uanoax1ouu copo-
xa1 aaAunnwo r.opoqu..m nuno o. V nwcmux ac1onu, aoAonwx
u anrAononwx nopoocAo umoo1cn r.opoqu.. b (on oaayo1cn ua
xAooquAAa o), xo1ow o1Aunao1cn o1 xAooquAAa o nucy1c1nu-
om qomuArno rynnw -CHO, nmoc1o mo1uArno (-CH
3
) y 1o1r-
oro a1oma yrAoopa. Eywo u pua1omonwo nopoocAu nmoc1o xAoo-
quAAa b copoxa1 r.opoqu.. c, no umommu oc1a1xa qu1oAa, a
xacnwo nopoocAu - r.opoqu.. J, xo1ow o1Aunao1cn o1 xAoo-
quAAa o 1om, n1o nu yrAoopnom a1omo 2 noquunonoro xoAra
nmoc1o nunuArno rynnw umoo1cn qomuArnw apuxaA. XAooquA-
Aw ax1ou umom1 noxo1owo cnouqunocxuo ocoonnoc1u u naawna-
m1cn ounepuor.opoqu..o+u.
MoAoxyAw xAooquAAon cnoconw, naaumopoc1nyn pyr c py-
rom u moAoxyAamu oAxon, coapana1r aroruonannwo qomw, aaAu-
nammuocn no pAuno noAn norAomonnoro cno1a. XAooquAA o umoo1
pna no1xo nwaxonnwx maxcumyma norAomonun - 660 - 663 nm u
428- 430 nm. XAooquAA b norAomao1 oAoo xoo1xuo noAnw n
xacno nac1u cnox1a u oAoo pAunnwo n cuno. Ero maxcumymw
norAomonun ypy1 642 - 644 nm u 452 - 455 nm coo1no1c1nonno. Eco
xAooquAAw cAao norAomam1 xoA1w u oanxonw cno1, a aoAo-
nw onu o1axam1, n1o u onopoAno1 aoAonym oxacxy a1oro xAacca
nurmon1on (uc. 44).
Eax1ouoxAooquAAw o1Aunam1cn o1 nonux 1unon xAooquA-
Aon 1om, n1o cnoconw norAoma1r xacnw cno1 roaapo oArmo
pAunw, nom xAooquAAw ac1onu. Tax, ax1ouoxAooquAA aoAo-
nwx ax1ou y1uAuauyo1 noAnw pAuno 850 nm, ax1ouoxAoo-
quAA o nynynwx ax1ou po 900 nm, a ax1ouoxAooquAA b
nynynwx ax1ou - po 1100 nm. 01o oc1on1oArc1no noanoAno1
ax1ounm, ocoonno nynynwm, ax1unno ac1u nu naAunuu Aumr
no nupumwx noAononocxum rAaaom unqaxacnwx Ayno.
yrym onaa1oArnym rynny qo1ocun1o1unocxux nurmon1on oa-
aym1 xao1unoupw (.on. caroIa - moxonr). 01u xuoac1noumwo
' '
nac1aAo nomn nocAopu1r ny1r a1oro aAox1ona, nunom, xax mw
ynupum noaxo, on n nnmom cmwcAo a1oro cAona moxo1 w1r nocrma
uanuAuc1wm.
E momanax 1uAaxoupon xAoonAac1on wAu onayxonw xom-
nAoxcw moAoxyA, naanannwo qonocucne+ou I u qonocucne+ou II.
Onu conmoc1no oocnonunam1 1ancqomaum cno1ono anoruu n
yponym pAn ucnoAraonanun xunwmu oranuamamu anorum xumu-
nocxux cnnao.
Kaxpan ua qo1ocuc1om umoo1 peouuuouumu ueunp (uc. 45), xo1o-
w oaaonan nonuawnammumu nacxnoar momany 1uAaxoupa oA-
xamu, accouuonannwmu c xAooquAAom (nanomnum, n1o xomnAoxc
moAoxyAw oAxa c nurmon1om naawnao1cn xomono1oupom). Hurmon-
1w oaxuonnoro on1a cnoconw norAoma1r anorum cno1a, xo1o-
an noonopu1 aAox1onw n noyc1onunoo noayxponnoo coc1onnuo, n
oayAr1a1o noro onu noxupam1 moAoxyAy xAooquAAa u nooxopn1 na
acnoAoxonnwo noAuaoc1u moAoxyAw-noonocnuxu. 01o ronou1 o
1om, n1o naxopnmucn n oaxuonnom on1o xAooquAA cnocoon
ocymoc1nAn1r qo1oxumunocxuo oaxuu.
E1owm onaa1oArnwm xomnonon1om qo1ocuc1omw nnAno1cn ou
neuumu uo+n.euc. E nom 1axxo umoo1cn xAooquAA, nunom na oro
poAm nuxopu1cn po 60% omoro xoAunoc1na xAooquAAa 1uAaxoup-
nwx moman. CnouaArnwo uccAoponanun noxaaaAu, n1o na opun o-
axuonnw on1 nuxopu1cn 200 - 400 moAoxyA xAooquAAa, acno-
Aoxonnwx n an1onnwx xomnAoxcax. Komo xAooquAAa o, apocr nu-
cy1c1nym1 omo u ponoAnu1oArnwo nurmon1w - xAooquAA o, xao1u-
noupw u quxouAunw. Hx oAr aaxAmnao1cn n yAanAunanuu cno1a c
pAuno noAn, no poc1ynno pAn xAooquAAa o. CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o
moAoxyAw nurmon1on an1onnwx xomnAoxcon, nownan n noayxponnom
P u c . 4 5. Cxeua ycmpocmsa qomocucmeum:
1 cneuansas napa uonexyn xnopoqunna s peaxuoou empe; 2 peaxuom emp
enxoso-nuauemoao xounnexca; 3 ueupaa munaxoua; 4 uonexynm xnopoqunna
s ameou enxosou xounnexce (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
EoAununa anoruu aAox1ona onopoAno1 acc1onnuo o1 noro po
npa - nom monrmo anorun aAox1ona, 1om Auxo on x npy, u
naooo1. momy anoro1unocxomy coc1onnum aAox1ona coo1no1-
c1nyo1 onopoAonnw anoro1unocxu yononr (xnan1onw cAo),
xaax1ouayomw rAannwm xnan1onwm nucAom n, xo1ooo umoo1
ananonun o1 opunuw po ocxononnoc1u. Coo1no1c1nonno aAox1on,
ypynu na nonom yonno, oAapao1 munumaArno anoruo u max-
cumaArno Auaox x npy, a naxopncr na nauoAoo ypaAonnom yon-
no, oAapao1 maxcumaArno anoruo. Hu nooxopo na oAoo paAo-
xu yononr aAox1on norAomao1 anorum, a nu noana1o na oAoo
Auaxu - nwpoAno1 n nupo nou (xnan1on).
CorAacno cxaaannomy nwmo aAox1onw moAoxyA nurmon1on, no-
rAo1un anorum, nooxopn1 na oAoo nwcoxu anoro1unocxu yo-
nonr, 1. o. c1anonn1cn noayxponnwmu. Opnaxo ano uAu noapno
onu noanamam1cn na cno ucxopnw (c1auonanw) yononr, nw-
poAun anorum, noAynonnym anoo nu noayxponuu.
MoAoxyAa xAooquAAa, norAo1un noum (uooun) cno1a, noo-
xopu1 n nocxoArxo unoo no cannonum c ownnwm coc1onnuo, xo1o-
oo naawnam1 noayxponnwm. 01o coc1onnuo o1Aunao1cn o1 1onAo-
no ax1unauu moAoxyA, nocxoArxy xaxpw xnan1 noayxpao1
Aumr opny moAoxyAy xAooquAAa, noopanan o cnom anorum.
Hu a1om xnan1 norAomao1cn no nco moAoxyAo xAooquAAa, a
Aumr opnum ua oo aAox1onon, nunom nauoAoo Aorxo ax1unuy-
m1cn aAox1onw, naxopnmuocn n noquunonom xoAro xAooquA-
Aa. HorAo1unmu xnan1 cno1a aAox1on nomonno nooxopu1 co cnooro
ocnonnoro anoro1unocxoro yonnn na oAoo nwcoxu. Hu a1om na
ocnonnom yonno moc1o noomopmoro aAox1ona oc1ao1cn naxan1-
nwm (nonnAno1cn aAox1onnan pwxa) u ncn moAoxyAa c1anonu1-
cn noayxponno. Eoana1 aAox1ona na ucxopnw yononr cono-
noxpao1cn nwpoAonuom anoruu n nupo 1onAa, uAu xo ona nwcnonu-
nao1cn n nupo xnan1a cno1a c pAuno noAnw ncorpa o
Q
Armo (nanuAo
C1oxca), nom y norAomonnoro xnan1a cno1a.
Ko.uuecnoo quucupooouumr +o.eu. e.euuc.oeo eo:o o pocue
ne uo eouuuu noe.oeuuou ouepeuu onpeoe.nen ouepeenuuecuw
oqqeunuouocnt qonocuune:o. Kax mw yxo ronouAu, y ocnonno-
ro qo1ocun1o1unocxoro nurmon1a xAooquAAa umom1cn pna nuxa
norAomonun cno1a - n cuno u xacno, a 1axxo nac1unno n unqa-
xacno nac1nx cnox1a. CoAno uaAynao1 maxcumaArnoo xoAuno-
c1no xnan1on pAunnonoAnono nac1u cnox1a, u cAopyo1 o1mo1u1r,
n1o anoro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r 1axux Ayno non1u npnoo nwmo,
nom cunux, no1omy n1o nu norAomonuu nwcoxo anoro1unocxu na-
cwmonnwx xoo1xux noAn noucxopu1 1onAonoo accounanuo ana-
nu1oArno nac1u anoruu.
H1ax, o ocuooe ocer ouepeenuuecuur npoueccoo, uonopme npoucro
onn o uomr opeouu:+or, .eun ouepeun oo:oeuuoeo o.eunpouo
r.opoqu..o, uonopw ou no.uoen, noe.oon uooun coeno. Tonor
' '
nac1aAo nomn nocAopu1r ny1r a1oro aAox1ona, nunom, xax mw
ynupum noaxo, on n nnmom cmwcAo a1oro cAona moxo1 w1r nocrma
uanuAuc1wm.
E momanax 1uAaxoupon xAoonAac1on wAu onayxonw xom-
nAoxcw moAoxyA, naanannwo qonocucne+ou I u qonocucne+ou II.
Onu conmoc1no oocnonunam1 1ancqomaum cno1ono anoruu n
yponym pAn ucnoAraonanun xunwmu oranuamamu anorum xumu-
nocxux cnnao.
Kaxpan ua qo1ocuc1om umoo1 peouuuouumu ueunp (uc. 45), xo1o-
w oaaonan nonuawnammumu nacxnoar momany 1uAaxoupa oA-
xamu, accouuonannwmu c xAooquAAom (nanomnum, n1o xomnAoxc
moAoxyAw oAxa c nurmon1om naawnao1cn xomono1oupom). Hurmon-
1w oaxuonnoro on1a cnoconw norAoma1r anorum cno1a, xo1o-
an noonopu1 aAox1onw n noyc1onunoo noayxponnoo coc1onnuo, n
oayAr1a1o noro onu noxupam1 moAoxyAy xAooquAAa u nooxopn1 na
acnoAoxonnwo noAuaoc1u moAoxyAw-noonocnuxu. 01o ronou1 o
1om, n1o naxopnmucn n oaxuonnom on1o xAooquAA cnocoon
ocymoc1nAn1r qo1oxumunocxuo oaxuu.
E1owm onaa1oArnwm xomnonon1om qo1ocuc1omw nnAno1cn ou
neuumu uo+n.euc. E nom 1axxo umoo1cn xAooquAA, nunom na oro
poAm nuxopu1cn po 60% omoro xoAunoc1na xAooquAAa 1uAaxoup-
nwx moman. CnouaArnwo uccAoponanun noxaaaAu, n1o na opun o-
axuonnw on1 nuxopu1cn 200 - 400 moAoxyA xAooquAAa, acno-
Aoxonnwx n an1onnwx xomnAoxcax. Komo xAooquAAa o, apocr nu-
cy1c1nym1 omo u ponoAnu1oArnwo nurmon1w - xAooquAA o, xao1u-
noupw u quxouAunw. Hx oAr aaxAmnao1cn n yAanAunanuu cno1a c
pAuno noAn, no poc1ynno pAn xAooquAAa o. CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o
moAoxyAw nurmon1on an1onnwx xomnAoxcon, nownan n noayxponnom
P u c . 4 5. Cxeua ycmpocmsa qomocucmeum:
1 cneuansas napa uonexyn xnopoqunna s peaxuoou empe; 2 peaxuom emp
enxoso-nuauemoao xounnexca; 3 ueupaa munaxoua; 4 uonexynm xnopoqunna
s ameou enxosou xounnexce (no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
EoAununa anoruu aAox1ona onopoAno1 acc1onnuo o1 noro po
npa - nom monrmo anorun aAox1ona, 1om Auxo on x npy, u
naooo1. momy anoro1unocxomy coc1onnum aAox1ona coo1no1-
c1nyo1 onopoAonnw anoro1unocxu yononr (xnan1onw cAo),
xaax1ouayomw rAannwm xnan1onwm nucAom n, xo1ooo umoo1
ananonun o1 opunuw po ocxononnoc1u. Coo1no1c1nonno aAox1on,
ypynu na nonom yonno, oAapao1 munumaArno anoruo u max-
cumaArno Auaox x npy, a naxopncr na nauoAoo ypaAonnom yon-
no, oAapao1 maxcumaArno anoruo. Hu nooxopo na oAoo paAo-
xu yononr aAox1on norAomao1 anorum, a nu noana1o na oAoo
Auaxu - nwpoAno1 n nupo nou (xnan1on).
CorAacno cxaaannomy nwmo aAox1onw moAoxyA nurmon1on, no-
rAo1un anorum, nooxopn1 na oAoo nwcoxu anoro1unocxu yo-
nonr, 1. o. c1anonn1cn noayxponnwmu. Opnaxo ano uAu noapno
onu noanamam1cn na cno ucxopnw (c1auonanw) yononr, nw-
poAun anorum, noAynonnym anoo nu noayxponuu.
MoAoxyAa xAooquAAa, norAo1un noum (uooun) cno1a, noo-
xopu1 n nocxoArxo unoo no cannonum c ownnwm coc1onnuo, xo1o-
oo naawnam1 noayxponnwm. 01o coc1onnuo o1Aunao1cn o1 1onAo-
no ax1unauu moAoxyA, nocxoArxy xaxpw xnan1 noayxpao1
Aumr opny moAoxyAy xAooquAAa, noopanan o cnom anorum.
Hu a1om xnan1 norAomao1cn no nco moAoxyAo xAooquAAa, a
Aumr opnum ua oo aAox1onon, nunom nauoAoo Aorxo ax1unuy-
m1cn aAox1onw, naxopnmuocn n noquunonom xoAro xAooquA-
Aa. HorAo1unmu xnan1 cno1a aAox1on nomonno nooxopu1 co cnooro
ocnonnoro anoro1unocxoro yonnn na oAoo nwcoxu. Hu a1om na
ocnonnom yonno moc1o noomopmoro aAox1ona oc1ao1cn naxan1-
nwm (nonnAno1cn aAox1onnan pwxa) u ncn moAoxyAa c1anonu1-
cn noayxponno. Eoana1 aAox1ona na ucxopnw yononr cono-
noxpao1cn nwpoAonuom anoruu n nupo 1onAa, uAu xo ona nwcnonu-
nao1cn n nupo xnan1a cno1a c pAuno noAnw ncorpa o
Q
Armo (nanuAo
C1oxca), nom y norAomonnoro xnan1a cno1a.
Ko.uuecnoo quucupooouumr +o.eu. e.euuc.oeo eo:o o pocue
ne uo eouuuu noe.oeuuou ouepeuu onpeoe.nen ouepeenuuecuw
oqqeunuouocnt qonocuune:o. Kax mw yxo ronouAu, y ocnonno-
ro qo1ocun1o1unocxoro nurmon1a xAooquAAa umom1cn pna nuxa
norAomonun cno1a - n cuno u xacno, a 1axxo nac1unno n unqa-
xacno nac1nx cnox1a. CoAno uaAynao1 maxcumaArnoo xoAuno-
c1no xnan1on pAunnonoAnono nac1u cnox1a, u cAopyo1 o1mo1u1r,
n1o anoro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r 1axux Ayno non1u npnoo nwmo,
nom cunux, no1omy n1o nu norAomonuu nwcoxo anoro1unocxu na-
cwmonnwx xoo1xux noAn noucxopu1 1onAonoo accounanuo ana-
nu1oArno nac1u anoruu.
H1ax, o ocuooe ocer ouepeenuuecuur npoueccoo, uonopme npoucro
onn o uomr opeouu:+or, .eun ouepeun oo:oeuuoeo o.eunpouo
r.opoqu..o, uonopw ou no.uoen, noe.oon uooun coeno. Tonor
'! '
c1apuu nopyx1w nxAmnam1cn n nocAopona1oArnym coum xumunocxux
oaxu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx nonnAnm1cn o1nocu1oArno xynnwo ora-
nunocxuo moAoxyAw, nocymuo n cnoux xumunocxux cnnanx aaxonconu-
onannym anorum cno1a. Taxuo oaxuu no nyxpam1cn n ocnomonuu, u
noa1omy a1y c1apum naanaAu 1omnono (aaymoo1cn, a1o nonco no oanana-
o1, n1o 1axuo oaxuu upy1 ucxAmnu1oArno n 1omno1o, noc1o pAn ux
ocymoc1nAonun no nyxon cno1).
Hanomnum, n1o moAoxyAw an1onnwx xomnAoxcon ooux qo1ocuc-
1om 1ancno1uym1 1oArxo anorum nocopc1nom oaonancno (qp.
rosonanco, .on. rosonans - pammu anyx) noopanu, no no aanxon-
nwo nac1uw. Hunun oaonancno noopanu anoruu coc1ou1 n
1om, n1o noayxponnw aAox1on, noanamancr na c1auonanw
anoro1unocxu yononr, nwpoAno1 anorum, xo1oan noayxpao1
cocopnu aAox1on. Hu a1om nac1r anoruu accounao1cn, u cocop-
nu aAox1on noAynao1 anoruu monrmo, nom oo nwpoAuAocr. Taxum
oaaom, na moAoxyAw xAooquAAon oaxuonnwx on1on nurmon-
1w an1onnwx xomnAoxcon noopam1 Aumr nac1r norAomonno ano-
ruu cno1a. Opnaxo u a1oro oxaawnao1cn poc1a1onnwm, n1ow aAox1-
on xAooquAAa noomoA n noayxponnoo coc1onnuo.
Henocpeocnoeuuo qonoru+uuecuue peouuuu ocecno.nwn
peouuuouume ueunpm qonocucne+. An Aynmoro nonumanun nco-
ro noocca ypono nana1r c qo1ocuc1omw II. Honunnwm ponoom
aAox1onon n qo1ocuc1omo II nnAno1cn xAooquAA H
680
. HocxoArxy
on naxopu1cn n pumonom coc1onnuu, norAomam1cn pna xnan1a,
xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, ax1unuym1 pna aAox1ona. 3a1om noa-
yxponnwo aAox1onw nonapam1 na nonunnw axon1o, um nn-
Ano1cn qeoqenuu, oaaymmucn n oayAr1a1o aamomonun n moAo-
xyAo xAooquAAa marnun nopoopom. E paArnomom aanxonnw
aAox1on ypo1 noopana1rcn no onu noonocnuxon, xaxpw aa
aaxonomono 1onn nac1r cnoo anoruu. CAopymmum axon1oom
nnAno1cn copoxamu xoAoao nonunnw nAac1oxunon qo1ocuc1o-
mw II - QA, aa1om n1ounnw nAac1oxunon QE, xo1ow cnnawna-
o1cn c nAac1oxunonom PQ. 01o1 axon1o cnocoon noonocu1r aAox-
1onw nooa rupoqonym Aunupnym qaay momanw 1uAaxoupa u
noopana1r ux na copoxamu no pna a1oma xoAoaa u cow oAox
FoSR (xoAoao-conw oAox Pucxo). O1cmpa aAox1onw noopam1cn na
nunapAoxamu u1oxomnomy xomnAoxcy b
6
- ] u1oxom ], a aa1om
na copoxamu mopr oAox nAac1ouanun. 01o1 noonocnux poAxon
ypo1 noopa1r aAox1on xAooquAAy qo1ocuc1omw I, xo1oo pAn max-
cumaArno nopyx1unnoc1u qo1ocun1oaa nooxopumo ao1a1r corAa-
conano c qo1ocuc1omo II (uc. 46).
Hoa1omy pAn nocAopona1oArnoro nopoAxonun onu oaxu poAx-
na nxAmnu1rcn qo1ocuc1oma I. Copoxamucn n oo oaxuonnom on-
1o xAooquAA H
?00
, norAoman pna xnan1a cno1a c nocxoArxo oAr-
mo pAuno noAnw, nom xAooquAA qo1ocuc1omw II, noayxpao1cn
u coo1no1c1nonno 1ono1 pna aAox1ona. CAopona1oArno, umonno a1o1
coc1onnuu (n oayAr1a1o norAomonun anoruu qo1ona), no ocymoc1nAn-
m1 qo1oxumunocxux oaxu, aa1o onu aqqox1unno noopam1 noAynonnym
anorum no onu xAooquAAy oaxuonnoro on1a. HananAonuo noo-
noca anoruu (aAox1onw apocr no noopam1cn) n an1onnwx xomnAoxcax
ncorpa ouon1uonano o1 nurmon1on, norAomammux camym xoo1xym
nac1r cnox1a (xao1unoupon), x oAoo pAunnonoAnonwm nurmon1am.
Kax mw yxo ronouAu, 1axo noocc noAynuA naananuo oaonancno
noopanu anoruu. Hu a1om oaonancnan noopana anoruu, ocymoc1n-
Anoman moxpy opunaxonwmu moAoxyAamu xAooquAAa, noAynuAa naana-
nuo eo+oeeuuou, ocAu xo anorun noonocu1cn na pyro 1un nurmon1a,
1o noonoc naawnao1cn eenepoeeuum+.
Paccmo1um yc1oc1no qo1ocuc1omw I. Cnu1ao1cn, n1o uc1ou-
nocxu ona noanuxAa anrmo qo1ocuc1omw II u n nac1onmoo nomn
umoo1cn nax1unocxu y ncox qo1ocun1oauymmux oranuamon,
nxAmnan cnoconwx x qo1ocun1oay ax1ou (y nocAopnux o1cy1-
c1nyo1 qo1ocuc1oma II u, cAopona1oArno, no noucxopu1 aaAoxo-
nun nopw u nwpoAonun xucAoopa). E coc1an oaxuonnoro on1a
a1o qo1ocuc1omw nxopn1 xomono1oupw, copoxamuo camym pAun-
nonoAnonym qomy xAooquAAa (oro coxamonno ooananam1 xax
H
?00
, noxaawnan 1om camwm pAuny noAnw, xo1oym cnocoon norAo-
ma1r xonxo1nw nurmon1). An1onnw xomnAoxc a1o qo1ocuc1o-
mw nxAmnao1 n con 110 moAoxyA xAooquAAon rynnw o, umom-
mux maxcumymw norAomonun o1 6?5 po 695 nm.
CorAacno 1oouu anoAmuu qo1ocuc1oma II n noocco uc1ou-
nocxoro aanu1un nonnuAacr noaxo. Ha conomonnom a1ano ona nu-
cy1c1nyo1 y ncox aoAonwx ac1onu, a 1axxo y cuno-aoAonwx nopooc-
Ao. EoAxonwo xomnAoxcw qo1ocuc1omw II nxAmnam1 n con nocxoArxo
oAoo xoo1xonoAnonwo qomw xAooquAAa. Poaxuonnw on1
copoxu1 oAoo xoo1xonoAnonym qomy xAooquAAa o - H
680
.
E an1onnom xomnAoxco umom1cn xAooquAAw o
6?0-683
.
Komo 1oro, n momanax 1uAaxoupon naxopn1cn nonocopc1non-
no cnnaannwo c qo1ocuc1omo II cno1ocouammuo oAxonwo xomn-
Aoxcw, n xo1owx nucy1c1nym1 xAooquAAw o
660-6?5
, a 1axxo xAo-
oquAA o
650
(nocxoArxo n oArmom xoAunoc1no, nom xAooquAA o) u
xao1unoupw.
Eocrma cAoxnwo u aanooaanwo oaxuu qo1ocun1oaa, n oc-
nono xo1owx Aoxa1 qo1oxumunocxuo nooccw, n xononnom u1oro
nooaaym1 anorum cno1a n xumunocxym. Opnaxo naAunuo cno1a
nooxopumo o1nmpr no pAn ncox a1anon, a Aumr nnanaAo, noa1omy n
qo1ocun1oao nwpoAnm1 coenoow u ne+uoow c1apuu.
Cnovonax cvapnx qovocnnvoaa
Ha a1om a1ano noucxopu1 norAomonuo cno1ono anoruu nurmon-
1amu, moAoxyAw xo1owx nu a1om noayxpam1cn u ocymoc1nAnm1
nonunnwo qo1oxumunocxuo oaxuu. Oaaonanmuocn n cno1ono
'! '
c1apuu nopyx1w nxAmnam1cn n nocAopona1oArnym coum xumunocxux
oaxu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx nonnAnm1cn o1nocu1oArno xynnwo ora-
nunocxuo moAoxyAw, nocymuo n cnoux xumunocxux cnnanx aaxonconu-
onannym anorum cno1a. Taxuo oaxuu no nyxpam1cn n ocnomonuu, u
noa1omy a1y c1apum naanaAu 1omnono (aaymoo1cn, a1o nonco no oanana-
o1, n1o 1axuo oaxuu upy1 ucxAmnu1oArno n 1omno1o, noc1o pAn ux
ocymoc1nAonun no nyxon cno1).
Hanomnum, n1o moAoxyAw an1onnwx xomnAoxcon ooux qo1ocuc-
1om 1ancno1uym1 1oArxo anorum nocopc1nom oaonancno (qp.
rosonanco, .on. rosonans - pammu anyx) noopanu, no no aanxon-
nwo nac1uw. Hunun oaonancno noopanu anoruu coc1ou1 n
1om, n1o noayxponnw aAox1on, noanamancr na c1auonanw
anoro1unocxu yononr, nwpoAno1 anorum, xo1oan noayxpao1
cocopnu aAox1on. Hu a1om nac1r anoruu accounao1cn, u cocop-
nu aAox1on noAynao1 anoruu monrmo, nom oo nwpoAuAocr. Taxum
oaaom, na moAoxyAw xAooquAAon oaxuonnwx on1on nurmon-
1w an1onnwx xomnAoxcon noopam1 Aumr nac1r norAomonno ano-
ruu cno1a. Opnaxo u a1oro oxaawnao1cn poc1a1onnwm, n1ow aAox1-
on xAooquAAa noomoA n noayxponnoo coc1onnuo.
Henocpeocnoeuuo qonoru+uuecuue peouuuu ocecno.nwn
peouuuouume ueunpm qonocucne+. An Aynmoro nonumanun nco-
ro noocca ypono nana1r c qo1ocuc1omw II. Honunnwm ponoom
aAox1onon n qo1ocuc1omo II nnAno1cn xAooquAA H
680
. HocxoArxy
on naxopu1cn n pumonom coc1onnuu, norAomam1cn pna xnan1a,
xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, ax1unuym1 pna aAox1ona. 3a1om noa-
yxponnwo aAox1onw nonapam1 na nonunnw axon1o, um nn-
Ano1cn qeoqenuu, oaaymmucn n oayAr1a1o aamomonun n moAo-
xyAo xAooquAAa marnun nopoopom. E paArnomom aanxonnw
aAox1on ypo1 noopana1rcn no onu noonocnuxon, xaxpw aa
aaxonomono 1onn nac1r cnoo anoruu. CAopymmum axon1oom
nnAno1cn copoxamu xoAoao nonunnw nAac1oxunon qo1ocuc1o-
mw II - QA, aa1om n1ounnw nAac1oxunon QE, xo1ow cnnawna-
o1cn c nAac1oxunonom PQ. 01o1 axon1o cnocoon noonocu1r aAox-
1onw nooa rupoqonym Aunupnym qaay momanw 1uAaxoupa u
noopana1r ux na copoxamu no pna a1oma xoAoaa u cow oAox
FoSR (xoAoao-conw oAox Pucxo). O1cmpa aAox1onw noopam1cn na
nunapAoxamu u1oxomnomy xomnAoxcy b
6
- ] u1oxom ], a aa1om
na copoxamu mopr oAox nAac1ouanun. 01o1 noonocnux poAxon
ypo1 noopa1r aAox1on xAooquAAy qo1ocuc1omw I, xo1oo pAn max-
cumaArno nopyx1unnoc1u qo1ocun1oaa nooxopumo ao1a1r corAa-
conano c qo1ocuc1omo II (uc. 46).
Hoa1omy pAn nocAopona1oArnoro nopoAxonun onu oaxu poAx-
na nxAmnu1rcn qo1ocuc1oma I. Copoxamucn n oo oaxuonnom on-
1o xAooquAA H
?00
, norAoman pna xnan1a cno1a c nocxoArxo oAr-
mo pAuno noAnw, nom xAooquAA qo1ocuc1omw II, noayxpao1cn
u coo1no1c1nonno 1ono1 pna aAox1ona. CAopona1oArno, umonno a1o1
coc1onnuu (n oayAr1a1o norAomonun anoruu qo1ona), no ocymoc1nAn-
m1 qo1oxumunocxux oaxu, aa1o onu aqqox1unno noopam1 noAynonnym
anorum no onu xAooquAAy oaxuonnoro on1a. HananAonuo noo-
noca anoruu (aAox1onw apocr no noopam1cn) n an1onnwx xomnAoxcax
ncorpa ouon1uonano o1 nurmon1on, norAomammux camym xoo1xym
nac1r cnox1a (xao1unoupon), x oAoo pAunnonoAnonwm nurmon1am.
Kax mw yxo ronouAu, 1axo noocc noAynuA naananuo oaonancno
noopanu anoruu. Hu a1om oaonancnan noopana anoruu, ocymoc1n-
Anoman moxpy opunaxonwmu moAoxyAamu xAooquAAa, noAynuAa naana-
nuo eo+oeeuuou, ocAu xo anorun noonocu1cn na pyro 1un nurmon1a,
1o noonoc naawnao1cn eenepoeeuum+.
Paccmo1um yc1oc1no qo1ocuc1omw I. Cnu1ao1cn, n1o uc1ou-
nocxu ona noanuxAa anrmo qo1ocuc1omw II u n nac1onmoo nomn
umoo1cn nax1unocxu y ncox qo1ocun1oauymmux oranuamon,
nxAmnan cnoconwx x qo1ocun1oay ax1ou (y nocAopnux o1cy1-
c1nyo1 qo1ocuc1oma II u, cAopona1oArno, no noucxopu1 aaAoxo-
nun nopw u nwpoAonun xucAoopa). E coc1an oaxuonnoro on1a
a1o qo1ocuc1omw nxopn1 xomono1oupw, copoxamuo camym pAun-
nonoAnonym qomy xAooquAAa (oro coxamonno ooananam1 xax
H
?00
, noxaawnan 1om camwm pAuny noAnw, xo1oym cnocoon norAo-
ma1r xonxo1nw nurmon1). An1onnw xomnAoxc a1o qo1ocuc1o-
mw nxAmnao1 n con 110 moAoxyA xAooquAAon rynnw o, umom-
mux maxcumymw norAomonun o1 6?5 po 695 nm.
CorAacno 1oouu anoAmuu qo1ocuc1oma II n noocco uc1ou-
nocxoro aanu1un nonnuAacr noaxo. Ha conomonnom a1ano ona nu-
cy1c1nyo1 y ncox aoAonwx ac1onu, a 1axxo y cuno-aoAonwx nopooc-
Ao. EoAxonwo xomnAoxcw qo1ocuc1omw II nxAmnam1 n con nocxoArxo
oAoo xoo1xonoAnonwo qomw xAooquAAa. Poaxuonnw on1
copoxu1 oAoo xoo1xonoAnonym qomy xAooquAAa o - H
680
.
E an1onnom xomnAoxco umom1cn xAooquAAw o
6?0-683
.
Komo 1oro, n momanax 1uAaxoupon naxopn1cn nonocopc1non-
no cnnaannwo c qo1ocuc1omo II cno1ocouammuo oAxonwo xomn-
Aoxcw, n xo1owx nucy1c1nym1 xAooquAAw o
660-6?5
, a 1axxo xAo-
oquAA o
650
(nocxoArxo n oArmom xoAunoc1no, nom xAooquAA o) u
xao1unoupw.
Eocrma cAoxnwo u aanooaanwo oaxuu qo1ocun1oaa, n oc-
nono xo1owx Aoxa1 qo1oxumunocxuo nooccw, n xononnom u1oro
nooaaym1 anorum cno1a n xumunocxym. Opnaxo naAunuo cno1a
nooxopumo o1nmpr no pAn ncox a1anon, a Aumr nnanaAo, noa1omy n
qo1ocun1oao nwpoAnm1 coenoow u ne+uoow c1apuu.
Cnovonax cvapnx qovocnnvoaa
Ha a1om a1ano noucxopu1 norAomonuo cno1ono anoruu nurmon-
1amu, moAoxyAw xo1owx nu a1om noayxpam1cn u ocymoc1nAnm1
nonunnwo qo1oxumunocxuo oaxuu. Oaaonanmuocn n cno1ono
'# '"
oaxu, noa1omy on nwnopu1cn cnanaAa ua xAoonAac1a, a aa1om no-
oa moxxAo1nuxu u yc1rua ua ac1onun nonco. Hanomnum, n1o nono-
nanaArno a1mocqoa 3omAu nax1unocxu no copoxaAa moAoxyAnnoro
xucAoopa n cnoopnom coc1onnuu, u non1u nocr xucAoop nwnomnoro
noapyxa wA oaaonan n oayAr1a1o qo1ocun1o1unocxo pon1oArnoc1u
aoAonwx ac1onu.
Oonunan anoro1unocxym ananumoc1r onucannwx nwmo no-
occon, nooxopumo nomnu1r, n1o xAooquAA qo1ocuc1omw II, c
xo1ooro u nanunao1cn 1ancno1, n oayAr1a1o noayxponun 1on-
o1 aAox1on, naxopnmucn na nwcoxom anoro1unocxom yonno (noa-
yxponnw aAox1on), a naamon noAynao1 nomaArnw aAox1-
on, no copoxamu uaw1onno anoruu.
Onucannw ny1r noonoca aAox1ona no pnym qo1ocuc1omam
ua-aa cnoo auraarooaanoc1u (n cuAy 1oro, n1o moAoxyAw-noo-
nocnuxu aAox1ona noryxonw n momany 1uAaxoupa na aanym
rAyuny) naawnao1cn Z-cxomo, uAu ueuuu.uuecuu+ npoucnopno+
o.eunpouoo (uc. 4?). Ero oayAr1a1om ypo1 nonnAonuo NADPH,
aaAoxonuo nopw u nwpoAonuo xucAoopa, a 1axxo qo1oqocqou-
Auonanuo, nu xo1oom anorun noayxponnoro aAox1ona uc-
noArayo1cn pAn nucoopunonun nooranunocxoro qocqa1a x ADP,
1. o. cun1oay ATP.
Komo nouxAunocxoro, n momanax 1uAaxoupon ocymoc1nAno1-
cn omo u uuu.uuecuuu npoucnopn o.eunpouoo. On, n o1Aunuo o1
nouxAunocxoro 1ancno1a, upo1 Aumr n qo1ocuc1omo I. Ero o-
ayAr1a1om ypo1 cun1oa ATP, a NADPH nu a1om no oaayo1cn.
3pocr aanxonnwo aAox1onw cxoma1unocxu noopam1cn no onu no-
onocnuxon cAopymmum oaaom. EnanaAo cu1yaun nanomunao1 no-
uxAunocxu 1ancno1 po 1oro momon1a, noxa aAox1onamu no aan-
Aapoo1 qoopoxcun, xo1ow noopao1 ux no na nocc1anonAonuo
NADP
-
(xax wAo anrmo), a o1pao1 aAox1onw nAac1oxunonam, onu,
n cnom onoopr, 1ancno1uym1 aanxonnwo nac1uw nooa Aunup-
nym nac1r momanw. 3a1om aAox1onw noopam1cn na u1oxom
b
6
, xoAoao-conw oAox Pucxo, u1oxom ], nAac1ouanun u, naxo-
no, nnonr na xAooquAA H
?00
.
Moxanuam cun1oaa ATP n oayAr1a1o qocqouAuonanun ADP
nnoAno yopu1oArno noxaawnao1 xomuocmo1unocxan 1ooun, xo1o-
ym n moc1upocn1wo ropw aaao1aA anrAucxu uoxumux Hn-
vop MnvuoAA. 01a 1ooun o+ncnno1 noomomonun no1onon nooa
momany (xomo qo1ocun1oaa oro 1ooun numonuma 1axxo x no-
xo1owm a1anam aaonoro pwxanun u ponoAnu1oArno onucana n
aapoAo, nocnnmonnom ocnonnwm oaxunm 1xanonoro omona). Co-
rAacno o aAox1oxumunocxu rapuon1 n noAoc1u 1uAaxoupa co-
apam1 acnoAoxonnwo n momano 1uAaxoupa mnoronucAonnwo no-
onocnuxu aAox1onon. CAopyo1 nomnu1r, n1o moAoxyAw-noonoc-
nuxu nonco no oaaym1 c1a1unno quxcuonannwo cAou, Aoxamuo
Pu c . 4 6. Hepeoc snexmpoos s npoecce qomocumesa
s munaxouo ueupae:
nosu+muu nepeocvuxauu snexmpoos s smo enu cny+am nnacmoxuo (oves cxo-
m c yuxuoou uumoxopu), nnacmouau (eonsuo uescoep+au enox) u
qeppeoxcu (eonsuo enox, coep+au +eneso-cepm emp). lounnexc b
6
- f
oves noxo+ a xounnexc b-c
1
uumoxopu u xounnexc b-c axmepu: sce mpu xounnex-
ca npuuuakm snexmpom om xuoos u nepexavusakm npomom. Opaaeu suuaue,
vmo npomom, smcsoo+aeume npu oxucneuu som, u npomom, saxsammsaeume npu
opasosauu NADPH, mo+e yvacmsykm s cosauu snexmpoxuuuvecxoao npomooao
apauema, ocmasnskeao sepauk ns cumesa ATP; l cmpoua; ll munaxouoe
npocmpacmso; A qomocucmeua ll; B xounnexc b
6
- f ; B qomocucmeua l; l NADP-
peyxmasa; 1 csem; 2 amem xounnexc; 3 qeppeoxcu; 4 nnacmouau;
5 nnacmoxuo; 6 qepuem, pacennsku soy; 7 munaxouas ueupaa
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
nurmon1 nnAno1cn nonunnwm ponoom aAox1onon n qo1ocuc1omo I.
Onu aaxna1wnam1cn xAooquAAom o, naxopnmumcn n monomonom
coc1onnuu A1. HocAo a1oro aAox1onw noomomam1cn no cAopym-
mo onu noonocnuxon: xoAoao-conwo oAxu A
2
u A
E
(n o1Aunuo o1
xoAoao-conwx oAxon qo1ocuc1omw II apocr copoxu1cn no 4Fo u
4S), ac1noumw n nopo xoAoao-conw oAox qoopoxcun u, naxo-
no, NADP-oxcupoopyx1aaa, xo1oan nocc1ananAunao1 NADP
-
po
NADPH.
E qo1ocuc1omo I y1anonnwo aAox1onw noc1ynam1 o1 nopoa-
c1noumoro oAxa nAac1ouanuna, xo1ow nnAno1cn opnum ua no-
onocnuxon aAox1onon o1 qo1ocuc1omw II (a1o1 copoxamu mopr
oAox ynomunaAcn nwmo).
E qo1ocuc1omo II aAox1onnwo pwxu aanoAnnm1cn aAox1ona-
mu, xo1owo pownam1cn, no-nupumomy, ua uonon OH
-
n oayAr1a1o
aaAoxonun moAoxyA nopw. 01o1 noocc omo uaynon no po xona.
Hanoc1no, n1o n nom ynac1nym1 oAxonwo xomnAoxcw, copoxamuo
a1omw marana. An ycnomnoro ocymoc1nAonun oaxuu aaAo-
xonun nopw nooxopumo nucy1c1nuo uonon xaArun u xAoa. Oa-
aonanmucn nu a1om xucAoop no nyxon pAn qo1ocun1o1unocxux
'# '"
oaxu, noa1omy on nwnopu1cn cnanaAa ua xAoonAac1a, a aa1om no-
oa moxxAo1nuxu u yc1rua ua ac1onun nonco. Hanomnum, n1o nono-
nanaArno a1mocqoa 3omAu nax1unocxu no copoxaAa moAoxyAnnoro
xucAoopa n cnoopnom coc1onnuu, u non1u nocr xucAoop nwnomnoro
noapyxa wA oaaonan n oayAr1a1o qo1ocun1o1unocxo pon1oArnoc1u
aoAonwx ac1onu.
Oonunan anoro1unocxym ananumoc1r onucannwx nwmo no-
occon, nooxopumo nomnu1r, n1o xAooquAA qo1ocuc1omw II, c
xo1ooro u nanunao1cn 1ancno1, n oayAr1a1o noayxponun 1on-
o1 aAox1on, naxopnmucn na nwcoxom anoro1unocxom yonno (noa-
yxponnw aAox1on), a naamon noAynao1 nomaArnw aAox1-
on, no copoxamu uaw1onno anoruu.
Onucannw ny1r noonoca aAox1ona no pnym qo1ocuc1omam
ua-aa cnoo auraarooaanoc1u (n cuAy 1oro, n1o moAoxyAw-noo-
nocnuxu aAox1ona noryxonw n momany 1uAaxoupa na aanym
rAyuny) naawnao1cn Z-cxomo, uAu ueuuu.uuecuu+ npoucnopno+
o.eunpouoo (uc. 4?). Ero oayAr1a1om ypo1 nonnAonuo NADPH,
aaAoxonuo nopw u nwpoAonuo xucAoopa, a 1axxo qo1oqocqou-
Auonanuo, nu xo1oom anorun noayxponnoro aAox1ona uc-
noArayo1cn pAn nucoopunonun nooranunocxoro qocqa1a x ADP,
1. o. cun1oay ATP.
Komo nouxAunocxoro, n momanax 1uAaxoupon ocymoc1nAno1-
cn omo u uuu.uuecuuu npoucnopn o.eunpouoo. On, n o1Aunuo o1
nouxAunocxoro 1ancno1a, upo1 Aumr n qo1ocuc1omo I. Ero o-
ayAr1a1om ypo1 cun1oa ATP, a NADPH nu a1om no oaayo1cn.
3pocr aanxonnwo aAox1onw cxoma1unocxu noopam1cn no onu no-
onocnuxon cAopymmum oaaom. EnanaAo cu1yaun nanomunao1 no-
uxAunocxu 1ancno1 po 1oro momon1a, noxa aAox1onamu no aan-
Aapoo1 qoopoxcun, xo1ow noopao1 ux no na nocc1anonAonuo
NADP
-
(xax wAo anrmo), a o1pao1 aAox1onw nAac1oxunonam, onu,
n cnom onoopr, 1ancno1uym1 aanxonnwo nac1uw nooa Aunup-
nym nac1r momanw. 3a1om aAox1onw noopam1cn na u1oxom
b
6
, xoAoao-conw oAox Pucxo, u1oxom ], nAac1ouanun u, naxo-
no, nnonr na xAooquAA H
?00
.
Moxanuam cun1oaa ATP n oayAr1a1o qocqouAuonanun ADP
nnoAno yopu1oArno noxaawnao1 xomuocmo1unocxan 1ooun, xo1o-
ym n moc1upocn1wo ropw aaao1aA anrAucxu uoxumux Hn-
vop MnvuoAA. 01a 1ooun o+ncnno1 noomomonun no1onon nooa
momany (xomo qo1ocun1oaa oro 1ooun numonuma 1axxo x no-
xo1owm a1anam aaonoro pwxanun u ponoAnu1oArno onucana n
aapoAo, nocnnmonnom ocnonnwm oaxunm 1xanonoro omona). Co-
rAacno o aAox1oxumunocxu rapuon1 n noAoc1u 1uAaxoupa co-
apam1 acnoAoxonnwo n momano 1uAaxoupa mnoronucAonnwo no-
onocnuxu aAox1onon. CAopyo1 nomnu1r, n1o moAoxyAw-noonoc-
nuxu nonco no oaaym1 c1a1unno quxcuonannwo cAou, Aoxamuo
Pu c . 4 6. Hepeoc snexmpoos s npoecce qomocumesa
s munaxouo ueupae:
nosu+muu nepeocvuxauu snexmpoos s smo enu cny+am nnacmoxuo (oves cxo-
m c yuxuoou uumoxopu), nnacmouau (eonsuo uescoep+au enox) u
qeppeoxcu (eonsuo enox, coep+au +eneso-cepm emp). lounnexc b
6
- f
oves noxo+ a xounnexc b-c
1
uumoxopu u xounnexc b-c axmepu: sce mpu xounnex-
ca npuuuakm snexmpom om xuoos u nepexavusakm npomom. Opaaeu suuaue,
vmo npomom, smcsoo+aeume npu oxucneuu som, u npomom, saxsammsaeume npu
opasosauu NADPH, mo+e yvacmsykm s cosauu snexmpoxuuuvecxoao npomooao
apauema, ocmasnskeao sepauk ns cumesa ATP; l cmpoua; ll munaxouoe
npocmpacmso; A qomocucmeua ll; B xounnexc b
6
- f ; B qomocucmeua l; l NADP-
peyxmasa; 1 csem; 2 amem xounnexc; 3 qeppeoxcu; 4 nnacmouau;
5 nnacmoxuo; 6 qepuem, pacennsku soy; 7 munaxouas ueupaa
(no Anepmcy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
nurmon1 nnAno1cn nonunnwm ponoom aAox1onon n qo1ocuc1omo I.
Onu aaxna1wnam1cn xAooquAAom o, naxopnmumcn n monomonom
coc1onnuu A1. HocAo a1oro aAox1onw noomomam1cn no cAopym-
mo onu noonocnuxon: xoAoao-conwo oAxu A
2
u A
E
(n o1Aunuo o1
xoAoao-conwx oAxon qo1ocuc1omw II apocr copoxu1cn no 4Fo u
4S), ac1noumw n nopo xoAoao-conw oAox qoopoxcun u, naxo-
no, NADP-oxcupoopyx1aaa, xo1oan nocc1ananAunao1 NADP
-
po
NADPH.
E qo1ocuc1omo I y1anonnwo aAox1onw noc1ynam1 o1 nopoa-
c1noumoro oAxa nAac1ouanuna, xo1ow nnAno1cn opnum ua no-
onocnuxon aAox1onon o1 qo1ocuc1omw II (a1o1 copoxamu mopr
oAox ynomunaAcn nwmo).
E qo1ocuc1omo II aAox1onnwo pwxu aanoAnnm1cn aAox1ona-
mu, xo1owo pownam1cn, no-nupumomy, ua uonon OH
-
n oayAr1a1o
aaAoxonun moAoxyA nopw. 01o1 noocc omo uaynon no po xona.
Hanoc1no, n1o n nom ynac1nym1 oAxonwo xomnAoxcw, copoxamuo
a1omw marana. An ycnomnoro ocymoc1nAonun oaxuu aaAo-
xonun nopw nooxopumo nucy1c1nuo uonon xaArun u xAoa. Oa-
aonanmucn nu a1om xucAoop no nyxon pAn qo1ocun1o1unocxux
'% '$
opnaxo, xax u Amo no1ox, onu nu a1om conomam1 noxo1oym
ao1y, xo1oan xax aa u ucnoArayo1cn pAn nucoopunonun x ADP
nooranunocxoro qocqa1a, n oayAr1a1o noro oaayo1cn ATP.
Humonu1oArno x qo1ocun1oay a1o1 noocc nocrma ynomonno
nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom. HocAo norAomonun xAooquAAom
oaxuonnwx on1on xnan1on cno1a ux aAox1onw noayxpam1cn u
noopam1cn axon1oam, acnoAoxonnwm na nayxno nonoxnoc1u
momanw. 0Aox1onw c xAooquAAa H
680
noc1ynam1 na xuoa-
c1noumw nAac1oxunon. HoAynan pna aAox1ona, on aaxna1wnao1
ua c1omw pna no1ona, nocAo noro aAox1onw noopam1cn na xoAoao-
conw oAox Pucxo, aa1om na u1oxom ], nAac1ouanun u na pAun-
nonoAnonw xAooquAA H
?00
. E oayAr1a1o a1oro no1onw noc1ynam1 n
noAoc1r 1uAaxoupa, rpo x num nucoopunnm1cn omo pna no1ona, xo-
1owo oaaonaAucr n oayAr1a1o qo1oAuaa nopw. E xononnom u1oro n
noAoc1u 1uAaxoupa qomuyo1cn uaw1ox no1onon, a aa1om noucxo-
pn1 cow1un, onucannwo nwmo.
Tomnonax cvapnx qovocnnvoaa
CAopymmuo oaxuu no1oxam1 n c1omo xAoonAac1a. HocxoAr-
xy pAn nux no nyxon cno1, coo1no1c1nymmym c1apum qo1ocun1oaa
naanaAu 1omnono. Hmonno n no noucxopu1 uoAorunocxan qux-
caun yrAoopa, n oayAr1a1o noro cun1oauym1cn oranunocxuo
nomoc1na, n xumunocxux cnnanx xo1owx aanacona anorun, nono-
nanaArno noAynonnan nu noayxponuu aAox1ona xAooquAAa xnan-
1om cno1a.
VrAoxucAw raa cnocoon oaruona1r c nn1uyrAoopnwm coopuno-
nuom - pu.:o1,uqocqono+ (uc. 48), xo1ooo oaayo1cn n c1omo
n oayAr1a1o qocqouAuonanun c nomomrm ATP moAoxyA uyAoao-
5-qocqa1a. 01a oaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om qocqouyAoao-
xunaao. Hucoopunonuo CO
2
x uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1y noxopu1 c
ynac1uom pyroro qomon1a - uyAoaouqocqa1xaoxcuAaaw. Ho-
Aynonnw n oayAr1a1o a1oro moc1uyrAoopnw nomoxy1onnw
nopyx1 wc1o acnapao1cn na pno 1uoaw - pno moAoxyAw 3-qocqo-
rAuounono xucAo1w.
CAopymmum a1anom nnAno1cn nocc1anonAonuo 3-qocqorAuou-
nono xucAo1w po 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa. 01o poc1ura-
o1cn ny1om qocqouAuonanun ucxopnwx 1uoa c nomomrm ATP, n
oayAr1a1o noro oaaym1cn moAoxyAw 1,3-uqocqorAuounono
xucAo1w (oaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om qocqorAuoa1xu-
naao), a onu, n cnom onoopr, naaumopoc1nyn c NADPH, nocc1a-
nanAunam1cn po 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa.
3pocr noanuxao1 nonoc: ua xaxux uc1onnuxon nonoAnnm1cn aa-
nacw nonunnoro axon1oa yrAoxucAoro raaa? Poronoaun uyAo-
ao-1,5-uqocqa1a ocymoc1nAno1cn no aamxny1omy uxAy, xo1ow
P u c . 4 7. Cxeua euxnuvecxoao mpacnopma snexmpoos
(euxnuvecxoao qocqopunuposaus) s xnoponnacmax (Z-cxeua)
u usueeue peoxc-nomeuana:
l qomocucmeua ll; ll qomocucmeua l; 1 qepuem, pacennsku soy;
2 xnopoqunn H
680
; 3 xnopoqunn H
680
s sosy+eou cocmosuu; 4 qeoqemu;
5 nepsuvm nnacmoxuo qomocucmeum ll (O
A
); 6 smopuvm nnacmoxuo qomocuc-
meum ll (O
B
); 7 +upopacmsopuum nnacmoxuo (PO); 8 xounnexc b
6
- f ;
9 +eneso-cepm enox Pucxe; 10 umoxpou f

xounnexca b
6
- f ; 11 nnacmouau;
12 xnopoqunn H
700
; 13 xnopoqunn H
700
s sosy+eou cocmosuu; 14 nepsuvm
axenmop snexmpoos qomocucmeum l; 15, 16 smopuvme axenmopm snexmpoos
qomocucmeum l (+eneso-cepme enxu); 17 qeppeoxcu; 18 NADP-peyxmasa c FAD
s xavecmse xoqepuema
pyr nap pyrom, a nopc1anAnm1 coo moAoxyAw, xo1owo na aa-
nym rAyuny noryxonw n Aunupnw cAo momanw uAu xo nonu-
awnam1 oro nacxnoar, xomo 1oro, nco a1u moAoxyAw oAapam1 Aa1o-
aArno nopnuxnoc1rm. Hoonocnuxu 1ancno1uym1 c opno no-
noxnoc1u momanw na pyrym xax aAox1onw, 1ax u no1onw
(nocAopnuo nooxopumw pAn yannonomunanun aanpa), oa1no xo
noonocu1cn 1oArxo aAox1on, a no1onw oc1am1cn no pyrym c1oo-
ny, no1omy n1o momana apocr pAn nux no nonuaoma. E oayAr-
1a1o uaw1onnoro naxonAonun no opny ua c1oon uonon nopoopa
qomuyo1cn aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. HocAo 1oro
xax oro ananonuo poc1urno1 onopoAonno noAununw, no1onw nanu-
nam1 no1oxa1r nooa momany, no no no ncox moc1ax, a Aumr
nooa ocowo oAxu, nonuawnammuo momany nacxnoar. 01u oAxu
nnAnm1cn ATP-cun1o1aaamu, no1onw noxopn1 nooa nux naccunno,
'% '$
opnaxo, xax u Amo no1ox, onu nu a1om conomam1 noxo1oym
ao1y, xo1oan xax aa u ucnoArayo1cn pAn nucoopunonun x ADP
nooranunocxoro qocqa1a, n oayAr1a1o noro oaayo1cn ATP.
Humonu1oArno x qo1ocun1oay a1o1 noocc nocrma ynomonno
nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom. HocAo norAomonun xAooquAAom
oaxuonnwx on1on xnan1on cno1a ux aAox1onw noayxpam1cn u
noopam1cn axon1oam, acnoAoxonnwm na nayxno nonoxnoc1u
momanw. 0Aox1onw c xAooquAAa H
680
noc1ynam1 na xuoa-
c1noumw nAac1oxunon. HoAynan pna aAox1ona, on aaxna1wnao1
ua c1omw pna no1ona, nocAo noro aAox1onw noopam1cn na xoAoao-
conw oAox Pucxo, aa1om na u1oxom ], nAac1ouanun u na pAun-
nonoAnonw xAooquAA H
?00
. E oayAr1a1o a1oro no1onw noc1ynam1 n
noAoc1r 1uAaxoupa, rpo x num nucoopunnm1cn omo pna no1ona, xo-
1owo oaaonaAucr n oayAr1a1o qo1oAuaa nopw. E xononnom u1oro n
noAoc1u 1uAaxoupa qomuyo1cn uaw1ox no1onon, a aa1om noucxo-
pn1 cow1un, onucannwo nwmo.
Tomnonax cvapnx qovocnnvoaa
CAopymmuo oaxuu no1oxam1 n c1omo xAoonAac1a. HocxoAr-
xy pAn nux no nyxon cno1, coo1no1c1nymmym c1apum qo1ocun1oaa
naanaAu 1omnono. Hmonno n no noucxopu1 uoAorunocxan qux-
caun yrAoopa, n oayAr1a1o noro cun1oauym1cn oranunocxuo
nomoc1na, n xumunocxux cnnanx xo1owx aanacona anorun, nono-
nanaArno noAynonnan nu noayxponuu aAox1ona xAooquAAa xnan-
1om cno1a.
VrAoxucAw raa cnocoon oaruona1r c nn1uyrAoopnwm coopuno-
nuom - pu.:o1,uqocqono+ (uc. 48), xo1ooo oaayo1cn n c1omo
n oayAr1a1o qocqouAuonanun c nomomrm ATP moAoxyA uyAoao-
5-qocqa1a. 01a oaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om qocqouyAoao-
xunaao. Hucoopunonuo CO
2
x uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1y noxopu1 c
ynac1uom pyroro qomon1a - uyAoaouqocqa1xaoxcuAaaw. Ho-
Aynonnw n oayAr1a1o a1oro moc1uyrAoopnw nomoxy1onnw
nopyx1 wc1o acnapao1cn na pno 1uoaw - pno moAoxyAw 3-qocqo-
rAuounono xucAo1w.
CAopymmum a1anom nnAno1cn nocc1anonAonuo 3-qocqorAuou-
nono xucAo1w po 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa. 01o poc1ura-
o1cn ny1om qocqouAuonanun ucxopnwx 1uoa c nomomrm ATP, n
oayAr1a1o noro oaaym1cn moAoxyAw 1,3-uqocqorAuounono
xucAo1w (oaxun xa1aAuauyo1cn qomon1om qocqorAuoa1xu-
naao), a onu, n cnom onoopr, naaumopoc1nyn c NADPH, nocc1a-
nanAunam1cn po 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa.
3pocr noanuxao1 nonoc: ua xaxux uc1onnuxon nonoAnnm1cn aa-
nacw nonunnoro axon1oa yrAoxucAoro raaa? Poronoaun uyAo-
ao-1,5-uqocqa1a ocymoc1nAno1cn no aamxny1omy uxAy, xo1ow
P u c . 4 7. Cxeua euxnuvecxoao mpacnopma snexmpoos
(euxnuvecxoao qocqopunuposaus) s xnoponnacmax (Z-cxeua)
u usueeue peoxc-nomeuana:
l qomocucmeua ll; ll qomocucmeua l; 1 qepuem, pacennsku soy;
2 xnopoqunn H
680
; 3 xnopoqunn H
680
s sosy+eou cocmosuu; 4 qeoqemu;
5 nepsuvm nnacmoxuo qomocucmeum ll (O
A
); 6 smopuvm nnacmoxuo qomocuc-
meum ll (O
B
); 7 +upopacmsopuum nnacmoxuo (PO); 8 xounnexc b
6
- f ;
9 +eneso-cepm enox Pucxe; 10 umoxpou f

xounnexca b
6
- f ; 11 nnacmouau;
12 xnopoqunn H
700
; 13 xnopoqunn H
700
s sosy+eou cocmosuu; 14 nepsuvm
axenmop snexmpoos qomocucmeum l; 15, 16 smopuvme axenmopm snexmpoos
qomocucmeum l (+eneso-cepme enxu); 17 qeppeoxcu; 18 NADP-peyxmasa c FAD
s xavecmse xoqepuema
pyr nap pyrom, a nopc1anAnm1 coo moAoxyAw, xo1owo na aa-
nym rAyuny noryxonw n Aunupnw cAo momanw uAu xo nonu-
awnam1 oro nacxnoar, xomo 1oro, nco a1u moAoxyAw oAapam1 Aa1o-
aArno nopnuxnoc1rm. Hoonocnuxu 1ancno1uym1 c opno no-
noxnoc1u momanw na pyrym xax aAox1onw, 1ax u no1onw
(nocAopnuo nooxopumw pAn yannonomunanun aanpa), oa1no xo
noonocu1cn 1oArxo aAox1on, a no1onw oc1am1cn no pyrym c1oo-
ny, no1omy n1o momana apocr pAn nux no nonuaoma. E oayAr-
1a1o uaw1onnoro naxonAonun no opny ua c1oon uonon nopoopa
qomuyo1cn aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. HocAo 1oro
xax oro ananonuo poc1urno1 onopoAonno noAununw, no1onw nanu-
nam1 no1oxa1r nooa momany, no no no ncox moc1ax, a Aumr
nooa ocowo oAxu, nonuawnammuo momany nacxnoar. 01u oAxu
nnAnm1cn ATP-cun1o1aaamu, no1onw noxopn1 nooa nux naccunno,
'' '&
Pu c . 4 9. Uuxn quxcauu yanepoa s meuoso cmauu
qomocumesa (uxn lanssua Becoa):
s xoe smoao uxna us CO
2
u H
2
O opasykmcs opaauvecxue uonexynm. Bns ynpoeus
cxeum uoaue npoue+ymovme npoyxmm a nymu om anuepanseau-3-qocqama
x puynso-5-qocqamy onyem. Yvacmue som s uxne max+e e noxasao (no Anepmcy,
c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
A B B F
Pu c . 4 8. Ynpoeas cxeua csssmsaus CO
2
c opasosaueu opaauvecxux seecms:
A syoxucs yanepoa; B puynso-1,5-uqocqam; B npoue+ymovm npoyxm;
l se uonexynm 3-qocqoanuepama (no Anepmcy, c usueeusuu)
nyxpammumcn n anoruu, uAu x oranam u 1xannm, aanacammum
nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na nnox.
Conomonno noocnoumwm qax1om nnAno1cn 1o, n1o oce opeouu
uecuue oeecnoo uomr opeouu:+oo (:o ucu.wueuue+ oeecno,
no.ueuumr o pe:.tnone re+ocuune:o, opo:wncn o pe:.tno
ne uoru+uuecuur npeopoeuuu npoounoo qonocuune:o.
no umonu uccAopona1oAo, o1xwnmux oro, wA naanan uuu.o+
Ko.touuo- Eeucouo (uc. 49). E a1o onu oaxu n oayAr-
1a1o quxcauu 1ox moAoxyA CO
2
oaayo1cn moc1r moAoxyA
3-qocqorAuounono xucAo1w, copoxamux conmoc1no nocom-
napa1r a1omon yrAoopa (1u ua nux noAynonw o1 1ox quxcu-
onannwx moAoxyA yrAoxucAoro raaa). 3a1om onu noxopn1 cAox-
nw uxA oaxu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx oronouym1 1u
moAoxyAw uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1a (conmoc1no copoxamux nn1-
napa1r a1omon yrAoopa) u oaayo1cn opna 1oxyrAoopnan
moAoxyAa 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa. Hnwmu cAonamu, n
uxA nc1ynam1 oranunocxuo coopunonun (moAoxyAw uyAoao-
1,5-uqocqa1a) u nooranunocxuo (moAoxyAw yrAoxucAoro raaa),
a n u1oro oaaym1cn 1oArxo oranunocxuo - oronouyo1 1o
xo xoAunoc1no moAoxyA uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1a u ponoAnu1oAr-
no nonnAno1cn oranunocxan moAoxyAa 3-qocqorAuounonoro
aArporupa.
HoAynonnoo 1oxyrAoopnoo coopunonuo (moAoxyAa 3-qoc-
qorAuounonoro aArporupa) yxo camo no coo nnAno1cn opnum
ua nomoxy1onnwx nopyx1on rAuxoAuaa. Hoxo1oan nac1r 3-qoc-
qorAuounonoro aArporupa oc1ao1cn n c1omo xAoonAac1a,
rpo aa1om nonamao1cn n rAmxoao-1-qocqa1, xo1ow, n cnom
onoopr, cnanaAa nonamao1cn n ADP-rAmxoay, a aa1om n
xaxmaA. Ocoeuuo +uoeo upor+o.o onu.oomooencn o r.o
pon.ocnor oue+ npu uuneucuouo+ neueuuu qonocuunenu
uecuur npoueccoo, uoutw noo oeucnoue+ coonoencnowur
qep+eunoo upor+o. pocen.nencn oo pocnoopu+mr qop+ u uc
no.t:encn pocneuue+. Opnaxo o
Q
Arman nac1r 3-qocqorAuo-
unonoro aArporupa nooxopu1 n ruaAonAaamy u nc1ynao1 n oax-
uu, xo1owo nopc1anAnm1 coo rAuxoAua, no upymu n oa1-
nom nonpxo. Hu a1om oaayo1cn rAmxoao-1-qocqa1 u qyx1oao-
6-qocqa1. E xononnom u1oro noAynao1cn caxaoaa, xo1oan
aaryxao1cn no qAoamy u 1ancno1uyo1cn no no x oranam,
'' '&
Pu c . 4 9. Uuxn quxcauu yanepoa s meuoso cmauu
qomocumesa (uxn lanssua Becoa):
s xoe smoao uxna us CO
2
u H
2
O opasykmcs opaauvecxue uonexynm. Bns ynpoeus
cxeum uoaue npoue+ymovme npoyxmm a nymu om anuepanseau-3-qocqama
x puynso-5-qocqamy onyem. Yvacmue som s uxne max+e e noxasao (no Anepmcy,
c usueeusuu u ononeusuu)
A B B F
Pu c . 4 8. Ynpoeas cxeua csssmsaus CO
2
c opasosaueu opaauvecxux seecms:
A syoxucs yanepoa; B puynso-1,5-uqocqam; B npoue+ymovm npoyxm;
l se uonexynm 3-qocqoanuepama (no Anepmcy, c usueeusuu)
nyxpammumcn n anoruu, uAu x oranam u 1xannm, aanacammum
nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na nnox.
Conomonno noocnoumwm qax1om nnAno1cn 1o, n1o oce opeouu
uecuue oeecnoo uomr opeouu:+oo (:o ucu.wueuue+ oeecno,
no.ueuumr o pe:.tnone re+ocuune:o, opo:wncn o pe:.tno
ne uoru+uuecuur npeopoeuuu npoounoo qonocuune:o.
no umonu uccAopona1oAo, o1xwnmux oro, wA naanan uuu.o+
Ko.touuo- Eeucouo (uc. 49). E a1o onu oaxu n oayAr-
1a1o quxcauu 1ox moAoxyA CO
2
oaayo1cn moc1r moAoxyA
3-qocqorAuounono xucAo1w, copoxamux conmoc1no nocom-
napa1r a1omon yrAoopa (1u ua nux noAynonw o1 1ox quxcu-
onannwx moAoxyA yrAoxucAoro raaa). 3a1om onu noxopn1 cAox-
nw uxA oaxu, n oayAr1a1o xo1owx oronouym1 1u
moAoxyAw uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1a (conmoc1no copoxamux nn1-
napa1r a1omon yrAoopa) u oaayo1cn opna 1oxyrAoopnan
moAoxyAa 3-qocqorAuounonoro aArporupa. Hnwmu cAonamu, n
uxA nc1ynam1 oranunocxuo coopunonun (moAoxyAw uyAoao-
1,5-uqocqa1a) u nooranunocxuo (moAoxyAw yrAoxucAoro raaa),
a n u1oro oaaym1cn 1oArxo oranunocxuo - oronouyo1 1o
xo xoAunoc1no moAoxyA uyAoao-1,5-uqocqa1a u ponoAnu1oAr-
no nonnAno1cn oranunocxan moAoxyAa 3-qocqorAuounonoro
aArporupa.
HoAynonnoo 1oxyrAoopnoo coopunonuo (moAoxyAa 3-qoc-
qorAuounonoro aArporupa) yxo camo no coo nnAno1cn opnum
ua nomoxy1onnwx nopyx1on rAuxoAuaa. Hoxo1oan nac1r 3-qoc-
qorAuounonoro aArporupa oc1ao1cn n c1omo xAoonAac1a,
rpo aa1om nonamao1cn n rAmxoao-1-qocqa1, xo1ow, n cnom
onoopr, cnanaAa nonamao1cn n ADP-rAmxoay, a aa1om n
xaxmaA. Ocoeuuo +uoeo upor+o.o onu.oomooencn o r.o
pon.ocnor oue+ npu uuneucuouo+ neueuuu qonocuunenu
uecuur npoueccoo, uoutw noo oeucnoue+ coonoencnowur
qep+eunoo upor+o. pocen.nencn oo pocnoopu+mr qop+ u uc
no.t:encn pocneuue+. Opnaxo o
Q
Arman nac1r 3-qocqorAuo-
unonoro aArporupa nooxopu1 n ruaAonAaamy u nc1ynao1 n oax-
uu, xo1owo nopc1anAnm1 coo rAuxoAua, no upymu n oa1-
nom nonpxo. Hu a1om oaayo1cn rAmxoao-1-qocqa1 u qyx1oao-
6-qocqa1. E xononnom u1oro noAynao1cn caxaoaa, xo1oan
aaryxao1cn no qAoamy u 1ancno1uyo1cn no no x oranam,

CTPOEHHE H OYHKUHOHHPOBAHHE
HPOKAPHOTHHECKOH KRETKH
Tomun muxouoAorun cAarao1cn ua 1ox ronocxux cAon:
muxoc - maAw, uoc - xuanr, Aoroc - nayxa. MuxouoAorun
uaynao1 mu muxooranuamon - muxocxonunocxux cymoc1n, no
cnoum aamoam naxopnmuxcn aa nopoAamu nupumoc1u nonooy-
xonnoro rAaaa (ux aamow poAxnw w1r monoo 0,08 mm). Homumo
maAwx aamoon muxooranuamw xaax1ouaym1cn cnoconoc1rm
x wc1omy aamnoxonum, muoxum acnoc1anonuom n nuo-
po, Aorxo nucnocoAnomoc1rm x oxyxammum ycAonunm, aano-
oaauom quauoAorunocxux nuanaxon.
CorAacno 9-my uapanum onopoAu1oAn Eoru (1984 -1986), no-
xauo1w oaaym1 ac1no EacIorIa, xo1ooo nopaapoAno1cn na 4
o1poAa. O1poA OracIIIcuIos nxAmnao1 muxooranuamw c mnrxo
xAo1onno c1onxo (ramo1ua1oArnwo ax1ouu). Eo n1oo o1-
poA FIrmIcuIos nomAu muxooranuamw c nonno xAo1onno c1on-
xo (ramnoAoxu1oArnwo ax1ouu). To1u o1poA TonorIcuIos o-
aaym1 muxonAaamw. Haxono, x o1poAy MondosIcuIos o1noconw
axoax1ouu - nauoAoo numu1unno oranuaonannwo qomw
xuanu, ou1ammuo n axc1omaArnwx ycAonunx (mo1anooaaym-
muo, oAura1nwo raAoquArnwo, 1omoaupoquArnwo ax1ouu).
MOPmOAOFHH MHKPOOPFAHH3MOH
Hocmo1n na opunc1no c1oonun, xumunocxoro coc1ana u qynx-
u, nucymoo ncom xAo1xam, moxpy ay- u noxauo1unocxumu
xAo1xamu umom1cn cymoc1nonnwo aaAunun.
Hoxauo1unocxan xAo1xa oranuaonana nomo ayxauo1u-
nocxo. EoArmunc1no ua nux - a1o moAxuo (xax nanuAo, no o-
Aoo 10 mxm) oxyrAwo, onaArnwo uAu ypAunonnwo xAo1xu, xo1o-
wo, n o1Aunuo o1 ayxauo1, no aapoAonw na xAo1onnwo xom-
na1mon1w. O1cy1c1nuo xomna1mon1aAuaauu, noxaAy, ocnon-
nan ocoonnoc1r c1oonun noxauo1 (uc. 50). Tununnwmu no-
xauo1amu nnAnm1cn ax1ouu, xo1owo no qomo nopaapoAn-
m1cn na cqounocxuo - xoxxu (epeu. cockos - aono), nnmwo
uAu uaorny1wo naAonxu, cnuaArnwo uAu uanu1wo xAo1xu (nu-
uonw u cnuuAAw). Hoxo1owo xAo1xu, aapoAunmucr, no ac-
xopn1cn, n oayAr1a1o noro oaaym1cn naw (punAoxoxxu, pun-
Aoax1ouu), ononxu (c1on1oxoxxu, c1on1oax1ouu) uAu na-
xo1w xoxxon (caunw). E 1o xo nomn noxauo1w muoxo aa-
Aunam1cn no cnoum quauoAorunocxum cnoc1nam u ononr wc1o
poAn1cn. Tax, n 1ononuo 10 - 11 nacon no1omc1no opno-opunc1non-
no xAo1xu n Aaronun1nwx ycAonunx moxo1 poc1unr 4 mAp
ocoo.
P u c . 5 0. Cxeuamuvecxoe usopa+eue
cmpoeus axmepuanso xnemxu:
A. Baxmepuansas xnemxa: 1 apaynm
nonu--oxcuuacnso xucnomm; 2 +uposme xanensxu;
3 sxnkveus cepm; 4 mpyvamme munaxoum;
5 nnacmuvamme munaxoum; 6 nysmpsxu; 7 xpo-
uamoqopm; 8 spo (yxneou); 9 puocoum;
10 umonnasua; 11 asansoe mense; 12 +aymu-
xu; 13 xancyna; 14 xnemovas cmexa; 15 umo-
nnasuamuvecxas ueupaa; 16 uesocoua; 17 aaso-
sme saxyonu; 18 nauennspme cmpyxmypm; 19 apa-
ynm nonucaxapua; 20 apaynm nonuqocqama.
Ocosme cmpyxmypm axmepuanso xnemxu npe-
cmasnem s sepxe vacmu pucyxa; ononumensme ueupame cmpyxmypm, uuek-
uecs y qomompoqmx u eqomompoqmx axmepu, s cpee vacmu, a sxnkveus
sanacmx seecms s u+e vacmu; B. Meupame cmpyxmypm: 1 sesuxynspme
munaxoum; 2 myynspme munaxoum; 3 nauennspme munaxoum; 4 uesocoum;
5 nauennm; B. Hme cmpyxmypm: 1 xnopocoum; 2 aasosme saxyonu; 3 xapoxcucoum
(no uneaenk, c usueeusuu)
Hoxauo1w Aorxo apan1uym1cn x ycAonunm oxyxammo co-
pw, y nux ononr nac1w cnon1annwo my1auu, a noownanoo uoxu-
munocxoo mnorooaauo cnococ1nyo1 ux noncomoc1nomy acnoc1a-
nonum na 3omAo. CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm nco noxa-
uo1w nouaomAu o1 nopxonoro noxauo1unocxoro oranuama, cxop-
noro c conomonno muxonAaamo. MuxonAaamw (mycoIasma) -
xomoro1oo1oqnwo muxooranuamw, oArmunc1no ua xo1owx na-
aau1uym1 y xuno1nwx u ac1onu. Opnaxo naponw u muxon-
Aaamw, cnoopno xunymuo n axoAorunocxux numax c nwcoxo 1om-
noa1yo. Paamow xAo1ox y muxonAaam xoAoAm1cn n nopoAax
o1 0,3 po 0,9 mxm (n copnom 0,3 - 0,4 mxm). Eaxnomo ocoonno-
c1rm muxonAaam nnAno1cn o1cy1c1nuo y nux xAo1onno c1onxu. Io-
nom muxonAaam - camw maAonrxu ua ncox uanoc1nwx oranuamon
(0,5 10
9
a), on oAapao1 unqomauo pAn cun1oaa oxoAo ?50
oAxon, n1o, no-nupumomy, nnAno1cn munumaArnwm pAn xunwx
cuc1om, umommux xAo1onnym oranuaaum.
H.o:+onuuecuon +e+pouo (uuno.e++o) y noxauo1 nwnoAnn-
o1 nco cnoc1nonnwo momanam qynxuu: 1ancno1nym, aamu1nym,

CTPOEHHE H OYHKUHOHHPOBAHHE
HPOKAPHOTHHECKOH KRETKH
Tomun muxouoAorun cAarao1cn ua 1ox ronocxux cAon:
muxoc - maAw, uoc - xuanr, Aoroc - nayxa. MuxouoAorun
uaynao1 mu muxooranuamon - muxocxonunocxux cymoc1n, no
cnoum aamoam naxopnmuxcn aa nopoAamu nupumoc1u nonooy-
xonnoro rAaaa (ux aamow poAxnw w1r monoo 0,08 mm). Homumo
maAwx aamoon muxooranuamw xaax1ouaym1cn cnoconoc1rm
x wc1omy aamnoxonum, muoxum acnoc1anonuom n nuo-
po, Aorxo nucnocoAnomoc1rm x oxyxammum ycAonunm, aano-
oaauom quauoAorunocxux nuanaxon.
CorAacno 9-my uapanum onopoAu1oAn Eoru (1984 -1986), no-
xauo1w oaaym1 ac1no EacIorIa, xo1ooo nopaapoAno1cn na 4
o1poAa. O1poA OracIIIcuIos nxAmnao1 muxooranuamw c mnrxo
xAo1onno c1onxo (ramo1ua1oArnwo ax1ouu). Eo n1oo o1-
poA FIrmIcuIos nomAu muxooranuamw c nonno xAo1onno c1on-
xo (ramnoAoxu1oArnwo ax1ouu). To1u o1poA TonorIcuIos o-
aaym1 muxonAaamw. Haxono, x o1poAy MondosIcuIos o1noconw
axoax1ouu - nauoAoo numu1unno oranuaonannwo qomw
xuanu, ou1ammuo n axc1omaArnwx ycAonunx (mo1anooaaym-
muo, oAura1nwo raAoquArnwo, 1omoaupoquArnwo ax1ouu).
MOPmOAOFHH MHKPOOPFAHH3MOH
Hocmo1n na opunc1no c1oonun, xumunocxoro coc1ana u qynx-
u, nucymoo ncom xAo1xam, moxpy ay- u noxauo1unocxumu
xAo1xamu umom1cn cymoc1nonnwo aaAunun.
Hoxauo1unocxan xAo1xa oranuaonana nomo ayxauo1u-
nocxo. EoArmunc1no ua nux - a1o moAxuo (xax nanuAo, no o-
Aoo 10 mxm) oxyrAwo, onaArnwo uAu ypAunonnwo xAo1xu, xo1o-
wo, n o1Aunuo o1 ayxauo1, no aapoAonw na xAo1onnwo xom-
na1mon1w. O1cy1c1nuo xomna1mon1aAuaauu, noxaAy, ocnon-
nan ocoonnoc1r c1oonun noxauo1 (uc. 50). Tununnwmu no-
xauo1amu nnAnm1cn ax1ouu, xo1owo no qomo nopaapoAn-
m1cn na cqounocxuo - xoxxu (epeu. cockos - aono), nnmwo
uAu uaorny1wo naAonxu, cnuaArnwo uAu uanu1wo xAo1xu (nu-
uonw u cnuuAAw). Hoxo1owo xAo1xu, aapoAunmucr, no ac-
xopn1cn, n oayAr1a1o noro oaaym1cn naw (punAoxoxxu, pun-
Aoax1ouu), ononxu (c1on1oxoxxu, c1on1oax1ouu) uAu na-
xo1w xoxxon (caunw). E 1o xo nomn noxauo1w muoxo aa-
Aunam1cn no cnoum quauoAorunocxum cnoc1nam u ononr wc1o
poAn1cn. Tax, n 1ononuo 10 - 11 nacon no1omc1no opno-opunc1non-
no xAo1xu n Aaronun1nwx ycAonunx moxo1 poc1unr 4 mAp
ocoo.
P u c . 5 0. Cxeuamuvecxoe usopa+eue
cmpoeus axmepuanso xnemxu:
A. Baxmepuansas xnemxa: 1 apaynm
nonu--oxcuuacnso xucnomm; 2 +uposme xanensxu;
3 sxnkveus cepm; 4 mpyvamme munaxoum;
5 nnacmuvamme munaxoum; 6 nysmpsxu; 7 xpo-
uamoqopm; 8 spo (yxneou); 9 puocoum;
10 umonnasua; 11 asansoe mense; 12 +aymu-
xu; 13 xancyna; 14 xnemovas cmexa; 15 umo-
nnasuamuvecxas ueupaa; 16 uesocoua; 17 aaso-
sme saxyonu; 18 nauennspme cmpyxmypm; 19 apa-
ynm nonucaxapua; 20 apaynm nonuqocqama.
Ocosme cmpyxmypm axmepuanso xnemxu npe-
cmasnem s sepxe vacmu pucyxa; ononumensme ueupame cmpyxmypm, uuek-
uecs y qomompoqmx u eqomompoqmx axmepu, s cpee vacmu, a sxnkveus
sanacmx seecms s u+e vacmu; B. Meupame cmpyxmypm: 1 sesuxynspme
munaxoum; 2 myynspme munaxoum; 3 nauennspme munaxoum; 4 uesocoum;
5 nauennm; B. Hme cmpyxmypm: 1 xnopocoum; 2 aasosme saxyonu; 3 xapoxcucoum
(no uneaenk, c usueeusuu)
Hoxauo1w Aorxo apan1uym1cn x ycAonunm oxyxammo co-
pw, y nux ononr nac1w cnon1annwo my1auu, a noownanoo uoxu-
munocxoo mnorooaauo cnococ1nyo1 ux noncomoc1nomy acnoc1a-
nonum na 3omAo. CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm nco noxa-
uo1w nouaomAu o1 nopxonoro noxauo1unocxoro oranuama, cxop-
noro c conomonno muxonAaamo. MuxonAaamw (mycoIasma) -
xomoro1oo1oqnwo muxooranuamw, oArmunc1no ua xo1owx na-
aau1uym1 y xuno1nwx u ac1onu. Opnaxo naponw u muxon-
Aaamw, cnoopno xunymuo n axoAorunocxux numax c nwcoxo 1om-
noa1yo. Paamow xAo1ox y muxonAaam xoAoAm1cn n nopoAax
o1 0,3 po 0,9 mxm (n copnom 0,3 - 0,4 mxm). Eaxnomo ocoonno-
c1rm muxonAaam nnAno1cn o1cy1c1nuo y nux xAo1onno c1onxu. Io-
nom muxonAaam - camw maAonrxu ua ncox uanoc1nwx oranuamon
(0,5 10
9
a), on oAapao1 unqomauo pAn cun1oaa oxoAo ?50
oAxon, n1o, no-nupumomy, nnAno1cn munumaArnwm pAn xunwx
cuc1om, umommux xAo1onnym oranuaaum.
H.o:+onuuecuon +e+pouo (uuno.e++o) y noxauo1 nwnoAnn-
o1 nco cnoc1nonnwo momanam qynxuu: 1ancno1nym, aamu1nym,
!
E 1884 r. pa1cxu ynonw X. Iam aaao1aA mo1op oxacxu,
xo1ow pao1 noamoxnoc1r aapoAu1r ax1ouu na pno rynnw -
ramnoAoxu1oArnwo u ramo1ua1oArnwo. PaaAunnan cnoconoc1r
ax1ou x oxacxo no Iamy cnnaana c ocoonnoc1nmu c1oonun ux
xAo1onnwx c1onox. IamnoAoxu1oArnwo (Iam-) ax1ouu quxcu-
ym1 xomnAoxc ronuannuoAo1a u opa, oxamunancr n 1omno-quo-
Ao1onw no1, a1anoA no oocnonunao1 xacxy, u ax1ouu no oxa-
munam1cn ponoAnu1oArno qyxcunom. Iamo1ua1oArnwo (Iam-)
ax1ouu nocnunumam1 ponoAnu1oArnym oxacxy qyxcunom, 1ax
xax yxaaannw xomnAoxc y nux Aorxo nwmwnao1cn a1anoAom. Hu-
nuna a1oro c1aAa uanoc1na Aumr n coopuno XX noxa, xorpa M. CoA-
1on u coan1ow aaao1aAu mo1opw nwpoAonun onumonnwx xAo1on-
nwx c1onox u uaynuAu ux xumunocxu coc1an u yAr1ac1yx1yy.
OxaaaAocr, n1o xaax1o oxacxu cnnaan c qynpamon1aArnwmu aa-
Aununmu n c1oonuu nonoxnoc1nwx c1yx1y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx
u ramo1ua1oArnwx xAo1ox. H 1o u pyruo umom1 nAaama1unoc-
xym momany 1oAmuno ?5A


, xo1oan y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx xAo-
1ox oxyxona 1oAc1o (20 - 80 nm) xAo1onno c1onxo, coc1onmo
ua non1uporAuxana myouna, 1oxoonwx xucAo1 u noAucaxaupon; y
ramo1ua1oArnwx - 1onxum (2 - 3 nm) cAoom non1uporAuxana, no-
xw1wm nayxno nAaama1unocxo momano (noxo1owo mo1ano-
oaaymmuo ax1ouu u xanuo raAoquAw - HaIobacIorIum u
HaIococcus - no umom1 non1uporAuxanon n coc1ano c1onxu). EcAu
oao1a1r xAo1xy Auaoumom uAu nonuuAAunom, xAo1onnan c1on-
xa aaymao1cn. IamnoAoxu1oArnan xAo1xa nonamao1cn n no1o-
nAac1, xo1ow nocrma nopnoxon ocmo1unocxomy moxy; ramo1u-
a1oArnan - n cqoonAac1, noxw1w pnymn momanamu u ncAop-
c1nuo a1oro monoo nync1nu1oArnw x ocmo1unocxomy moxy.
Hon1uporAuxan myoun nopc1anAno1 coo ro1oonoAumo,
coc1onmu ua ono, oaaonannwx monocaxaupamu N-ao1uAr-
Amxoaamunom (NAO) u N-ao1uAmyamono xucAo1o (NAM), no-
opymmuxcn moxpy coo no 1uny (1 4). Honu coopunonw
moxpy coo non1upnwmu nonoonnwmu cmunxamu, coc1onmumu
ua 1o1anon1upnwx aAomon1on u non1upnwx moc1uxon. Moc1ux
nopc1anAno1 coo non1anon1up, namo ncoro a1o non1arAuun,
xo1n moxo1 w1r u L-aAanun
4
-L-1oonun uAu L-rAuun
3
-L-coun
3
.
EAaropan moc1uxam y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx xAo1ox onu cnnaanw
moxpy coo n opunw mnorocAonw (po 40 cAoon) myounonw
momox. V ramnoAoxu1oArnwx oranuamon n coc1ano xAo1onno
c1onxu nucy1c1nym1 1oxoonwo u Auno1oxoonwo xucAo1w, cnn-
aannwo c myounom. Toxoonwo xucAo1w nopc1anAnm1 coo onu,
coc1onmuo ua moAoxyA rAuooAa uAu uu1oAa (po 30), cnnaan-
nwx moxpy coo qocqopuaqunwmu cnnanmu (uc. 51).
V ramo1ua1oArnwx ax1ou myoun oaayo1 opun co1na1w
cAo, on Aumon Auauna, 1oxoonwx xucAo1 u copoxu1 Aumr moao-
puamunonumoAunonym xucAo1y, n nom no1 non1upnwx moc1uxon,
aaranunu1oArnym, oonuu, nocnun1un curnaAon nnomno (pAn
xAo1xu) copw, ynac1un n ummynnwx nooccax, oocnononun no-
noxnoc1nwx cnoc1n xAo1xu. Komo 1oro, nAaama1unocxuo mom-
anw y nux nwnoAnnm1 omo np naxnomux qynxu: n nux Ao-
xaAuaym1cn qomon1w onu noonoca aAox1onon u oxucAu1oAr-
noro qocqouAuonanun, ocymoc1nAno1cn cun1oa xomnonon1on
xAo1onno c1onxu u xancyAw, nwnoponuo nnoxAo1onnwx qomon-
1on. V qo1ocun1oauymmux oranuamon qo1ocun1oa 1axxo ocymo-
c1nAno1cn na momano; na nny1onno c1oono momanw acno-
Aoxonw ca1w cnnawnanun HK, xaxpan ua pononux moAoxyA
HK nocAo onAuxauu nuxonAno1cn x opnomy ua ca1on, n o-
ayAr1a1o oc1a momanw moAoxyAw HK acxopn1cn, nocAo noro
qomuyo1cn noomwnxa, aapoAnmman xAo1xy na pno.
Omu nunun yc1oc1na xAo1onnwx moman noxauo1 no
o1Aunao1cn o1 ayxauo1, opnaxo n xumunocxom coc1ano umoo1cn
nomaAo cymoc1nonnwx aaAunu, n nac1noc1u, n momanax ax1o-
u o1cy1c1nym1 moAoxyAw xoAoc1ouna u noxo1owx pyrux Au-
nupon nucymux momanam ayxauo1.
V noxo1owx muxooranuamon nAaama1unocxan momana nnn-
nunao1cn nny1r xAo1xu, oaayn c1onxu AamoAA, nanomunammux
c1onxu Ampon, - nAocxux momonxon, cnnaannwx c u1oAommo (na-
numo, y NIIrosomonas, NIIrosococcus, NIIrobacIor). V uanoax1o-
u u noxo1owx nynynwx ax1ou umoo1cn mnoxoc1no noAu-
moqnwx momannwx momonxon - 1uAaxoupon, cnnaannwx c mom-
ano u ocymoc1nAnmmux qo1ocun1o1unocxuo nooccw. TuAaxoupw
1axxo nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu u1oAommw, xo1owo oaaym1cn n
oayAr1a1o oo nnnnunanu. Ec1onam1cn 1uAaxoupw aaAunno qo-
mw: n nupo nAocxux momonxon, 1yonox, noauxyA aanwx aamoon.
Momanw 1uAaxoupon copoxa1 xAooquAAw o u b, xao1unoupw;
n nux AoxaAuaym1cn qomon1w, onr noonocnuxon aAox1onon, aAo-
mon1w cuc1omw qocqouAuonanun. 3oAonwo ax1ouu (ChIorobIacoao)
1axxo umom1 momannwo c1yx1yw - xAoocomw, 1ocno conuxa-
cammuocn c u1oAommo. Onu copoxa1 nurmon1 ax1ouoxAooquAA.
Hanpy c a1um noxo1owo noxauo1w copoxa1 raaonwo naxyoAu
(aaocomw), xaoxcucomw, n xo1owx naxopu1cn uyAoaopuqocqa1-
xaoxcuAaaa. H1o xacao1cn moaocom, nopc1anAnmmux coo nnn-
nunanun moman nunypAunwx qom, 1o n nac1onmoo nomn ux na-
Aunuo nopnorao1cn comnonum u mnoruo uccAopona1oAu cnu1am1 ux
a1oqax1amu. Hmom1cn yopu1oArnwo poxaaa1oArc1na nonownnoc-
1u ncox momannwx c1yx1y noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu.
Kaoxonnax cxonua y oArmunc1na noxauo1 (xomo muxon-
Aaam u L-qom ax1ou) nwnoAnno1 mnoronucAonnwo qynxuu.
01o, n nonym onoopr, qomooaaonanuo u aamu1a o1 ocmo1unoc-
xoro moxa. E aaAunnwx xAo1xax xAo1onnan c1onxa coc1anAno1 o1
5 po 50% cyxo maccw xAo1xu.
!
E 1884 r. pa1cxu ynonw X. Iam aaao1aA mo1op oxacxu,
xo1ow pao1 noamoxnoc1r aapoAu1r ax1ouu na pno rynnw -
ramnoAoxu1oArnwo u ramo1ua1oArnwo. PaaAunnan cnoconoc1r
ax1ou x oxacxo no Iamy cnnaana c ocoonnoc1nmu c1oonun ux
xAo1onnwx c1onox. IamnoAoxu1oArnwo (Iam-) ax1ouu quxcu-
ym1 xomnAoxc ronuannuoAo1a u opa, oxamunancr n 1omno-quo-
Ao1onw no1, a1anoA no oocnonunao1 xacxy, u ax1ouu no oxa-
munam1cn ponoAnu1oArno qyxcunom. Iamo1ua1oArnwo (Iam-)
ax1ouu nocnunumam1 ponoAnu1oArnym oxacxy qyxcunom, 1ax
xax yxaaannw xomnAoxc y nux Aorxo nwmwnao1cn a1anoAom. Hu-
nuna a1oro c1aAa uanoc1na Aumr n coopuno XX noxa, xorpa M. CoA-
1on u coan1ow aaao1aAu mo1opw nwpoAonun onumonnwx xAo1on-
nwx c1onox u uaynuAu ux xumunocxu coc1an u yAr1ac1yx1yy.
OxaaaAocr, n1o xaax1o oxacxu cnnaan c qynpamon1aArnwmu aa-
Aununmu n c1oonuu nonoxnoc1nwx c1yx1y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx
u ramo1ua1oArnwx xAo1ox. H 1o u pyruo umom1 nAaama1unoc-
xym momany 1oAmuno ?5A


, xo1oan y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx xAo-
1ox oxyxona 1oAc1o (20 - 80 nm) xAo1onno c1onxo, coc1onmo
ua non1uporAuxana myouna, 1oxoonwx xucAo1 u noAucaxaupon; y
ramo1ua1oArnwx - 1onxum (2 - 3 nm) cAoom non1uporAuxana, no-
xw1wm nayxno nAaama1unocxo momano (noxo1owo mo1ano-
oaaymmuo ax1ouu u xanuo raAoquAw - HaIobacIorIum u
HaIococcus - no umom1 non1uporAuxanon n coc1ano c1onxu). EcAu
oao1a1r xAo1xy Auaoumom uAu nonuuAAunom, xAo1onnan c1on-
xa aaymao1cn. IamnoAoxu1oArnan xAo1xa nonamao1cn n no1o-
nAac1, xo1ow nocrma nopnoxon ocmo1unocxomy moxy; ramo1u-
a1oArnan - n cqoonAac1, noxw1w pnymn momanamu u ncAop-
c1nuo a1oro monoo nync1nu1oArnw x ocmo1unocxomy moxy.
Hon1uporAuxan myoun nopc1anAno1 coo ro1oonoAumo,
coc1onmu ua ono, oaaonannwx monocaxaupamu N-ao1uAr-
Amxoaamunom (NAO) u N-ao1uAmyamono xucAo1o (NAM), no-
opymmuxcn moxpy coo no 1uny (1 4). Honu coopunonw
moxpy coo non1upnwmu nonoonnwmu cmunxamu, coc1onmumu
ua 1o1anon1upnwx aAomon1on u non1upnwx moc1uxon. Moc1ux
nopc1anAno1 coo non1anon1up, namo ncoro a1o non1arAuun,
xo1n moxo1 w1r u L-aAanun
4
-L-1oonun uAu L-rAuun
3
-L-coun
3
.
EAaropan moc1uxam y ramnoAoxu1oArnwx xAo1ox onu cnnaanw
moxpy coo n opunw mnorocAonw (po 40 cAoon) myounonw
momox. V ramnoAoxu1oArnwx oranuamon n coc1ano xAo1onno
c1onxu nucy1c1nym1 1oxoonwo u Auno1oxoonwo xucAo1w, cnn-
aannwo c myounom. Toxoonwo xucAo1w nopc1anAnm1 coo onu,
coc1onmuo ua moAoxyA rAuooAa uAu uu1oAa (po 30), cnnaan-
nwx moxpy coo qocqopuaqunwmu cnnanmu (uc. 51).
V ramo1ua1oArnwx ax1ou myoun oaayo1 opun co1na1w
cAo, on Aumon Auauna, 1oxoonwx xucAo1 u copoxu1 Aumr moao-
puamunonumoAunonym xucAo1y, n nom no1 non1upnwx moc1uxon,
aaranunu1oArnym, oonuu, nocnun1un curnaAon nnomno (pAn
xAo1xu) copw, ynac1un n ummynnwx nooccax, oocnononun no-
noxnoc1nwx cnoc1n xAo1xu. Komo 1oro, nAaama1unocxuo mom-
anw y nux nwnoAnnm1 omo np naxnomux qynxu: n nux Ao-
xaAuaym1cn qomon1w onu noonoca aAox1onon u oxucAu1oAr-
noro qocqouAuonanun, ocymoc1nAno1cn cun1oa xomnonon1on
xAo1onno c1onxu u xancyAw, nwnoponuo nnoxAo1onnwx qomon-
1on. V qo1ocun1oauymmux oranuamon qo1ocun1oa 1axxo ocymo-
c1nAno1cn na momano; na nny1onno c1oono momanw acno-
Aoxonw ca1w cnnawnanun HK, xaxpan ua pononux moAoxyA
HK nocAo onAuxauu nuxonAno1cn x opnomy ua ca1on, n o-
ayAr1a1o oc1a momanw moAoxyAw HK acxopn1cn, nocAo noro
qomuyo1cn noomwnxa, aapoAnmman xAo1xy na pno.
Omu nunun yc1oc1na xAo1onnwx moman noxauo1 no
o1Aunao1cn o1 ayxauo1, opnaxo n xumunocxom coc1ano umoo1cn
nomaAo cymoc1nonnwx aaAunu, n nac1noc1u, n momanax ax1o-
u o1cy1c1nym1 moAoxyAw xoAoc1ouna u noxo1owx pyrux Au-
nupon nucymux momanam ayxauo1.
V noxo1owx muxooranuamon nAaama1unocxan momana nnn-
nunao1cn nny1r xAo1xu, oaayn c1onxu AamoAA, nanomunammux
c1onxu Ampon, - nAocxux momonxon, cnnaannwx c u1oAommo (na-
numo, y NIIrosomonas, NIIrosococcus, NIIrobacIor). V uanoax1o-
u u noxo1owx nynynwx ax1ou umoo1cn mnoxoc1no noAu-
moqnwx momannwx momonxon - 1uAaxoupon, cnnaannwx c mom-
ano u ocymoc1nAnmmux qo1ocun1o1unocxuo nooccw. TuAaxoupw
1axxo nnAnm1cn nouanopnwmu u1oAommw, xo1owo oaaym1cn n
oayAr1a1o oo nnnnunanu. Ec1onam1cn 1uAaxoupw aaAunno qo-
mw: n nupo nAocxux momonxon, 1yonox, noauxyA aanwx aamoon.
Momanw 1uAaxoupon copoxa1 xAooquAAw o u b, xao1unoupw;
n nux AoxaAuaym1cn qomon1w, onr noonocnuxon aAox1onon, aAo-
mon1w cuc1omw qocqouAuonanun. 3oAonwo ax1ouu (ChIorobIacoao)
1axxo umom1 momannwo c1yx1yw - xAoocomw, 1ocno conuxa-
cammuocn c u1oAommo. Onu copoxa1 nurmon1 ax1ouoxAooquAA.
Hanpy c a1um noxo1owo noxauo1w copoxa1 raaonwo naxyoAu
(aaocomw), xaoxcucomw, n xo1owx naxopu1cn uyAoaopuqocqa1-
xaoxcuAaaa. H1o xacao1cn moaocom, nopc1anAnmmux coo nnn-
nunanun moman nunypAunwx qom, 1o n nac1onmoo nomn ux na-
Aunuo nopnorao1cn comnonum u mnoruo uccAopona1oAu cnu1am1 ux
a1oqax1amu. Hmom1cn yopu1oArnwo poxaaa1oArc1na nonownnoc-
1u ncox momannwx c1yx1y noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu.
Kaoxonnax cxonua y oArmunc1na noxauo1 (xomo muxon-
Aaam u L-qom ax1ou) nwnoAnno1 mnoronucAonnwo qynxuu.
01o, n nonym onoopr, qomooaaonanuo u aamu1a o1 ocmo1unoc-
xoro moxa. E aaAunnwx xAo1xax xAo1onnan c1onxa coc1anAno1 o1
5 po 50% cyxo maccw xAo1xu.
# "
noucxopu1 n 1u a1ana. E u1onAaamo cun1oauyo1cn non1anon-
1up myamono xucAo1w. Ha nAaama1unocxo momano on cnnaw-
nao1cn c N-ao1uA-rAmxoaamunom u nucoopunno1 nn1r oc1a1xon
rAuuna. E oayAr1a1o cAoxnwx nooaaonanu (aamona yupun-
puqocqa1a na ynpoxanonuAqocqa1) moAoxyAa c1anonu1cn AunoquAr-
no u noonocu1cn nooa momany. Ha nnomno c1oono noucxo-
pu1 oaaonanuo cnnao moxpy non1upnwmu moc1uxam u 1o1anon-
1upamu, n oayAr1a1o noro moAoxyAa nonamao1cn n myoun. Ho-
nuuAAun nonn1c1nyo1 oaaonanum yxaaannwx cnnao.
Kancyam, canan, naaraanma. Mnoruo ax1ouu (nanumo, nnon-
moxoxxu, xAocuoAAw, noxo1owo xAoc1upuu u p.), a 1axxo noxo-
1owo cuno-aoAonwo nopoocAu xnayxu o1 xAo1onno c1onxu umom1
oAoo uAu monoo 1oAc1w cAo cuArno onopnonnoro ma1ouaAa, oa-
aymmoro xancyAy. KancyAw coxannm1 cnnar c xAo1onno c1onxo,
umom1 1oAmuny po 10 mxm, xomnonon1w ux (rAmxoaa, amunocaxaa,
amnoaa; 2-xo1o - 3-poaoxcuraAax1ononan xucAo1a, yanonwo, nuo-
nunorapnan u yxcycnan xucAo1w) cun1oauym1cn xAo1xo.
KancyAw oocnonunam1 oauc1on1noc1r noxo1owx ax1ou x
npy noapoc1nu, nanumo x qarou1oay (1om camwm xancyAa
nonwmao1 nuyAon1noc1r ax1ou). KancyAa moxo1 nupana1r ax-
1ounm cnouqunnoc1r, 1ax xax n no mory1 naxopu1rcn an1uronw.
Hoxo1owo ax1ouu nwpoAnm1 xomnonon1w xancyAw n copy
n nupo cAuau, xo1oym moxno o1poAu1r o1 xAo1xu noc1wm nc1n-
xunanuom xyAr1yw.
Homumo aamu1w o1 qarou1oaa, xancyAw nopoxannm1 xAo1-
xy o1 nwcwxanun, moxanunocxux nonoxponu, o1 poc1nun nuy-
con. KancyAw mory1 cAyxu1r uc1onnuxom aanacnwx nu1a1oArnwx
nomoc1n, a 1axxo ocymoc1nAn1r cnnar moxpy xAo1xamu u cnoco-
c1nona1r nuxonAonum x xaxum-Auo nonoxnoc1nm.
Hopnnmnocxn npouapnox. Kax u ayxauo1w, noxauo1w o-
Aapam1 annaa1om pnuxonun - xry1uxamu, pAuna xo1owx xo-
AoAo1cn o1 3 po 15 mxm, a 1oAmuna - o1 10 po 20 nm. Hry1uxu
nwnnAnm1cn oxacxo no mo1opy oqqAoa uAu oqcona. Pac-
noAoxonuo xry1uxon moxo1 w1r +ouono.npum+, uno.npum+ u
nepunpuruo.tum+. Ho xoAunoc1ny xry1uxon aaAunam1 +ouonpu
ru (opna nu1r) u no.unpuru (nynox nu1o).
EAaropan ocoomy c1oonum aaaArnoro 1oAra xry1uxu na-
mam1cn co cxooc1rm 3000 ooo1on n muny1y, a xAo1xa namao1-
cn n no1unonoAoxnom nananAonuu. Cxooc1r pnuxonun noxa-
uo1 ononr noAuxa - o1 1,6 po 12 mm,mun. Hry1uxonwo muxoo-
ranuamw Aorxo noopnuram1cn n xupxoc1u u cnoconw pnura1rcn
no nAo1no nonoxnoc1u.
C1yx1ya xry1uxa cAoxna, ona conomonno o1Aunna o1 c1oo-
nun ocnunox u xry1uxon ayxauo1. Kaxpw xry1ux y noxauo1
coc1ou1 ua pAunno nu1u, xo1oan nocopc1nom uaorny1oro xmxa
xonu1cn x aaaArnomy 1oAry, nonno coopunonnomy c u1oAommo
opnaxo moxpy myounom u nayxno momano acnoAoxono oAr-
moo xoAunoc1no Aunupon (AunonoAucaxaupw, Aunono1oupw u p.).
Hon1uporAuxan cnnaan nooa puamunonumoAunonym xucAo1y c mo-
AoxyAamu Aunono1oupon, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, coopunonw c
nayxno momano. unoquArnwo xonw Aunono1oupon nno-
pnm1cn no nny1onnu cAo nayxno momanw. E noxo1owx
ynac1xax oo momanw coopunnm1cn, oaayn aonw cAunanun. Ana-
Aorunnwo aonw umom1cn n oranoAAax ayxauo1 c pnonwmu mom-
anamu. EoAxu nny1onno u nayxno moman aaAunnw n c1yx-
1ynom u qynxuonaArnom o1nomonuu. ocqoAunupw ooux mom-
an anaAorunnw. unonoAucaxaupw acnoAoxonw n nayxnom cAoo
nnomno momanw. Onu 1ma1oArno uaynonw y caArmonoAA. Kax-
pw AunonoAucaxaup coc1ou1 ua O-cnouqunocxo oxono onu,
nananAonno nayxy, aa xo1oo cAopym1 coponunnan aona u
Aunup A. O-cnouqunocxan oxonan onr pAuno po 30 nm, coc1on-
man ua oAurocaxaupon, copoxamux aaAunnwo caxaa (raAax1o-
ay, mannoay, qyx1oay u p.), oAapao1 nwcoxo cnouqunnoc1rm u
nopc1anAno1 coo O-an1uronw, a 1axxo nnAno1cn oon1oom pAn
noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron. Hn1oraArnwo oAxu nnomno moma-
nw nnAnm1cn nounamu, nooa xo1owo mory1 nonuxa1r rupo-
quArnwo moAoxyAw noAununo po 6000 a.
E nounAaama1unocxom noc1anc1no, acnoAoxonnom moxpy
nny1onno momano u myounonwm cAoom, naxopn1cn mnoro-
nucAonnwo oAxu: cnnaymmuo, nnAnmmuocn oon1oamu xomo-
1axcuca u ocymoc1nAnmmuo 1ancno1 npa nomoc1n n u1onAaa-
my; ponoAumoaaw u rupoquArnwo ynac1xu un1oraArnwx u nou-
qounocxux momannwx oAxon. Enomnnn momana aamumao1
ramo1ua1oArnym xAo1xy o1 nonuxnononun n noo npa nomoc1n,
u, n nonym onoopr, nonuuAAunon. Oaaonanuo xAo1onno c1onxu
A
B
1
5
4
2
3
P u c . 51. lnemovas cmexa axmepu:
A apauompuamensas; B apaunono+umensas; 1 nunonpomeu; 2 nonucaxapume
enu; 3 nonepevme nenmume csssu; 4 enox; 5 mexoesas xucnoma (no Pucy u
Cmepepay, c usueeusuu)
# "
noucxopu1 n 1u a1ana. E u1onAaamo cun1oauyo1cn non1anon-
1up myamono xucAo1w. Ha nAaama1unocxo momano on cnnaw-
nao1cn c N-ao1uA-rAmxoaamunom u nucoopunno1 nn1r oc1a1xon
rAuuna. E oayAr1a1o cAoxnwx nooaaonanu (aamona yupun-
puqocqa1a na ynpoxanonuAqocqa1) moAoxyAa c1anonu1cn AunoquAr-
no u noonocu1cn nooa momany. Ha nnomno c1oono noucxo-
pu1 oaaonanuo cnnao moxpy non1upnwmu moc1uxam u 1o1anon-
1upamu, n oayAr1a1o noro moAoxyAa nonamao1cn n myoun. Ho-
nuuAAun nonn1c1nyo1 oaaonanum yxaaannwx cnnao.
Kancyam, canan, naaraanma. Mnoruo ax1ouu (nanumo, nnon-
moxoxxu, xAocuoAAw, noxo1owo xAoc1upuu u p.), a 1axxo noxo-
1owo cuno-aoAonwo nopoocAu xnayxu o1 xAo1onno c1onxu umom1
oAoo uAu monoo 1oAc1w cAo cuArno onopnonnoro ma1ouaAa, oa-
aymmoro xancyAy. KancyAw coxannm1 cnnar c xAo1onno c1onxo,
umom1 1oAmuny po 10 mxm, xomnonon1w ux (rAmxoaa, amunocaxaa,
amnoaa; 2-xo1o - 3-poaoxcuraAax1ononan xucAo1a, yanonwo, nuo-
nunorapnan u yxcycnan xucAo1w) cun1oauym1cn xAo1xo.
KancyAw oocnonunam1 oauc1on1noc1r noxo1owx ax1ou x
npy noapoc1nu, nanumo x qarou1oay (1om camwm xancyAa
nonwmao1 nuyAon1noc1r ax1ou). KancyAa moxo1 nupana1r ax-
1ounm cnouqunnoc1r, 1ax xax n no mory1 naxopu1rcn an1uronw.
Hoxo1owo ax1ouu nwpoAnm1 xomnonon1w xancyAw n copy
n nupo cAuau, xo1oym moxno o1poAu1r o1 xAo1xu noc1wm nc1n-
xunanuom xyAr1yw.
Homumo aamu1w o1 qarou1oaa, xancyAw nopoxannm1 xAo1-
xy o1 nwcwxanun, moxanunocxux nonoxponu, o1 poc1nun nuy-
con. KancyAw mory1 cAyxu1r uc1onnuxom aanacnwx nu1a1oArnwx
nomoc1n, a 1axxo ocymoc1nAn1r cnnar moxpy xAo1xamu u cnoco-
c1nona1r nuxonAonum x xaxum-Auo nonoxnoc1nm.
Hopnnmnocxn npouapnox. Kax u ayxauo1w, noxauo1w o-
Aapam1 annaa1om pnuxonun - xry1uxamu, pAuna xo1owx xo-
AoAo1cn o1 3 po 15 mxm, a 1oAmuna - o1 10 po 20 nm. Hry1uxu
nwnnAnm1cn oxacxo no mo1opy oqqAoa uAu oqcona. Pac-
noAoxonuo xry1uxon moxo1 w1r +ouono.npum+, uno.npum+ u
nepunpuruo.tum+. Ho xoAunoc1ny xry1uxon aaAunam1 +ouonpu
ru (opna nu1r) u no.unpuru (nynox nu1o).
EAaropan ocoomy c1oonum aaaArnoro 1oAra xry1uxu na-
mam1cn co cxooc1rm 3000 ooo1on n muny1y, a xAo1xa namao1-
cn n no1unonoAoxnom nananAonuu. Cxooc1r pnuxonun noxa-
uo1 ononr noAuxa - o1 1,6 po 12 mm,mun. Hry1uxonwo muxoo-
ranuamw Aorxo noopnuram1cn n xupxoc1u u cnoconw pnura1rcn
no nAo1no nonoxnoc1u.
C1yx1ya xry1uxa cAoxna, ona conomonno o1Aunna o1 c1oo-
nun ocnunox u xry1uxon ayxauo1. Kaxpw xry1ux y noxauo1
coc1ou1 ua pAunno nu1u, xo1oan nocopc1nom uaorny1oro xmxa
xonu1cn x aaaArnomy 1oAry, nonno coopunonnomy c u1oAommo
opnaxo moxpy myounom u nayxno momano acnoAoxono oAr-
moo xoAunoc1no Aunupon (AunonoAucaxaupw, Aunono1oupw u p.).
Hon1uporAuxan cnnaan nooa puamunonumoAunonym xucAo1y c mo-
AoxyAamu Aunono1oupon, xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, coopunonw c
nayxno momano. unoquArnwo xonw Aunono1oupon nno-
pnm1cn no nny1onnu cAo nayxno momanw. E noxo1owx
ynac1xax oo momanw coopunnm1cn, oaayn aonw cAunanun. Ana-
Aorunnwo aonw umom1cn n oranoAAax ayxauo1 c pnonwmu mom-
anamu. EoAxu nny1onno u nayxno moman aaAunnw n c1yx-
1ynom u qynxuonaArnom o1nomonuu. ocqoAunupw ooux mom-
an anaAorunnw. unonoAucaxaupw acnoAoxonw n nayxnom cAoo
nnomno momanw. Onu 1ma1oArno uaynonw y caArmonoAA. Kax-
pw AunonoAucaxaup coc1ou1 ua O-cnouqunocxo oxono onu,
nananAonno nayxy, aa xo1oo cAopym1 coponunnan aona u
Aunup A. O-cnouqunocxan oxonan onr pAuno po 30 nm, coc1on-
man ua oAurocaxaupon, copoxamux aaAunnwo caxaa (raAax1o-
ay, mannoay, qyx1oay u p.), oAapao1 nwcoxo cnouqunnoc1rm u
nopc1anAno1 coo O-an1uronw, a 1axxo nnAno1cn oon1oom pAn
noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron. Hn1oraArnwo oAxu nnomno moma-
nw nnAnm1cn nounamu, nooa xo1owo mory1 nonuxa1r rupo-
quArnwo moAoxyAw noAununo po 6000 a.
E nounAaama1unocxom noc1anc1no, acnoAoxonnom moxpy
nny1onno momano u myounonwm cAoom, naxopn1cn mnoro-
nucAonnwo oAxu: cnnaymmuo, nnAnmmuocn oon1oamu xomo-
1axcuca u ocymoc1nAnmmuo 1ancno1 npa nomoc1n n u1onAaa-
my; ponoAumoaaw u rupoquArnwo ynac1xu un1oraArnwx u nou-
qounocxux momannwx oAxon. Enomnnn momana aamumao1
ramo1ua1oArnym xAo1xy o1 nonuxnononun n noo npa nomoc1n,
u, n nonym onoopr, nonuuAAunon. Oaaonanuo xAo1onno c1onxu
A
B
1
5
4
2
3
P u c . 51. lnemovas cmexa axmepu:
A apauompuamensas; B apaunono+umensas; 1 nunonpomeu; 2 nonucaxapume
enu; 3 nonepevme nenmume csssu; 4 enox; 5 mexoesas xucnoma (no Pucy u
Cmepepay, c usueeusuu)
% $
Taxoo nonoponuo naawnao1cn xomo1axcu-
com. Hu pnuxonuu xry1uxon no1un na-
cono c1oAxu xAo1xa pnuxo1cn n opnom
nananAonuu, nu pnuxonuu xry1uxon no
nacono c1oAxo xAo1xa xynwxao1cn. Hop nAunnuom
a11ax1an1on xAo1xa Armym nac1r ny1u nopoAw-
nao1 nnmoAunono, nop nAunnuom onoAAon1on xAo1-
xa namo xynwxao1cn u ypaAno1cn. Homumo xomo-
1axcuca, cymoc1nym1 u pyruo nupw 1axcuca. Aao-
1axcuc - aaonwo ax1ouu yc1omAnm1cn x noapym-
no copo, a anaaonwo, naooo1, cxanAunam1cn n
on1o xyAr1yw. o1o1axcuc - nynynwo ax1o-
uu noomomam1cn n aonw c nauoArmo ocnomonnoc1rm, n1o cnn-
aano c no1onoc1rm qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou n xnan1ax cno1a pAn
noAynonun anoruu. Marnu1o1axcuc - xoAoaocopoxamuo ax1o-
uu pnuxy1cn n marnu1nom noAo n nananAonuu Aunu.
mnm6pnn. Homumo xry1uxon, noxauo1w oAapam1 qumun-
mu, uAu nuAnmu, nopc1anAnmmumu coo noAwo nu1u puamo1om po
0,0015 mxm u pAuno o1 0,3 po 4 - 5 mxm, oaaonannwo oAxom nu.u
uo+ c moAoxyAnno macco 1?000 (uc. 53). Onu acnoAaram1cn no
nouqouu xAo1xu n xoAunoc1no 100 - 250. HaAunuo nuAo no cnnaa-
no c naAunuom uAu o1cy1c1nuom xry1uxon. umuu nunumam1 yna-
c1uo n nooccax nuxonAonun ax1ou x xAo1xam mAoxonu1am-
mux (nanumo, x cAuauc1o ooAonxo xumonnuxa). V noxo1owx ax-
1ou nwpoAnm1cn cnouaAuauonannwo qumuu, n nac1noc1u F-qum-
uu y E. coII, ynac1nymmuo n noocco xon+mrauu u morymuo
cAyxu1r oranom nuxonAonun noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron.
Hnxonaaama nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym xoAAoupnym cuc1o-
my. Hu pAu1oArnom on1uqyruonanuu u1onAaamy ax1ou
ypao1cn aapoAu1r na pno qaxuu: ac1noumym, xo1oan copo-
xu1 noumymoc1nonno qomon1w u 1-PHK, u qaxum nac1u, n
xo1oo rAannwm oaaom cocopo1ononw uocomw, nnAnmmuocn
moc1om cun1oaa oAxa. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo nac1uw aamoa-
mu 160 180 A

u coc1on1 na 60% ua PHK u na 40% ua oAxa.


E ax1ouaArnwx xAo1xax copoxu1cn o1 5000 po 50 000 uocom.
Puocomw coc1on1 ua pnyx cy+opunu - xynno u maAo.
pyrno opranoaam npouapnox. Opno ua naxnwx o1Aunu1oAr-
nwx ocoonnoc1o noxauo1 nnAno1cn maAoo xoAunoc1no oranoAA.
Komo onucannwx nwmo 1uAaxoupon, noxauo1w oAapam1 raao-
nwmu naxyoAnmu, xaoxcucomamu u xAoouym-noauxyAamu.
Hnyxpnuaoxonnmo aanacnmo nomocxna. E noxauo1unocxux
xAo1xax n ycAonunx oranunonun u unruuonanun oc1a mory1 o1-
xAapwna1rcn aaAunnwo aanacnwo nomoc1na. 01o noAucaxaupw,
P u c . 5 3. Cmpyxmypa quupuu (nu

nu)
(sum cyeuum enxa nunu

a)
(no Cmeuepy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
10 uu
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
P u c . 5 2. Cxeua
spaeus +aymuxa:
A. luuevas nanovxa:
1 +aymux; 2 anpas-
neue spaeus +aymu-
xa; B. Cxeua uomopa;
spaakeao +aymux:
1 xpkvox; 2 sonoxo
+aymuxa; 3 xonso L;
4 apy+as ueupaa;
5 xonso P; 6 nenmuo-
anuxaosm cno; 7 u-
monnasuamuvecxas ueu-
paa; 8 xonso S (cma-
mop); 9 xonso M (po-
mop); 10 cmep+es
(no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
u xAo1onno c1onxo (uc. 52). CnuaArnan nu1r oaaonana mo-
nomoamu oAxa qAaroAAuna c moAoxyAnno macco o1 1? 000 po
40 000, xo1owo qomuym1 noAwo cnuaArnwo onu.
Kmx pAuno 20 - 45 nm oaaonan pyrumu oAxamu. Hauo-
Aoo cAoxno yc1oono aaaArnoo 1oAro, xo1ooo, nocmo1n na na-
ananuo, no umoo1 nunoro omoro c aaaArnwm 1oArom ayxauo1u-
nocxo xAo1xu. 01a c1yx1ya oaaonana 11 aaAunnwmu oAxamu
u coc1ou1 y ramo1ua1oArnwx muxooranuamon ua pnyx na, a y
ramnoAoxu1oArnwx ua opno naw xoAo, opo1wx na c1oxonr
xry1uxa. Enomnuo xoAra L u P umom1cn Aumr y ramo1ua1oAr-
nwx xAo1ox. KoAro L acnoAoxono na yonno nayxno moma-
nw, xoAro P - na yonno non1uporAuxanonoro cAon. 01u xoAra
cAyxa1 pAn nuxonAonun c1oxnn. nuxonun ocymoc1nAnm1 nny1-
onnuo xoAra S u M, xo1owo umom1cn y ncox xry1uxonwx ora-
nuamon. KoAro M acnoAoxono n u1oAommo, xoAro S Aoxu1 nap
num nonocopc1nonno n non1uporAuxanonom cAoo y ramnoAoxu-
1oArnwx ax1ou u n nounAaama1unocxom noc1anc1no y ram-
o1ua1oArnwx. KoAro M namao1cn co cxooc1rm oxoAo 100 o,cox
no o1nomonum x xoAry S, oycAonAunan a1um namonuo xmxa u
c1oxnn (nu1u) xry1uxa (cm. uc. 52). Hu namonuu xry1uxon
nou1uxon no1un nacono c1oAxu onu oaaym1 opun nynox, Aa-
ropan nomy xAo1xa pnuxo1cn nnmo, nu namonuu no nacono
c1oAxo xry1uxu aanumam1 nomaArnoo noAoxonuo u xAo1xa xy-
nwxao1cn. nuxonun conomam1cn aa cno1 anoruu 1ancmom-
annoro aAox1oxumunocxoro no1onnoro no1onuaAa.
Hopnuxnwo noxauo1w conomam1 nananAonnwo pnuxonun no
rapuon1y xonon1auu noxo1owx nomoc1n - a11ax1an1on (.on.
aIIraho - nu1nrunam x coo) uAu no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu
pyrux nomoc1n - onoAAon1on (.on. rooIIonIIs - o11aAxunammu).
% $
Taxoo nonoponuo naawnao1cn xomo1axcu-
com. Hu pnuxonuu xry1uxon no1un na-
cono c1oAxu xAo1xa pnuxo1cn n opnom
nananAonuu, nu pnuxonuu xry1uxon no
nacono c1oAxo xAo1xa xynwxao1cn. Hop nAunnuom
a11ax1an1on xAo1xa Armym nac1r ny1u nopoAw-
nao1 nnmoAunono, nop nAunnuom onoAAon1on xAo1-
xa namo xynwxao1cn u ypaAno1cn. Homumo xomo-
1axcuca, cymoc1nym1 u pyruo nupw 1axcuca. Aao-
1axcuc - aaonwo ax1ouu yc1omAnm1cn x noapym-
no copo, a anaaonwo, naooo1, cxanAunam1cn n
on1o xyAr1yw. o1o1axcuc - nynynwo ax1o-
uu noomomam1cn n aonw c nauoArmo ocnomonnoc1rm, n1o cnn-
aano c no1onoc1rm qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou n xnan1ax cno1a pAn
noAynonun anoruu. Marnu1o1axcuc - xoAoaocopoxamuo ax1o-
uu pnuxy1cn n marnu1nom noAo n nananAonuu Aunu.
mnm6pnn. Homumo xry1uxon, noxauo1w oAapam1 qumun-
mu, uAu nuAnmu, nopc1anAnmmumu coo noAwo nu1u puamo1om po
0,0015 mxm u pAuno o1 0,3 po 4 - 5 mxm, oaaonannwo oAxom nu.u
uo+ c moAoxyAnno macco 1?000 (uc. 53). Onu acnoAaram1cn no
nouqouu xAo1xu n xoAunoc1no 100 - 250. HaAunuo nuAo no cnnaa-
no c naAunuom uAu o1cy1c1nuom xry1uxon. umuu nunumam1 yna-
c1uo n nooccax nuxonAonun ax1ou x xAo1xam mAoxonu1am-
mux (nanumo, x cAuauc1o ooAonxo xumonnuxa). V noxo1owx ax-
1ou nwpoAnm1cn cnouaAuauonannwo qumuu, n nac1noc1u F-qum-
uu y E. coII, ynac1nymmuo n noocco xon+mrauu u morymuo
cAyxu1r oranom nuxonAonun noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron.
Hnxonaaama nopc1anAno1 coo cAoxnym xoAAoupnym cuc1o-
my. Hu pAu1oArnom on1uqyruonanuu u1onAaamy ax1ou
ypao1cn aapoAu1r na pno qaxuu: ac1noumym, xo1oan copo-
xu1 noumymoc1nonno qomon1w u 1-PHK, u qaxum nac1u, n
xo1oo rAannwm oaaom cocopo1ononw uocomw, nnAnmmuocn
moc1om cun1oaa oAxa. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo nac1uw aamoa-
mu 160 180 A

u coc1on1 na 60% ua PHK u na 40% ua oAxa.


E ax1ouaArnwx xAo1xax copoxu1cn o1 5000 po 50 000 uocom.
Puocomw coc1on1 ua pnyx cy+opunu - xynno u maAo.
pyrno opranoaam npouapnox. Opno ua naxnwx o1Aunu1oAr-
nwx ocoonnoc1o noxauo1 nnAno1cn maAoo xoAunoc1no oranoAA.
Komo onucannwx nwmo 1uAaxoupon, noxauo1w oAapam1 raao-
nwmu naxyoAnmu, xaoxcucomamu u xAoouym-noauxyAamu.
Hnyxpnuaoxonnmo aanacnmo nomocxna. E noxauo1unocxux
xAo1xax n ycAonunx oranunonun u unruuonanun oc1a mory1 o1-
xAapwna1rcn aaAunnwo aanacnwo nomoc1na. 01o noAucaxaupw,
P u c . 5 3. Cmpyxmypa quupuu (nu

nu)
(sum cyeuum enxa nunu

a)
(no Cmeuepy u coasm., c usueeusuu)
10 uu
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
P u c . 5 2. Cxeua
spaeus +aymuxa:
A. luuevas nanovxa:
1 +aymux; 2 anpas-
neue spaeus +aymu-
xa; B. Cxeua uomopa;
spaakeao +aymux:
1 xpkvox; 2 sonoxo
+aymuxa; 3 xonso L;
4 apy+as ueupaa;
5 xonso P; 6 nenmuo-
anuxaosm cno; 7 u-
monnasuamuvecxas ueu-
paa; 8 xonso S (cma-
mop); 9 xonso M (po-
mop); 10 cmep+es
(no Anepmcy u coasm.,
c usueeusuu)
u xAo1onno c1onxo (uc. 52). CnuaArnan nu1r oaaonana mo-
nomoamu oAxa qAaroAAuna c moAoxyAnno macco o1 1? 000 po
40 000, xo1owo qomuym1 noAwo cnuaArnwo onu.
Kmx pAuno 20 - 45 nm oaaonan pyrumu oAxamu. Hauo-
Aoo cAoxno yc1oono aaaArnoo 1oAro, xo1ooo, nocmo1n na na-
ananuo, no umoo1 nunoro omoro c aaaArnwm 1oArom ayxauo1u-
nocxo xAo1xu. 01a c1yx1ya oaaonana 11 aaAunnwmu oAxamu
u coc1ou1 y ramo1ua1oArnwx muxooranuamon ua pnyx na, a y
ramnoAoxu1oArnwx ua opno naw xoAo, opo1wx na c1oxonr
xry1uxa. Enomnuo xoAra L u P umom1cn Aumr y ramo1ua1oAr-
nwx xAo1ox. KoAro L acnoAoxono na yonno nayxno moma-
nw, xoAro P - na yonno non1uporAuxanonoro cAon. 01u xoAra
cAyxa1 pAn nuxonAonun c1oxnn. nuxonun ocymoc1nAnm1 nny1-
onnuo xoAra S u M, xo1owo umom1cn y ncox xry1uxonwx ora-
nuamon. KoAro M acnoAoxono n u1oAommo, xoAro S Aoxu1 nap
num nonocopc1nonno n non1uporAuxanonom cAoo y ramnoAoxu-
1oArnwx ax1ou u n nounAaama1unocxom noc1anc1no y ram-
o1ua1oArnwx. KoAro M namao1cn co cxooc1rm oxoAo 100 o,cox
no o1nomonum x xoAry S, oycAonAunan a1um namonuo xmxa u
c1oxnn (nu1u) xry1uxa (cm. uc. 52). Hu namonuu xry1uxon
nou1uxon no1un nacono c1oAxu onu oaaym1 opun nynox, Aa-
ropan nomy xAo1xa pnuxo1cn nnmo, nu namonuu no nacono
c1oAxo xry1uxu aanumam1 nomaArnoo noAoxonuo u xAo1xa xy-
nwxao1cn. nuxonun conomam1cn aa cno1 anoruu 1ancmom-
annoro aAox1oxumunocxoro no1onnoro no1onuaAa.
Hopnuxnwo noxauo1w conomam1 nananAonnwo pnuxonun no
rapuon1y xonon1auu noxo1owx nomoc1n - a11ax1an1on (.on.
aIIraho - nu1nrunam x coo) uAu no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu
pyrux nomoc1n - onoAAon1on (.on. rooIIonIIs - o11aAxunammu).
' &
To . u u o 1 0
Cpannnxoannax xapauxopncxnua npooccon
npn cnopoo6paaonannn n npopacxannn cnop
1omoc1auArnoc1r u yc1onunoc1r x pyrum qax1oam, c1anonu1cn
poc1ynno xacu1oAnm, oo cno1onoAomAonuo cnuxao1cn. E 1aA. 10
nunopu1cn cannu1oArnan xaax1ouc1uxa aoAwx u noac1am-
mux cno.
Fonoxnnocun annapax npouapnox. Opnum ua o1Aunu noxa-
uo1 nnAno1cn o1cy1c1nuo y nux oqomAonnoro npa. Emoc1o noro
umoo1cn nyxAooup.
EoAununa ronoma y ax1ou coc1anAno1 o1 0,8 10
6
po 8 10
6
na nyxAoo1upon.
Homumo xomocomw, y ax1ou umom1cn noxomocomnwo aAo-
mon1w - nAaamupw. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo cynocnuaAuaonan-
nwo moAoxyAw pnyxnu1na1o HK, xonaAon1no aamxny1wo n xoAr-
onym c1yx1yy.
Eax1ouaArnwo xAo1xu mory1 copoxa1r nocxoArxo nAaamup.
HAaamupw cnoconw onAuuona1rcn an1onomno, noaanucumo o1
xomocomw.
HAaamupw mory1 naxopu1rcn n ax1ouaArno xAo1xo n pnyx co-
c1onnunx - an1onomnom u un1oruonannom. E nonom cAynao nAaa-
mupa acnoAarao1cn n u1onAaamo. E un1oruonannom coc1onnuu
nAaamupw nc1oonw n c1yx1yy ax1ouaArno xomocomw u onAu-
uym1cn nmoc1o c no. HAaamupw oAapam1 1ancmuccunnoc1rm -
onu cnoconw noonocu1rcn ua xAo1xu n xAo1xy. HAaamupw nac1o
xon1oAuym1 y ax1ou onopoAonnwo cnoc1na. E aanucumoc1u o1
a1ux cnoc1n nAaamupw mory1 w1r aapoAonw na np 1unon.
Aunupw, noAuqocqa1w. Kax nanuAo, xaxpw nup noxauo1 na-
xanAunao1 opun 1un aanacnwx nomoc1n.
Houoxmnocx qopmm. Hu noAaronun1nwx ycAonunx nnom-
no copw mnoruo noxauo1w oaaym1 noxonmuocn qomw, cno-
conwo coxann1r xuanocnoconoc1r n 1ononuo pAu1oArnoro no-
monu. K 1axum qomam o1nocn1cn anpo- u axaocnow, uc1w, ax-
1ooupw, ro1oouc1w u p.
3uoocnopm oaaym1 oxoAo 15 opon noxauo1: EacIIIus,
CIosIrIdIum, DosuIoIomacuIum, SorosarcIna u p., a 1axxo noxo-
1owo ax1unomuo1w, o1Aunammuocn aanooaauom qom, 1unon
nu1anun u o1nomonuom x xucAoopy. 0npocnow - a1o oxyrAwo
uAu onaArnwo 1omoc1auArnwo, cuArno noAomAnmmuo cno1 c1yx-
1yw. Hu noAaronun1nwx ycAonunx xAo1xa oaayo1 anpocno-
w nny1u ma1ouncxo xAo1xu - cnoanrun, nu a1om n xaxpo
ma1ouncxo xAo1xo oaayo1cn opna cnoa.
Cnoooaaonanuo nanunao1cn c unnarunauu u1oAommw, xo-
1oan wc1o yrAyAno1cn, n1o nunopu1 x aapoAonum xAo1xu na
pno noannwo noAonunw: monrmym - ypymym cnoy, copoxa-
mym nac1r rono1unocxoro ma1ouaAa xAo1xu, u oArmym. 3a1om
o1poAonnan nac1r oxyxao1cn co ncox c1oon u1oAommo ma1o-
uncxo xAo1xu, n1o nunopu1 x 1omy, n1o ypyman cnoa noxw-
1a pnymn momanamu u nonamao1cn n nocnoy c pnymn nAaa-
ma1unocxumu momanamu, moxpy xo1owmu cun1oauyo1cn xoa
(xo1oxc), coc1onman ua non1uporAuxana, a aa cno1 ma1ouncxo
xAo1xu qomuym1cn noAunon1upnan nayxnan ooAonxa u ax-
aocnou. Taxum oaaom, cnoa noxw1a cuc1omo ooAonox, xo-
1owo coc1anAnm1 oAoo noAonunw o+oma cnow. Ma1ouncxan
xAo1xa aaymao1cn, u cnoa ocnooxpao1cn.
3oAan cnoa yc1onuna x aaAunnwm noAaronun1nwm ycAo-
nunm copw, nxAmnan nwcoxym 1omnoa1yy, apuaum, yAr1a-
quoAo1onwo Aynu, xumunocxuo aron1w. Cnow mory1 coxann1rcn
n 1ononuo ononr pAu1oArnoro nomonu (noamoxno, po 1000 Ao1)
nu nomaArnwx ycAonunx. Opnaxo nu 1omnoa1yo 100C 90%
anpocno ax1ou runo1 nooa 11 muny1; 99% cno ax1unomu-
o1on noruao1 nu 1omnoa1yo ?5C nooa ?0 muny1, a nu nwcy-
munanuu onu coxannm1cn po 15 Ao1.
Hu uamononuu ycAonu nnomno copw cnoa noac1ao1.
Hoac1anuo cnow no1oxao1 n 1u a1ana: ounuoouun, uuuuuo
uun u cocnoeuuo npopocnouue. Ax1unaun cno noucxopu1 n
oayAr1a1o ux noronanun. IAmxoaa u pyruo yrAonopw, mnoruo
amunoxucAo1w, n nonym onoopr L-aAanun, u uonw unuuuy-
m1 noac1anuo cno, xo1ooo nanunao1cn c rupa1auu cnow,
ax1unauu qomon1nwx cuc1om u pwxanun, ypaAonun punuxoAu-
nono xucAo1w u Ca
2-
. Ha cnow nwac1ao1 oc1onan 1yxa, xo-
1oan aawnao1 ooAonxy. Hu noac1anuu cnoa 1ono1 cnom
' &
To . u u o 1 0
Cpannnxoannax xapauxopncxnua npooccon
npn cnopoo6paaonannn n npopacxannn cnop
1omoc1auArnoc1r u yc1onunoc1r x pyrum qax1oam, c1anonu1cn
poc1ynno xacu1oAnm, oo cno1onoAomAonuo cnuxao1cn. E 1aA. 10
nunopu1cn cannu1oArnan xaax1ouc1uxa aoAwx u noac1am-
mux cno.
Fonoxnnocun annapax npouapnox. Opnum ua o1Aunu noxa-
uo1 nnAno1cn o1cy1c1nuo y nux oqomAonnoro npa. Emoc1o noro
umoo1cn nyxAooup.
EoAununa ronoma y ax1ou coc1anAno1 o1 0,8 10
6
po 8 10
6
na nyxAoo1upon.
Homumo xomocomw, y ax1ou umom1cn noxomocomnwo aAo-
mon1w - nAaamupw. Onu nopc1anAnm1 coo cynocnuaAuaonan-
nwo moAoxyAw pnyxnu1na1o HK, xonaAon1no aamxny1wo n xoAr-
onym c1yx1yy.
Eax1ouaArnwo xAo1xu mory1 copoxa1r nocxoArxo nAaamup.
HAaamupw cnoconw onAuuona1rcn an1onomno, noaanucumo o1
xomocomw.
HAaamupw mory1 naxopu1rcn n ax1ouaArno xAo1xo n pnyx co-
c1onnunx - an1onomnom u un1oruonannom. E nonom cAynao nAaa-
mupa acnoAarao1cn n u1onAaamo. E un1oruonannom coc1onnuu
nAaamupw nc1oonw n c1yx1yy ax1ouaArno xomocomw u onAu-
uym1cn nmoc1o c no. HAaamupw oAapam1 1ancmuccunnoc1rm -
onu cnoconw noonocu1rcn ua xAo1xu n xAo1xy. HAaamupw nac1o
xon1oAuym1 y ax1ou onopoAonnwo cnoc1na. E aanucumoc1u o1
a1ux cnoc1n nAaamupw mory1 w1r aapoAonw na np 1unon.
Aunupw, noAuqocqa1w. Kax nanuAo, xaxpw nup noxauo1 na-
xanAunao1 opun 1un aanacnwx nomoc1n.
Houoxmnocx qopmm. Hu noAaronun1nwx ycAonunx nnom-
no copw mnoruo noxauo1w oaaym1 noxonmuocn qomw, cno-
conwo coxann1r xuanocnoconoc1r n 1ononuo pAu1oArnoro no-
monu. K 1axum qomam o1nocn1cn anpo- u axaocnow, uc1w, ax-
1ooupw, ro1oouc1w u p.
3uoocnopm oaaym1 oxoAo 15 opon noxauo1: EacIIIus,
CIosIrIdIum, DosuIoIomacuIum, SorosarcIna u p., a 1axxo noxo-
1owo ax1unomuo1w, o1Aunammuocn aanooaauom qom, 1unon
nu1anun u o1nomonuom x xucAoopy. 0npocnow - a1o oxyrAwo
uAu onaArnwo 1omoc1auArnwo, cuArno noAomAnmmuo cno1 c1yx-
1yw. Hu noAaronun1nwx ycAonunx xAo1xa oaayo1 anpocno-
w nny1u ma1ouncxo xAo1xu - cnoanrun, nu a1om n xaxpo
ma1ouncxo xAo1xo oaayo1cn opna cnoa.
Cnoooaaonanuo nanunao1cn c unnarunauu u1oAommw, xo-
1oan wc1o yrAyAno1cn, n1o nunopu1 x aapoAonum xAo1xu na
pno noannwo noAonunw: monrmym - ypymym cnoy, copoxa-
mym nac1r rono1unocxoro ma1ouaAa xAo1xu, u oArmym. 3a1om
o1poAonnan nac1r oxyxao1cn co ncox c1oon u1oAommo ma1o-
uncxo xAo1xu, n1o nunopu1 x 1omy, n1o ypyman cnoa noxw-
1a pnymn momanamu u nonamao1cn n nocnoy c pnymn nAaa-
ma1unocxumu momanamu, moxpy xo1owmu cun1oauyo1cn xoa
(xo1oxc), coc1onman ua non1uporAuxana, a aa cno1 ma1ouncxo
xAo1xu qomuym1cn noAunon1upnan nayxnan ooAonxa u ax-
aocnou. Taxum oaaom, cnoa noxw1a cuc1omo ooAonox, xo-
1owo coc1anAnm1 oAoo noAonunw o+oma cnow. Ma1ouncxan
xAo1xa aaymao1cn, u cnoa ocnooxpao1cn.
3oAan cnoa yc1onuna x aaAunnwm noAaronun1nwm ycAo-
nunm copw, nxAmnan nwcoxym 1omnoa1yy, apuaum, yAr1a-
quoAo1onwo Aynu, xumunocxuo aron1w. Cnow mory1 coxann1rcn
n 1ononuo ononr pAu1oArnoro nomonu (noamoxno, po 1000 Ao1)
nu nomaArnwx ycAonunx. Opnaxo nu 1omnoa1yo 100C 90%
anpocno ax1ou runo1 nooa 11 muny1; 99% cno ax1unomu-
o1on noruao1 nu 1omnoa1yo ?5C nooa ?0 muny1, a nu nwcy-
munanuu onu coxannm1cn po 15 Ao1.
Hu uamononuu ycAonu nnomno copw cnoa noac1ao1.
Hoac1anuo cnow no1oxao1 n 1u a1ana: ounuoouun, uuuuuo
uun u cocnoeuuo npopocnouue. Ax1unaun cno noucxopu1 n
oayAr1a1o ux noronanun. IAmxoaa u pyruo yrAonopw, mnoruo
amunoxucAo1w, n nonym onoopr L-aAanun, u uonw unuuuy-
m1 noac1anuo cno, xo1ooo nanunao1cn c rupa1auu cnow,
ax1unauu qomon1nwx cuc1om u pwxanun, ypaAonun punuxoAu-
nono xucAo1w u Ca
2-
. Ha cnow nwac1ao1 oc1onan 1yxa, xo-
1oan aawnao1 ooAonxy. Hu noac1anuu cnoa 1ono1 cnom

Heopeouuuecuue oeecnoo mory1 coc1anAn1r o1 2 po 30% cy-
xoro oc1a1xa ax1ou, nunom n moAopwx xAo1xax ux ownno
copoxu1cn oArmo, nom n c1awx, numono n 6 - ? aa. Eax1o-
uu ocoonno ora1w qocqoom, xo1ow nxopu1 n coc1an nyxAo-
unonwx xucAo1, Aunupon. E copnom copoxanuo qocqoa naxo-
pu1cn n nopoAax 3% cyxoro nomoc1na xAo1xu. Eax1ouu copo-
xa1 n cyxom oc1a1xo oxoAo 1% xaAun, na1un, cow. KaAu u
na1u nnAnm1cn naxnomumu xAo1onnwmu xa1uonamu. Coa nxo-
pu1 n coc1an mnorux oAxon. KaAru, marnu, xAo coc1anAnm1
oxoAo 0,5% cyxoro nomoc1na, xoAoao - oxoAo 0,2%. KaAru u
marnu nnAnm1cn naxnwmu xa1uonamu. V ramnoAoxu1oArnwx
ax1ou o1monao1cn nonwmonnoo copoxanuo uonon marnun,
xo1ow cnnaan c PHK. XAo nnAno1cn anuonom, xoAoao nxopu1
n coc1an noxo1owx oAxon. Hoxo1oan nac1r munoaArnwx no-
moc1n naxopu1cn n xAo1xo n cAoponwx xoAunoc1nax (n cymmo oxo-
Ao 3% cyxoro oc1a1xa) - ux o+opunnm1 omum 1omunom mux-
oaAomon1w. Cmpa o1nocn1cn unx, marano, xoaAr1, moAu-
pon, mopr, noArqam u pyruo. 01u aAomon1w nxopn1 n coc1an
qomon1on, nu1amunon. Hoxo1owo xa1uonw u anuonw nnAnm1cn
ax1una1oamu qomon1on.
Opeouuuecuue oeecnoo n muxonwx xAo1xax copoxa1cn,
rAannwm oaaom, n nupo cAoxnwx nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwx coopu-
nonu, na poAm xo1owx nuxopu1cn 9? - 98% cyxux nomoc1n.
Oc1aArnan nac1r cyxoro nomoc1na ax1ou nopc1anAona nuaxo-
moAoxyAnnwmu nomoc1namu u munoaArnwmu coAnmu.
Eoaun. Copoxanuo oAxon y ax1ou xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax
40 - 80% cyxo maccw xAo1xu. Ho xumunocxomy coc1any oAxu ax-
1ou maAo o1Aunam1cn o1 oAxon ac1onu u xuno1nwx. EoAxu
ax1ou nopc1anAonw, rAannwm oaaom, cAoxnwmu xomnAox-
camu c pyrumu coopunonunmu, 1. o. nnAnm1cn no1oupamu. Hac1r
no1oupon muxono xAo1xu coc1anAnm1 nyxAoono1oupw - xom-
nAoxcw oAxon c nyxAounonwmu xucAo1amu. EoArmunc1no ua nux
nuxopu1cn na uonyxAoono1oupw (PHH), monrman nac1r - po-
aoxcuuonyxAoono1oupw (HH). unono1oupw (xomnAoxcw
oAxon c Aunupamu) nxopn1 n coc1an xAo1onnwx c1onox, u1onAaa-
ma1unocxo momanw, naxopn1cn n nupo nxAmnonu.
EoAxu uram1, n nonym onoopr, c1yx1ynym oAr, nxopn n
coc1an nax1unocxu ncox c1yx1ynwx xomnonon1on xAo1xu. Pnp
oAxon ax1ou nwnoAnnm1 oryAn1onwo qynxuu - oAxu-on-
occow. Mnoruo ax1ouu nopyuym1 1oxcunocxuo nopyx1w,
no cnoo nuopo nnAnmmuocn oAxamu. Haxono, x oAxam o1no-
cn1cn qomon1w, urammuo ucxAmnu1oArno naxnym oAr n xua-
nopon1oArnoc1u muxono xAo1xu.
omon1w muxooranuamon no cnoo c1yx1yo, cnoc1nam,
qynxunm no o1Aunam1cn o1 qomon1on pyrux oranuamon. Opno
En.o:+uoo (qax1o qo1uArnoc1u) copoxu1 ronw, xon1o-
Auymmuo cun1oa F-qumu, c nomomrm xo1owx ocymoc1nAn-
o1cn xon+mraun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox.
Fn.o:+uom - xon+mra1unnwo nAaamupw moAoxyAnno mac-
cw 40 - 80 Ma, po1omunuymmuo mnoxoc1nonnym Aoxac1non-
nym yc1onunoc1r ax1ou. H.o:+uom ounepuouuuoeeuuocnu
xon1oAuym1 cun1oa ax1ouaArnwmu xAo1xamu ax1ouou-
non - oAxonwx nomoc1n, Ao1aArnwx pAn ax1ou. H.o:+uom
ounueeuoo uo.ouu:ouuu onopoAnm1 cun1oa ax1ounmu an1u-
ronon, oocnonunammux aproaum ax1ou na xAo1xax n ora-
nuamo noAonoxa u xuno1nwx.
K nAaamupam o1nocn1cn 1axxo npoqoeu - c1apun cymoc1nona-
nun ymoonnwx ax1ouoqaron. Hoqaru, xax nanuAo, naxopn1-
cn n un1oruonannom coc1onnuu, no mory1 nucy1c1nona1r u n
u1onAaamo xAo1ox (n a1om cAynao ux naawnam1 qaamupamu).
C nAaamupamu cnnawnam1 na1oronnoc1r npa ax1ou u ux
o1poArnwx m1ammon.
mH3HOAOFHH MHKPOOPFAHH3MOH
Xnmnnocun cocxan mnupo6no uaoxun. Xumunocxu coc1an
ax1ouaArno xAo1xu n xanoc1nonnom o1nomonuu nax1unocxu no
o1Aunao1cn o1 xuno1nwx u ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox nwcmux oranua-
mon. E coc1an ax1ou nxopn1 n ocnonnom 1o xo oranunocxuo u
munoaArnwo nomoc1na. PaaAunun nwnnAnm1cn n xoAunoc1nonnom
copoxanuu 1ox uAu unwx coopunonu. Komo 1oro, an1onomnoc1r
cymoc1nonanun muxono xAo1xu naxAapwnao1 onopoAonnw
o1nona1ox na xumunocxu coc1an xAo1xu, n1o nwaxao1cn, n no-
nym onoopr, n muoxom naoo qomon1on y ax1ou.
Hopa coc1anAno1 ocnonnym nac1r 1oAa ax1ouaArno xAo1xu -
na noo nuxopu1cn o1 ?5 po 90% maccw xAo1xu. Copoxanuo nopw
n muxono xAo1xo moxo1 monn1rcn n aanucumoc1u o1 nupa mux-
oa, noaac1a xyAr1yw, coc1ana nu1a1oArno copw. E cnoax
copoxanuo nopw cnuxao1cn po 40%.
Cyxo ocxaxou coc1anAno1 o1 10 po 25% maccw ax1ouaArno
xAo1xu. Ocnonnan nac1r oro (oxoAo 95%) nopc1anAona maxomo-
AoxyAnnwmu coopunonunmu. E coc1an cyxoro oc1a1xa nxopn1 1ax-
xo nuaxomoAoxyAnnwo oranunocxuo coopunonun u nooranunoc-
xuo nomoc1na, namo n nupo coAo. Ocnonno ma1ouaA cyxoro oc-
1a1xa coc1anAnm1 aao1, xucAoop, yrAoop u nopoop. Copoxanuo
a1ux aAomon1on moxo1 xoAoa1rcn ponoArno ananu1oArno. Tax, co-
poxanuo yrAoopa y muxoon coc1anAno1 40 - 55% cyxoro nomo-
c1na, xucAoopa - 30 - 40%, aao1a - 6 - 15%, nopoopa - 6 - 8%.
Opnaxo y aanwx nopc1anu1oAo muxooranuamon a1u coo1no-
monun mory1 naruona1r.

Heopeouuuecuue oeecnoo mory1 coc1anAn1r o1 2 po 30% cy-
xoro oc1a1xa ax1ou, nunom n moAopwx xAo1xax ux ownno
copoxu1cn oArmo, nom n c1awx, numono n 6 - ? aa. Eax1o-
uu ocoonno ora1w qocqoom, xo1ow nxopu1 n coc1an nyxAo-
unonwx xucAo1, Aunupon. E copnom copoxanuo qocqoa naxo-
pu1cn n nopoAax 3% cyxoro nomoc1na xAo1xu. Eax1ouu copo-
xa1 n cyxom oc1a1xo oxoAo 1% xaAun, na1un, cow. KaAu u
na1u nnAnm1cn naxnomumu xAo1onnwmu xa1uonamu. Coa nxo-
pu1 n coc1an mnorux oAxon. KaAru, marnu, xAo coc1anAnm1
oxoAo 0,5% cyxoro nomoc1na, xoAoao - oxoAo 0,2%. KaAru u
marnu nnAnm1cn naxnwmu xa1uonamu. V ramnoAoxu1oArnwx
ax1ou o1monao1cn nonwmonnoo copoxanuo uonon marnun,
xo1ow cnnaan c PHK. XAo nnAno1cn anuonom, xoAoao nxopu1
n coc1an noxo1owx oAxon. Hoxo1oan nac1r munoaArnwx no-
moc1n naxopu1cn n xAo1xo n cAoponwx xoAunoc1nax (n cymmo oxo-
Ao 3% cyxoro oc1a1xa) - ux o+opunnm1 omum 1omunom mux-
oaAomon1w. Cmpa o1nocn1cn unx, marano, xoaAr1, moAu-
pon, mopr, noArqam u pyruo. 01u aAomon1w nxopn1 n coc1an
qomon1on, nu1amunon. Hoxo1owo xa1uonw u anuonw nnAnm1cn
ax1una1oamu qomon1on.
Opeouuuecuue oeecnoo n muxonwx xAo1xax copoxa1cn,
rAannwm oaaom, n nupo cAoxnwx nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwx coopu-
nonu, na poAm xo1owx nuxopu1cn 9? - 98% cyxux nomoc1n.
Oc1aArnan nac1r cyxoro nomoc1na ax1ou nopc1anAona nuaxo-
moAoxyAnnwmu nomoc1namu u munoaArnwmu coAnmu.
Eoaun. Copoxanuo oAxon y ax1ou xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax
40 - 80% cyxo maccw xAo1xu. Ho xumunocxomy coc1any oAxu ax-
1ou maAo o1Aunam1cn o1 oAxon ac1onu u xuno1nwx. EoAxu
ax1ou nopc1anAonw, rAannwm oaaom, cAoxnwmu xomnAox-
camu c pyrumu coopunonunmu, 1. o. nnAnm1cn no1oupamu. Hac1r
no1oupon muxono xAo1xu coc1anAnm1 nyxAoono1oupw - xom-
nAoxcw oAxon c nyxAounonwmu xucAo1amu. EoArmunc1no ua nux
nuxopu1cn na uonyxAoono1oupw (PHH), monrman nac1r - po-
aoxcuuonyxAoono1oupw (HH). unono1oupw (xomnAoxcw
oAxon c Aunupamu) nxopn1 n coc1an xAo1onnwx c1onox, u1onAaa-
ma1unocxo momanw, naxopn1cn n nupo nxAmnonu.
EoAxu uram1, n nonym onoopr, c1yx1ynym oAr, nxopn n
coc1an nax1unocxu ncox c1yx1ynwx xomnonon1on xAo1xu. Pnp
oAxon ax1ou nwnoAnnm1 oryAn1onwo qynxuu - oAxu-on-
occow. Mnoruo ax1ouu nopyuym1 1oxcunocxuo nopyx1w,
no cnoo nuopo nnAnmmuocn oAxamu. Haxono, x oAxam o1no-
cn1cn qomon1w, urammuo ucxAmnu1oArno naxnym oAr n xua-
nopon1oArnoc1u muxono xAo1xu.
omon1w muxooranuamon no cnoo c1yx1yo, cnoc1nam,
qynxunm no o1Aunam1cn o1 qomon1on pyrux oranuamon. Opno
En.o:+uoo (qax1o qo1uArnoc1u) copoxu1 ronw, xon1o-
Auymmuo cun1oa F-qumu, c nomomrm xo1owx ocymoc1nAn-
o1cn xon+mraun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox.
Fn.o:+uom - xon+mra1unnwo nAaamupw moAoxyAnno mac-
cw 40 - 80 Ma, po1omunuymmuo mnoxoc1nonnym Aoxac1non-
nym yc1onunoc1r ax1ou. H.o:+uom ounepuouuuoeeuuocnu
xon1oAuym1 cun1oa ax1ouaArnwmu xAo1xamu ax1ouou-
non - oAxonwx nomoc1n, Ao1aArnwx pAn ax1ou. H.o:+uom
ounueeuoo uo.ouu:ouuu onopoAnm1 cun1oa ax1ounmu an1u-
ronon, oocnonunammux aproaum ax1ou na xAo1xax n ora-
nuamo noAonoxa u xuno1nwx.
K nAaamupam o1nocn1cn 1axxo npoqoeu - c1apun cymoc1nona-
nun ymoonnwx ax1ouoqaron. Hoqaru, xax nanuAo, naxopn1-
cn n un1oruonannom coc1onnuu, no mory1 nucy1c1nona1r u n
u1onAaamo xAo1ox (n a1om cAynao ux naawnam1 qaamupamu).
C nAaamupamu cnnawnam1 na1oronnoc1r npa ax1ou u ux
o1poArnwx m1ammon.
mH3HOAOFHH MHKPOOPFAHH3MOH
Xnmnnocun cocxan mnupo6no uaoxun. Xumunocxu coc1an
ax1ouaArno xAo1xu n xanoc1nonnom o1nomonuu nax1unocxu no
o1Aunao1cn o1 xuno1nwx u ac1u1oArnwx xAo1ox nwcmux oranua-
mon. E coc1an ax1ou nxopn1 n ocnonnom 1o xo oranunocxuo u
munoaArnwo nomoc1na. PaaAunun nwnnAnm1cn n xoAunoc1nonnom
copoxanuu 1ox uAu unwx coopunonu. Komo 1oro, an1onomnoc1r
cymoc1nonanun muxono xAo1xu naxAapwnao1 onopoAonnw
o1nona1ox na xumunocxu coc1an xAo1xu, n1o nwaxao1cn, n no-
nym onoopr, n muoxom naoo qomon1on y ax1ou.
Hopa coc1anAno1 ocnonnym nac1r 1oAa ax1ouaArno xAo1xu -
na noo nuxopu1cn o1 ?5 po 90% maccw xAo1xu. Copoxanuo nopw
n muxono xAo1xo moxo1 monn1rcn n aanucumoc1u o1 nupa mux-
oa, noaac1a xyAr1yw, coc1ana nu1a1oArno copw. E cnoax
copoxanuo nopw cnuxao1cn po 40%.
Cyxo ocxaxou coc1anAno1 o1 10 po 25% maccw ax1ouaArno
xAo1xu. Ocnonnan nac1r oro (oxoAo 95%) nopc1anAona maxomo-
AoxyAnnwmu coopunonunmu. E coc1an cyxoro oc1a1xa nxopn1 1ax-
xo nuaxomoAoxyAnnwo oranunocxuo coopunonun u nooranunoc-
xuo nomoc1na, namo n nupo coAo. Ocnonno ma1ouaA cyxoro oc-
1a1xa coc1anAnm1 aao1, xucAoop, yrAoop u nopoop. Copoxanuo
a1ux aAomon1on moxo1 xoAoa1rcn ponoArno ananu1oArno. Tax, co-
poxanuo yrAoopa y muxoon coc1anAno1 40 - 55% cyxoro nomo-
c1na, xucAoopa - 30 - 40%, aao1a - 6 - 15%, nopoopa - 6 - 8%.
Opnaxo y aanwx nopc1anu1oAo muxooranuamon a1u coo1no-
monun mory1 naruona1r.
!
raonopm. Muxonwo xAo1xu mory1 copoxa1r po 20 - 30% yr-
Aonopon n cyxom oc1a1xo. VrAonopw muxooranuamon nopc1anAonw
monocaxaupamu u noAucaxaupamu. Monocaxaupw muxoon o1no-
cn1cn n ocnonnom x 1uoaam, 1o1oaam, non1oaam, roxcoaam u ron1o-
aam. Cymoc1nonnym oAr y muxoon uram1 pucaxaupw (maAr1o-
aa, caxaoaa, Aax1oaa). HoAucaxaupw muxooranuamon coc1on1
ua mnorux monocaxaupon, cnnaannwx n nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwo co-
opunonun, umommuo moAoxyAnnym maccy o1 10 1wc. po 4 mAn a.
HoAucaxaupw, xax u Aunupw, uram1 y muxoon oAr aanacnwx
nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n, nxopn n coc1an nxAmnonu rAuxorona, xax-
maAa; onu 1axxo ynac1nym1 n anoro1unocxom omono muxono
xAo1xu.
Moxa6oannocuno npooccm n mnupo6no uaoxuo. Ocnonnwo aa-
Aunun n c1oonuu ayxauo1unocxo u noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu cy-
moc1nonno nAunm1 na AoxaAuaaum mo1aoAunocxux nooccon n nux
nu noawAomoc1u nununa opunc1na c1oonun, qynxuu u coc1ana,
ocnonannoro na noAoxonunx xAo1onno 1oouu T. Hnanna (1aA. 11).
An ocymoc1nAonun mo1aoAuama muxonan xAo1xa nyxpao1-
cn noxpo ncoro n nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1nax. Hmu nnAnm1cn coopu-
nonun, xo1owo norAomam1cn muxooranuamamu ua oxyxam-
mo copw pAn yponAo1noonun cnoux no1onoc1o n ucxopnwx
ma1ouaAax pAn uocun1oaa (cun1oaa maxomoAoxyA ua oAoo no-
c1wx coopunonu) u noAynonun anoruu.
Ho cnoomy naananonum nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na moxno aapo-
Au1r na pno rynnw. Honym coc1anAnm1 coopunonun, ucnoArayo-
mwo pAn cun1oaa aaAunnwx xomnonon1on xAo1xu, n ocnonnom
u1onAaamw. 01o nAac1unocxu, uAu c1ou1oArnw, ma1ouaA.
Cmpa, n nonym onoopr, o1nocn1cn amunoxucAo1w. E1oan ryn-
na nopc1anAona nomoc1namu, cAyxamumu uc1onnuxom anoruu
pAn xAo1xu. Hu ux oxucAonuu uAu acmonAonuu muxoamu nw-
poAno1cn anorun, nooxopuman xAo1xo pAn oc1a u aamnoxo-
nun. Tununnwm nopc1anu1oAom a1o rynnw nomoc1n nnAno1cn
rAmxoaa. Kax uanoc1no, ocnonnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu na 3omAo
nnAno1cn CoAno. Opnaxo coAnonnym anorum cnoconw ucnoAr-
aona1r nonocopc1nonno Aumr nomnoruo muxooranuamw. Hx na-
awnam1 qo1o1oqamu. K num o1nocn1cn uanoax1ouu, qo1ocun-
1oauymmuo ax1ouu.
EoArmunc1no muxooranuamon, ucnoAraymmux anorum,
aaxAmnonnym n aaAunnwx xumunocxux coopunonunx, nnAnm1cn
xomo1oqamu. Onu, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAnm1cn na pno ryn-
nw: ocAu ucnoAraym1cn nooranunocxuo coopunonun, 1o muxoo-
ranuamw o1nocn1cn x xomoAu1o1oqam, ocAu oranunocxuo - 1o x
xomoorano1oqam.
KoAunoc1no nooranunocxux nomoc1n, oxucAnomwx xomoAu-
1o1oqnwmu muxoamu, nonoAuxo. 01o coonopoop, nopoop,
ua rAannwx ocoonnoc1o a1ux qomon1on nnAno1cn 1o, n1o n aa-
nucumoc1u o1 ycAonu nonnAonun n xAo1xo onu nopaapoAnm1cn
na pno rynnw. Konc1u1y1unnwo qomon1w noc1onnno nucy1-
c1nym1 n xAo1xo, ux cun1oa noucxopu1 c noc1onnno cxooc1rm.
Taxuo qomon1w coc1anAnm1 monrmym nac1r qomon1on muxo-
oranuamon. EoArmunc1no qomon1on muxono xAo1xu o1no-
cu1cn x unpyuoArnwm, uAu apan1unnwm. 01u qomon1w cun1o-
auym1cn n xAo1xo nop noapoc1nuom xaxux-Auo nomoc1n (un-
pyx1oon), namo ncoro cyc1a1on pannoro qomon1a. Hu o1cy1-
c1nuu a1ux nomoc1n ronw, xon1oAuymmuo cun1oa qomon1a,
naxopn1cn n onoccuonannom coc1onnuu, a qomon1 copoxu1-
cn Aumr n cAoponwx xoAunoc1nax.
Hyuaonnonmo uncaoxm. Copoxanuo nyxAounonwx xucAo1 n mu-
xonwx xAo1xax moxo1 xoAoa1rcn o1 3 po 30% cyxoro nomoc1-
na, nunom na HK nuxopu1cn 3 - 5%, na PHK - ? - 10%. KoAu-
noc1no nyxAounonwx xucAo1 muoxo monno1cn n aanucumoc1u o1
c1apuu aanu1un xAo1xu. E nouop, nopmoc1nymmu poAonum
xAo1xu, xoAunoc1no HK oaxo noaac1ao1. HK nxopu1 n coc1an
uu.eouooo ax1ouaArno xAo1xu. Ona oaayo1 opunym ruran1-
cxym pnyxnu1na1ym moAoxyAy omo pAuno po 3 mm c moAoxy-
Anno macco cnwmo 10
9
a. Komo 1oro, y ax1ou HK nac1o
nc1onao1cn n nupo u1onAaama1unocxux nacAopc1nonnwx aAomon-
1on (nAaamup) aaAunno noAununw. PHK naxopu1cn n uocomax,
nucy1c1nyo1 n u1onAaamo xAo1xu.
HK ax1ou xaax1ouayo1cn nupono cnouqunnoc1rm.
Hopc1anu1oAu opnoro nupa u Auaxux nupon opnoro u 1oro xo
opa umom1 Auaxuo noxaaa1oAu copoxanun ryanuna u u1oau-
na. Ha onopoAonuu moAnnoro copoxanun noon1a ryanuna u
u1oauna ocnonana ronocuc1oma1uxa ax1ou.
Annnpm. Copoxanuo Aunupon n muxonwx xAo1xax moxo1
xoAoa1rcn o1 1 po 30%. V muxoon copoxa1cn aaAunnwo xu-
nwo xucAo1w - nacwmonnwo (naArmu1unonan, c1oaunonan, xan-
ononan), nonacwmonnwo (AunoAonan, puq1ounonan). Hoxo1owo
ax1ouu copoxa1 uamononnwo xunwo xucAo1w, nucymuo 1oAr-
xo ax1ounm, - muxoAonan, Aax1oauAAunonan.
CAoxnwo Aunupw umom1 n cnoom coc1ano pyruo rynnw, na-
numo oc1a1xu qocqono xucAo1w, cyArqa1w, aao1uc1wo ocno-
nanun. Onu mory1 copoxa1r oAxu (Aunono1oupw), noAucaxau-
pw (AunonoAucaxaupw).
Ownno oArmo Aunupon copoxu1cn n moAopwx xyAr1yax. Onu
nxopn1 n coc1an moman u xAo1onnwo c1onxu muxonwx xAo1ox.
unupw nwnoAnnm1 y muxooranuamon aaAunnwo qynxuu.
Onu uram1 oAr aanacnwx nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n, ynac1nym1
n anoro1unocxom omono, nxopn1 n coc1an moman u an1uronon xAo1-
xu, ynac1nym1 n oocnononuu ux nonuaomoc1u.
!
raonopm. Muxonwo xAo1xu mory1 copoxa1r po 20 - 30% yr-
Aonopon n cyxom oc1a1xo. VrAonopw muxooranuamon nopc1anAonw
monocaxaupamu u noAucaxaupamu. Monocaxaupw muxoon o1no-
cn1cn n ocnonnom x 1uoaam, 1o1oaam, non1oaam, roxcoaam u ron1o-
aam. Cymoc1nonnym oAr y muxoon uram1 pucaxaupw (maAr1o-
aa, caxaoaa, Aax1oaa). HoAucaxaupw muxooranuamon coc1on1
ua mnorux monocaxaupon, cnnaannwx n nwcoxomoAoxyAnnwo co-
opunonun, umommuo moAoxyAnnym maccy o1 10 1wc. po 4 mAn a.
HoAucaxaupw, xax u Aunupw, uram1 y muxoon oAr aanacnwx
nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n, nxopn n coc1an nxAmnonu rAuxorona, xax-
maAa; onu 1axxo ynac1nym1 n anoro1unocxom omono muxono
xAo1xu.
Moxa6oannocuno npooccm n mnupo6no uaoxuo. Ocnonnwo aa-
Aunun n c1oonuu ayxauo1unocxo u noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu cy-
moc1nonno nAunm1 na AoxaAuaaum mo1aoAunocxux nooccon n nux
nu noawAomoc1u nununa opunc1na c1oonun, qynxuu u coc1ana,
ocnonannoro na noAoxonunx xAo1onno 1oouu T. Hnanna (1aA. 11).
An ocymoc1nAonun mo1aoAuama muxonan xAo1xa nyxpao1-
cn noxpo ncoro n nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1nax. Hmu nnAnm1cn coopu-
nonun, xo1owo norAomam1cn muxooranuamamu ua oxyxam-
mo copw pAn yponAo1noonun cnoux no1onoc1o n ucxopnwx
ma1ouaAax pAn uocun1oaa (cun1oaa maxomoAoxyA ua oAoo no-
c1wx coopunonu) u noAynonun anoruu.
Ho cnoomy naananonum nu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na moxno aapo-
Au1r na pno rynnw. Honym coc1anAnm1 coopunonun, ucnoArayo-
mwo pAn cun1oaa aaAunnwx xomnonon1on xAo1xu, n ocnonnom
u1onAaamw. 01o nAac1unocxu, uAu c1ou1oArnw, ma1ouaA.
Cmpa, n nonym onoopr, o1nocn1cn amunoxucAo1w. E1oan ryn-
na nopc1anAona nomoc1namu, cAyxamumu uc1onnuxom anoruu
pAn xAo1xu. Hu ux oxucAonuu uAu acmonAonuu muxoamu nw-
poAno1cn anorun, nooxopuman xAo1xo pAn oc1a u aamnoxo-
nun. Tununnwm nopc1anu1oAom a1o rynnw nomoc1n nnAno1cn
rAmxoaa. Kax uanoc1no, ocnonnwm uc1onnuxom anoruu na 3omAo
nnAno1cn CoAno. Opnaxo coAnonnym anorum cnoconw ucnoAr-
aona1r nonocopc1nonno Aumr nomnoruo muxooranuamw. Hx na-
awnam1 qo1o1oqamu. K num o1nocn1cn uanoax1ouu, qo1ocun-
1oauymmuo ax1ouu.
EoArmunc1no muxooranuamon, ucnoAraymmux anorum,
aaxAmnonnym n aaAunnwx xumunocxux coopunonunx, nnAnm1cn
xomo1oqamu. Onu, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAnm1cn na pno ryn-
nw: ocAu ucnoAraym1cn nooranunocxuo coopunonun, 1o muxoo-
ranuamw o1nocn1cn x xomoAu1o1oqam, ocAu oranunocxuo - 1o x
xomoorano1oqam.
KoAunoc1no nooranunocxux nomoc1n, oxucAnomwx xomoAu-
1o1oqnwmu muxoamu, nonoAuxo. 01o coonopoop, nopoop,
ua rAannwx ocoonnoc1o a1ux qomon1on nnAno1cn 1o, n1o n aa-
nucumoc1u o1 ycAonu nonnAonun n xAo1xo onu nopaapoAnm1cn
na pno rynnw. Konc1u1y1unnwo qomon1w noc1onnno nucy1-
c1nym1 n xAo1xo, ux cun1oa noucxopu1 c noc1onnno cxooc1rm.
Taxuo qomon1w coc1anAnm1 monrmym nac1r qomon1on muxo-
oranuamon. EoArmunc1no qomon1on muxono xAo1xu o1no-
cu1cn x unpyuoArnwm, uAu apan1unnwm. 01u qomon1w cun1o-
auym1cn n xAo1xo nop noapoc1nuom xaxux-Auo nomoc1n (un-
pyx1oon), namo ncoro cyc1a1on pannoro qomon1a. Hu o1cy1-
c1nuu a1ux nomoc1n ronw, xon1oAuymmuo cun1oa qomon1a,
naxopn1cn n onoccuonannom coc1onnuu, a qomon1 copoxu1-
cn Aumr n cAoponwx xoAunoc1nax.
Hyuaonnonmo uncaoxm. Copoxanuo nyxAounonwx xucAo1 n mu-
xonwx xAo1xax moxo1 xoAoa1rcn o1 3 po 30% cyxoro nomoc1-
na, nunom na HK nuxopu1cn 3 - 5%, na PHK - ? - 10%. KoAu-
noc1no nyxAounonwx xucAo1 muoxo monno1cn n aanucumoc1u o1
c1apuu aanu1un xAo1xu. E nouop, nopmoc1nymmu poAonum
xAo1xu, xoAunoc1no HK oaxo noaac1ao1. HK nxopu1 n coc1an
uu.eouooo ax1ouaArno xAo1xu. Ona oaayo1 opunym ruran1-
cxym pnyxnu1na1ym moAoxyAy omo pAuno po 3 mm c moAoxy-
Anno macco cnwmo 10
9
a. Komo 1oro, y ax1ou HK nac1o
nc1onao1cn n nupo u1onAaama1unocxux nacAopc1nonnwx aAomon-
1on (nAaamup) aaAunno noAununw. PHK naxopu1cn n uocomax,
nucy1c1nyo1 n u1onAaamo xAo1xu.
HK ax1ou xaax1ouayo1cn nupono cnouqunnoc1rm.
Hopc1anu1oAu opnoro nupa u Auaxux nupon opnoro u 1oro xo
opa umom1 Auaxuo noxaaa1oAu copoxanun ryanuna u u1oau-
na. Ha onopoAonuu moAnnoro copoxanun noon1a ryanuna u
u1oauna ocnonana ronocuc1oma1uxa ax1ou.
Annnpm. Copoxanuo Aunupon n muxonwx xAo1xax moxo1
xoAoa1rcn o1 1 po 30%. V muxoon copoxa1cn aaAunnwo xu-
nwo xucAo1w - nacwmonnwo (naArmu1unonan, c1oaunonan, xan-
ononan), nonacwmonnwo (AunoAonan, puq1ounonan). Hoxo1owo
ax1ouu copoxa1 uamononnwo xunwo xucAo1w, nucymuo 1oAr-
xo ax1ounm, - muxoAonan, Aax1oauAAunonan.
CAoxnwo Aunupw umom1 n cnoom coc1ano pyruo rynnw, na-
numo oc1a1xu qocqono xucAo1w, cyArqa1w, aao1uc1wo ocno-
nanun. Onu mory1 copoxa1r oAxu (Aunono1oupw), noAucaxau-
pw (AunonoAucaxaupw).
Ownno oArmo Aunupon copoxu1cn n moAopwx xyAr1yax. Onu
nxopn1 n coc1an moman u xAo1onnwo c1onxu muxonwx xAo1ox.
unupw nwnoAnnm1 y muxooranuamon aaAunnwo qynxuu.
Onu uram1 oAr aanacnwx nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n, ynac1nym1
n anoro1unocxom omono, nxopn1 n coc1an moman u an1uronon xAo1-
xu, ynac1nym1 n oocnononuu ux nonuaomoc1u.
# "
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
1
A
o
u
a
a
n
a
a

n
x

q
y
n
u


n

a
y
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
o


n

n
p
o
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
o


u
a
o
x
u
o
# "
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
1
A
o
u
a
a
n
a
a

n
x

q
y
n
u


n

a
y
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
o


n

n
p
o
u
a
p
n
o
x
n
n
o
c
u
o


u
a
o
x
u
o
% $
ua cAoxnwx oAxon. Muxooranuamw, cnoconwo quxcuona1r
moAoxyAnnw aao1, naawnam1 nu1oronax1ounmu.
EoArmunc1no muxooranuamon cnoconw ycnauna1r aao1 n
nocc1anonAonno qomo. Eax1ouu, ycnaunammuo aao1 nu1a1on u
nu1u1on, o1nocn1cn x nu1oax1ounm.
CoAu ammonun nnAnm1cn poc1ynnwm uc1onnuxom aao1a pAn
mnorux muxooranuamon, 1ax xax aao1 a1ux coopunonu moxo1
nnmo ucnoAraona1rcn nu cun1oao amunoxucAo1. Eax1ouu, pAn
xo1owx uc1onnuxom aao1a nnAnm1cn ammuannwo coAu, naawna-
m1cn o++ouounepun+u.
Mnoruo ax1ouu ycnaunam1 aao1 ua noc1wx oAxon - a1o non-
1onnwo ax1ouu. Haxono umom1cn ax1ouu, ycnaunammuo aao1
ua cAoxnwx oAxonwx coopunonu.
Cymmanwo pannwo o nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1nax u ux naanano-
nuu pAn muxono xAo1xu nunopn1cn n 1aA. 13.
Hooxopumwo pAn nu1anun nomoc1na muxooranuamw noAy-
nam1 ua oxyxammo copw. An xyAr1unuonanun ax1ou n
Aaoa1onwx uAu nouanopc1nonnwx ycAonunx ucnoAraym1cn
nu1a1oArnwo copw, xo1owo n aanucumoc1u o1 coc1ana, xoncuc-
1onuu, naananonun nnAnm1cn poc1a1onno aanooaanwmu.
Hu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na mory1 nonuxa1r n oranuam pnymn
ny1nmu: ny1om aarAa1wnanun, aaxna1wnanun nAo1nwx nac1u c
nocAopymmum ux noonaunanuom - roAoaonw cnoco; ny1om
ucnoAraonanun nooArmux no aamoam moAoxyA nu1a1oArnwx
nomoc1n - roAoqu1nw cnoco. V muxooranuamon, aa ucxAmno-
nuom noxo1owx nopc1anu1oAo noc1omux (nanumo, amow),
nooAapao1 roAoqu1nw cnoco nu1anun.
Hoc1ynAonuo nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n n muxonym xAo1xy no-
ucxopu1 nooa ncm oo nonoxnoc1r. Ocnonnwm nonn1c1nuom pAn
a1oro nnAno1cn u1onAaama1unocxan momana.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 1ancno1a: naccunnw u ax1unnw. Ho-
nw no 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu, n1oo - anoroaanucumw. Hac-
cunnw 1ancno1 noaanxonnwx moAoxyA ocymoc1nAno1cn no ra-
puon1y xonon1auu, 1ancno1 aanxonnwx moAoxyA aanucu1
o1 rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
u 1ancmomanno aanoc1u no1onu-
aAon, xo1owo o+opunnm1cn n 1ancmomannw rapuon1 H
-
To . u u o 1 3
Hcxonnnun nnxaxoannmx nomocxn pax mnupooprannamon
1uocyArqa1, nu1u1w u noxo1owo pyruo. Haooo1, uc1onnuxu
anoruu, ucnoArayomwo xomoorano1oqamu, oAoo mnoronucAon-
nw (1aA. 12).
Anxoxpoqm, pAn xo1owx opunc1nonnwm uc1onnuxom yrAoopa
nnAno1cn yrAoxucAo1a. 0norum pAn a1oro noocca no1oAonun
yrAoopa muxow noAynam1 aa cno1 oxucAonun nooranunocxux
coopunonu - a1o xomocun1oauymmuo an1o1oqw. Hanumo, y nu1-
uquuymmux ax1ou oaxun upo1 cAopymmum oaaom:
2NH
3
- 3O
2
2HNO
2
- 2H
2
O - 65 xxaA
uAu 2HNO
2
- O
2
2HNO
3
- 21 xxaA.
o1ocun1oauymmuo an1o1oqw ucnoAraym1 coAnonnym ano-
rum. 01u ax1ouu copoxa1 xAooquAA, xao1unoupw.
Foxopoxpoqm, noAynammuo yrAoop ua oranunocxux coopu-
nonu, 1axxo nopaapoAnm1cn na qonocuune:upwue u re+o
cuune:upwue. Honwo ucnoAraym1 coAnonnym anorum aa cno1
cnoux nurmon1on, n1owo noAynam1 anorum Aaropan oxucAo-
num rAmxoaw uAu aao1copoxamux coopunonu. Homoxy1onnoo
noAoxonuo moxpy an1o1oqnwmu u ro1oo1oqnwmu muxoora-
nuamamu aanumam1 npoxoxpoqnmo, xo1owo ycnaunam1 yrAoop
ua oranunocxux coopunonu (xax ro1oo1oqw), a aao1 - ua mu-
noaArnwx nomoc1n (xax an1o1oqw).
Ho cnocoy ycnoonun aao1a 1axxo aaAunam1 nocxoArxo rynn
muxooranuamon: ycnaunammuo moAoxyAnnw aao1, aao1 ua
ammuannwx coAo, ua nu1a1on u nu1u1on, ua noc1wx oAxon u
To . u u o 1 z
Kaaccnqnuanx oprannamon no ncxonnnuam anoprnn
n noccxananannammnx aunnnaaonxon
% $
ua cAoxnwx oAxon. Muxooranuamw, cnoconwo quxcuona1r
moAoxyAnnw aao1, naawnam1 nu1oronax1ounmu.
EoArmunc1no muxooranuamon cnoconw ycnauna1r aao1 n
nocc1anonAonno qomo. Eax1ouu, ycnaunammuo aao1 nu1a1on u
nu1u1on, o1nocn1cn x nu1oax1ounm.
CoAu ammonun nnAnm1cn poc1ynnwm uc1onnuxom aao1a pAn
mnorux muxooranuamon, 1ax xax aao1 a1ux coopunonu moxo1
nnmo ucnoAraona1rcn nu cun1oao amunoxucAo1. Eax1ouu, pAn
xo1owx uc1onnuxom aao1a nnAnm1cn ammuannwo coAu, naawna-
m1cn o++ouounepun+u.
Mnoruo ax1ouu ycnaunam1 aao1 ua noc1wx oAxon - a1o non-
1onnwo ax1ouu. Haxono umom1cn ax1ouu, ycnaunammuo aao1
ua cAoxnwx oAxonwx coopunonu.
Cymmanwo pannwo o nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1nax u ux naanano-
nuu pAn muxono xAo1xu nunopn1cn n 1aA. 13.
Hooxopumwo pAn nu1anun nomoc1na muxooranuamw noAy-
nam1 ua oxyxammo copw. An xyAr1unuonanun ax1ou n
Aaoa1onwx uAu nouanopc1nonnwx ycAonunx ucnoAraym1cn
nu1a1oArnwo copw, xo1owo n aanucumoc1u o1 coc1ana, xoncuc-
1onuu, naananonun nnAnm1cn poc1a1onno aanooaanwmu.
Hu1a1oArnwo nomoc1na mory1 nonuxa1r n oranuam pnymn
ny1nmu: ny1om aarAa1wnanun, aaxna1wnanun nAo1nwx nac1u c
nocAopymmum ux noonaunanuom - roAoaonw cnoco; ny1om
ucnoAraonanun nooArmux no aamoam moAoxyA nu1a1oArnwx
nomoc1n - roAoqu1nw cnoco. V muxooranuamon, aa ucxAmno-
nuom noxo1owx nopc1anu1oAo noc1omux (nanumo, amow),
nooAapao1 roAoqu1nw cnoco nu1anun.
Hoc1ynAonuo nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n n muxonym xAo1xy no-
ucxopu1 nooa ncm oo nonoxnoc1r. Ocnonnwm nonn1c1nuom pAn
a1oro nnAno1cn u1onAaama1unocxan momana.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una 1ancno1a: naccunnw u ax1unnw. Ho-
nw no 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu, n1oo - anoroaanucumw. Hac-
cunnw 1ancno1 noaanxonnwx moAoxyA ocymoc1nAno1cn no ra-
puon1y xonon1auu, 1ancno1 aanxonnwx moAoxyA aanucu1
o1 rapuon1a xonon1auu H
-
u 1ancmomanno aanoc1u no1onu-
aAon, xo1owo o+opunnm1cn n 1ancmomannw rapuon1 H
-
To . u u o 1 3
Hcxonnnun nnxaxoannmx nomocxn pax mnupooprannamon
1uocyArqa1, nu1u1w u noxo1owo pyruo. Haooo1, uc1onnuxu
anoruu, ucnoArayomwo xomoorano1oqamu, oAoo mnoronucAon-
nw (1aA. 12).
Anxoxpoqm, pAn xo1owx opunc1nonnwm uc1onnuxom yrAoopa
nnAno1cn yrAoxucAo1a. 0norum pAn a1oro noocca no1oAonun
yrAoopa muxow noAynam1 aa cno1 oxucAonun nooranunocxux
coopunonu - a1o xomocun1oauymmuo an1o1oqw. Hanumo, y nu1-
uquuymmux ax1ou oaxun upo1 cAopymmum oaaom:
2NH
3
- 3O
2
2HNO
2
- 2H
2
O - 65 xxaA
uAu 2HNO
2
- O
2
2HNO
3
- 21 xxaA.
o1ocun1oauymmuo an1o1oqw ucnoAraym1 coAnonnym ano-
rum. 01u ax1ouu copoxa1 xAooquAA, xao1unoupw.
Foxopoxpoqm, noAynammuo yrAoop ua oranunocxux coopu-
nonu, 1axxo nopaapoAnm1cn na qonocuune:upwue u re+o
cuune:upwue. Honwo ucnoAraym1 coAnonnym anorum aa cno1
cnoux nurmon1on, n1owo noAynam1 anorum Aaropan oxucAo-
num rAmxoaw uAu aao1copoxamux coopunonu. Homoxy1onnoo
noAoxonuo moxpy an1o1oqnwmu u ro1oo1oqnwmu muxoora-
nuamamu aanumam1 npoxoxpoqnmo, xo1owo ycnaunam1 yrAoop
ua oranunocxux coopunonu (xax ro1oo1oqw), a aao1 - ua mu-
noaArnwx nomoc1n (xax an1o1oqw).
Ho cnocoy ycnoonun aao1a 1axxo aaAunam1 nocxoArxo rynn
muxooranuamon: ycnaunammuo moAoxyAnnw aao1, aao1 ua
ammuannwx coAo, ua nu1a1on u nu1u1on, ua noc1wx oAxon u
To . u u o 1 z
Kaaccnqnuanx oprannamon no ncxonnnuam anoprnn
n noccxananannammnx aunnnaaonxon
' &
Anaapo6noo pmxanno. Hanpy c aaonwm pwxanuom, nu xo-
1oom xononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn xucAoop, mno-
ruo muxooranuamw nooaaym1 anorum u noAynam1 ATP, ocy-
moc1nAnn 1ax naawnaomoo anaaonoo pwxanuo, nu xo1oom
xononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn xucAoop, nxopnmu n
coc1an aaAunnwx coopunonu (xaona1, nu1a1, cyArqa1, qyma-
a1 u 1. p.). 0Aox1onno-1ancno1nan onr a1ux muxooranuamon
nanomunao1 onucannym nwmo y aaoon.
[euunpuquuupwue ounepuu nnAnm1cn qaxyAr1a1unnwmu
anaaoamu. Kononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn uunpon
(uunponuoe omrouue). E oayAr1a1o oaxuu oaayo1cn N
2
. 01o1
noocc urao1 oAr n xyronoo1o aao1a n nuopo.
Pnp qaxyAr1a1unnwx anaaoon u n 1om nucAo xumonnan na-
Aonxa nocc1ananAunam1 nu1a1 po nu1u1a.
C.tqonpeouupwue ounepuu - c1oruo anaaow. Konon-
nwm axon1oom aAox1onon y nux nnAno1cn cyArqa1, xo1ow
nocc1ananAunao1cn po coonopoopa.
Menouoopo:wue ounepuu 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 aaAoxo-
nuo oranunocxux nomoc1n n noocco xaona1noro pwxanun. 01u
muxooranuamw - c1oruo anaaow. CO
2
ucnoArayo1cn umu n
xanoc1no xononnoro axon1oa nopoopa, n oayAr1a1o noro oa-
ayo1cn mo1an.
Auoopoume cuuuuoeeuume ounepuu ocymoc1nAnm1 qymaa1-
noo pwxanuo, n noocco xo1ooro qymaa1 nocc1ananAunao1cn po
nn1ano xucAo1w.
Eco yxaaannwo rynnw muxooranuamon uram1 naxnym oAr
n nooccax aaAoxonun oranunocxux nomoc1n.
Epomonnx. E 183? r. Kannxp po aa Typ nopnoAoxuA, n1o pox-
xu nunumam1 ynac1uo n nonamonuu caxaa n cnu1 nu cnu1o-
nom oxonuu. E 185? r. yu Hac1o poxaaaA, n1o xunwo poxxu
ocymoc1nAnm1 oxonuo. E xono XIX noxa 0. Eyxnopy ypaAocr
pou1rcn caxunanun caxaon nop nAunnuom ocxAo1onnoro axc1-
ax1a poxxo, noAynonnoro nu ux moxanunocxom aaymonuu.
CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm nopxonwo noxauo-
1unocxuo oranuamw noAynaAu ATP n noocco oxonun no nun-
uny cyc1a1noro qocqouAuonanun. 01o1 mo1aoAunocxu no-
occ cAyxu1 ocnonnwm ny1om noAynonun ATP y mnorux cono-
monnwx noxauo1. Hu oxonuu n anaaonwx ycAonunx ocymo-
c1nAnm1cn oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwo nooccw. Hac1r
oaaymmuxcn nomoc1n (oranunocxuo xucAo1w) nwnopu1cn ua xAo1-
xu, HEK ucnoArayo1cn camo xAo1xo u pAn uocun1oaa. Caxuna-
num mory1 nopnora1rcn yrAonopw, amunoxucAo1w, nyunw, nuumu-
punw, oranunocxuo xucAo1w, cnu1w. Hu oxonuu noucxopu1
anaaonoo oxucAonuo, 1o oc1r o1monAonuo aAox1onon o1 nomo-
xy1onnwx nopyx1on omona, xa1aAuauyomoo poruporonaaamu,
uAu aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. Kax nanuAo, nny1-
onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r momanw noco1 o1u-
a1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n xAo1xy noAo-
xu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
E 1ancno1nwx nooccax noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu ocnon-
nym oAr urao1 aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1, nu
a1om noonoc upo1 no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu nomoc1n.
HocAo nonapanun nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n n xAo1xy paArnomuo
nooccw upy1 y ncox oranuamon opunaxono. Hoxpo ncoro no-
ucxopn1 nooccw acmonAonun a1ux nomoc1n na nooArmuo qar-
mon1w c nocAopymmum nonamonuom ux n np nuaxomoAoxyAn-
nwx coopunonu (xa1aoAuam). 01u nooccw no1oxam1 c ocno-
oxponuom anoruu u aanacanuom oo n ATP uAu n pyrux coopuno-
nunx. Ha oaaonanmuxcn nomoc1n noucxopu1 cun1oa cnanaAa
monomoon (c1ou1oArnwx Aoxon), a aa1om noAumoon (maxomo-
AoxyA). 01u nooccw no1oxam1 c norAomonuom anoruu u nop-
c1anAnm1 coo anaoAuam.
0noproxnnocun o6mon. Conoxynnoc1r uoxumunocxux oax-
u, cAyxamux uc1onnuxom anoruu pAn xuanopon1oArnoc1u mux-
ono xAo1xu, naawnao1cn pwxanuom muxoon. V muxoora-
nuamon, xax u y ayxauo1, aaAunam1 pna 1una pwxanun: aao-
noo u anaaonoo. Aaonoo pwxanuo ocymoc1nAno1cn n nucy1c1nuu
xucAoopa noapyxa nu ynac1uu qomon1on u1oxomon u u1ox-
omoxcupaa. Axon1oom aAox1onon nnAno1cn moAoxyAnnw xuc-
Aoop, nocc1anonAonnwm nopyx1om - nopa. E anaaonom pwxa-
nuu ynac1nym1 qomon1w poruporonaaw. E aanucumoc1u o1 1una
pwxanun aaAunam1 nocxoArxo rynn muxooranuamon.
Cnpoeue (oAura1nwo) oopom ac1y1 1oArxo nu naAunuu noa-
pyxa, oAapam1 naoom qomon1on pAn aaonoro pwxanun, no-
uanopn1 noAnoo oxucAonuo yrAonopon po CO
2
u H
2
O.
Cnpoeue ouoopom mory1 aanuna1rcn Aumr n ocxucAoopno
copo, oAapam1 anaaonwm pwxanuom.
dou.tnonuoume ouoopom cnoconw aanuna1rcn xax n oc-
xucAoopnwx, 1ax u n xucAoopnwx ycAonunx. Hoocc pwxanun
y nux no1oxao1 n pno qaaw - cnanaAa qaaa anaaonoro oc1a, a
aa1om no1oAonuo xucAoopa u oAoo rAyoxoo acmonAonuo yr-
Aonopon. Onu oAapam1 ooumu naoamu qomon1on.
Muupooopoqu.m aanunam1cn nu nuaxux xonon1aunx xuc-
Aoopa - po 1%. K num o1nocn1cn cnuoxo1w, ax1unomuo1w.
Aopono.epounume +uupom mory1 aanuna1rcn nu nonuxon-
nwx xonon1aunx xucAoopa - po 10%. Humoom mory1 cAy-
xu1r CIosIrIdIum orrIngons.
Konuuuecuue +uupom 1oym1 nonwmonnoro copoxanun yr-
AoxucAo1w (nanumo, ErucoIIa aborIus).
0noro1unocxu omon y noxauo1 n ocnonnom nxAmnao1 n
con 1o xo a1anw, n1o u y ayxauo1.
' &
Anaapo6noo pmxanno. Hanpy c aaonwm pwxanuom, nu xo-
1oom xononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn xucAoop, mno-
ruo muxooranuamw nooaaym1 anorum u noAynam1 ATP, ocy-
moc1nAnn 1ax naawnaomoo anaaonoo pwxanuo, nu xo1oom
xononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn xucAoop, nxopnmu n
coc1an aaAunnwx coopunonu (xaona1, nu1a1, cyArqa1, qyma-
a1 u 1. p.). 0Aox1onno-1ancno1nan onr a1ux muxooranuamon
nanomunao1 onucannym nwmo y aaoon.
[euunpuquuupwue ounepuu nnAnm1cn qaxyAr1a1unnwmu
anaaoamu. Kononnwm axon1oom nopoopa nnAno1cn uunpon
(uunponuoe omrouue). E oayAr1a1o oaxuu oaayo1cn N
2
. 01o1
noocc urao1 oAr n xyronoo1o aao1a n nuopo.
Pnp qaxyAr1a1unnwx anaaoon u n 1om nucAo xumonnan na-
Aonxa nocc1ananAunam1 nu1a1 po nu1u1a.
C.tqonpeouupwue ounepuu - c1oruo anaaow. Konon-
nwm axon1oom aAox1onon y nux nnAno1cn cyArqa1, xo1ow
nocc1ananAunao1cn po coonopoopa.
Menouoopo:wue ounepuu 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 aaAoxo-
nuo oranunocxux nomoc1n n noocco xaona1noro pwxanun. 01u
muxooranuamw - c1oruo anaaow. CO
2
ucnoArayo1cn umu n
xanoc1no xononnoro axon1oa nopoopa, n oayAr1a1o noro oa-
ayo1cn mo1an.
Auoopoume cuuuuoeeuume ounepuu ocymoc1nAnm1 qymaa1-
noo pwxanuo, n noocco xo1ooro qymaa1 nocc1ananAunao1cn po
nn1ano xucAo1w.
Eco yxaaannwo rynnw muxooranuamon uram1 naxnym oAr
n nooccax aaAoxonun oranunocxux nomoc1n.
Epomonnx. E 183? r. Kannxp po aa Typ nopnoAoxuA, n1o pox-
xu nunumam1 ynac1uo n nonamonuu caxaa n cnu1 nu cnu1o-
nom oxonuu. E 185? r. yu Hac1o poxaaaA, n1o xunwo poxxu
ocymoc1nAnm1 oxonuo. E xono XIX noxa 0. Eyxnopy ypaAocr
pou1rcn caxunanun caxaon nop nAunnuom ocxAo1onnoro axc1-
ax1a poxxo, noAynonnoro nu ux moxanunocxom aaymonuu.
CorAacno conomonnwm nopc1anAonunm nopxonwo noxauo-
1unocxuo oranuamw noAynaAu ATP n noocco oxonun no nun-
uny cyc1a1noro qocqouAuonanun. 01o1 mo1aoAunocxu no-
occ cAyxu1 ocnonnwm ny1om noAynonun ATP y mnorux cono-
monnwx noxauo1. Hu oxonuu n anaaonwx ycAonunx ocymo-
c1nAnm1cn oxucAu1oArno-nocc1anonu1oArnwo nooccw. Hac1r
oaaymmuxcn nomoc1n (oranunocxuo xucAo1w) nwnopu1cn ua xAo1-
xu, HEK ucnoArayo1cn camo xAo1xo u pAn uocun1oaa. Caxuna-
num mory1 nopnora1rcn yrAonopw, amunoxucAo1w, nyunw, nuumu-
punw, oranunocxuo xucAo1w, cnu1w. Hu oxonuu noucxopu1
anaaonoo oxucAonuo, 1o oc1r o1monAonuo aAox1onon o1 nomo-
xy1onnwx nopyx1on omona, xa1aAuauyomoo poruporonaaamu,
uAu aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1. Kax nanuAo, nny1-
onnnn u1onAaama1unocxan nonoxnoc1r momanw noco1 o1u-
a1oArnw aanp, n1o oAornao1 nonuxnononuo n xAo1xy noAo-
xu1oArno aanxonnwx uonon.
E 1ancno1nwx nooccax noxauo1unocxo xAo1xu ocnon-
nym oAr urao1 aAox1oxumunocxu no1onnw rapuon1, nu
a1om noonoc upo1 no1un rapuon1a xonon1auu nomoc1n.
HocAo nonapanun nu1a1oArnwx nomoc1n n xAo1xy paArnomuo
nooccw upy1 y ncox oranuamon opunaxono. Hoxpo ncoro no-
ucxopn1 nooccw acmonAonun a1ux nomoc1n na nooArmuo qar-
mon1w c nocAopymmum nonamonuom ux n np nuaxomoAoxyAn-
nwx coopunonu (xa1aoAuam). 01u nooccw no1oxam1 c ocno-
oxponuom anoruu u aanacanuom oo n ATP uAu n pyrux coopuno-
nunx. Ha oaaonanmuxcn nomoc1n noucxopu1 cun1oa cnanaAa
monomoon (c1ou1oArnwx Aoxon), a aa1om noAumoon (maxomo-
AoxyA). 01u nooccw no1oxam1 c norAomonuom anoruu u nop-
c1anAnm1 coo anaoAuam.
0noproxnnocun o6mon. Conoxynnoc1r uoxumunocxux oax-
u, cAyxamux uc1onnuxom anoruu pAn xuanopon1oArnoc1u mux-
ono xAo1xu, naawnao1cn pwxanuom muxoon. V muxoora-
nuamon, xax u y ayxauo1, aaAunam1 pna 1una pwxanun: aao-
noo u anaaonoo. Aaonoo pwxanuo ocymoc1nAno1cn n nucy1c1nuu
xucAoopa noapyxa nu ynac1uu qomon1on u1oxomon u u1ox-
omoxcupaa. Axon1oom aAox1onon nnAno1cn moAoxyAnnw xuc-
Aoop, nocc1anonAonnwm nopyx1om - nopa. E anaaonom pwxa-
nuu ynac1nym1 qomon1w poruporonaaw. E aanucumoc1u o1 1una
pwxanun aaAunam1 nocxoArxo rynn muxooranuamon.
Cnpoeue (oAura1nwo) oopom ac1y1 1oArxo nu naAunuu noa-
pyxa, oAapam1 naoom qomon1on pAn aaonoro pwxanun, no-
uanopn1 noAnoo oxucAonuo yrAonopon po CO
2
u H
2
O.
Cnpoeue ouoopom mory1 aanuna1rcn Aumr n ocxucAoopno
copo, oAapam1 anaaonwm pwxanuom.
dou.tnonuoume ouoopom cnoconw aanuna1rcn xax n oc-
xucAoopnwx, 1ax u n xucAoopnwx ycAonunx. Hoocc pwxanun
y nux no1oxao1 n pno qaaw - cnanaAa qaaa anaaonoro oc1a, a
aa1om no1oAonuo xucAoopa u oAoo rAyoxoo acmonAonuo yr-
Aonopon. Onu oAapam1 ooumu naoamu qomon1on.
Muupooopoqu.m aanunam1cn nu nuaxux xonon1aunx xuc-
Aoopa - po 1%. K num o1nocn1cn cnuoxo1w, ax1unomuo1w.
Aopono.epounume +uupom mory1 aanuna1rcn nu nonuxon-
nwx xonon1aunx xucAoopa - po 10%. Humoom mory1 cAy-
xu1r CIosIrIdIum orrIngons.
Konuuuecuue +uupom 1oym1 nonwmonnoro copoxanun yr-
AoxucAo1w (nanumo, ErucoIIa aborIus).
0noro1unocxu omon y noxauo1 n ocnonnom nxAmnao1 n
con 1o xo a1anw, n1o u y ayxauo1.

ramo1ua1oArnwo, noxo1owo ua nux oAapam1 xancyAamu u nox-
Aamu. H noro1a1unnwo qomw, u ocoonno ro1oouc1w, ora1w ra-
nyAamu uanoquuna. Panoo nopono onucanw aaAunnwo noxon-
muocn qomw. Vxaxom, n1o y uanoax1ou oaaym1cn ro1oou-
c1w, quxcuymmuo aao1 n aaonwx ycAonunx, u axuno1w. Hu aa-
wno 1uxom noanuxam1 o1poArnwo xoo1xuo ononxu romoronuu,
c nomomrm xo1owx uanoax1ouu aamnoxam1cn. Hu mnoxoc1non-
nom poAonuu nAonoxanconwx uanoax1ou nny1u ma1ouncxo
xAo1xu oaayo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no moAxux oou1on.
Hpor.opoqunm - opnoxAo1onnwo nonopnuxnwo cqounocxuo
ramo1ua1oArnwo noxauo1w, xo1owo nnAnm1cn axaocumu-
on1amu acupu. E o1Aunuo o1 uanoax1ou, 1uAaxoupw no-
xAooqu1on cnaonnwo, y nux o1cy1c1nym1 quxouAucomw u qu-
xouAuno1oupw u umoo1cn xAooquAA o.
Hpnpume ounepuu o1Aunam1cn oArmum aanooaauom. Onu
ramo1ua1oArnwo opnoxAo1onnwo, noAumoqnwo, ux aamow xo-
AoAm1cn n muoxux nopoAax (o1 1 po 20 mxm), oc1r xax nopnuxnwo,
To . u u o 1 4
moxocnnxoxnnocun annapax npouapnox
u axon1uonanuo ux pyrumu nopyx1amu omona. Hnwmu cAona-
mu, u ponoamu, u axon1oamu aAox1onon nnAnm1cn opnu u 1o
xo oranunocxuo coopunonun.
Eoxonuo ocymoc1nAnm1 c1oruo anaaow u noxo1owo qa-
xyAr1a1unnwo anaaow. PaaAunam1 nocxoArxo 1unon oxonu:
moAonnoxucAoo, cnu1onoo, macAnnoxucAoo, nonuononoxucAoo,
myanrunoxucAoo, yxcycnoxucAoo. E aanucumoc1u o1 xoAunoc1na
oaaymmuxcn ocnonnwx nopyx1on oxonun aaAunam1 romo-
qomon1a1unnoo u ro1ooqomon1a1unnoo oxonun. Hu nonom
oaayo1cn opun xononnw nopyx1, nu n1oom - nocxoArxo.
moxocnnxoa. Ec1r nco ocnonanun cnu1a1r, n1o n noocco ano-
Amuu nnanaAo noanux H
2
S-qo1ocun1oa. 01o1 moxanuam ucnoAray-
m1 u conomonnwo aoAonwo conwo ax1ouu. EnocAopc1nuu noa-
nuxAu uanoax1ouu, xo1owo nuooAu cnoconoc1r ucnoArao-
na1r nopoop nopw pAn nocc1anonAonun CO
2
. Hmonno Aaropan
pon1oArnoc1u uanoax1ou n a1mocqoo 3omAu nonnuAcn xucAo-
op u c1aAo noamoxnwm aaonoo pwxanuo, n1o nunoAo x xano-
c1nonnwm uamononunm xuanu na 3omAo.
Mw accmo1oAu pna 1una noAynonun anoruu noxauo1amu:
oxucAu1oArnoo u cyc1a1noo qocqouAuonanuo. Hanpy c a1um
umom1cn pno rynnw noxauo1, xo1owo cnoconw, nopono aoAo-
nwm ac1onunm, ucnoAraona1r coAnonnw cno1 n xanoc1no uc1on-
nuxa anoruu. 01o pna xAacca aaonwx (oxcuronnwx) qo1o1oq-
nwx ax1ou (noxAooqu1w u uanoax1ouu) u anaaonwx
(anoxcuronnwx) qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou (nynynwo u aoAonwo ax-
1ouu). Hoxauo1w ooux rynn cnoconw cnnawna1r CO
2
, umom1
qo1ocun1o1unocxuo nurmon1w, opnaxo nonwo ucnoAraym1 nopy n
xanoc1no ponoon nopoopa u nwpoAnm1 xucAoop n noocco qo-
1ocun1oaa, onu oAapam1 xAooquAAom , quxouAunamu u xao-
1unoupamu. E1owo ucnoAraym1 n xanoc1no ponoon nopoopa ora-
nunocxuo nomoc1na, H
2
S, H
2
u no nwpoAnm1 xucAoop nu qo1o-
cun1oao. E ayxauo1unocxux xAo1xax qo1ocun1oa ocymoc1nAno1cn
n xAoonAac1ax, n noxauo1unocxux - n u1onAaama1unocxo mom-
ano u oo nouanopnwx. o1ocun1o1unocxu annaa1 nxAmnao1
1u ocnonnwx c1yx1ynwx xomnAoxca: cno1ocouammu, 1anc-
qomuymmu u aAox1onno-1ancno1nw (1aA. 14).
]uouoounepuu muoxo acnoc1anonw n nuopo. Onu mo-
ry1 w1r opnoxAo1onnwmu (xooxoxxonwo, nAonoxanconwo) uAu
mnoroxAo1onnwmu, x num o1nocn1cn nu1na1wo oa ro1oouc1, n
xo1owx umom1cn Aumr noro1a1unnwo xAo1xu; nu1na1wo c ro1oo-
uc1amu, poAnmuocn n opno nAocxoc1u; u nu1na1wo c ro1oouc-
1amu, poAnmuocn n pnyx u oAoo nAocxoc1nx.
HocAopnuo 1u rynnw uanoax1ou - a1o no mnoroxAo1onnwo
n ownnom cmwcAo oranuamw. Hx xAo1xu qomuym1 onon-
xu - 1uxomw, nny1u xo1owx xAo1xu poAn1cn. Huanoax1ouu

ramo1ua1oArnwo, noxo1owo ua nux oAapam1 xancyAamu u nox-
Aamu. H noro1a1unnwo qomw, u ocoonno ro1oouc1w, ora1w ra-
nyAamu uanoquuna. Panoo nopono onucanw aaAunnwo noxon-
muocn qomw. Vxaxom, n1o y uanoax1ou oaaym1cn ro1oou-
c1w, quxcuymmuo aao1 n aaonwx ycAonunx, u axuno1w. Hu aa-
wno 1uxom noanuxam1 o1poArnwo xoo1xuo ononxu romoronuu,
c nomomrm xo1owx uanoax1ouu aamnoxam1cn. Hu mnoxoc1non-
nom poAonuu nAonoxanconwx uanoax1ou nny1u ma1ouncxo
xAo1xu oaayo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no moAxux oou1on.
Hpor.opoqunm - opnoxAo1onnwo nonopnuxnwo cqounocxuo
ramo1ua1oArnwo noxauo1w, xo1owo nnAnm1cn axaocumu-
on1amu acupu. E o1Aunuo o1 uanoax1ou, 1uAaxoupw no-
xAooqu1on cnaonnwo, y nux o1cy1c1nym1 quxouAucomw u qu-
xouAuno1oupw u umoo1cn xAooquAA o.
Hpnpume ounepuu o1Aunam1cn oArmum aanooaauom. Onu
ramo1ua1oArnwo opnoxAo1onnwo, noAumoqnwo, ux aamow xo-
AoAm1cn n muoxux nopoAax (o1 1 po 20 mxm), oc1r xax nopnuxnwo,
To . u u o 1 4
moxocnnxoxnnocun annapax npouapnox
u axon1uonanuo ux pyrumu nopyx1amu omona. Hnwmu cAona-
mu, u ponoamu, u axon1oamu aAox1onon nnAnm1cn opnu u 1o
xo oranunocxuo coopunonun.
Eoxonuo ocymoc1nAnm1 c1oruo anaaow u noxo1owo qa-
xyAr1a1unnwo anaaow. PaaAunam1 nocxoArxo 1unon oxonu:
moAonnoxucAoo, cnu1onoo, macAnnoxucAoo, nonuononoxucAoo,
myanrunoxucAoo, yxcycnoxucAoo. E aanucumoc1u o1 xoAunoc1na
oaaymmuxcn ocnonnwx nopyx1on oxonun aaAunam1 romo-
qomon1a1unnoo u ro1ooqomon1a1unnoo oxonun. Hu nonom
oaayo1cn opun xononnw nopyx1, nu n1oom - nocxoArxo.
moxocnnxoa. Ec1r nco ocnonanun cnu1a1r, n1o n noocco ano-
Amuu nnanaAo noanux H
2
S-qo1ocun1oa. 01o1 moxanuam ucnoAray-
m1 u conomonnwo aoAonwo conwo ax1ouu. EnocAopc1nuu noa-
nuxAu uanoax1ouu, xo1owo nuooAu cnoconoc1r ucnoArao-
na1r nopoop nopw pAn nocc1anonAonun CO
2
. Hmonno Aaropan
pon1oArnoc1u uanoax1ou n a1mocqoo 3omAu nonnuAcn xucAo-
op u c1aAo noamoxnwm aaonoo pwxanuo, n1o nunoAo x xano-
c1nonnwm uamononunm xuanu na 3omAo.
Mw accmo1oAu pna 1una noAynonun anoruu noxauo1amu:
oxucAu1oArnoo u cyc1a1noo qocqouAuonanuo. Hanpy c a1um
umom1cn pno rynnw noxauo1, xo1owo cnoconw, nopono aoAo-
nwm ac1onunm, ucnoAraona1r coAnonnw cno1 n xanoc1no uc1on-
nuxa anoruu. 01o pna xAacca aaonwx (oxcuronnwx) qo1o1oq-
nwx ax1ou (noxAooqu1w u uanoax1ouu) u anaaonwx
(anoxcuronnwx) qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou (nynynwo u aoAonwo ax-
1ouu). Hoxauo1w ooux rynn cnoconw cnnawna1r CO
2
, umom1
qo1ocun1o1unocxuo nurmon1w, opnaxo nonwo ucnoAraym1 nopy n
xanoc1no ponoon nopoopa u nwpoAnm1 xucAoop n noocco qo-
1ocun1oaa, onu oAapam1 xAooquAAom , quxouAunamu u xao-
1unoupamu. E1owo ucnoAraym1 n xanoc1no ponoon nopoopa ora-
nunocxuo nomoc1na, H
2
S, H
2
u no nwpoAnm1 xucAoop nu qo1o-
cun1oao. E ayxauo1unocxux xAo1xax qo1ocun1oa ocymoc1nAno1cn
n xAoonAac1ax, n noxauo1unocxux - n u1onAaama1unocxo mom-
ano u oo nouanopnwx. o1ocun1o1unocxu annaa1 nxAmnao1
1u ocnonnwx c1yx1ynwx xomnAoxca: cno1ocouammu, 1anc-
qomuymmu u aAox1onno-1ancno1nw (1aA. 14).
]uouoounepuu muoxo acnoc1anonw n nuopo. Onu mo-
ry1 w1r opnoxAo1onnwmu (xooxoxxonwo, nAonoxanconwo) uAu
mnoroxAo1onnwmu, x num o1nocn1cn nu1na1wo oa ro1oouc1, n
xo1owx umom1cn Aumr noro1a1unnwo xAo1xu; nu1na1wo c ro1oo-
uc1amu, poAnmuocn n opno nAocxoc1u; u nu1na1wo c ro1oouc-
1amu, poAnmuocn n pnyx u oAoo nAocxoc1nx.
HocAopnuo 1u rynnw uanoax1ou - a1o no mnoroxAo1onnwo
n ownnom cmwcAo oranuamw. Hx xAo1xu qomuym1 onon-
xu - 1uxomw, nny1u xo1owx xAo1xu poAn1cn. Huanoax1ouu
!
no1onuaAa. Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa cAyxu1 CO
2
, xo1ow cnnaw-
nao1cn n noocco uxAa KaArnuna. 0noro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r
a1ux nooccon poc1a1onno noAuxa, u corAacno acno1am y1uAuaa-
un cnoopno anoruu moxo1 nonwma1r 50%.
Hu1uquuymmuo ax1ouu o1Aunam1cn nuaxo cnoconoc-
1rm ycnauna1r axaoronnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na. EoAoo 1oro,
mnoruo oranunocxuo nomoc1na (rAmxoaa, rAuoun, mononuna u
p.) paxo cpoxunam1 oc1 1axux ax1ou.
Hu1uquuymmuo ax1ouu muoxo acnoc1anonw n aa-
Aunnwx nopoomax u n nonno. Onu ax1unno ynac1nym1 n xyronoo1o
aao1a. E nuopo, ooraman nonny nu1a1amu, xo1owo Aorxo ycna-
unam1cn xononwmu cuc1omamu ac1onu, nu1uquuymmuo ax-
1ouu cnococ1nym1 nonwmonum nAopoopun nonnw. Opnaxo, xo-
mo nocomnonno noAraw, ux pon1oArnoc1r nunopu1 x nonwmonum
xucAo1noc1u nonn. E oayAr1a1o ponu1uquxauu nu1a1-uonw noc-
c1ananAunam1cn po moAoxyAnnoro aao1a, n1o nunopu1 yxo x oop-
nonum nonnw poc1ynnwmu pAn ac1onu coopunonunmu aao1a.
Hoaoao6auxopnn noAynam1 anorum n oayAr1a1o oxucAonun
pnyxnaAon1noro xoAoaa po 1oxnaAon1noro. Hnmo uAu xocnonno
xoAoao mory1 oxucAn1r no 1oArxo an1o1oqnwo noxauo1w, no u
noxo1owo ro1oo1oqw. Komo 1oro, noxo1owo cooax1ouu, na-
npy c coo, cnoconw 1axxo oxucAn1r aaxucnoo xoAoao. PoayAr1a-
1om ux pon1oArnoc1u no nooaaonanum coopunonu xoAoaa n 1ono-
nuo muAAuonon Ao1 nnuAucr xoAoccaArnwo o1Aoxonun xoAoanwx yp.
Xumunocxoo nooaaonanuo cyc1a1a xoAoaoax1ounmu no-
ucxopu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
Honr noonocnuxon aAox1ona:
Hopopopnmo 6auxopnn oxucAnm1 moAoxyAnnw nopoop.
K a1o rynno o1nocn1cn c1oruo u qaxyAr1a1unnwo anaaow,
a 1axxo oAura1nwo aaow. Anaaoamu nnAnm1cn noxo1owo
qo1ocun1oauymmuo ax1ouu, xo1owo ucnoAraym1 H
2
xax uc1on-
nux nopoopa, opnaxo onu nyxpam1cn n coAnonno anoruu pAn
cun1oaa oranunocxux nomoc1n, noa1omy x xomo1oqam no nunap-
Aoxa1. yruo ax1ouu (pocyArqa1uymmuo) ua moAoxyAnnoro
nopoopa noAynam1 anorum, nooxopumym pAn cnnawnanun yrAo-
xucAoro raaa, no, xomo 1oro, onu nyxpam1cn n ro1onwx oranunoc-
xux nomoc1nax u noa1omy nnAnm1cn ro1oo1oqamu. Haxono, cy-
moc1nyo1 rynna poc1nu1oArno an1o1oqnwx aaonwx ax1ou,
1ax u nonopnuxnwo, aamnoxonuo opnux noucxopu1 unanwm
poAonuom, pyrux - nonxonanuom. Copu nynynwx ax1ou
aaAunam1 conwo, umommuo nxAmnonun cow n u1onAaamo, u
noconwo, no copoxamuo 1axonwx.
3e.eume ounepuu oAapam1 xAoocomamu u no umom1 1uAa-
xoupon. Copu nux aaAunam1 opnoxAo1onnwo, ramo1ua1oAr-
nwo, nonopnuxnwo, anaaonwo aoAonwo cooax1ouu, no ucnoAr-
aymmuo oranunocxuo coopunonun n noocco qo1ocun1oaa; u nu1-
na1wo ramo1ua1oArnwo qaxyAr1a1unnwo anaaow, ucnoAray-
mmuo oranunocxuo coopunonun u nocnoconwo x cxoArxonum.
Xomocnnxoa. Hanpy c qo1ocun1oauymmumu an1o1oqamu
cymoc1nym1 an1o1oqw, xo1owo nu cnnawnanuu yrAoxucAoro raaa
u cun1oao oranunocxux nomoc1n ucnoAraym1 no Aynuc1ym ano-
rum, a anorum, noAynonnym n oayAr1a1o oxucAonun nooranu-
nocxux coopunonu. Taxuo oranuamw, xo1owo cnoconw oa oc-
nomonun ac1u na munoaArnwx cyc1a1ax, naawnam1 re+ocuu
ne:upwu+u. Hx cannu1oArno nomnoro, u nco onu nnAnm1cn
noxauo1amu. Ocoonnoc1u xuanopon1oArnoc1u xomoan1o1oqon
camu no coo noanwnano un1oocnw, xomo 1oro, n 1ononuo uc1o-
uu 3omAu onu oxaaaAu nocrma cymoc1nonnoo noapoc1nuo na 1o-
nonuo rooxumunocxux nooccon. E aanucumoc1u o1 ucnoArayomwx
cyc1a1on xomocun1oauymmuo oranuamw nopaapoAnm1 na: uun
puquuupwue ounepuu, e.e:oounepuu, oooopooume oune
puu, cepoounepuu u ounepuu, ouuc.nwue cpt+.
Hnxpnqnnpymmno 6auxopnn nnonwo nwpoAuA C.H. Hnno-
rpapcun (1890 - 1892). Eco onu nnAnm1cn oAura1nwmu aaoa-
mu, no Iamy oxamunam1cn o1ua1oArno. ynxuonaArno ux
poAn1 na pno rynnw.
Honan ua nux oxucAno1 ammonu po aao1uc1o xucAo1w:
E1oan - aao1uc1ym xucAo1y po aao1no:
Hu oxucAonuu ammonun nnanaAo oaayo1cn rupoxcuAamun
(NH
2
OH), nu a1om no noucxopu1 oaaonanun anorocopoxamux
nomoc1n, opnaxo no ncox nocAopymmux oaxunx cun1oauyo1cn ATP.
Hoonoc noayxponnoro aAox1ona, no-nupumomy, ocymoc1nAno1-
cn no cAopymmo onu noonocnuxon:
NH
2
OH qAanono1oup u1oxom b (yuxunon)
u1oxom c u1oxom o O
2
.
Hooxopumw pAn cun1oaa oranunocxux coopunonu nopoop nu1-
uquuymmuo ax1ouu noAynam1, nocc1ananAunan NAD po NADH.
Ha a1u oAu aa1anunao1cn anorun ATP uAu 1ancmomannoro
!
no1onuaAa. Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa cAyxu1 CO
2
, xo1ow cnnaw-
nao1cn n noocco uxAa KaArnuna. 0noro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r
a1ux nooccon poc1a1onno noAuxa, u corAacno acno1am y1uAuaa-
un cnoopno anoruu moxo1 nonwma1r 50%.
Hu1uquuymmuo ax1ouu o1Aunam1cn nuaxo cnoconoc-
1rm ycnauna1r axaoronnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na. EoAoo 1oro,
mnoruo oranunocxuo nomoc1na (rAmxoaa, rAuoun, mononuna u
p.) paxo cpoxunam1 oc1 1axux ax1ou.
Hu1uquuymmuo ax1ouu muoxo acnoc1anonw n aa-
Aunnwx nopoomax u n nonno. Onu ax1unno ynac1nym1 n xyronoo1o
aao1a. E nuopo, ooraman nonny nu1a1amu, xo1owo Aorxo ycna-
unam1cn xononwmu cuc1omamu ac1onu, nu1uquuymmuo ax-
1ouu cnococ1nym1 nonwmonum nAopoopun nonnw. Opnaxo, xo-
mo nocomnonno noAraw, ux pon1oArnoc1r nunopu1 x nonwmonum
xucAo1noc1u nonn. E oayAr1a1o ponu1uquxauu nu1a1-uonw noc-
c1ananAunam1cn po moAoxyAnnoro aao1a, n1o nunopu1 yxo x oop-
nonum nonnw poc1ynnwmu pAn ac1onu coopunonunmu aao1a.
Hoaoao6auxopnn noAynam1 anorum n oayAr1a1o oxucAonun
pnyxnaAon1noro xoAoaa po 1oxnaAon1noro. Hnmo uAu xocnonno
xoAoao mory1 oxucAn1r no 1oArxo an1o1oqnwo noxauo1w, no u
noxo1owo ro1oo1oqw. Komo 1oro, noxo1owo cooax1ouu, na-
npy c coo, cnoconw 1axxo oxucAn1r aaxucnoo xoAoao. PoayAr1a-
1om ux pon1oArnoc1u no nooaaonanum coopunonu xoAoaa n 1ono-
nuo muAAuonon Ao1 nnuAucr xoAoccaArnwo o1Aoxonun xoAoanwx yp.
Xumunocxoo nooaaonanuo cyc1a1a xoAoaoax1ounmu no-
ucxopu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
Honr noonocnuxon aAox1ona:
Hopopopnmo 6auxopnn oxucAnm1 moAoxyAnnw nopoop.
K a1o rynno o1nocn1cn c1oruo u qaxyAr1a1unnwo anaaow,
a 1axxo oAura1nwo aaow. Anaaoamu nnAnm1cn noxo1owo
qo1ocun1oauymmuo ax1ouu, xo1owo ucnoAraym1 H
2
xax uc1on-
nux nopoopa, opnaxo onu nyxpam1cn n coAnonno anoruu pAn
cun1oaa oranunocxux nomoc1n, noa1omy x xomo1oqam no nunap-
Aoxa1. yruo ax1ouu (pocyArqa1uymmuo) ua moAoxyAnnoro
nopoopa noAynam1 anorum, nooxopumym pAn cnnawnanun yrAo-
xucAoro raaa, no, xomo 1oro, onu nyxpam1cn n ro1onwx oranunoc-
xux nomoc1nax u noa1omy nnAnm1cn ro1oo1oqamu. Haxono, cy-
moc1nyo1 rynna poc1nu1oArno an1o1oqnwx aaonwx ax1ou,
1ax u nonopnuxnwo, aamnoxonuo opnux noucxopu1 unanwm
poAonuom, pyrux - nonxonanuom. Copu nynynwx ax1ou
aaAunam1 conwo, umommuo nxAmnonun cow n u1onAaamo, u
noconwo, no copoxamuo 1axonwx.
3e.eume ounepuu oAapam1 xAoocomamu u no umom1 1uAa-
xoupon. Copu nux aaAunam1 opnoxAo1onnwo, ramo1ua1oAr-
nwo, nonopnuxnwo, anaaonwo aoAonwo cooax1ouu, no ucnoAr-
aymmuo oranunocxuo coopunonun n noocco qo1ocun1oaa; u nu1-
na1wo ramo1ua1oArnwo qaxyAr1a1unnwo anaaow, ucnoAray-
mmuo oranunocxuo coopunonun u nocnoconwo x cxoArxonum.
Xomocnnxoa. Hanpy c qo1ocun1oauymmumu an1o1oqamu
cymoc1nym1 an1o1oqw, xo1owo nu cnnawnanuu yrAoxucAoro raaa
u cun1oao oranunocxux nomoc1n ucnoAraym1 no Aynuc1ym ano-
rum, a anorum, noAynonnym n oayAr1a1o oxucAonun nooranu-
nocxux coopunonu. Taxuo oranuamw, xo1owo cnoconw oa oc-
nomonun ac1u na munoaArnwx cyc1a1ax, naawnam1 re+ocuu
ne:upwu+u. Hx cannu1oArno nomnoro, u nco onu nnAnm1cn
noxauo1amu. Ocoonnoc1u xuanopon1oArnoc1u xomoan1o1oqon
camu no coo noanwnano un1oocnw, xomo 1oro, n 1ononuo uc1o-
uu 3omAu onu oxaaaAu nocrma cymoc1nonnoo noapoc1nuo na 1o-
nonuo rooxumunocxux nooccon. E aanucumoc1u o1 ucnoArayomwx
cyc1a1on xomocun1oauymmuo oranuamw nopaapoAnm1 na: uun
puquuupwue ounepuu, e.e:oounepuu, oooopooume oune
puu, cepoounepuu u ounepuu, ouuc.nwue cpt+.
Hnxpnqnnpymmno 6auxopnn nnonwo nwpoAuA C.H. Hnno-
rpapcun (1890 - 1892). Eco onu nnAnm1cn oAura1nwmu aaoa-
mu, no Iamy oxamunam1cn o1ua1oArno. ynxuonaArno ux
poAn1 na pno rynnw.
Honan ua nux oxucAno1 ammonu po aao1uc1o xucAo1w:
E1oan - aao1uc1ym xucAo1y po aao1no:
Hu oxucAonuu ammonun nnanaAo oaayo1cn rupoxcuAamun
(NH
2
OH), nu a1om no noucxopu1 oaaonanun anorocopoxamux
nomoc1n, opnaxo no ncox nocAopymmux oaxunx cun1oauyo1cn ATP.
Hoonoc noayxponnoro aAox1ona, no-nupumomy, ocymoc1nAno1-
cn no cAopymmo onu noonocnuxon:
NH
2
OH qAanono1oup u1oxom b (yuxunon)
u1oxom c u1oxom o O
2
.
Hooxopumw pAn cun1oaa oranunocxux coopunonu nopoop nu1-
uquuymmuo ax1ouu noAynam1, nocc1ananAunan NAD po NADH.
Ha a1u oAu aa1anunao1cn anorun ATP uAu 1ancmomannoro
# "
Hu oxucAonuu cow u 1uocyArqa1a oa xucAoopa c ucnoArao-
nanuom nu1a1on:
Tancno1 aAox1onon no onu noonocnuxon y aanwx nupon
moxo1 umo1r ocoonnoc1u u aanucu1 o1 oxucAnomoro cyc1a1a.
Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa y cooax1ou cAyxu1 yrAoxucAw raa, xo-
1ow onu n ocnonnom cnnawnam1 n noocco oaxu uxAa KaAr-
nuna (xax u oArmunc1no pyrux xomoan1o1oqon).
ynxuonaArnan pon1oArnoc1r cooax1ou ononr aanoo-
aana. Ocoonnoc1u nonnAnm1cn n cnouquxo oxucAnomoro cy-
c1a1a, xomo 1oro, noxo1owo nupw mory1 oxucAn1r no 1oArxo
coopunonun cow, no u pyruo nooranunocxuo nomoc1na, n nac1-
noc1u aaxucnoo xoAoao. HoAynonnan nu a1om anorun 1axxo uc-
noArayo1cn pAn an1o1oqnoro nu1anun. Cnoconoc1r aanwx nu-
pon ycnauna1r axaoronnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na noopunaxona.
Pocx n paamnomonno mnupooprannamon. Poc1 nopc1anAno1 co-
o ynoAunonuo xoAunoc1na xumunocxux xomnonon1on muxono
xAo1xu. An xaax1ouc1uxu oc1a muxooranuamon ucnoArayo1cn
nonn1uo ounepuo.tuou +occm, xo1ooo nwaxao1cn nAo1noc1rm
ax1ou (cyxan macca na 1 mA). Paamnoxonuo muxoon onucwnao1-
cn nucAom ax1ou, o1axammum xonon1aum xAo1ox n 1 mA.
C1oro nonouonaArnoc1u moxpy ynoAunonuom nucAa ax1ou
u ax1ouaArno maccw no1. 01o o+ncnno1cn 1om, n1o n nonyAnuu
ax1ou no nco xAo1xu nnAnm1cn xuanocnoconwmu - nac1r ua nux
mo1nwo, noxo1owo naxopn1cn na aanwx a1anax poc1yxuu. Vna-
c1nyn n coapanuu ax1ouaArno maccw, 1axuo xAo1xu no ynac1nym1
n paArnomom aamnoxonuu ax1ou. Paamnoxonuo ax1ou no-
ucxopu1 ny1om nnmoro poAonun. Hu a1om oaayo1cn noo1nxxa
uAu nanunao1cn nac1anuo u1onAaama1unocxo momanw nny1r,
nononpuxyAnno nopoArno ocu xAo1xu c oaaonanuom pucxa -
xAo1onno nAac1unw. 01a nAac1una unorpa moxo1 w1r nonoAno
u umoo1 o1noc1uo, n on1o xo1oo coopunno1 oo coc1uncxuo
xAo1xu. E paArnomom n xAo1onnym nAac1uny nac1ao1 oxonan
c1onxa, xo1oan oaayo1 nonoonnym nooroopxy, poAnmym xAo-
1onnym nAac1uny na pno nac1u, xaxpan ua xo1owx o1xopu1 x
opno ua oaaonanmuxcn xAo1ox. Hon1aArnoo o1noc1uo, no aa-
poAonnoo nonoonno nooroopxo uAu nAac1uno, noAynuAo na-
ananuo n.o:+ooec+oco. HAaamopocmoc urao1 oAr n coopunonuu
ucnoAraymmux n xanoc1no uc1onnuxa anoruu H
2
. HocxoArxy onu
nanpy c nopoopom ucnoAraym1 omo u moAoxyAnnw xucAoop,
ux naawnam1 ax1ounmu romynoro raaa. OxucAonuo H
2
ynanAn-
o1cn ruporonaao u cymmano o1nonao1 cAopymmomy yannonum:
rpo [CH
2
O - cun1oauyomoo oranunocxoo nomoc1no.
0noro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r nopoopnwx ax1ou poc1u-
rao1 30%. V aanwx nupon nopoopnwx ax1ou onr noonocnu-
xon aAox1onon moxo1 naruona1r. E nauoAoo 1ununnom cAynao
ona nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
uxcaun CO
2
1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn n xopo oaxu uxAa
KaArnuna u na qocqoonoAnuyna1o, uc1onnuxom xo1ooro cAyxu1
qocqorAuoa1. Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa pAn nopoopnwx ax1ou,
xomo CO
2
, 1axxo mory1 cAyxu1r noxo1owo oranunocxuo nomoc1na
(rAmxoaa, rAmxona1, ao1a1, nuyna1 u p.). Hu naAunuu ro1onwx
oranunocxux nomoc1n n oxyxammo copo nopoopnwo ax1ouu
mory1 noo1u na ro1oo1oqnw 1un nu1anun, nu a1om ux cnoco-
noc1r oxucAn1r H
2
u cnnawna1r CO
2
cnuxao1cn. Hununo 1omy cAy-
xu1 nopanAonuo cun1oaa xomnonon1on nopoopax1unuymmo cuc1o-
mw ruporonaaw u noxo1owx qomon1on uxAa KaArnuna.
Copo6auxopnn nc1onam1cn n nocnwx u coAonwx nopoomax,
copoxamux coonopoop. Onu ocno1nw u moqoAorunocxu nop-
aapoAnm1cn na 1u rynnw: nu1na1wo, opnoxAo1onnwo c moAxu-
mu xAo1xamu u opnoxAo1onnwo c xynnwmu xAo1xamu. Mnoruo
cooax1ouu pomonc1uym1 aamo1noo cxopc1no c uanoax1ou-
nmu, aa n1o noxo1owo uccAopona1oAu accma1unam1 ux xax oc-
no1nwo qomw uanoax1ou.
E o1Aunuo o1 qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou, ucnoAraymmux coonopo-
op n xanoc1no uc1onnuxa nopoopa u noAynammux anorum o1 cno-
1a, cooax1ouu, oxucAnn aaAunnwo coopunonun cow, nocc1anan-
Aunam1 oo po moAoxyAnnoro coc1onnun, a nwpoAnmmymcn nu a1om
anorum ucnoAraym1 pAn accumuAnuu yrAoxucAoro raaa. Cymma-
no oaxuu oxucAonun cyc1a1a upy1 cAopymmum oaaom.
Hu oxucAonuu coonopoopa:
Hu oxucAonuu cow u 1uocyArqa1a n nucy1c1nuu xucAoopa:
# "
Hu oxucAonuu cow u 1uocyArqa1a oa xucAoopa c ucnoArao-
nanuom nu1a1on:
Tancno1 aAox1onon no onu noonocnuxon y aanwx nupon
moxo1 umo1r ocoonnoc1u u aanucu1 o1 oxucAnomoro cyc1a1a.
Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa y cooax1ou cAyxu1 yrAoxucAw raa, xo-
1ow onu n ocnonnom cnnawnam1 n noocco oaxu uxAa KaAr-
nuna (xax u oArmunc1no pyrux xomoan1o1oqon).
ynxuonaArnan pon1oArnoc1r cooax1ou ononr aanoo-
aana. Ocoonnoc1u nonnAnm1cn n cnouquxo oxucAnomoro cy-
c1a1a, xomo 1oro, noxo1owo nupw mory1 oxucAn1r no 1oArxo
coopunonun cow, no u pyruo nooranunocxuo nomoc1na, n nac1-
noc1u aaxucnoo xoAoao. HoAynonnan nu a1om anorun 1axxo uc-
noArayo1cn pAn an1o1oqnoro nu1anun. Cnoconoc1r aanwx nu-
pon ycnauna1r axaoronnwo oranunocxuo nomoc1na noopunaxona.
Pocx n paamnomonno mnupooprannamon. Poc1 nopc1anAno1 co-
o ynoAunonuo xoAunoc1na xumunocxux xomnonon1on muxono
xAo1xu. An xaax1ouc1uxu oc1a muxooranuamon ucnoArayo1cn
nonn1uo ounepuo.tuou +occm, xo1ooo nwaxao1cn nAo1noc1rm
ax1ou (cyxan macca na 1 mA). Paamnoxonuo muxoon onucwnao1-
cn nucAom ax1ou, o1axammum xonon1aum xAo1ox n 1 mA.
C1oro nonouonaArnoc1u moxpy ynoAunonuom nucAa ax1ou
u ax1ouaArno maccw no1. 01o o+ncnno1cn 1om, n1o n nonyAnuu
ax1ou no nco xAo1xu nnAnm1cn xuanocnoconwmu - nac1r ua nux
mo1nwo, noxo1owo naxopn1cn na aanwx a1anax poc1yxuu. Vna-
c1nyn n coapanuu ax1ouaArno maccw, 1axuo xAo1xu no ynac1nym1
n paArnomom aamnoxonuu ax1ou. Paamnoxonuo ax1ou no-
ucxopu1 ny1om nnmoro poAonun. Hu a1om oaayo1cn noo1nxxa
uAu nanunao1cn nac1anuo u1onAaama1unocxo momanw nny1r,
nononpuxyAnno nopoArno ocu xAo1xu c oaaonanuom pucxa -
xAo1onno nAac1unw. 01a nAac1una unorpa moxo1 w1r nonoAno
u umoo1 o1noc1uo, n on1o xo1oo coopunno1 oo coc1uncxuo
xAo1xu. E paArnomom n xAo1onnym nAac1uny nac1ao1 oxonan
c1onxa, xo1oan oaayo1 nonoonnym nooroopxy, poAnmym xAo-
1onnym nAac1uny na pno nac1u, xaxpan ua xo1owx o1xopu1 x
opno ua oaaonanmuxcn xAo1ox. Hon1aArnoo o1noc1uo, no aa-
poAonnoo nonoonno nooroopxo uAu nAac1uno, noAynuAo na-
ananuo n.o:+ooec+oco. HAaamopocmoc urao1 oAr n coopunonuu
ucnoAraymmux n xanoc1no uc1onnuxa anoruu H
2
. HocxoArxy onu
nanpy c nopoopom ucnoAraym1 omo u moAoxyAnnw xucAoop,
ux naawnam1 ax1ounmu romynoro raaa. OxucAonuo H
2
ynanAn-
o1cn ruporonaao u cymmano o1nonao1 cAopymmomy yannonum:
rpo [CH
2
O - cun1oauyomoo oranunocxoo nomoc1no.
0noro1unocxan aqqox1unnoc1r nopoopnwx ax1ou poc1u-
rao1 30%. V aanwx nupon nopoopnwx ax1ou onr noonocnu-
xon aAox1onon moxo1 naruona1r. E nauoAoo 1ununnom cAynao
ona nwrAnpu1 cAopymmum oaaom:
uxcaun CO
2
1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn n xopo oaxu uxAa
KaArnuna u na qocqoonoAnuyna1o, uc1onnuxom xo1ooro cAyxu1
qocqorAuoa1. Hc1onnuxom yrAoopa pAn nopoopnwx ax1ou,
xomo CO
2
, 1axxo mory1 cAyxu1r noxo1owo oranunocxuo nomoc1na
(rAmxoaa, rAmxona1, ao1a1, nuyna1 u p.). Hu naAunuu ro1onwx
oranunocxux nomoc1n n oxyxammo copo nopoopnwo ax1ouu
mory1 noo1u na ro1oo1oqnw 1un nu1anun, nu a1om ux cnoco-
noc1r oxucAn1r H
2
u cnnawna1r CO
2
cnuxao1cn. Hununo 1omy cAy-
xu1 nopanAonuo cun1oaa xomnonon1on nopoopax1unuymmo cuc1o-
mw ruporonaaw u noxo1owx qomon1on uxAa KaArnuna.
Copo6auxopnn nc1onam1cn n nocnwx u coAonwx nopoomax,
copoxamux coonopoop. Onu ocno1nw u moqoAorunocxu nop-
aapoAnm1cn na 1u rynnw: nu1na1wo, opnoxAo1onnwo c moAxu-
mu xAo1xamu u opnoxAo1onnwo c xynnwmu xAo1xamu. Mnoruo
cooax1ouu pomonc1uym1 aamo1noo cxopc1no c uanoax1ou-
nmu, aa n1o noxo1owo uccAopona1oAu accma1unam1 ux xax oc-
no1nwo qomw uanoax1ou.
E o1Aunuo o1 qo1o1oqnwx ax1ou, ucnoAraymmux coonopo-
op n xanoc1no uc1onnuxa nopoopa u noAynammux anorum o1 cno-
1a, cooax1ouu, oxucAnn aaAunnwo coopunonun cow, nocc1anan-
Aunam1 oo po moAoxyAnnoro coc1onnun, a nwpoAnmmymcn nu a1om
anorum ucnoAraym1 pAn accumuAnuu yrAoxucAoro raaa. Cymma-
no oaxuu oxucAonun cyc1a1a upy1 cAopymmum oaaom.
Hu oxucAonuu coonopoopa:
Hu oxucAonuu cow u 1uocyArqa1a n nucy1c1nuu xucAoopa:
% $
E noxo1owx cAynanx y ax1ou naAmpao1cn pnyxqaanan Aar-
qaaa. Tax, E. coII nu nwamunanuu na copo, copoxamo rAm-
xoay u cou1, ucnoAraym1 nnanaAo rAmxoay, a cun1oa qomon1on
pAn ycnoonun cou1a nopanAno1cn. umr nocAo uaacxoponanun
rAmxoaw a1u qomon1w nanunam1 qynxuonuona1r. Onucannoo
nnAonuo noAynuAo naananuo puayxcuu.
Eo n1oo qaao - cuopeuuoeo po:+uoeuun - nanunao1cn aa-
mnoxonuo ax1ou. 01a qaaa cannu1oArno xoo1xan u nooxo-
pu1 n cAopymmym qaay - Aorauqmunocxym, uAu axcnononuaAr-
nym. E 1ononuo a1o qaaw ax1ouu xaax1ouaym1cn nauoAoo
nwcoxo quauoAorunocxo ax1unnoc1rm, onu nocrma yc1onunw x
noapoc1num qax1oon nnomno copw u oAapam1 nwcoxo um-
mynoronnoc1rm. An .oeopuq+uuecuou qo:m cnoc1nonno maxcu-
maArnoo ynoAunonuo cxooc1u oc1a ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox. Eax-
1ouu aamnoxam1cn n roomo1unocxo noroccuu, u xunan o-
c1a n a1o qaao nopc1anAno1 coo axcnonon1y. HopoAxu1oAr-
noc1r panno qaaw y oArmunc1na ax1ou coc1anAno1 3 - 5 nacon.
orauqmunocxan qaaa aanomao1cn qo:ou onpuuone.tuoeo
cuopeuun pocno, xorpa cxooc1r aamnoxonun ax1ou aamopAn-
o1cn u n xyAr1yo nanunam1 naxanAuna1rcn o1muammuo ocou.
Korpa xoAunoc1no nnonr oaaymmuxcn u o1muammux xAo1ox c1a-
nonu1cn nax1unocxu opunaxonwm, nac1ynao1 cnouuouopuon qo:o
pocno, uAu qo:o +oucu+o.tuou uouueunpouuu (M-xonon1auu).
E a1o qaao ax1ouu o1Aunam1cn ax1unno xuanopon1oArnoc1rm,
pAn nux xaax1oon nwaxonnw noAumoquam. KoAunoc1no uo-
maccw n c1auonano qaao nopc1anAno1 coo yoxa ax1ou.
K xony c1auonano qaaw xoAunoc1no o1muammux xAo1ox
nanunao1 nonwma1r nucAo nnonr oaaymmuxcn, u nanunao1cn
nouop o1muanun ax1ou.
On nxAmnao1 qo: cuopeuuou eue.u, qo: .oeopuq+uuecuou
eue.u u qo: +eutueuun cuopocnu on+upouun. E a1o nomn n
xyAr1yo nonnAno1cn mnoxoc1no unnoAmuonnwx qom, xAo1xu
nAoxo oxamunam1cn, copoxa1 monrmo nopw, PHK. KoAunoc1no
ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox n xyAr1yo n xono nouopa oc1a nocxoArxo
nonwmao1 ucxopnoo nucAo ax1ou. HopoAxu1oArnoc1r 1axoro
uxAa pAn oArmunc1na ax1ou coc1anAno1 18 - 24 naca.
KyAr1yw, n xo1owx nco xAo1xu naxopn1cn n opunaxonwx
qaaax oc1a, noAynuAu naananuo cuurpouumr.
Ha oc1 ax1ou cymoc1nonnoo nAunnuo oxaawnam1 qax1ow
nnomno copw, ocoonno quaunocxo u xumunocxo nuopw.
K qnannocunm qax1oam o1nocn1cn 1omnoa1ya, uaAynonun,
nwcymunanuo, panAonuo, yAr1aanyx u pyruo.
Te+neponpo. Huanopon1oArnoc1r muxooranuamon nucnoco-
Aona x oxyxammum 1omnoa1ynwm ycAonunm, o1xAononuo o1 xo1o-
wx moxo1 oxaawna1r cymoc1nonnoo nAunnuo na muxooranuamw.
xAo1ox noxo1owx ax1ou n pAunnwo ononxu uAu rynnw.
Homumo o1mononnoro, noocc poAonun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox
moxo1 noucxopu1r ny1om noomnyonwnanun. HucAo ax1ou-
aArnwx xAo1ox n noocco aamnoxonun ynoAununao1cn n roomo1-
unocxo noroccuu. An oArmunc1na ax1ou nomn ronoa-
uu coc1anAno1 20 - 30 muny1.
Poc1 u aamnoxonuo ax1ou nonnAnm1cn no-aanomy n aa-
nucumoc1u o1 ycAonu xyAr1unuonanun. Ha nAo1nwx nu1a1oAr-
nwx copax nonnAonuom oc1a u aamnoxonun ax1ou nnAno1-
cn nonnAonuo xoAonu, nopc1anAnmmux coo nuayaArno aaAu-
numwo cxonAonun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox. KoAonuu xaax1ouay-
m1cn naoom onopoAonnwx nuanaxon, na ocnonanuu xo1owx
moxno upon1uquuona1r nuc1wo xyAr1yw ax1ou. K a1um
nuanaxam o1nocn1cn: aamow (xynnwo, copnuo, moAxuo, mux-
ocxonunocxuo); qoma (xyrAwo, acnAac1annwo u p.); oxacxa,
aanucnman o1 oaaonanun ax1ounmu nurmon1on; nonoxnoc1r
(nwnyxAan, nAocxan, ma1onan, Aoc1nman u p.); xaax1o xaon
(onnw, mooxona1w u p.); xoncuc1onun (opnoopnan, nac1o-
oaanan, cAuauc1an u p.); noaannoc1r (noaannwo, my1nwo).
Hu nouopunocxom xyAr1unuonanuu y ax1ou naAmpao1-
cn nocAopona1oArnan cmona qaa oc1a, xo1oym o1axao1 xunan
oc1a (uc. 54).
Hoocc oc1a nanunao1cn c qo:m :ooepuu pocno, uAu .oe
qo:m. E a1o1 nouop noucxopu1 un1oncunnan mo1aoAunocxan ax-
1unnoc1r ax1ou, oayAr1a1om xo1oo nnAno1cn nopro1onxa xAo1-
xu x wc1omy aamnoxonum. aaa nanunao1cn c momon1a nnoco-
nun ax1ou n copy. HopoAxu1oArnoc1r oo aanucu1 o1 noaac1a
aaconnno xyAr1yw (ona oAoo pAu1oArnan nu nnoconuu c1a-
o xyAr1yw), coc1ana copw, 1omnoa1yw u pyrux momon1on.
P u c . 5 4. lpusas pocma axmepu:
1 naa-qasa; 2 qasa ycxopeoao pasuo+eus; 3 noaapuquuvecxas qasa; 4 qasa
ompuamensoao ycxopeus pocma; 5 cmauoapas qasa; 6 qasa ycxopeo auenu;
7 qasa noaapuquuvecxo auenu; 8 qasa yuesueus cxopocmu omuupaus
% $
E noxo1owx cAynanx y ax1ou naAmpao1cn pnyxqaanan Aar-
qaaa. Tax, E. coII nu nwamunanuu na copo, copoxamo rAm-
xoay u cou1, ucnoAraym1 nnanaAo rAmxoay, a cun1oa qomon1on
pAn ycnoonun cou1a nopanAno1cn. umr nocAo uaacxoponanun
rAmxoaw a1u qomon1w nanunam1 qynxuonuona1r. Onucannoo
nnAonuo noAynuAo naananuo puayxcuu.
Eo n1oo qaao - cuopeuuoeo po:+uoeuun - nanunao1cn aa-
mnoxonuo ax1ou. 01a qaaa cannu1oArno xoo1xan u nooxo-
pu1 n cAopymmym qaay - Aorauqmunocxym, uAu axcnononuaAr-
nym. E 1ononuo a1o qaaw ax1ouu xaax1ouaym1cn nauoAoo
nwcoxo quauoAorunocxo ax1unnoc1rm, onu nocrma yc1onunw x
noapoc1num qax1oon nnomno copw u oAapam1 nwcoxo um-
mynoronnoc1rm. An .oeopuq+uuecuou qo:m cnoc1nonno maxcu-
maArnoo ynoAunonuo cxooc1u oc1a ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox. Eax-
1ouu aamnoxam1cn n roomo1unocxo noroccuu, u xunan o-
c1a n a1o qaao nopc1anAno1 coo axcnonon1y. HopoAxu1oAr-
noc1r panno qaaw y oArmunc1na ax1ou coc1anAno1 3 - 5 nacon.
orauqmunocxan qaaa aanomao1cn qo:ou onpuuone.tuoeo
cuopeuun pocno, xorpa cxooc1r aamnoxonun ax1ou aamopAn-
o1cn u n xyAr1yo nanunam1 naxanAuna1rcn o1muammuo ocou.
Korpa xoAunoc1no nnonr oaaymmuxcn u o1muammux xAo1ox c1a-
nonu1cn nax1unocxu opunaxonwm, nac1ynao1 cnouuouopuon qo:o
pocno, uAu qo:o +oucu+o.tuou uouueunpouuu (M-xonon1auu).
E a1o qaao ax1ouu o1Aunam1cn ax1unno xuanopon1oArnoc1rm,
pAn nux xaax1oon nwaxonnw noAumoquam. KoAunoc1no uo-
maccw n c1auonano qaao nopc1anAno1 coo yoxa ax1ou.
K xony c1auonano qaaw xoAunoc1no o1muammux xAo1ox
nanunao1 nonwma1r nucAo nnonr oaaymmuxcn, u nanunao1cn
nouop o1muanun ax1ou.
On nxAmnao1 qo: cuopeuuou eue.u, qo: .oeopuq+uuecuou
eue.u u qo: +eutueuun cuopocnu on+upouun. E a1o nomn n
xyAr1yo nonnAno1cn mnoxoc1no unnoAmuonnwx qom, xAo1xu
nAoxo oxamunam1cn, copoxa1 monrmo nopw, PHK. KoAunoc1no
ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox n xyAr1yo n xono nouopa oc1a nocxoArxo
nonwmao1 ucxopnoo nucAo ax1ou. HopoAxu1oArnoc1r 1axoro
uxAa pAn oArmunc1na ax1ou coc1anAno1 18 - 24 naca.
KyAr1yw, n xo1owx nco xAo1xu naxopn1cn n opunaxonwx
qaaax oc1a, noAynuAu naananuo cuurpouumr.
Ha oc1 ax1ou cymoc1nonnoo nAunnuo oxaawnam1 qax1ow
nnomno copw, ocoonno quaunocxo u xumunocxo nuopw.
K qnannocunm qax1oam o1nocn1cn 1omnoa1ya, uaAynonun,
nwcymunanuo, panAonuo, yAr1aanyx u pyruo.
Te+neponpo. Huanopon1oArnoc1r muxooranuamon nucnoco-
Aona x oxyxammum 1omnoa1ynwm ycAonunm, o1xAononuo o1 xo1o-
wx moxo1 oxaawna1r cymoc1nonnoo nAunnuo na muxooranuamw.
xAo1ox noxo1owx ax1ou n pAunnwo ononxu uAu rynnw.
Homumo o1mononnoro, noocc poAonun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox
moxo1 noucxopu1r ny1om noomnyonwnanun. HucAo ax1ou-
aArnwx xAo1ox n noocco aamnoxonun ynoAununao1cn n roomo1-
unocxo noroccuu. An oArmunc1na ax1ou nomn ronoa-
uu coc1anAno1 20 - 30 muny1.
Poc1 u aamnoxonuo ax1ou nonnAnm1cn no-aanomy n aa-
nucumoc1u o1 ycAonu xyAr1unuonanun. Ha nAo1nwx nu1a1oAr-
nwx copax nonnAonuom oc1a u aamnoxonun ax1ou nnAno1-
cn nonnAonuo xoAonu, nopc1anAnmmux coo nuayaArno aaAu-
numwo cxonAonun ax1ouaArnwx xAo1ox. KoAonuu xaax1ouay-
m1cn naoom onopoAonnwx nuanaxon, na ocnonanuu xo1owx
moxno upon1uquuona1r nuc1wo xyAr1yw ax1ou. K a1um
nuanaxam o1nocn1cn: aamow (xynnwo, copnuo, moAxuo, mux-
ocxonunocxuo); qoma (xyrAwo, acnAac1annwo u p.); oxacxa,
aanucnman o1 oaaonanun ax1ounmu nurmon1on; nonoxnoc1r
(nwnyxAan, nAocxan, ma1onan, Aoc1nman u p.); xaax1o xaon
(onnw, mooxona1w u p.); xoncuc1onun (opnoopnan, nac1o-
oaanan, cAuauc1an u p.); noaannoc1r (noaannwo, my1nwo).
Hu nouopunocxom xyAr1unuonanuu y ax1ou naAmpao1-
cn nocAopona1oArnan cmona qaa oc1a, xo1oym o1axao1 xunan
oc1a (uc. 54).
Hoocc oc1a nanunao1cn c qo:m :ooepuu pocno, uAu .oe
qo:m. E a1o1 nouop noucxopu1 un1oncunnan mo1aoAunocxan ax-
1unnoc1r ax1ou, oayAr1a1om xo1oo nnAno1cn nopro1onxa xAo1-
xu x wc1omy aamnoxonum. aaa nanunao1cn c momon1a nnoco-
nun ax1ou n copy. HopoAxu1oArnoc1r oo aanucu1 o1 noaac1a
aaconnno xyAr1yw (ona oAoo pAu1oArnan nu nnoconuu c1a-
o xyAr1yw), coc1ana copw, 1omnoa1yw u pyrux momon1on.
P u c . 5 4. lpusas pocma axmepu:
1 naa-qasa; 2 qasa ycxopeoao pasuo+eus; 3 noaapuquuvecxas qasa; 4 qasa
ompuamensoao ycxopeus pocma; 5 cmauoapas qasa; 6 qasa ycxopeo auenu;
7 qasa noaapuquuvecxo auenu; 8 qasa yuesueus cxopocmu omuupaus
' &
coAnonnwm cno1om n 1ononuo 1 - 2 nacon co c1oonw pna, nocAo noro
unxyuyo1cn. Poc1 ax1ou o1monao1cn 1oArxo n moc1ax, coo1no1-
c1nymmux xyconxam ymaru. Iyu1oArnoo poc1nuo coAnonnoro cno1a
cnnaano, n nonym onoopr, c noapoc1nuom yAr1aquoAo1onoro
uaAynonun c pAuno noAnw 234 - 300 nm, xo1ooo norAomao1cn HK
u nwawnao1 pumouaaum 1umuna. Taxoo poc1nuo yAr1aquoAo1o-
nwx Ayno ucnoArayo1cn pAn ooanoxunanun noapyxa n aaAun-
nwx nomomonunx, oArnuax, onoauonnwx, naAa1ax u 1. p.
Honuauymman apuaun 1axxo ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na mux-
ooranuamw, opnaxo muxow nwcoxoyc1onunw x a1omy qax1o-
y, oAapam1 apuoyc1onunoc1rm (ux ruoAr noucxopu1 nu o-
Aynonuu n poaax 10000 - 100000 P). 01o cnnawnam1 c maAwmu aa-
moamu mumonu ua-aa nuaxoro copoxanun nyxAounonwx xucAo1 y
muxooranuamon. Honuauymman apuaun ucnoArayo1cn pAn c1o-
uAuaauu noxo1owx uoAorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n, numonwx
nopyx1on. Houmymoc1nom a1oro cnocoa nnAno1cn 1o, n1o nu 1axo
oao1xo no uamonnm1cn cnoc1na oaa1wnaomoro o+ox1a.
Emcuuoouue nnAno1cn opnum ua qax1oon, oryAuymmux
copoxanuo muxooranuamon no nnomno copo. O1nomonuo mux-
oon x a1omy noapoc1num aanucu1 no mnorom o1 ycAonu, n xo1o-
wx ono noucxopu1. E oc1oc1nonnwx ycAonunx nwcymunanuo
ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na noro1a1unnwo qomw ax1ou, no nax-
1unocxu no nAuno1 na cnow, xo1owo mory1 coxann1rcn n nwcy-
monnom coc1onnuu pocn1uAo1unmu. E noocco nwcymunanun no-
ro1a1unnwo xAo1xu 1onm1 cnoopnym nopy u noucxopu1 pona1y-
aun oAxon u1onAaamw. Opnaxo mnoruo ax1ouu, ocoonno
na1oronnwo, mory1 xoomo coxann1rcn n nwcymonnom coc1onnuu,
naxopncr n na1oAorunocxom ma1ouaAo, nanumo n moxo1o, xo-
1oan oaayo1 noxyr xAo1ox ax1ou non1o noponoo qy1Ana.
Hu nwcymunanuu ua aamooxonnoro coc1onnun n naxyymo
muxooranuamw xoomo coxannm1 cnom xuanocnoconoc1r, n1o
cnnawnam1 c nooxopom n coc1onnuo anauoaa. Taxo mo1op Auo-
quArno cymxu muoxo ucnoArayo1cn pAn coxanonun myaonwx
xyAr1y muxooranuamon.
[oo.euue. Muxooranuamw yc1onunw x nwcoxomy a1mocqo-
nomy panAonum, Aaropan nomy onu cnoconw cymoc1nona1r u aa-
nuna1rcn na oArmux rAyunax - po 10000 m. Muxooranuamw xo-
omo noonocn1 nwcoxoo rupoc1a1unocxoo panAonuo - po 5000 a1m.
V.tnpo:ou. Hu oao1xo muxooranuamon yAr1aanyxom
naAmpao1cn ruoAr xAo1ox ncAopc1nuo ux poaun1orauu. HoAa-
ram1, n1o nu poc1nuu yAr1aanyxa n xAo1xo oaaym1cn xanu1a-
uonnwo noAoc1u, n xo1owx coapao1cn nwcoxoo panAonuo, n1o nopo1
x aaymonum c1yx1y xAo1xu.
Xnmnnocuno nomoc1na oxaawnam1 na muxonym xAo1xy aaAun-
noo noapoc1nuo. Opnu ua nux (xax nanumo, oc1onwo qax1ow)
Muxooranuamw cnoconw aanuna1rcn n muoxom puanaaono
1omnoa1y - o1 nuaxux (oxoAo 0 C u paxo nuxo) po nwcoxux
(60 - 80
0
C u unorpa nwmo). An muxooranuamon nwpoAnm1 1u
1omnoa1ynwo ranuw: on1umaArnym 1omnoa1yy, nauoAoo Aa-
ronun1nym pAn ux aanu1un; munumaArnym - camym nuaxym,
nu xo1oo aanunam1cn muxooranuamw; maxcumaArnym - ca-
mym nwcoxym, nu xo1oo omo noamoxna xuanopon1oArnoc1r
muxooranuamon. E aanucumoc1u o1 1omnoa1yw moxno nwpo-
Au1r 1u rynnw muxooranuamon: ncurpoqu.tume, +e:oqu.t
ume u nep+oqu.tume.
Hcurpoqu.tume muxow nxAmnam1 xoAopoAmunwo muxo-
oranuamw (epeu. sIchros - xoAop). On1umaArno 1omnoa1yo
pAn nux nnAno1cn 15 - 20 C, munumaArno - 0 - 4 C, maxcumaAr-
no - 30 - 35 C. HcuxoquAw ou1am1 n nopoomax, mory1 aanu-
na1rcn n xoAopuArnwx yc1anonxax.
Me:oqu.tume muxooranuamw aanunam1cn n puanaaono 1om-
noa1y 20 - 40 C. On1umaArnwmu pAn nux nnAnm1cn 35 - 3? C,
munumaArnwmu - 15 - 20 C, maxcumaArnwmu - 42 - 45 C. K a1um
muxooranuamam o1nocu1cn oArmunc1no muxoon, n 1om nucAo
na1oronnwo.
Tep+oqu.tume muxow aanunam1cn nu nonwmonnwx 1om-
noa1yax: on1umaArnan 1omnoa1ya pAn nux 50 - 60 C, munu-
maArnan - 35 - 40 C, maxcumaArnan moxo1 poxopu1r po ?0 - 80 C,
a n o1poArnwx cAynanx - po 100

C. 01u muxooranuamw ou1am1
n ronnux uc1onnuxax, munoaArnwx nopax, rnanx, nanoao.
Haxono, nomoxy1onnoo noAoxonuo moxpy 1omoquArnwmu
u moaoquArnwmu muxooranuamamu aanumam1 1omo1oAoan1-
nwo muxow, aanunammuocn nu 1omnoa1yo 50 C.
Hu cnuxonuu 1omnoa1yw xuanopon1oArnoc1r muxoon
nax1unocxu no monno1cn. Mnoruo muxooranuamw cnoconw co-
xann1r xuanocnoconoc1r nu ononr nuaxux 1omnoa1yax n 1o-
nonuo pAu1oArnoro nomonu.
Haooo1, nooxop x oAoo nwcoxum 1omnoa1yam oxaawnao1
ryu1oArnoo poc1nuo na muxooranuamw, n1o Aoxu1 n ocnono
mo1opon c1ouAuaauu, uAu oocnAoxunanun, 1o oc1r noAnoro ynun-
1oxonun ncox muxooranuamon.
H:.ueuun. ynuc1an anorun oxaawnao1 coroanoo nAunnuo na
muxooranuamw. CoAnonnw cno1 cnococ1nyo1 xuanopon1oArnoc1u
rynnw qo1o1oqnwx muxoon, y xo1owx uoxumunocxuo oax-
uu noucxopn1 nop nAunnuom coAnonno anoruu. EoArmunc1no
muxooranuamon nnAnm1cn qo1oqonwmu, 1o oc1r onmumucn cno1a.
Hnmo coAnonnw cno1 ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na muxow, o nom
cnupo1oArc1nyo1 onw1 Eyxnoa. On coc1ou1 n 1om, n1o na namxy c
araom aaconao1cn ax1ouaArnan xyAr1ya, na pno namxu naxAa-
pwnam1cn xyconxu 1omno ymaru u namxa ocnomao1cn nnmwm
' &
coAnonnwm cno1om n 1ononuo 1 - 2 nacon co c1oonw pna, nocAo noro
unxyuyo1cn. Poc1 ax1ou o1monao1cn 1oArxo n moc1ax, coo1no1-
c1nymmux xyconxam ymaru. Iyu1oArnoo poc1nuo coAnonnoro cno1a
cnnaano, n nonym onoopr, c noapoc1nuom yAr1aquoAo1onoro
uaAynonun c pAuno noAnw 234 - 300 nm, xo1ooo norAomao1cn HK
u nwawnao1 pumouaaum 1umuna. Taxoo poc1nuo yAr1aquoAo1o-
nwx Ayno ucnoArayo1cn pAn ooanoxunanun noapyxa n aaAun-
nwx nomomonunx, oArnuax, onoauonnwx, naAa1ax u 1. p.
Honuauymman apuaun 1axxo ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na mux-
ooranuamw, opnaxo muxow nwcoxoyc1onunw x a1omy qax1o-
y, oAapam1 apuoyc1onunoc1rm (ux ruoAr noucxopu1 nu o-
Aynonuu n poaax 10000 - 100000 P). 01o cnnawnam1 c maAwmu aa-
moamu mumonu ua-aa nuaxoro copoxanun nyxAounonwx xucAo1 y
muxooranuamon. Honuauymman apuaun ucnoArayo1cn pAn c1o-
uAuaauu noxo1owx uoAorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n, numonwx
nopyx1on. Houmymoc1nom a1oro cnocoa nnAno1cn 1o, n1o nu 1axo
oao1xo no uamonnm1cn cnoc1na oaa1wnaomoro o+ox1a.
Emcuuoouue nnAno1cn opnum ua qax1oon, oryAuymmux
copoxanuo muxooranuamon no nnomno copo. O1nomonuo mux-
oon x a1omy noapoc1num aanucu1 no mnorom o1 ycAonu, n xo1o-
wx ono noucxopu1. E oc1oc1nonnwx ycAonunx nwcymunanuo
ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na noro1a1unnwo qomw ax1ou, no nax-
1unocxu no nAuno1 na cnow, xo1owo mory1 coxann1rcn n nwcy-
monnom coc1onnuu pocn1uAo1unmu. E noocco nwcymunanun no-
ro1a1unnwo xAo1xu 1onm1 cnoopnym nopy u noucxopu1 pona1y-
aun oAxon u1onAaamw. Opnaxo mnoruo ax1ouu, ocoonno
na1oronnwo, mory1 xoomo coxann1rcn n nwcymonnom coc1onnuu,
naxopncr n na1oAorunocxom ma1ouaAo, nanumo n moxo1o, xo-
1oan oaayo1 noxyr xAo1ox ax1ou non1o noponoo qy1Ana.
Hu nwcymunanuu ua aamooxonnoro coc1onnun n naxyymo
muxooranuamw xoomo coxannm1 cnom xuanocnoconoc1r, n1o
cnnawnam1 c nooxopom n coc1onnuo anauoaa. Taxo mo1op Auo-
quArno cymxu muoxo ucnoArayo1cn pAn coxanonun myaonwx
xyAr1y muxooranuamon.
[oo.euue. Muxooranuamw yc1onunw x nwcoxomy a1mocqo-
nomy panAonum, Aaropan nomy onu cnoconw cymoc1nona1r u aa-
nuna1rcn na oArmux rAyunax - po 10000 m. Muxooranuamw xo-
omo noonocn1 nwcoxoo rupoc1a1unocxoo panAonuo - po 5000 a1m.
V.tnpo:ou. Hu oao1xo muxooranuamon yAr1aanyxom
naAmpao1cn ruoAr xAo1ox ncAopc1nuo ux poaun1orauu. HoAa-
ram1, n1o nu poc1nuu yAr1aanyxa n xAo1xo oaaym1cn xanu1a-
uonnwo noAoc1u, n xo1owx coapao1cn nwcoxoo panAonuo, n1o nopo1
x aaymonum c1yx1y xAo1xu.
Xnmnnocuno nomoc1na oxaawnam1 na muxonym xAo1xy aaAun-
noo noapoc1nuo. Opnu ua nux (xax nanumo, oc1onwo qax1ow)
Muxooranuamw cnoconw aanuna1rcn n muoxom puanaaono
1omnoa1y - o1 nuaxux (oxoAo 0 C u paxo nuxo) po nwcoxux
(60 - 80
0
C u unorpa nwmo). An muxooranuamon nwpoAnm1 1u
1omnoa1ynwo ranuw: on1umaArnym 1omnoa1yy, nauoAoo Aa-
ronun1nym pAn ux aanu1un; munumaArnym - camym nuaxym,
nu xo1oo aanunam1cn muxooranuamw; maxcumaArnym - ca-
mym nwcoxym, nu xo1oo omo noamoxna xuanopon1oArnoc1r
muxooranuamon. E aanucumoc1u o1 1omnoa1yw moxno nwpo-
Au1r 1u rynnw muxooranuamon: ncurpoqu.tume, +e:oqu.t
ume u nep+oqu.tume.
Hcurpoqu.tume muxow nxAmnam1 xoAopoAmunwo muxo-
oranuamw (epeu. sIchros - xoAop). On1umaArno 1omnoa1yo
pAn nux nnAno1cn 15 - 20 C, munumaArno - 0 - 4 C, maxcumaAr-
no - 30 - 35 C. HcuxoquAw ou1am1 n nopoomax, mory1 aanu-
na1rcn n xoAopuArnwx yc1anonxax.
Me:oqu.tume muxooranuamw aanunam1cn n puanaaono 1om-
noa1y 20 - 40 C. On1umaArnwmu pAn nux nnAnm1cn 35 - 3? C,
munumaArnwmu - 15 - 20 C, maxcumaArnwmu - 42 - 45 C. K a1um
muxooranuamam o1nocu1cn oArmunc1no muxoon, n 1om nucAo
na1oronnwo.
Tep+oqu.tume muxow aanunam1cn nu nonwmonnwx 1om-
noa1yax: on1umaArnan 1omnoa1ya pAn nux 50 - 60 C, munu-
maArnan - 35 - 40 C, maxcumaArnan moxo1 poxopu1r po ?0 - 80 C,
a n o1poArnwx cAynanx - po 100

C. 01u muxooranuamw ou1am1
n ronnux uc1onnuxax, munoaArnwx nopax, rnanx, nanoao.
Haxono, nomoxy1onnoo noAoxonuo moxpy 1omoquArnwmu
u moaoquArnwmu muxooranuamamu aanumam1 1omo1oAoan1-
nwo muxow, aanunammuocn nu 1omnoa1yo 50 C.
Hu cnuxonuu 1omnoa1yw xuanopon1oArnoc1r muxoon
nax1unocxu no monno1cn. Mnoruo muxooranuamw cnoconw co-
xann1r xuanocnoconoc1r nu ononr nuaxux 1omnoa1yax n 1o-
nonuo pAu1oArnoro nomonu.
Haooo1, nooxop x oAoo nwcoxum 1omnoa1yam oxaawnao1
ryu1oArnoo poc1nuo na muxooranuamw, n1o Aoxu1 n ocnono
mo1opon c1ouAuaauu, uAu oocnAoxunanun, 1o oc1r noAnoro ynun-
1oxonun ncox muxooranuamon.
H:.ueuun. ynuc1an anorun oxaawnao1 coroanoo nAunnuo na
muxooranuamw. CoAnonnw cno1 cnococ1nyo1 xuanopon1oArnoc1u
rynnw qo1o1oqnwx muxoon, y xo1owx uoxumunocxuo oax-
uu noucxopn1 nop nAunnuom coAnonno anoruu. EoArmunc1no
muxooranuamon nnAnm1cn qo1oqonwmu, 1o oc1r onmumucn cno1a.
Hnmo coAnonnw cno1 ryu1oArno poc1nyo1 na muxow, o nom
cnupo1oArc1nyo1 onw1 Eyxnoa. On coc1ou1 n 1om, n1o na namxy c
araom aaconao1cn ax1ouaArnan xyAr1ya, na pno namxu naxAa-
pwnam1cn xyconxu 1omno ymaru u namxa ocnomao1cn nnmwm
! !
BHPYCL
Euycw nopc1anAnm1 coo noxAo1onnym qomy xuanu. Onu
nocnoconw x camoc1on1oArnomy aamnoxonum u omony nomoc1n,
noa1omy pAn oaAuaau a1ux qynxu nuycam nooxopuma xAo1-
xa-xoanun. Euycw wAu onayxonw pnapa1unocrmuAo1num
yccxum ynonwm .H. Hnanoncunm n 1892 r. Emo ypynu c1ypon-
1om Ho1oyrcxoro ynunocu1o1a (188?), .H. Hnanoncxu nanaA
uayna1r nununw, nwawnammuo aaoAonanuo 1aaxa, nu xo1o-
om na Auc1rnx nocAopnoro nonnAnAacr moaauxa.
Cxpoonno nnpycon. Kax mw yxo ronouAu, nuycw no umom1
xAo1onnoro c1oonun. Kaxpan nuycnan nac1ua yc1oona ononr
noc1o - ona coc1ou1 ua acnoAoxonnoro n on1o nocu1oAn rono-
1unocxo unqomauu u ooAonxu. Iono1unocxu ma1ouaA nop-
c1anAno1 coo xoo1xym moAoxyAy nyxAounono xucAo1w, a1o o-
aayo1 cepoueouu nuyca. HyxAounonan xucAo1a y aanwx nuy-
con moxo1 w1r nopc1anAona HK uAu PHK, nunom a1u moAoxyAw
mory1 umo1r noownnoo c1oonuo: nc1onao1cn opnonu1na1an HK
u pnyxnu1na1an PHK. OoAonxa naawnao1cn uoncuo. Ona oaao-
nana cy+opunuamu - uonco+epo+u, xaxpw ua xo1owx coc1o-
u1 ua opno uAu pnyx oAxonwx moAoxyA. HucAo xancomoon pAn
xaxporo nuyca c1oro noc1onnno (nanumo, n xancupo nuyca
noAuomuoAu1a ux 60 - no oArmo u no monrmo, a y nuyca 1aan-
no moaauxu - 2130, nunom no 2129 u no 2131). Hnorpa nyxAou-
nonan xucAo1a nmoc1o c xancupom naawnao1cn uu.eouoncuoo+.
EcAu nuycnan nac1ua, xomo xancupa, oArmo no umoo1 ooAon-
xu, oo naawnam1 npocnm+ nuycom, ocAu umoo1cn omo opna - na-
yxnan, nuyc naawnao1cn c.oum+. Hayxnym ooAonxy 1axxo
naawnam1 cnepuoncuoo+, rono1unocxu ona no nunapAoxu1 nu-
ycy, a noucxopu1 ua nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu-xoanu-
na u qomuyo1cn nu nwxopo coanno nuycno nac1uw ua
unquuonanno xAo1xu. Taxum oaaom, nuycnan nac1ua co-
c1ou1 1oArxo ua pnyx xAaccon uonoAumoon: nyxAounonwx xuc-
Ao1 u oAxon, 1orpa xax n Amo xAo1xo n onaa1oArnom nonpxo
poAxnw nucy1c1nona1r omo noAucaxaupw u Aunupw.
V xaxporo nuyca xancomow xancupa acnoAaram1cn n c1oro
onopoAonnom nonpxo, Aaropan nomy noanuxao1 onopoAonnw
1un cummo1uu. Hu cnupo.tuou cu++enpuu xancup nuoo1ao1
1yna1ym (nuyc 1aanno moaauxu) uAu cqounocxym (PHK-co-
poxamuo nuycw xuno1nwx) qomy. Hu uuuecuou cu++en
puu xancup umoo1 qomy uxocaapa (pnapa1urannuxa), 1axo
cummo1uo oAapam1 uaomo1unocxuo nuycw. E cAynao uo+u
uupooouuou cu++enpuu xancup oAapao1 xyunocxo qomo, a
acnoAoxonnan nny1u nyxAounonan xucAo1a yAoxona cnuaAr-
no. HanuArnan roomo1un xancupa paxo noanoAno1 nuycnwm nac-
1uam conmoc1no oaaonwna1r xuc1aAAunocxuo c1yx1yw.
mory1 c1umyAuona1r aanu1uo muxooranuamon, pyruo nopanAn-
m1 ux xuanopon1oArnoc1r, a 1o1ru no oxaawnam1 nuxaxoro nAun-
nun na muxow. Homumo a1oro, muxooranuamw no opunaxonw
no nync1nu1oArnoc1u x 1om uAu unwm xumunocxum nomoc1nam.
Mnoruo xumunocxuo coopunonun oAapam1 an1umuxonwm
poc1nuom, nunom a1o poc1nuo nonnAno1cn pnonxo. Xumunoc-
xuo nomoc1na mory1 yuna1r muxonwo xAo1xu, oxaawnan ax1o-
uupnoo poc1nuo, Auo oc1ananAuna1r ux aamnoxonuo - ax1o-
uoc1a1unocxoo poc1nuo. Xaax1o poc1nun xumunocxux aron-
1on na muxooranuamw aanucu1 o1 poaw nomoc1na (xonon1a-
uu) u nomonu noapoc1nun (axcnoauuu). Ho nc1onam1cn u
ucxAmnonun. Tax, 90%-nw ac1no xaoAono xucAo1w oxaaw-
nao1 oAoo cAaoo noapoc1nuo, nom 4 - 5%-nw ac1now.
An1umuxonwm poc1nuom oAapam1 aaAunnwo rynnw xu-
munocxux nomoc1n: raAoupw (xAo, om, op), coAu 1nxoAwx
mo1aAAon (1y1u, cooa, mopu, cow), xucAo1w (caAuuAonan,
onan), moAonu (ammuax, ya), oxucAu1oAu (nooxucr nopoopa,
nomanrana1 xaAun), cnu1w (a1uAonw), qonoAw, xacu1oAu (uA-
Auan1onw aoAonw u pyruo), nouanopnwo nu1oqyana (qya-
uAun, qyarun), po1oron1w u 1. p.
Moxanuam poc1nun xumunocxux nomoc1n na muxonym xAo1-
xy aaAunon.
1. Honwmonuo nonuaomoc1u xAo1onnwx moman, n nonym
onoopr, u1onAaama1unocxo momanw. Taxum poc1nuom oAa-
pam1 nonoxnoc1no-ax1unnwo nomoc1na (po1oron1w), xo1owo cnu-
xam1 nonoxnoc1noo na1nxonuo u naymam1 nonuaomoc1r u-
1onAaama1unocxo momanw. Taxum poc1nuom oAapam1 1axxo
coAu cooa.
2. ona1yaun oAxon xAo1xu, ocymoc1nAnoman coAnmu 1n-
xoAwx mo1aAAon, raAoupamu u pyrumu.
3. OxucAonuo mo1aoAu1on uAu qomon1on, ocymoc1nAnomoo
nouanopnwmu xAoa, opa, nooxucrm nopoopa, nomanrana1om
xaAun, uanupamu u pyrumu nomoc1namu.
4. EAoxuonanuo uoxumunocxux oaxu xacu1oAnmu, qo-
maAunom, maAona1om, n 1om nucAo Aoxuonanuo cun1oaa oAxa
noxo1owmu an1uuo1uxamu, Aoxuonanuo cun1oaa HK mu1o-
muunom C u 1. p.
5. Pac1noonuo Aunono1oupnwx c1yx1y.
Mnoruo xumunocxuo nomoc1na ucnoAraym1cn pAn ynun1oxo-
nun na1oronnwx muxoon na aaAunnwx o+ox1ax nnomno co-
pw - poaunqoxuu. Hoxo1owo xumunocxuo nomoc1na oAapam1
muoxum cnox1om an1umuxonoro poc1nun, ncAopc1nuo noro
mory1 ucnoAraona1rcn pAn c1ouAuaauu numonwx nopyx1on,
Aoxac1nonnwx nonaa1on, nuoon. Taxum aqqox1om oAapao1
oxucr a1uAona, xo1oan poc1nyo1 n nucy1c1nuu nopw.
! !
BHPYCL
Euycw nopc1anAnm1 coo noxAo1onnym qomy xuanu. Onu
nocnoconw x camoc1on1oArnomy aamnoxonum u omony nomoc1n,
noa1omy pAn oaAuaau a1ux qynxu nuycam nooxopuma xAo1-
xa-xoanun. Euycw wAu onayxonw pnapa1unocrmuAo1num
yccxum ynonwm .H. Hnanoncunm n 1892 r. Emo ypynu c1ypon-
1om Ho1oyrcxoro ynunocu1o1a (188?), .H. Hnanoncxu nanaA
uayna1r nununw, nwawnammuo aaoAonanuo 1aaxa, nu xo1o-
om na Auc1rnx nocAopnoro nonnAnAacr moaauxa.
Cxpoonno nnpycon. Kax mw yxo ronouAu, nuycw no umom1
xAo1onnoro c1oonun. Kaxpan nuycnan nac1ua yc1oona ononr
noc1o - ona coc1ou1 ua acnoAoxonnoro n on1o nocu1oAn rono-
1unocxo unqomauu u ooAonxu. Iono1unocxu ma1ouaA nop-
c1anAno1 coo xoo1xym moAoxyAy nyxAounono xucAo1w, a1o o-
aayo1 cepoueouu nuyca. HyxAounonan xucAo1a y aanwx nuy-
con moxo1 w1r nopc1anAona HK uAu PHK, nunom a1u moAoxyAw
mory1 umo1r noownnoo c1oonuo: nc1onao1cn opnonu1na1an HK
u pnyxnu1na1an PHK. OoAonxa naawnao1cn uoncuo. Ona oaao-
nana cy+opunuamu - uonco+epo+u, xaxpw ua xo1owx coc1o-
u1 ua opno uAu pnyx oAxonwx moAoxyA. HucAo xancomoon pAn
xaxporo nuyca c1oro noc1onnno (nanumo, n xancupo nuyca
noAuomuoAu1a ux 60 - no oArmo u no monrmo, a y nuyca 1aan-
no moaauxu - 2130, nunom no 2129 u no 2131). Hnorpa nyxAou-
nonan xucAo1a nmoc1o c xancupom naawnao1cn uu.eouoncuoo+.
EcAu nuycnan nac1ua, xomo xancupa, oArmo no umoo1 ooAon-
xu, oo naawnam1 npocnm+ nuycom, ocAu umoo1cn omo opna - na-
yxnan, nuyc naawnao1cn c.oum+. Hayxnym ooAonxy 1axxo
naawnam1 cnepuoncuoo+, rono1unocxu ona no nunapAoxu1 nu-
ycy, a noucxopu1 ua nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu-xoanu-
na u qomuyo1cn nu nwxopo coanno nuycno nac1uw ua
unquuonanno xAo1xu. Taxum oaaom, nuycnan nac1ua co-
c1ou1 1oArxo ua pnyx xAaccon uonoAumoon: nyxAounonwx xuc-
Ao1 u oAxon, 1orpa xax n Amo xAo1xo n onaa1oArnom nonpxo
poAxnw nucy1c1nona1r omo noAucaxaupw u Aunupw.
V xaxporo nuyca xancomow xancupa acnoAaram1cn n c1oro
onopoAonnom nonpxo, Aaropan nomy noanuxao1 onopoAonnw
1un cummo1uu. Hu cnupo.tuou cu++enpuu xancup nuoo1ao1
1yna1ym (nuyc 1aanno moaauxu) uAu cqounocxym (PHK-co-
poxamuo nuycw xuno1nwx) qomy. Hu uuuecuou cu++en
puu xancup umoo1 qomy uxocaapa (pnapa1urannuxa), 1axo
cummo1uo oAapam1 uaomo1unocxuo nuycw. E cAynao uo+u
uupooouuou cu++enpuu xancup oAapao1 xyunocxo qomo, a
acnoAoxonnan nny1u nyxAounonan xucAo1a yAoxona cnuaAr-
no. HanuArnan roomo1un xancupa paxo noanoAno1 nuycnwm nac-
1uam conmoc1no oaaonwna1r xuc1aAAunocxuo c1yx1yw.
mory1 c1umyAuona1r aanu1uo muxooranuamon, pyruo nopanAn-
m1 ux xuanopon1oArnoc1r, a 1o1ru no oxaawnam1 nuxaxoro nAun-
nun na muxow. Homumo a1oro, muxooranuamw no opunaxonw
no nync1nu1oArnoc1u x 1om uAu unwm xumunocxum nomoc1nam.
Mnoruo xumunocxuo coopunonun oAapam1 an1umuxonwm
poc1nuom, nunom a1o poc1nuo nonnAno1cn pnonxo. Xumunoc-
xuo nomoc1na mory1 yuna1r muxonwo xAo1xu, oxaawnan ax1o-
uupnoo poc1nuo, Auo oc1ananAuna1r ux aamnoxonuo - ax1o-
uoc1a1unocxoo poc1nuo. Xaax1o poc1nun xumunocxux aron-
1on na muxooranuamw aanucu1 o1 poaw nomoc1na (xonon1a-
uu) u nomonu noapoc1nun (axcnoauuu). Ho nc1onam1cn u
ucxAmnonun. Tax, 90%-nw ac1no xaoAono xucAo1w oxaaw-
nao1 oAoo cAaoo noapoc1nuo, nom 4 - 5%-nw ac1now.
An1umuxonwm poc1nuom oAapam1 aaAunnwo rynnw xu-
munocxux nomoc1n: raAoupw (xAo, om, op), coAu 1nxoAwx
mo1aAAon (1y1u, cooa, mopu, cow), xucAo1w (caAuuAonan,
onan), moAonu (ammuax, ya), oxucAu1oAu (nooxucr nopoopa,
nomanrana1 xaAun), cnu1w (a1uAonw), qonoAw, xacu1oAu (uA-
Auan1onw aoAonw u pyruo), nouanopnwo nu1oqyana (qya-
uAun, qyarun), po1oron1w u 1. p.
Moxanuam poc1nun xumunocxux nomoc1n na muxonym xAo1-
xy aaAunon.
1. Honwmonuo nonuaomoc1u xAo1onnwx moman, n nonym
onoopr, u1onAaama1unocxo momanw. Taxum poc1nuom oAa-
pam1 nonoxnoc1no-ax1unnwo nomoc1na (po1oron1w), xo1owo cnu-
xam1 nonoxnoc1noo na1nxonuo u naymam1 nonuaomoc1r u-
1onAaama1unocxo momanw. Taxum poc1nuom oAapam1 1axxo
coAu cooa.
2. ona1yaun oAxon xAo1xu, ocymoc1nAnoman coAnmu 1n-
xoAwx mo1aAAon, raAoupamu u pyrumu.
3. OxucAonuo mo1aoAu1on uAu qomon1on, ocymoc1nAnomoo
nouanopnwmu xAoa, opa, nooxucrm nopoopa, nomanrana1om
xaAun, uanupamu u pyrumu nomoc1namu.
4. EAoxuonanuo uoxumunocxux oaxu xacu1oAnmu, qo-
maAunom, maAona1om, n 1om nucAo Aoxuonanuo cun1oaa oAxa
noxo1owmu an1uuo1uxamu, Aoxuonanuo cun1oaa HK mu1o-
muunom C u 1. p.
5. Pac1noonuo Aunono1oupnwx c1yx1y.
Mnoruo xumunocxuo nomoc1na ucnoAraym1cn pAn ynun1oxo-
nun na1oronnwx muxoon na aaAunnwx o+ox1ax nnomno co-
pw - poaunqoxuu. Hoxo1owo xumunocxuo nomoc1na oAapam1
muoxum cnox1om an1umuxonoro poc1nun, ncAopc1nuo noro
mory1 ucnoAraona1rcn pAn c1ouAuaauu numonwx nopyx1on,
Aoxac1nonnwx nonaa1on, nuoon. Taxum aqqox1om oAapao1
oxucr a1uAona, xo1oan poc1nyo1 n nucy1c1nuu nopw.
!! !
Bueknefouoe npocfpaucfeo
PHl; 10, 11 cumes supycmx anuxonpomeuos (gp) a ueupaax apaynspoao so-
nnasuamuvecxoao pemuxynyua; 12, 13 npenonaaaeum mpacnopm supycmx anuxonpo-
meuos s onyuemx sesuxynax x nosepxocmu xnemxu; 14 npenonaaaeum mpacnopm
supycmx anuxonpomeuos vepes GERL-xounnexc unu xounnexc lons+u; 15 noxanusa-
us anuxonpomeuos oxosupyca a nosepxocmu xnemxu; 16 18 cumes enxos cep-
esum oxosupyca (p10, p12, p15, p30) a csoomx nonupuocouax; 19, 20 cumes
opamo mpacxpunmasm oxosupyca a csoomx nonupuocouax; 21 mpacnopm
supycoao PHH x nosepxocmu xnemxu; 22 qopuuposaue oxosupyca muna A (C) s npo-
ecce novxosaus a nosepxocmu xnemxu; 23 sexnemovm oxosupyc muna A (C);
24 sexnemovm oxosupyc muna C; U umonnasua; Fl spo xnemxu; H nopm
sepo oonovxu; HO nnasuamuvecxas oonovxa; Xp xpouocoua xnemxu; l xounnexc
lons+u; env, gag, po/ auueosaue aeos (no Bmxoscxouy u coasm., 1983)
Hnanonnm nua nnpycon. Euycw no mory1 camoc1on1oArno aa-
mnoxa1rcn u ocymoc1nAn1r omon nomoc1n. E coo1no1c1nuu c a1um y
nux aaAunam1 pno xuanonnwo qomw: noxonmancn nnoxAo1onnan -
oupuou u ax1unno onopyuymmancn nny1uxAo1onnan - oeee
nonuouon. Euuonw pomonc1uym1 o1monnym xuanocnoconoc1r.
E nac1noc1u, onu nwpoxunam1 panAonuo po 6000 a1m u noonocn1
nwcoxuo poaw apuauu, opnaxo noruam1 nu nwcoxo 1omnoa1yo,
oAynonuu yAr1aquoAo1onwmu Aynamu, a 1axxo noapoc1nuu xucAo1
u poaunquuymmux nomoc1n. Eaaumoo1nomonun nuyca c xAo1xo
nocAopona1oArno noxopn1 nocxoArxo c1apu (uc. 55).
Hopnax cxapnx nopc1anAno1 coo oocopuuw oupuouoo na nonox-
noc1u xAo1xu-mumonu, xo1oan pAn a1oro poAxna oAapa1r coo1no1-
c1nymmumu nonoxnoc1nwmu oon1oamu. Hmonno c numu cnouqu-
nocxu naaumopoc1nyo1 nuycnan nac1ua, nocAo noro noucxopu1 ux
nonnoo cnnawnanuo, no a1o nununo xAo1xu nocnuumnunw no xo
ncom nuycam. Hmonno a1um o+ncnno1cn c1oran onopoAonnoc1r ny-
1o nonuxnononun nuycon. Hanumo, oon1ow x nuycy runna
umom1cn y xAo1ox cAuauc1o ooAonxu noxnux pwxa1oArnwx ny1o,
a y xAo1ox xoxu ux no1. Hoa1omy nooa xoxy runnom aaoAo1r noAr-
an - nuycnwo nac1uw pAn a1oro nyxno npoxny1r c noapyxom. Euy-
cw ax1ou (ax1ouoqaru) nu1onupno qomw uAu no umommuo o1-
oc1xon apcouym1cn no na xAo1onno c1onxo, a na qumunx.
EnanaAo nuuonw apcouym1cn nocopc1nom aAox1oc1a1u-
nocxoro naaumopoc1nun uAu aa cno1 nan-po-naaArconwx cuA (co-
c1nonno noa1omy nuycw ocaxpam1cn no 1oArxo na nonoxnoc1u
xAo1ox, no u na Amo nonoxnoc1u noomo). Honan qaaa apco-
uu oa1uma - nuycnym nac1uy moxno o1poAu1r o1 xAo1xu-
mumonu (nanumo, ownnwm nc1nxunanuom), nocAo noro cAopy-
o1 nooa1uman qaaa, nu xo1oo aapoAonuo yxo nonoamoxno.
Hxopax cxapnx coc1ou1 n npouuuuooeuuu oAoro nuuona uAu
oro nyxAounono xucAo1w nny1r xAo1xu-xoanuna. orno nouc-
xopu1 nonuxnononuo nuycon n xuno1nwo xAo1xu, nocxoArxy 1o
no umom1 ooAonox u nuycw nonapam1 n nux ny1om ownnoro
anpou1oaa (ocAu xo1n1 axon1uona1r nnumanuo na nonuxnono-
nuu umonno nuyca, yno1oAnm1 naynnoo naananuo a1oro no-
occa - ouponeucuc, nopAoxonnoo m. po Conx-Fpooxom n 1948 r.)
(uc. 56). EcAu nuuon umoo1 nayxnym Aunono1oupnym mom-
any, 1o nu xon1ax1o c xAo1xo-xoanunom momanw cAunam1cn
u nuuon oxaawnao1cn n u1onAaamo (nanomunaom, n1o Aunono-
1oupnan momana nuuona noanuxao1 aa cno1 coc1anAnmmux
P u c . 5 5. Ooeas cxeua ocosmx smanos uxna passumus
oxoaeoao PHl-aeouoao supyca:
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc; 2 acopus u npouxoseue oxosupyca s xnemxy;
3 sympuxnemovoe pasesaue oxosupyca; 4 mpacxpunmusm xounnexc;
5 syxcnupansas supycas BHl; 6, 7 mpacnopm xonseso BHl oxosupyca s spo
xnemxu; 8 umeapaus BHl-mpacxpunma oxosupyca s xpouocouy xnemxu; 9 supycas
!! !
Bueknefouoe npocfpaucfeo
PHl; 10, 11 cumes supycmx anuxonpomeuos (gp) a ueupaax apaynspoao so-
nnasuamuvecxoao pemuxynyua; 12, 13 npenonaaaeum mpacnopm supycmx anuxonpo-
meuos s onyuemx sesuxynax x nosepxocmu xnemxu; 14 npenonaaaeum mpacnopm
supycmx anuxonpomeuos vepes GERL-xounnexc unu xounnexc lons+u; 15 noxanusa-
us anuxonpomeuos oxosupyca a nosepxocmu xnemxu; 16 18 cumes enxos cep-
esum oxosupyca (p10, p12, p15, p30) a csoomx nonupuocouax; 19, 20 cumes
opamo mpacxpunmasm oxosupyca a csoomx nonupuocouax; 21 mpacnopm
supycoao PHH x nosepxocmu xnemxu; 22 qopuuposaue oxosupyca muna A (C) s npo-
ecce novxosaus a nosepxocmu xnemxu; 23 sexnemovm oxosupyc muna A (C);
24 sexnemovm oxosupyc muna C; U umonnasua; Fl spo xnemxu; H nopm
sepo oonovxu; HO nnasuamuvecxas oonovxa; Xp xpouocoua xnemxu; l xounnexc
lons+u; env, gag, po/ auueosaue aeos (no Bmxoscxouy u coasm., 1983)
Hnanonnm nua nnpycon. Euycw no mory1 camoc1on1oArno aa-
mnoxa1rcn u ocymoc1nAn1r omon nomoc1n. E coo1no1c1nuu c a1um y
nux aaAunam1 pno xuanonnwo qomw: noxonmancn nnoxAo1onnan -
oupuou u ax1unno onopyuymmancn nny1uxAo1onnan - oeee
nonuouon. Euuonw pomonc1uym1 o1monnym xuanocnoconoc1r.
E nac1noc1u, onu nwpoxunam1 panAonuo po 6000 a1m u noonocn1
nwcoxuo poaw apuauu, opnaxo noruam1 nu nwcoxo 1omnoa1yo,
oAynonuu yAr1aquoAo1onwmu Aynamu, a 1axxo noapoc1nuu xucAo1
u poaunquuymmux nomoc1n. Eaaumoo1nomonun nuyca c xAo1xo
nocAopona1oArno noxopn1 nocxoArxo c1apu (uc. 55).
Hopnax cxapnx nopc1anAno1 coo oocopuuw oupuouoo na nonox-
noc1u xAo1xu-mumonu, xo1oan pAn a1oro poAxna oAapa1r coo1no1-
c1nymmumu nonoxnoc1nwmu oon1oamu. Hmonno c numu cnouqu-
nocxu naaumopoc1nyo1 nuycnan nac1ua, nocAo noro noucxopu1 ux
nonnoo cnnawnanuo, no a1o nununo xAo1xu nocnuumnunw no xo
ncom nuycam. Hmonno a1um o+ncnno1cn c1oran onopoAonnoc1r ny-
1o nonuxnononun nuycon. Hanumo, oon1ow x nuycy runna
umom1cn y xAo1ox cAuauc1o ooAonxu noxnux pwxa1oArnwx ny1o,
a y xAo1ox xoxu ux no1. Hoa1omy nooa xoxy runnom aaoAo1r noAr-
an - nuycnwo nac1uw pAn a1oro nyxno npoxny1r c noapyxom. Euy-
cw ax1ou (ax1ouoqaru) nu1onupno qomw uAu no umommuo o1-
oc1xon apcouym1cn no na xAo1onno c1onxo, a na qumunx.
EnanaAo nuuonw apcouym1cn nocopc1nom aAox1oc1a1u-
nocxoro naaumopoc1nun uAu aa cno1 nan-po-naaArconwx cuA (co-
c1nonno noa1omy nuycw ocaxpam1cn no 1oArxo na nonoxnoc1u
xAo1ox, no u na Amo nonoxnoc1u noomo). Honan qaaa apco-
uu oa1uma - nuycnym nac1uy moxno o1poAu1r o1 xAo1xu-
mumonu (nanumo, ownnwm nc1nxunanuom), nocAo noro cAopy-
o1 nooa1uman qaaa, nu xo1oo aapoAonuo yxo nonoamoxno.
Hxopax cxapnx coc1ou1 n npouuuuooeuuu oAoro nuuona uAu
oro nyxAounono xucAo1w nny1r xAo1xu-xoanuna. orno nouc-
xopu1 nonuxnononuo nuycon n xuno1nwo xAo1xu, nocxoArxy 1o
no umom1 ooAonox u nuycw nonapam1 n nux ny1om ownnoro
anpou1oaa (ocAu xo1n1 axon1uona1r nnumanuo na nonuxnono-
nuu umonno nuyca, yno1oAnm1 naynnoo naananuo a1oro no-
occa - ouponeucuc, nopAoxonnoo m. po Conx-Fpooxom n 1948 r.)
(uc. 56). EcAu nuuon umoo1 nayxnym Aunono1oupnym mom-
any, 1o nu xon1ax1o c xAo1xo-xoanunom momanw cAunam1cn
u nuuon oxaawnao1cn n u1onAaamo (nanomunaom, n1o Aunono-
1oupnan momana nuuona noanuxao1 aa cno1 coc1anAnmmux
P u c . 5 5. Ooeas cxeua ocosmx smanos uxna passumus
oxoaeoao PHl-aeouoao supyca:
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc; 2 acopus u npouxoseue oxosupyca s xnemxy;
3 sympuxnemovoe pasesaue oxosupyca; 4 mpacxpunmusm xounnexc;
5 syxcnupansas supycas BHl; 6, 7 mpacnopm xonseso BHl oxosupyca s spo
xnemxu; 8 umeapaus BHl-mpacxpunma oxosupyca s xpouocouy xnemxu; 9 supycas
!# !"
ooAonxu ocymoc1nAno1cn xAo1onnwmu no1oaaamu. Hanomnum, n1o
nuuon moxo1 nonuxa1r n xAo1xy n oayAr1a1o anpou1oaa. Kax u
noAoxono, nu a1om qomuyo1cn naxyoAr-qarocoma, c xo1oo cAu-
nam1cn nonunnwo Auaocomw. Opnaxo n cAynao ownnoro qaro- uAu
nunou1oaa qomon1w Auaocom acmonAnm1 oranunocxuo nomo-
c1na qarocomw po monomoon, xo1owo nnocAopc1nuu ucnoAraym1cn
xAo1xo pAn cnoux nyxp. Ho nonwncnonnwm po xona nununam c
nonuxmumu n xAo1xy nuuonamu a1oro no noucxopu1 n noAno
moo. omon1a1unnomy acmonAonum nopnorao1cn Aumr oAxo-
nan coc1anAnmman nuycno nac1uw, a oro nyxAounonan xucAo1a
oc1ao1cn nononoxponno. E oayAr1a1o nyxAounonan xucAo1a nu-
yca ocnooxpao1cn, u nnocAopc1nuu umonno ona cymoc1nonnwm o-
aaom nooaayo1 pon1oArnoc1r xAo1xu-xoanuna, nopnunnn oo mo-
1aoAuam cnoum no1onoc1nm u nwnyxpan oo cun1oauona1r ono-
poAonnwo nomoc1na. Oamaom nnumanuo na 1o, n1o cam nuyc no
oAapao1 nooxopumwmu pAn a1oro moxanuamamu, noa1omy pAn cun-
1oaa nyxnwx moAoxyA on ucnoArayo1 xAo1onnwo qomon1w (nanu-
mo, no1oaaw, PHK-noAumoaaw u p.) u c1yx1yw (nanumo,
uocomw). Hy1u oaAuaauu rono1unocxo unqomauu aanwmu
nuycamu naawnam1 cnponeeueu oupcuoeo eeuo+o.
E xopo noxnopxo cxapnn na ocnono nuycno nyxAounono xucAo-
1w noucxopu1 cuune: ueoroou+mr o.n oupco coeouueuuu. EnanaAo
oaayo1cn annnn mPHK, xo1oan ypo1 cAyxu1r ma1uo pAn
annux nuycnwx oAxon. V nuycon annumu moAoxyAamu cnu1a-
m1cn 1o, n1o nonnuAucr po onAuxauu nuycno nyxAounono xucAo-
1w. Hmonno onu ypy1 nananAn1r nocAopymmu cun1oa nyxAounono
xucAo1w nuyca. MoAoxyAw, xo1owo oaaonaAucr nocAo onAuxa-
uu nyxAounono xucAo1w, naawnam1cn no:ouu+u. Opnaxo nooxopu-
mo o1mo1u1r, n1o nananAonuo cun1oaa nuycnwx moAoxyA n xAo1xo
aanucu1 o1 1una nyxAounono xucAo1w nuyca. V HK-copoxamux
nuycon oman cxoma uocun1oaa no umoo1 nununuaArnwx ocoon-
noc1o u nxAmnao1 n con ownnwo a1anw: HK PHK oAox.
MoAxuo nuycw pAn a1oro nonuxam1 n npo u n noocco 1ancxun-
uu ucnoAraym1 PHK-noAumoaaw xAo1xu (ownnwo, 1. o. HK-aanu-
cumym PHK-noAumoaay). Kynnwo (nanumo, nuyc ocnw) nuycw
ocymoc1nAnm1 cno cun1oa no n npo, a n u1onAaamo. Hoa1omy onu no
mory1 aapoc1nona1r xAo1onnwo qomon1w, u 1ancxunum y nux
nananAno1 coc1nonnan (nuuonnan) PHK-noAumoaaa.
PHK-copoxamuo nuycw no a1omy nuanaxy poAn1cn na nocxoAr-
xo rynn. HauoAoo noc1o nco yc1oono y nopc1anu1oAo nono
rynnw (nuxona-, 1ora- u xoonanuycw). V nux 1ancxunun
no noucxopu1, no1omy n1o nuuonnan opnonu1na1an PHK cama
nwnoAnno1 qynxum mPHK, 1.o. cAyxu1 ma1uo pAn cun1oaa
nuuonnoro oAxa na uocomax xAo1xu. CAopona1oArno, cxoma
uocun1oaa y nux cAopymman: PHK oAox. Taxuo nuycw naaw-
nam1cn n.wcuuneome (uAu nuycw c noau1unnwm ronomom).
P u c . 5 6. Hpouxoseue
oxosupycos s xnemxy
s npoecce suponexcuca
(cxeua):
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc
muna C; 2 acopus supyca
a csooo xnemovo
nosepxocmu; 3 poqeoumos
supyca; 1a, 2a, 3a nocneosa-
mensme smanm npouxoseus
oxosupycos muna A, novxyk-
uxcs a nosepxocmu cocee
xnemxu; 4 noxanusaus supy-
ca s qaaocoue; 5 npouxose-
ue cepesum supyca s u-
monnasuy; 6 ecmpyxus o-
xosupycos s qaaonusocoue;
7 nusocoum; HO nnasua-
muvecxas oonovxa xnemxu;
OB oonovxa supyca; C cep-
esua; Om ompocmxu oo-
novxu supyca (no Bmxoscxouy u
coasm., c usueeusuu u onon-
eusuu)
P u c . 5 7. Hpouxoseue
oxosupyca s xnemxy
s npoecce cnusus
oonovxu supyca
u nnasuamuvecxo
oonovxu xnemxu (cxeua):
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc
muna C; 2, 3, 4 nocneosamens-
me smanm cnusus oonovxu
supyca u xnemxu; OB oonovxa
supyca; Om ompocmxu oonov-
xu supyca; C cepesua (no
Bmxoscxouy u coasm., 1983)
1a
2
3
4
5
6
7
2a
3a
1
2
3
4
nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu-xoanuna) (uc. 5?). 3nanu1oArno
cAoxnoo nuycam ac1onu, ruon u ax1ou, nwnyxponnwm
nouna1rcn nooa xoc1xym xAo1onnym c1onxy. An a1oro umo-
m1cn xonxo1nwo nucnocoAonun. E nac1noc1u, ax1ouoqaru o-
Aapam1 qomon1om 1una Auaouma, Aaropan xo1oomy onu a-
c1nonm1 c1onxy ax1ouaArno xAo1xu.
Tpoxnx cxapnx naawnao1cn oenponeuuu:ouun. E xopo oo nouc-
xopu1 ocnooxponuo nocu1oAn rono1unocxo unqomauu nuyca -
oro nyxAounono xucAo1w. V mnorux nuycon, nanumo ax1ouo-
qaron (aa ucxAmnonuom nu1na1wx), a1o1 noocc connapao1 c no-
pwpymo c1apuo, nocxoArxy n xAo1xy nonuxao1 1oArxo nyxAou-
nonan xucAo1a, a oAxonan ooAonxa oc1ao1cn aa nopoAamu xAo1-
xu-xoanuna. EcAu nuyc nonuxao1 n xAo1xy oAuxom, 1o ypaAonuo
1
!# !"
ooAonxu ocymoc1nAno1cn xAo1onnwmu no1oaaamu. Hanomnum, n1o
nuuon moxo1 nonuxa1r n xAo1xy n oayAr1a1o anpou1oaa. Kax u
noAoxono, nu a1om qomuyo1cn naxyoAr-qarocoma, c xo1oo cAu-
nam1cn nonunnwo Auaocomw. Opnaxo n cAynao ownnoro qaro- uAu
nunou1oaa qomon1w Auaocom acmonAnm1 oranunocxuo nomo-
c1na qarocomw po monomoon, xo1owo nnocAopc1nuu ucnoAraym1cn
xAo1xo pAn cnoux nyxp. Ho nonwncnonnwm po xona nununam c
nonuxmumu n xAo1xy nuuonamu a1oro no noucxopu1 n noAno
moo. omon1a1unnomy acmonAonum nopnorao1cn Aumr oAxo-
nan coc1anAnmman nuycno nac1uw, a oro nyxAounonan xucAo1a
oc1ao1cn nononoxponno. E oayAr1a1o nyxAounonan xucAo1a nu-
yca ocnooxpao1cn, u nnocAopc1nuu umonno ona cymoc1nonnwm o-
aaom nooaayo1 pon1oArnoc1r xAo1xu-xoanuna, nopnunnn oo mo-
1aoAuam cnoum no1onoc1nm u nwnyxpan oo cun1oauona1r ono-
poAonnwo nomoc1na. Oamaom nnumanuo na 1o, n1o cam nuyc no
oAapao1 nooxopumwmu pAn a1oro moxanuamamu, noa1omy pAn cun-
1oaa nyxnwx moAoxyA on ucnoArayo1 xAo1onnwo qomon1w (nanu-
mo, no1oaaw, PHK-noAumoaaw u p.) u c1yx1yw (nanumo,
uocomw). Hy1u oaAuaauu rono1unocxo unqomauu aanwmu
nuycamu naawnam1 cnponeeueu oupcuoeo eeuo+o.
E xopo noxnopxo cxapnn na ocnono nuycno nyxAounono xucAo-
1w noucxopu1 cuune: ueoroou+mr o.n oupco coeouueuuu. EnanaAo
oaayo1cn annnn mPHK, xo1oan ypo1 cAyxu1r ma1uo pAn
annux nuycnwx oAxon. V nuycon annumu moAoxyAamu cnu1a-
m1cn 1o, n1o nonnuAucr po onAuxauu nuycno nyxAounono xucAo-
1w. Hmonno onu ypy1 nananAn1r nocAopymmu cun1oa nyxAounono
xucAo1w nuyca. MoAoxyAw, xo1owo oaaonaAucr nocAo onAuxa-
uu nyxAounono xucAo1w, naawnam1cn no:ouu+u. Opnaxo nooxopu-
mo o1mo1u1r, n1o nananAonuo cun1oaa nuycnwx moAoxyA n xAo1xo
aanucu1 o1 1una nyxAounono xucAo1w nuyca. V HK-copoxamux
nuycon oman cxoma uocun1oaa no umoo1 nununuaArnwx ocoon-
noc1o u nxAmnao1 n con ownnwo a1anw: HK PHK oAox.
MoAxuo nuycw pAn a1oro nonuxam1 n npo u n noocco 1ancxun-
uu ucnoAraym1 PHK-noAumoaaw xAo1xu (ownnwo, 1. o. HK-aanu-
cumym PHK-noAumoaay). Kynnwo (nanumo, nuyc ocnw) nuycw
ocymoc1nAnm1 cno cun1oa no n npo, a n u1onAaamo. Hoa1omy onu no
mory1 aapoc1nona1r xAo1onnwo qomon1w, u 1ancxunum y nux
nananAno1 coc1nonnan (nuuonnan) PHK-noAumoaaa.
PHK-copoxamuo nuycw no a1omy nuanaxy poAn1cn na nocxoAr-
xo rynn. HauoAoo noc1o nco yc1oono y nopc1anu1oAo nono
rynnw (nuxona-, 1ora- u xoonanuycw). V nux 1ancxunun
no noucxopu1, no1omy n1o nuuonnan opnonu1na1an PHK cama
nwnoAnno1 qynxum mPHK, 1.o. cAyxu1 ma1uo pAn cun1oaa
nuuonnoro oAxa na uocomax xAo1xu. CAopona1oArno, cxoma
uocun1oaa y nux cAopymman: PHK oAox. Taxuo nuycw naaw-
nam1cn n.wcuuneome (uAu nuycw c noau1unnwm ronomom).
P u c . 5 6. Hpouxoseue
oxosupycos s xnemxy
s npoecce suponexcuca
(cxeua):
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc
muna C; 2 acopus supyca
a csooo xnemovo
nosepxocmu; 3 poqeoumos
supyca; 1a, 2a, 3a nocneosa-
mensme smanm npouxoseus
oxosupycos muna A, novxyk-
uxcs a nosepxocmu cocee
xnemxu; 4 noxanusaus supy-
ca s qaaocoue; 5 npouxose-
ue cepesum supyca s u-
monnasuy; 6 ecmpyxus o-
xosupycos s qaaonusocoue;
7 nusocoum; HO nnasua-
muvecxas oonovxa xnemxu;
OB oonovxa supyca; C cep-
esua; Om ompocmxu oo-
novxu supyca (no Bmxoscxouy u
coasm., c usueeusuu u onon-
eusuu)
P u c . 5 7. Hpouxoseue
oxosupyca s xnemxy
s npoecce cnusus
oonovxu supyca
u nnasuamuvecxo
oonovxu xnemxu (cxeua):
1 sexnemovm oxosupyc
muna C; 2, 3, 4 nocneosamens-
me smanm cnusus oonovxu
supyca u xnemxu; OB oonovxa
supyca; Om ompocmxu oonov-
xu supyca; C cepesua (no
Bmxoscxouy u coasm., 1983)
1a
2
3
4
5
6
7
2a
3a
1
2
3
4
nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu-xoanuna) (uc. 5?). 3nanu1oArno
cAoxnoo nuycam ac1onu, ruon u ax1ou, nwnyxponnwm
nouna1rcn nooa xoc1xym xAo1onnym c1onxy. An a1oro umo-
m1cn xonxo1nwo nucnocoAonun. E nac1noc1u, ax1ouoqaru o-
Aapam1 qomon1om 1una Auaouma, Aaropan xo1oomy onu a-
c1nonm1 c1onxy ax1ouaArno xAo1xu.
Tpoxnx cxapnx naawnao1cn oenponeuuu:ouun. E xopo oo nouc-
xopu1 ocnooxponuo nocu1oAn rono1unocxo unqomauu nuyca -
oro nyxAounono xucAo1w. V mnorux nuycon, nanumo ax1ouo-
qaron (aa ucxAmnonuom nu1na1wx), a1o1 noocc connapao1 c no-
pwpymo c1apuo, nocxoArxy n xAo1xy nonuxao1 1oArxo nyxAou-
nonan xucAo1a, a oAxonan ooAonxa oc1ao1cn aa nopoAamu xAo1-
xu-xoanuna. EcAu nuyc nonuxao1 n xAo1xy oAuxom, 1o ypaAonuo
1
!% !$
P u c . 5 8. Cxeuamuvecxoe usopa+eue
cqepuvecxoao supyca:
1 cmpyxmypas euua (cyeuua); 2 xancouep (uop-
qonoauvecxas euua); 3 xancu; 4 yxneuosas xucnoma;
5 oonovxa (no lonyesy u Conoyxuy)
2
3 4
5
1
P u c . 5 9. Cxeua cmpoeus qaaoso vacmum:
1 oonovxa aonosxu; 2 yxneuosme xucnomm; 3 cmep-
+es; 4 xaane; 5 vexon; 6 asansas nnacmuxa;
7 sym; 8 umu (no Paymeumey)
6
7
8
2
3
4
5
1
nu o1nonxonwnanuu nonoxpao1cn nAaama-
1unocxan momana.
Eomn, nomopmoo c momon1a nonuxno-
nonun nuyca n xAo1xy po nwxopa nonwx nu-
uonon, naawnao1cn cupmnm+, uAu .oneun
um+, nouopom. Ono moxo1 muoxo naruo-
na1r: o1 nocxoArxux nacon (nn1u-moc1u y nuycon ocnw u runna)
po nocxoArxux cy1ox (nuycw xou, apononuycw u p.).
V noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron nanpy c oup.eunum+u (wc1o
aanunammuocn nuycw) umom1cn +epeuume qaru. Hx nyxAouno-
nan xucAo1a nocAo nonuxnononun n ax1ouaArnym xAo1xy un-
1oruyo1cn n HK xAo1xu u c1anonu1cn npoqoeo+. Hoqar no
oxaawnao1 Au1unocxoro noapoc1nun na xAo1xy-xoanuna u nu po-
Aonuu onAuuyo1cn nmoc1o c xAo1onno HK. Eax1ouu, copo-
xamuo noqar, naawnam1cn .u:oeeuum+u. Onu nonnAnm1 yc1o-
nunoc1r x copoxamomycn n nux qary, a 1axxo x Auaxum x nomy
pyrum qaram. Cnnar noqara c ax1ouo nocrma nonnan, no ona
moxo1 w1r naymona nop noapoc1nuom unpyuymmux qax1o-
on (yAr1aquoAo1onwo Aynu u uonuauymman apuaun, xumu-
nocxuo my1aronw). CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o Auaoronnwo ax1ouu
mory1 monn1r cnoc1na (nanumo, nwpoAn1r nonwo 1oxcunw).
Kaaccnqnuanx nnpycon. Ha cuc1oma1unocxoo noAoxonuo nuy-
con yxaawnam1 aanwo noxaaa1oAu: 1un nyxAounono xucAo1w u xo-
Aunoc1no nu1o (opno- uAu pnyxnu1na1an), oo macca u o1nocu1oArnan
poAn n nuycno nac1uo. Komo 1oro, nuycw nopaapoAnm1cn n
aanucumoc1u o1 qomw xancupa u c1oonun ooAonxu, nuopw xo-
anuna u mnorux pyrux qax1oon. Hu ooananonuu xonxo1noro
nuyca 1axxo nooxopumo yxaawna1r noonocnuxa - ocAu on oc1r.
Ho qomo nuuona nuycw poAn1cn na: cqepuuec
uue (nuycw xou, runna, aonuycw u p.) (uc.
58), no.ouuoououme (nuycw moaaunno oAoanu 1a-
axa, xa1oqoAn u p.), uouoo.tume (apononu-
ycw, oonuycw, nuycw ocnw u p.) u cnep+o
no:ououme (noxo1owo ax1ouoqaru) (uc. 59).
E aanucumoc1u o1 noaxaomo xAo1xu-mu-
monu nuycw poAn1 na nuycw uoonumr, po
cneuuu, epuoo u ounepuu (ounepuoqoeu,
E1oym rynny coc1anAnm1 +uucuuneome nuycw (uAu nuycw
c nora1unnwm ronomom - nuycw runna, xou, nao1u1a u p.). Onu
1axxo copoxa1 opnonu1na1ym PHK, opnaxo ona no unqoma1unna
pAn nnmo 1ancAnuu, noa1omy y nux cnanaAa noucxopu1
1ancxunun na nuuonno PHK xomnAomon1ano o m-PHK, xo-
1oan u ypo1 cAyxu1r ma1uo pAn nocAopymmoro cun1oaa nuyc-
nwx oAxon. CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o 1ancxunun ynanAno1cn qo-
mon1om PHK-aanucumo PHK-noAumoaao. 01o1 qomon1 o1cy1c1nyo1
n xAo1xo (nonn1no, n1o xAo1xo on noc1o no nyxon, nocxoArxy n no
nuxorpa no cun1oauyo1cn PHK na PHK) u nunocu1cn camum nuu-
onom. E a1om cAynao cxoma uocun1oaa ypo1: PHK PHK oAox.
V coc1anAnmmux 1o1rm rynny o1onuycon (onu o1nocn1cn x
onxonuycam) uocun1oa upo1 nauoAoo cAoxno. V nux na ucxopno
opnonu1na1o PHK-ma1uo cnanaAa cun1oauyo1cn HK - ynuxaAr-
nw cAyna n nuopo, xo1oomy no1 anaAoron. 01o1 noocc ynanAn-
o1cn ocowm qomon1om - PHK-aanucumo HK-noAumoaao (oro omo
naawnam1 oa1no 1ancxun1aao, uAu ono1aao). HoAynonnan
moAoxyAa HK nnocAopc1nuu nuoo1ao1 xoAronym qomy u na-
awnao1cn [HKnpooupc. 3a1om a1a moAoxyAa nc1aunao1cn n xomo-
comy xAo1xu-xoanuna u c nomomrm xAo1onno xo PHK-noAumoaaw
mnoroxa1no 1ancxuuyo1cn. Oaaonanmuocn xonuu nwnoAnnm1
cAopymmuo qynxuu: no-nonwx, nnAnm1cn mPHK, no xo1oo na xAo-
1onnwx uocomax cun1oauym1cn oAxu xancupa nuyca, no-n1owx,
onu camu nonocopc1nonno nnAnm1cn PHK nuuona. Taxum oaaom,
cxoma uocun1oaa y a1ux nuycon: PHK HK PHK oAox.
Ho1no1ym rynny oaaym1 nuycw, copoxamuo pnyxnu1na-
1ym PHK. V nux 1ancxunun 1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn c nomo-
mrm nuycnoro qomon1a PHK-aanucumo PHK-noAumoaaw.
E nxxo cxapnn noucxopu1 cuune: uo+noueunoo oupcuou
uocnuum - nyxAounono xucAo1w u oAxon xancupa, nunom nco
xomnonon1w cun1oauym1cn mnoroxa1no.
E xopo mocxo cxapnn ua cun1oauonannwx anoo mnoronucAon-
nwx xonu nyxAounono xucAo1w u oAxon qop+upwncn uoome
oupuoum nne+ co+ocopuu. An a1oro nooxopumo, n1ow xonon-
1aun xomnonon1on nuuona poc1urAa nwcoxoro (xu1unocxoro)
yonnn. Oamaom nnumanuo na 1o oc1on1oArc1no, n1o xomnonon1w
nuycno nac1uw cun1oauym1cn aapoArno u n aanwx nac1nx xAo1-
xu. V cAoxnwx nuycon, xomo xancupa, 1axxo oaayo1cn nayx-
nan ooAonxa ua xomnonon1on nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu.
HocAopnnn - copnmax cxapnx - nopc1anAno1 coo omroo ouoot
copouumr oupcumr uocnuu u: u.enuuro:nuuo. V aanwx nu-
ycon a1o1 noocc noxopu1 noopunaxono. V noxo1owx nuycon
a1o cononoxpao1cn ruoArm xAo1xu aa cno1 ocnooxponun Au1u-
nocxux qomon1on Auaocom - .u:uc xAo1xu. V pyrux nuuonw
nwxopn1 ua xuno xAo1xu nne+ onnouuoomoouun (cm. uc. 55),
opnaxo u n a1om cAynao xAo1xa co nomonom noruno1, nocxoArxy
!% !$
P u c . 5 8. Cxeuamuvecxoe usopa+eue
cqepuvecxoao supyca:
1 cmpyxmypas euua (cyeuua); 2 xancouep (uop-
qonoauvecxas euua); 3 xancu; 4 yxneuosas xucnoma;
5 oonovxa (no lonyesy u Conoyxuy)
2
3 4
5
1
P u c . 5 9. Cxeua cmpoeus qaaoso vacmum:
1 oonovxa aonosxu; 2 yxneuosme xucnomm; 3 cmep-
+es; 4 xaane; 5 vexon; 6 asansas nnacmuxa;
7 sym; 8 umu (no Paymeumey)
6
7
8
2
3
4
5
1
nu o1nonxonwnanuu nonoxpao1cn nAaama-
1unocxan momana.
Eomn, nomopmoo c momon1a nonuxno-
nonun nuyca n xAo1xy po nwxopa nonwx nu-
uonon, naawnao1cn cupmnm+, uAu .oneun
um+, nouopom. Ono moxo1 muoxo naruo-
na1r: o1 nocxoArxux nacon (nn1u-moc1u y nuycon ocnw u runna)
po nocxoArxux cy1ox (nuycw xou, apononuycw u p.).
V noxo1owx ax1ouoqaron nanpy c oup.eunum+u (wc1o
aanunammuocn nuycw) umom1cn +epeuume qaru. Hx nyxAouno-
nan xucAo1a nocAo nonuxnononun n ax1ouaArnym xAo1xy un-
1oruyo1cn n HK xAo1xu u c1anonu1cn npoqoeo+. Hoqar no
oxaawnao1 Au1unocxoro noapoc1nun na xAo1xy-xoanuna u nu po-
Aonuu onAuuyo1cn nmoc1o c xAo1onno HK. Eax1ouu, copo-
xamuo noqar, naawnam1cn .u:oeeuum+u. Onu nonnAnm1 yc1o-
nunoc1r x copoxamomycn n nux qary, a 1axxo x Auaxum x nomy
pyrum qaram. Cnnar noqara c ax1ouo nocrma nonnan, no ona
moxo1 w1r naymona nop noapoc1nuom unpyuymmux qax1o-
on (yAr1aquoAo1onwo Aynu u uonuauymman apuaun, xumu-
nocxuo my1aronw). CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o Auaoronnwo ax1ouu
mory1 monn1r cnoc1na (nanumo, nwpoAn1r nonwo 1oxcunw).
Kaaccnqnuanx nnpycon. Ha cuc1oma1unocxoo noAoxonuo nuy-
con yxaawnam1 aanwo noxaaa1oAu: 1un nyxAounono xucAo1w u xo-
Aunoc1no nu1o (opno- uAu pnyxnu1na1an), oo macca u o1nocu1oArnan
poAn n nuycno nac1uo. Komo 1oro, nuycw nopaapoAnm1cn n
aanucumoc1u o1 qomw xancupa u c1oonun ooAonxu, nuopw xo-
anuna u mnorux pyrux qax1oon. Hu ooananonuu xonxo1noro
nuyca 1axxo nooxopumo yxaawna1r noonocnuxa - ocAu on oc1r.
Ho qomo nuuona nuycw poAn1cn na: cqepuuec
uue (nuycw xou, runna, aonuycw u p.) (uc.
58), no.ouuoououme (nuycw moaaunno oAoanu 1a-
axa, xa1oqoAn u p.), uouoo.tume (apononu-
ycw, oonuycw, nuycw ocnw u p.) u cnep+o
no:ououme (noxo1owo ax1ouoqaru) (uc. 59).
E aanucumoc1u o1 noaxaomo xAo1xu-mu-
monu nuycw poAn1 na nuycw uoonumr, po
cneuuu, epuoo u ounepuu (ounepuoqoeu,
E1oym rynny coc1anAnm1 +uucuuneome nuycw (uAu nuycw
c nora1unnwm ronomom - nuycw runna, xou, nao1u1a u p.). Onu
1axxo copoxa1 opnonu1na1ym PHK, opnaxo ona no unqoma1unna
pAn nnmo 1ancAnuu, noa1omy y nux cnanaAa noucxopu1
1ancxunun na nuuonno PHK xomnAomon1ano o m-PHK, xo-
1oan u ypo1 cAyxu1r ma1uo pAn nocAopymmoro cun1oaa nuyc-
nwx oAxon. CAopyo1 o1mo1u1r, n1o 1ancxunun ynanAno1cn qo-
mon1om PHK-aanucumo PHK-noAumoaao. 01o1 qomon1 o1cy1c1nyo1
n xAo1xo (nonn1no, n1o xAo1xo on noc1o no nyxon, nocxoArxy n no
nuxorpa no cun1oauyo1cn PHK na PHK) u nunocu1cn camum nuu-
onom. E a1om cAynao cxoma uocun1oaa ypo1: PHK PHK oAox.
V coc1anAnmmux 1o1rm rynny o1onuycon (onu o1nocn1cn x
onxonuycam) uocun1oa upo1 nauoAoo cAoxno. V nux na ucxopno
opnonu1na1o PHK-ma1uo cnanaAa cun1oauyo1cn HK - ynuxaAr-
nw cAyna n nuopo, xo1oomy no1 anaAoron. 01o1 noocc ynanAn-
o1cn ocowm qomon1om - PHK-aanucumo HK-noAumoaao (oro omo
naawnam1 oa1no 1ancxun1aao, uAu ono1aao). HoAynonnan
moAoxyAa HK nnocAopc1nuu nuoo1ao1 xoAronym qomy u na-
awnao1cn [HKnpooupc. 3a1om a1a moAoxyAa nc1aunao1cn n xomo-
comy xAo1xu-xoanuna u c nomomrm xAo1onno xo PHK-noAumoaaw
mnoroxa1no 1ancxuuyo1cn. Oaaonanmuocn xonuu nwnoAnnm1
cAopymmuo qynxuu: no-nonwx, nnAnm1cn mPHK, no xo1oo na xAo-
1onnwx uocomax cun1oauym1cn oAxu xancupa nuyca, no-n1owx,
onu camu nonocopc1nonno nnAnm1cn PHK nuuona. Taxum oaaom,
cxoma uocun1oaa y a1ux nuycon: PHK HK PHK oAox.
Ho1no1ym rynny oaaym1 nuycw, copoxamuo pnyxnu1na-
1ym PHK. V nux 1ancxunun 1axxo ocymoc1nAno1cn c nomo-
mrm nuycnoro qomon1a PHK-aanucumo PHK-noAumoaaw.
E nxxo cxapnn noucxopu1 cuune: uo+noueunoo oupcuou
uocnuum - nyxAounono xucAo1w u oAxon xancupa, nunom nco
xomnonon1w cun1oauym1cn mnoroxa1no.
E xopo mocxo cxapnn ua cun1oauonannwx anoo mnoronucAon-
nwx xonu nyxAounono xucAo1w u oAxon qop+upwncn uoome
oupuoum nne+ co+ocopuu. An a1oro nooxopumo, n1ow xonon-
1aun xomnonon1on nuuona poc1urAa nwcoxoro (xu1unocxoro)
yonnn. Oamaom nnumanuo na 1o oc1on1oArc1no, n1o xomnonon1w
nuycno nac1uw cun1oauym1cn aapoArno u n aanwx nac1nx xAo1-
xu. V cAoxnwx nuycon, xomo xancupa, 1axxo oaayo1cn nayx-
nan ooAonxa ua xomnonon1on nAaama1unocxo momanw xAo1xu.
HocAopnnn - copnmax cxapnx - nopc1anAno1 coo omroo ouoot
copouumr oupcumr uocnuu u: u.enuuro:nuuo. V aanwx nu-
ycon a1o1 noocc noxopu1 noopunaxono. V noxo1owx nuycon
a1o cononoxpao1cn ruoArm xAo1xu aa cno1 ocnooxponun Au1u-
nocxux qomon1on Auaocom - .u:uc xAo1xu. V pyrux nuuonw
nwxopn1 ua xuno xAo1xu nne+ onnouuoomoouun (cm. uc. 55),
opnaxo u n a1om cAynao xAo1xa co nomonom noruno1, nocxoArxy
!' !&
TKAHH
Tuout - ono ucnopuuecuu c.ououoncn ouocnt u.enou u
+eu.enouuoeo oeecnoo, ozeouueuumr eouucnoo+ npoucro
oeuun, cnpoeuun u quuuuu. E oranuamo noAonoxa nwpoAnm1 no-
1wo 1una 1xano: anu1oAuaArnym, coopunu1oArnym, mwmonnym
u nonnym.
0nnvoAnaAnnmo vuann noxwnam1 nonoxnoc1r 1oAa u nwc1u-
Aam1 cAuauc1wo ooAonxu, o1poAnn oranuam o1 nnomno copw
(noxonnw anu1oAu), a 1axxo oaaym1 xoAoaw (xoAoauc1w
anu1oAu). 0nu1oAu oaayo1 cAo xAo1ox, Aoxamux na 1onxo
aaaArno momano, Aumonnw xononocnwx cocypon, oro nu1a-
nuo ocymoc1nAno1cn aa cno1 nopAoxamo coopunu1oArno 1xanu.
Eo:o.tuon +e+pouo - cAo moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na (oAxon u
noAucaxaupon), acnoAarammucn na ranuax moxpy aaAun-
nwmu 1xannmu, nanumo moxpy anu1oAuaArnwm nAac1om u nop-
Aoxamo coopunu1oArno 1xanrm.
E aanucumoc1u o1 xoAunoc1na cAoon xAo1ox nonoxnoc1nw
anu1oAu nopaapoAnm1 na opnocAonw u mnorocAonw (uc.
60, 1aA. 15). Oouoc.ouumu onune.uu noxwnao1 cooanwo oo-
Aonxu (mmuna, nAona, nouxap), nwc1uAao1 oArmunc1no cAu-
auc1wx ooAonox, +uoeoc.ouumu noxwnao1 xoxy u nwc1uAao1 no-
xo1owo cAuauc1wo ooAonxu (nanumo, xon+mnx1uny rAaaa, o-
1onym noAoc1r, rAo1xy, nu-
monop, nAaraAumo).
e.e:ucnmu onune.uu.
HoAoaa nopc1anAno1 coo
oran, naonxuma xo1ooro
cqomuonana xoAoauc1wmu
xAo1xamu. HoAoaw nopaapo-
Anm1cn na ou:oupuuume, umo-
mmuo nwnopnwo no1oxu; ou
ooupuuume, no umommuo nw-
nopnwx no1oxon u nwpoAn-
mmuo cun1oauyomwo umu
nopyx1w nonocopc1nonno
P u c . 6 0. Cxeua cmpoeus
snumenuanso mxau:
A oocnom nnocxu snumenu
(uesomenu); B oocnom xyu-
vecxu snumenu; B oocnom u-
nupuvecxu snumenu; l pecum-
vamm snumenu; B nepexom snu-
menu; E eopoaosesaku uoaoc-
nom nnocxu snumenu (no Xsuy
u lopuaxy)
uAu noc1o qoeu). E nopoAax xaxpo rynnw 1axxo umoo1cn po-
Aonuo na noprynnw. EwpoAnm1 1? comoc1n nuycon noanonon-
nwx, ? comoc1n nuycon ocnoanononnwx, 20 comoc1n nuycon
ac1onu, 10 comoc1n nuycon ax1ou u 5 opon nuycon ru-
on. Mnoruo nuycoAoru ocnaunam1 numononuo x nuycam nonn-
1un nup, noa1omy mw 1axxo nonnum n a1om oc1ooxnoc1r. O-
nayxonuo nonwx nuycon - nnAonuo ananu1oArno oAoo opxoo,
noxoAu o1xw1uo nonwx nupon xAo1onnwx oranuamon.
Hponcxoxponno nnpycon. Huopa nuycon po cux no nwawna-
o1 xaxuo pucxyccuu n copo cnouaAuc1on. Hununo 1omy no mno-
rom nnAnm1cn mnoronucAonnwo u aanac1ym nocrma no1unoonunwo
runo1oaw, nwcxaaannwo x nac1onmomy nomonu u, x coxaAonum,
o+ox1unno nunom no poxaaannwo. Hunopom Aumr noxo1owo ua
nux. CorAacno opno, nuycw nopc1anAnm1 coo oayAr1a1 mo-
qoqynxuonaArnoro orocca, cnnaannoro c naaau1unocxum oa-
aom xuanu (poc1nu1oArno, nuycw nopc1anAnm1 coo a1aAonnw
nauan1 oAura1noro naaau1uama). C1oonnuxu a1o runo1oaw (cAo-
pyo1 o1mo1u1r, no ononr mnoronucAonnwo) noAaram1, n1o nopxu
nuycon umoAu xAo1onnoo c1oonuo. HocxoArxo o1Aunao1cn o1 a1oro
pyran runo1oaa, noc1yAuymman noucxoxponuo nuycon ua no-
now1nwx poxAo1onnwx oranuamon. Ho a1o nocuu, nopmoc1non-
nuxu nuycon omo 1orpa uaaAu naaau1unocxu oaa xuanu, u,
1axum oaaom, onu nnAnm1cn nauoAoo ponnumu naaau1amu.
EoAoo nanponopono, na nam narAnp, nopc1anAno1cn runo-
1oaa o anporonnom noucxoxponuu nuycon. CorAacno o, nuycw
nopc1anAnm1 coo qarmon1 xorpa-1o xAo1onno nyxAounono
xucAo1w, xo1ow nucnocouAcn x conaa1no onAuxauu. 01y
nocum n xaxo-1o moo nop1noxpao1 cymoc1nonanuo n ax1ou-
aArnwx xAo1xax nAaamup, nonoponuo xo1owx no mnorom cxopno c
nuycamu (oAoo nopono o a1om accxaaano n aapoAo, nocnn-
monnom rono1unocxomy annaa1y noxauo1). Hanpy c a1um cy-
moc1nyo1 u xocmunocxan runo1oaa, corAacno xo1oo nuycw
noomo no anoAmuonuonaAu na 3omAo, a wAu aanoconw x nam
ua EcoAonno nocopc1nom xaxux-Auo xocmunocxux 1oA.
3nauonno nnpycon oromno xax n xuno nuopo, 1ax u n xuanu
noAonoxa, nocxoArxy nuycw nnAnm1cn naaau1amu u noaxam1
nco uanoc1nwo oranuamw. Mnoruo ua nux (runn, noAuomuoAu1,
EHH u p.) nwawnam1 y Ampo 1nxoAwo aaoAonanun, noopxo c
Ao1aArnwm ucxopom.
Opnaxo nuycw mory1 w1r noAoanwmu. Hoxpo ncoro nuycw,
xax u Amwo pyruo naaau1w, c1umyAuym1 pon1oArnoc1r aamu1-
nwx cuA oranuamon, nananAnn, n uanoc1no c1ononu, anoAmu-
onnw noocc. Mnoruo nuycw, noaxammuo ax1ouu, noanw-
nano naxnw pAn mopuunw u no1ounauu, nocxoArxy noanoAn-
m1 oc1oc1nonnwm ny1om u oa xumunocxux oaron1on nooxpa1r
mnoruo ax1ouaArnwo unqoxuu.
!' !&
TKAHH
Tuout - ono ucnopuuecuu c.ououoncn ouocnt u.enou u
+eu.enouuoeo oeecnoo, ozeouueuumr eouucnoo+ npoucro
oeuun, cnpoeuun u quuuuu. E oranuamo noAonoxa nwpoAnm1 no-
1wo 1una 1xano: anu1oAuaArnym, coopunu1oArnym, mwmonnym
u nonnym.
0nnvoAnaAnnmo vuann noxwnam1 nonoxnoc1r 1oAa u nwc1u-
Aam1 cAuauc1wo ooAonxu, o1poAnn oranuam o1 nnomno copw
(noxonnw anu1oAu), a 1axxo oaaym1 xoAoaw (xoAoauc1w
anu1oAu). 0nu1oAu oaayo1 cAo xAo1ox, Aoxamux na 1onxo
aaaArno momano, Aumonnw xononocnwx cocypon, oro nu1a-
nuo ocymoc1nAno1cn aa cno1 nopAoxamo coopunu1oArno 1xanu.
Eo:o.tuon +e+pouo - cAo moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na (oAxon u
noAucaxaupon), acnoAarammucn na ranuax moxpy aaAun-
nwmu 1xannmu, nanumo moxpy anu1oAuaArnwm nAac1om u nop-
Aoxamo coopunu1oArno 1xanrm.
E aanucumoc1u o1 xoAunoc1na cAoon xAo1ox nonoxnoc1nw
anu1oAu nopaapoAnm1 na opnocAonw u mnorocAonw (uc.
60, 1aA. 15). Oouoc.ouumu onune.uu noxwnao1 cooanwo oo-
Aonxu (mmuna, nAona, nouxap), nwc1uAao1 oArmunc1no cAu-
auc1wx ooAonox, +uoeoc.ouumu noxwnao1 xoxy u nwc1uAao1 no-
xo1owo cAuauc1wo ooAonxu (nanumo, xon+mnx1uny rAaaa, o-
1onym noAoc1r, rAo1xy, nu-
monop, nAaraAumo).
e.e:ucnmu onune.uu.
HoAoaa nopc1anAno1 coo
oran, naonxuma xo1ooro
cqomuonana xoAoauc1wmu
xAo1xamu. HoAoaw nopaapo-
Anm1cn na ou:oupuuume, umo-
mmuo nwnopnwo no1oxu; ou
ooupuuume, no umommuo nw-
nopnwx no1oxon u nwpoAn-
mmuo cun1oauyomwo umu
nopyx1w nonocopc1nonno
P u c . 6 0. Cxeua cmpoeus
snumenuanso mxau:
A oocnom nnocxu snumenu
(uesomenu); B oocnom xyu-
vecxu snumenu; B oocnom u-
nupuvecxu snumenu; l pecum-
vamm snumenu; B nepexom snu-
menu; E eopoaosesaku uoaoc-
nom nnocxu snumenu (no Xsuy
u lopuaxy)
uAu noc1o qoeu). E nopoAax xaxpo rynnw 1axxo umoo1cn po-
Aonuo na noprynnw. EwpoAnm1 1? comoc1n nuycon noanonon-
nwx, ? comoc1n nuycon ocnoanononnwx, 20 comoc1n nuycon
ac1onu, 10 comoc1n nuycon ax1ou u 5 opon nuycon ru-
on. Mnoruo nuycoAoru ocnaunam1 numononuo x nuycam nonn-
1un nup, noa1omy mw 1axxo nonnum n a1om oc1ooxnoc1r. O-
nayxonuo nonwx nuycon - nnAonuo ananu1oArno oAoo opxoo,
noxoAu o1xw1uo nonwx nupon xAo1onnwx oranuamon.
Hponcxoxponno nnpycon. Huopa nuycon po cux no nwawna-
o1 xaxuo pucxyccuu n copo cnouaAuc1on. Hununo 1omy no mno-
rom nnAnm1cn mnoronucAonnwo u aanac1ym nocrma no1unoonunwo
runo1oaw, nwcxaaannwo x nac1onmomy nomonu u, x coxaAonum,
o+ox1unno nunom no poxaaannwo. Hunopom Aumr noxo1owo ua
nux. CorAacno opno, nuycw nopc1anAnm1 coo oayAr1a1 mo-
qoqynxuonaArnoro orocca, cnnaannoro c naaau1unocxum oa-
aom xuanu (poc1nu1oArno, nuycw nopc1anAnm1 coo a1aAonnw
nauan1 oAura1noro naaau1uama). C1oonnuxu a1o runo1oaw (cAo-
pyo1 o1mo1u1r, no ononr mnoronucAonnwo) noAaram1, n1o nopxu
nuycon umoAu xAo1onnoo c1oonuo. HocxoArxo o1Aunao1cn o1 a1oro
pyran runo1oaa, noc1yAuymman noucxoxponuo nuycon ua no-
now1nwx poxAo1onnwx oranuamon. Ho a1o nocuu, nopmoc1non-
nuxu nuycon omo 1orpa uaaAu naaau1unocxu oaa xuanu, u,
1axum oaaom, onu nnAnm1cn nauoAoo ponnumu naaau1amu.
EoAoo nanponopono, na nam narAnp, nopc1anAno1cn runo-
1oaa o anporonnom noucxoxponuu nuycon. CorAacno o, nuycw
nopc1anAnm1 coo qarmon1 xorpa-1o xAo1onno nyxAounono
xucAo1w, xo1ow nucnocouAcn x conaa1no onAuxauu. 01y
nocum n xaxo-1o moo nop1noxpao1 cymoc1nonanuo n ax1ou-
aArnwx xAo1xax nAaamup, nonoponuo xo1owx no mnorom cxopno c
nuycamu (oAoo nopono o a1om accxaaano n aapoAo, nocnn-
monnom rono1unocxomy annaa1y noxauo1). Hanpy c a1um cy-
moc1nyo1 u xocmunocxan runo1oaa, corAacno xo1oo nuycw
noomo no anoAmuonuonaAu na 3omAo, a wAu aanoconw x nam
ua EcoAonno nocopc1nom xaxux-Auo xocmunocxux 1oA.
3nauonno nnpycon oromno xax n xuno nuopo, 1ax u n xuanu
noAonoxa, nocxoArxy nuycw nnAnm1cn naaau1amu u noaxam1
nco uanoc1nwo oranuamw. Mnoruo ua nux (runn, noAuomuoAu1,
EHH u p.) nwawnam1 y Ampo 1nxoAwo aaoAonanun, noopxo c
Ao1aArnwm ucxopom.
Opnaxo nuycw mory1 w1r noAoanwmu. Hoxpo ncoro nuycw,
xax u Amwo pyruo naaau1w, c1umyAuym1 pon1oArnoc1r aamu1-
nwx cuA oranuamon, nananAnn, n uanoc1no c1ononu, anoAmu-
onnw noocc. Mnoruo nuycw, noaxammuo ax1ouu, noanw-
nano naxnw pAn mopuunw u no1ounauu, nocxoArxy noanoAn-
m1 oc1oc1nonnwm ny1om u oa xumunocxux oaron1on nooxpa1r
mnoruo ax1ouaArnwo unqoxuu.
" "
T
o

.
u
u
o

1

X
a
p
a
u
v
o
p
n
c
v
n
u
a

p
a
a
n
m
x

v
n
n
o
n

a
n
n
v
o
A
n
x
" "
T
o

.
u
u
o

1

X
a
p
a
u
v
o
p
n
c
v
n
u
a

p
a
a
n
m
x

v
n
n
o
n

a
n
n
v
o
A
n
x
"! "
n moxxAo1onnwo noc1anc1na, o1xypa onu noc1ynam1 n xonr u
Aumqy (uc. 61); c+euouume, coc1onmuo ua axao- u anpoxunnwx
o1poAon (nanumo, nopxoAyponnan xoAoaa). Komo 1oro, umoo1cn
mnoxoc1no oouou.enouumr e.e: - ouo.oououmr u.enou, Aoxa-
mux copu pyrux anu1oAuaArnwx xAo1ox, noxwnammux cAuauc-
1wo ooAonxu noAwx oranon numonau1oArno, pwxa1oArno u
noAono cuc1om, xo1owo nwaa1wnam1 cAuar. HoAoaw nwaa1w-
nam1 aaAunnwo coxo1w: oAxonw, cAuauc1w u cmomannw.
CoopnnnvoAnnmo vuann nopc1anAnm1 omunym rynny,
nxAmnammym n con coc1nonno coopunu1oArnwo 1xanu (wxAan
noAoxnuc1an u nAo1nan noAoxnuc1an nooqomAonnan u oqomAon-
nan), 1xanu co cnouaArnwmu cnoc1namu (o1uxyAnnan, nur-
mon1nan, xuonan), 1nopwo cxoAo1nwo (xoc1nan, xnmonan) u
xupxuo (xonr u Aumqa) (1aA. 16). Coopunu1oArnwo 1xanu nw-
noAnnm1 aaAunnwo qynxuu: ononym (uAu moxanunocxym), 1o-
qunocxym (uAu nu1a1oArnym), aamu1nym.
E o1Aunuo o1 pyrux 1xano, coopunu1oArnwo cqomuonanw
ua mnoronucAonnwx xAo1ox u nwaa1wnaomoro umu moxxAo1on-
noro nomoc1na. HocAopnoo coc1ou1 ua amoqnoro nomoc1na u aa-
Aunnwx noAoxon (xoAAarononwx, aAac1unocxux, o1uxyAnnwx).
MoxxAo1onnoo nomoc1no umoo1 aaAunnym xoncuc1onum - o1
1noporo y xoc1u po xupxoro y xonu u Aumqw.
Mnoruo xAo1xu xonu nnAnm1cn opnonomonno u xAo1xamu co-
opunu1oArno 1xanu, a pyruo - ux nopmoc1nonnuxamu, noa1omy
oAocooaano nana1r onucanuo coopunu1oArnwx 1xano c xonu.
Kponn (uc. 62). Huanr noAonoxa cnnaana c xonrm, xo1oan
nwnoAnno1 cAopymmuo qynxuu: 1ancno1nym, 1oqunocxym, aa-
mu1nym, romoc1a1unocxym (xonooc1ananAunammym). Komo 1o-
ro, xonr ynac1nyo1 n coxanonuu noc1onnnoro coc1ana u cnoc1n
nny1onno copw oranuama - romooc1aaa (epeu. homoIos - opu-
naxonw, sIasIs - coc1onnuo, nonopnuxnoc1r). Omoo xoAunoc1no
xonu y naocAoro noAonoxa 4 - 6 A, n1o coc1anAno1 6 - 8% maccw
oro 1oAa (y myxnun n copnom oxoAo 5,4 A, y xonmun - oxoAo 4,5 A).
Ho1on 10% xonu ponyc1uma, 30% - onacna, a 50% - cmo1oArna.
P u c . 6 1. Cxeua
cmpoeus
sxsoxpumx
u soxpumx +enes:
A sxsoxpuas +enesa;
B soxpuas +enesa;
1 avansm omen;
2 cexpemopme apay-
nm; 3 smsoo npomox
sxsoxpuo +enesm;
4 noxposm snumenu;
5 coeuumensas
mxas; 6 xposeocm
cocy
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
u
u
m

1

"! "
n moxxAo1onnwo noc1anc1na, o1xypa onu noc1ynam1 n xonr u
Aumqy (uc. 61); c+euouume, coc1onmuo ua axao- u anpoxunnwx
o1poAon (nanumo, nopxoAyponnan xoAoaa). Komo 1oro, umoo1cn
mnoxoc1no oouou.enouumr e.e: - ouo.oououmr u.enou, Aoxa-
mux copu pyrux anu1oAuaArnwx xAo1ox, noxwnammux cAuauc-
1wo ooAonxu noAwx oranon numonau1oArno, pwxa1oArno u
noAono cuc1om, xo1owo nwaa1wnam1 cAuar. HoAoaw nwaa1w-
nam1 aaAunnwo coxo1w: oAxonw, cAuauc1w u cmomannw.
CoopnnnvoAnnmo vuann nopc1anAnm1 omunym rynny,
nxAmnammym n con coc1nonno coopunu1oArnwo 1xanu (wxAan
noAoxnuc1an u nAo1nan noAoxnuc1an nooqomAonnan u oqomAon-
nan), 1xanu co cnouaArnwmu cnoc1namu (o1uxyAnnan, nur-
mon1nan, xuonan), 1nopwo cxoAo1nwo (xoc1nan, xnmonan) u
xupxuo (xonr u Aumqa) (1aA. 16). Coopunu1oArnwo 1xanu nw-
noAnnm1 aaAunnwo qynxuu: ononym (uAu moxanunocxym), 1o-
qunocxym (uAu nu1a1oArnym), aamu1nym.
E o1Aunuo o1 pyrux 1xano, coopunu1oArnwo cqomuonanw
ua mnoronucAonnwx xAo1ox u nwaa1wnaomoro umu moxxAo1on-
noro nomoc1na. HocAopnoo coc1ou1 ua amoqnoro nomoc1na u aa-
Aunnwx noAoxon (xoAAarononwx, aAac1unocxux, o1uxyAnnwx).
MoxxAo1onnoo nomoc1no umoo1 aaAunnym xoncuc1onum - o1
1noporo y xoc1u po xupxoro y xonu u Aumqw.
Mnoruo xAo1xu xonu nnAnm1cn opnonomonno u xAo1xamu co-
opunu1oArno 1xanu, a pyruo - ux nopmoc1nonnuxamu, noa1omy
oAocooaano nana1r onucanuo coopunu1oArnwx 1xano c xonu.
Kponn (uc. 62). Huanr noAonoxa cnnaana c xonrm, xo1oan
nwnoAnno1 cAopymmuo qynxuu: 1ancno1nym, 1oqunocxym, aa-
mu1nym, romoc1a1unocxym (xonooc1ananAunammym). Komo 1o-
ro, xonr ynac1nyo1 n coxanonuu noc1onnnoro coc1ana u cnoc1n
nny1onno copw oranuama - romooc1aaa (epeu. homoIos - opu-
naxonw, sIasIs - coc1onnuo, nonopnuxnoc1r). Omoo xoAunoc1no
xonu y naocAoro noAonoxa 4 - 6 A, n1o coc1anAno1 6 - 8% maccw
oro 1oAa (y myxnun n copnom oxoAo 5,4 A, y xonmun - oxoAo 4,5 A).
Ho1on 10% xonu ponyc1uma, 30% - onacna, a 50% - cmo1oArna.
P u c . 6 1. Cxeua
cmpoeus
sxsoxpumx
u soxpumx +enes:
A sxsoxpuas +enesa;
B soxpuas +enesa;
1 avansm omen;
2 cexpemopme apay-
nm; 3 smsoo npomox
sxsoxpuo +enesm;
4 noxposm snumenu;
5 coeuumensas
mxas; 6 xposeocm
cocy
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
u
u
m

1

"# ""
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
6
K
A
a
c
c
n
q
n
u
a

n
x

n

x
a
p
a
u
v
o
p
n
c
v
n
u
a

n
n
p
o
n

c
o
o
p
n
n
n
v
o
A
n
n
o


v
u
a
n
n
"# ""
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
6
K
A
a
c
c
n
q
n
u
a

n
x

n

x
a
p
a
u
v
o
p
n
c
v
n
u
a

n
n
p
o
n

c
o
o
p
n
n
n
v
o
A
n
n
o


v
u
a
n
n
"% "$
Konr coc1ou1 ua xAo1ox (44% o+oma xonu), nanomonnwx n xup-
xom moxxAo1onnom nomoc1no cAoxnoro coc1ana (nAaama - 54%
o+oma).
HAaama - a1o xupxan nac1r xonu, n xo1oo copoxu1cn po
91% nopw, 6,5 - 8% oAxon, oxoAo 2% nuaxomoAoxyAnnwx co-
opunonu; H nAaamw xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 ?,3? po ?,43, a
ypoArnw noc o1 1,025 po 1,029. HAaama ora1a xax aAox1oAu1a-
mu, 1ax u noaAox1oAu1amu. EoAxu nAaamw (6,5 - 8 r,A, aArymu-
nw u rAoyAunw) nwnoAnnm1 1oqunocxym, 1ancno1nym, aamu1-
nym, yqonym qynxuu; onu 1axxo ynac1nym1 n cno1wnanuu
xonu u coapanuu xoAAoupno-ocmo1unocxoro panAonun. E xonu
copoxa1cn oa+nponwo xAo1xu au1ou1w - (4,0 - 5,0) 10
12
na Au1, Aoxou1w - (4,0 - 6,0) 10
9
na Au1, copu xo1owx
nwpoAnm1 aonuc1wo, uAu ranyAou1w, u noaonuc1wo, uAu ar-
anyAou1w (monou1w). E xonu umom1cn 1axxo xonnnwo nAa-
c1unxu (1omou1w), nucAo xo1owx coc1anAno1 (180,0 -
320,0) 10
9
na Au1. E xonu noc1onnno nucy1c1nym1 1axxo xAo1-
xu Aumqoupnoro npa (Aumqou1w), xo1owo nnAnm1cn c1yx1y-
nwmu aAomon1amu ummynno cuc1omw.
3punpouunm (epeu. oryIhros - xacnw), uAu xacnwo xonn-
nwo 1oAra, oa+nponwo xAo1xu, umommuo qomy pnonxonorny-
1wx pucxon puamo1om o1 ? po 10 mxm. 0u1ou1 - opunc1nonnan
xAo1xa n 1oAo noAonoxa, xo1oan no copoxu1 npa. 0u1ou1
P u c . 6 2. Cxeua cmpoeus xnemox xposu
(no Anepmcy u coasm.)
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
u
u
m

1
6
"% "$
Konr coc1ou1 ua xAo1ox (44% o+oma xonu), nanomonnwx n xup-
xom moxxAo1onnom nomoc1no cAoxnoro coc1ana (nAaama - 54%
o+oma).
HAaama - a1o xupxan nac1r xonu, n xo1oo copoxu1cn po
91% nopw, 6,5 - 8% oAxon, oxoAo 2% nuaxomoAoxyAnnwx co-
opunonu; H nAaamw xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 ?,3? po ?,43, a
ypoArnw noc o1 1,025 po 1,029. HAaama ora1a xax aAox1oAu1a-
mu, 1ax u noaAox1oAu1amu. EoAxu nAaamw (6,5 - 8 r,A, aArymu-
nw u rAoyAunw) nwnoAnnm1 1oqunocxym, 1ancno1nym, aamu1-
nym, yqonym qynxuu; onu 1axxo ynac1nym1 n cno1wnanuu
xonu u coapanuu xoAAoupno-ocmo1unocxoro panAonun. E xonu
copoxa1cn oa+nponwo xAo1xu au1ou1w - (4,0 - 5,0) 10
12
na Au1, Aoxou1w - (4,0 - 6,0) 10
9
na Au1, copu xo1owx
nwpoAnm1 aonuc1wo, uAu ranyAou1w, u noaonuc1wo, uAu ar-
anyAou1w (monou1w). E xonu umom1cn 1axxo xonnnwo nAa-
c1unxu (1omou1w), nucAo xo1owx coc1anAno1 (180,0 -
320,0) 10
9
na Au1. E xonu noc1onnno nucy1c1nym1 1axxo xAo1-
xu Aumqoupnoro npa (Aumqou1w), xo1owo nnAnm1cn c1yx1y-
nwmu aAomon1amu ummynno cuc1omw.
3punpouunm (epeu. oryIhros - xacnw), uAu xacnwo xonn-
nwo 1oAra, oa+nponwo xAo1xu, umommuo qomy pnonxonorny-
1wx pucxon puamo1om o1 ? po 10 mxm. 0u1ou1 - opunc1nonnan
xAo1xa n 1oAo noAonoxa, xo1oan no copoxu1 npa. 0u1ou1
P u c . 6 2. Cxeua cmpoeus xnemox xposu
(no Anepmcy u coasm.)
O
u
o
u
u
o
u
u
e

n
o

.
u
u
m

1
6
"' "&
no.tuo ne ounune.o (u:ooee.wnuuuum,, uonopme ue oee.wnu
uupwn opunpouunm onou epnnm, noono+ c.eoen nepe.uoont
upoot nou e epnnm.
E 1940 r. K. anpm1ono o1xwA omo opun qax1o xonu -
pe:c (Rh-qax1o). V 85% Ampo au1ou1w nocy1 na cnoo no-
noxnoc1u Rh-an1uron, a1o Rh-noAoxu1oArnwo (Rh-), y pyrux
on o1cy1c1nyo1, ux naawnam1 oayc-o1ua1oArnwmu (Rh-). EcAu
noAonoxy Rh- nooArm1 xonr o1 Rh- ponoa, 1o y nonoro n 1ono-
nuo pnyx-no1wox mocnon ypy1 nopyuona1rcn Rh-an1u1oAa,
u ocAu omy nooAu1r omo aa Rh- xonr, 1o nouaopo1 arrAm1u-
naun Rh- au1ou1on. K. anpm1ono onayxuA cnnar mox-
py Rh-qax1oom u xoA1yxo nonooxponnwx. EcAu Rh- xonmu-
na oomonna o1 Rh- myxnunw, nAop moxo1 oxaaa1rcn Rh-. Tor-
pa nu nono oomonnoc1u n oranuamo ma1ou nwaa1wnam1-
cn Rh-an1u1oAa. Hu nocAopymmo oomonnoc1u, ocAu a1a
xonmuna nwnamunao1 Rh- nAop, oo Rh-an1u1oAa nonuxam1 no-
oa nAaon1y n xonr nAopa u nwawnam1 y noro arrAm1unaum
au1ou1on, n1o nunopu1 x xoA1yxo nonooxponnoro.
Jeuuouunm (epeu. Ioukos - oAw) nopc1anAnm1 coo npo-
copoxamuo xAo1xu, oAapammuo amooupno nopnuxnoc1rm.
E o1Aunuo o1 au1ou1on, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 nucymuo um qyn-
xuu n nocno1o xononocnwx cocypon, Aoxou1w ocymoc1nAnm1
cnou qynxuu n 1xannx, xypa onu muruym1 nocopc1nom puano-
poaa (epeu. dIa - cxnoar, odosIs - nwxox) nooa moxxAo1onnwo
moAu cocypuc1o c1onxu. E 1 mxA xonu apoonoro noAonoxa co-
poxu1cn 4000 - 8000 Aoxou1on. EcAu cAoxu1r nco Aoxou1w
noAonoxa n opun np, on nw1nno1cn na acc1onnuo oxoAo 525 xm.
K :epuucnm+ .euuouuno+ (epou.ouuno+, o1nocn1cn ueu
npoqu.tume, uAu no.u+opquonoepume, xo1owo coc1anAnm1 o1 93
po 96% ncox ranyAou1on (n copnom 4150 n 1 mxA xonu). Eomn
ux uxyAnuu n xonu no nonwmao1 8 - 12 n, aa1om nocop-
c1nom puanopoaa onu muruym1 n coopunu1oArnym 1xanr. 3o-
Aw no1oquArnw ranyAou1 nopc1anAno1 coo cqounoc-
xym xAo1xy puamo1om 10 - 12 mxm c poArna1wm 1oxAonac1nwm
npom. E npax no1oquArnwx ranyAou1on xonmun (no monoo
? ua 500 no1oquAon) umom1cn 1oAra noAonoro xoma1una (1oAra
Eaa) puamo1om po 1,5 - 2,0 mxm. ToAro Eaa - opna ua pnyx
X-xomocom xAo1ox ocoo xoncxoro noAa, xo1oan n un1oqaao
oc1ao1cn n xonponcuonannom coc1onnuu. Hu1onAaama ranyAou-
1a ora1a ranyAamu pnyx 1unon: no1oquArnwmu u aayoquAr-
nwmu, xo1owo ynac1nym1 n qarou1oao u unax1unauu qarou1u-
onannoro ma1ouaAa. arou1uyn nopyx1w acnapa u muxoo-
ranuamw, no1oquArnwo ranyAou1w noruam1, a ocnooxpam-
muocn nu a1om AuaocomaArnwo qomon1w aaymam1 oxyxammuo
1xanu, cnococ1nyn qomuonanum rnonuxa. E coc1an rnon own-
no nxopn1 aaymonnwo no1oquArnwo ranyAou1w u nopyx1w
aanoAnon romorAounom, ocymoc1nAnmmum noonoc xucAoopa u
yrAoxucAoro raaa. Omoo xoAunoc1no au1ou1on naocAoro noAo-
noxa poc1urao1 25 10
12
, a oman nAomapr nonoxnoc1u ncox au-
1ou1on oxoAo 3800 m
2
. EcAu cAoxu1r nco au1ou1w noAonoxa
n opun np, pAuna ononxu coc1anu1 1?5 000 xm, om moxno wAo
w ononca1r aomno ma oAoo no1wox aa. Au1oArnoc1r xuanu
au1ou1on oxoAo 120 pno, nocAo noro onu aaymam1cn u norAo-
mam1cn maxoqarou1amu n coAoaonxo, xoc1nom moaro u nononu.
E 1900 - 1901 rr. anc1ucxu ynonw K. Aanpmvonop o1-
xwA rynnw xonu. E 1930 r. omy wAa nucyxpona HooAon-
cxan nomun aa o1xw1uo rynn xonu noAonoxa. 0u1ou1
noxw1 u1oAommo 1oAmuno oxoAo ? nm, n xo1oym nc1oonw
an1uronw cuc1om AEO u oayc. Aunueeu - a1o Amoo nomoc1no
(ownno n oro coc1an nxopu1 oAox), xo1ooo cnocono nwana1r
ummynnym oaxum. H++uuon peouuun - a1o o1no1 oranuama
na nnoponuo nyxoro aron1a. E nAaamo xonu xaxporo noAonoxa
umom1cn an1u1oAa no1un an1uronon au1ou1on, xo1owo no
copoxa1cn n oro coc1nonno xonu. Aunune.o - a1o moAoxyAa
oAxa, xo1oan nwaa1wnao1cn opno ua xAo1ox ummynno cuc-
1omw n o1no1 na nnoponuo an1urona. K. anpm1ono onucaA no-
1wo rynnw xonu (1aA. 1?).
An1o onayxuA, n1o nu cmomunanuu nAaamw xonu opnoro
noAonoxa u au1ou1on pyroro nac1o noucxopu1 ux arrAm1una-
un (cxAounanuo). 01o nunopu1 x aaxynounanum moAxux cocy-
pon, n1o moxo1 nunoc1u x cmo1oArnomy ucxopy. An aapoAonun
xonu na rynnw cmomunaAu au1ou1w c nonwmu cwnoo1xa-
mu - 1ax naawnaomwmu cwnoo1xamu an1u-A u an1u-E. K. anpm-
1ono onayxuA, n1o au1ou1w rynnw O no arrAm1unuym1-
cn nu opno ua cwnoo1ox; au1ou1w rynnw AE arrAm1unuy-
m1cn ooumu cwnoo1xamu; au1ou1w rynnw A arrAm1unuy-
m1cn cwnoo1xo an1u-A, no no arrAm1unuym1cn cwnoo1xo
an1u-E; naxono, au1ou1w rynnw E arrAm1unuym1cn cw-
noo1xo an1u-E, no no arrAm1unuym1cn cwnoo1xo an1u-A.
E cwnoo1xo xonu rynnw O copoxa1cn rynnonwo an1u1oAa an1u-A
u an1u-E; n cwnoo1xo rynnw A umom1cn 1oArxo an1u1oAa an1u-E,
n cwnoo1xo rynnw E - an1u1oAa an1u-A, a n cwnoo1xo AE
rynnonwo an1u1oAa o1cy1c1nym1. CAopona1oArno, n coo1no1c1nuu
c qomyAo K. anpm1onoa o cmooponue upoou cooeponcn
To . u u o 1 7
Fpynnm uponn uoAonoua
"' "&
no.tuo ne ounune.o (u:ooee.wnuuuum,, uonopme ue oee.wnu
uupwn opunpouunm onou epnnm, noono+ c.eoen nepe.uoont
upoot nou e epnnm.
E 1940 r. K. anpm1ono o1xwA omo opun qax1o xonu -
pe:c (Rh-qax1o). V 85% Ampo au1ou1w nocy1 na cnoo no-
noxnoc1u Rh-an1uron, a1o Rh-noAoxu1oArnwo (Rh-), y pyrux
on o1cy1c1nyo1, ux naawnam1 oayc-o1ua1oArnwmu (Rh-). EcAu
noAonoxy Rh- nooArm1 xonr o1 Rh- ponoa, 1o y nonoro n 1ono-
nuo pnyx-no1wox mocnon ypy1 nopyuona1rcn Rh-an1u1oAa,
u ocAu omy nooAu1r omo aa Rh- xonr, 1o nouaopo1 arrAm1u-
naun Rh- au1ou1on. K. anpm1ono onayxuA cnnar mox-
py Rh-qax1oom u xoA1yxo nonooxponnwx. EcAu Rh- xonmu-
na oomonna o1 Rh- myxnunw, nAop moxo1 oxaaa1rcn Rh-. Tor-
pa nu nono oomonnoc1u n oranuamo ma1ou nwaa1wnam1-
cn Rh-an1u1oAa. Hu nocAopymmo oomonnoc1u, ocAu a1a
xonmuna nwnamunao1 Rh- nAop, oo Rh-an1u1oAa nonuxam1 no-
oa nAaon1y n xonr nAopa u nwawnam1 y noro arrAm1unaum
au1ou1on, n1o nunopu1 x xoA1yxo nonooxponnoro.
Jeuuouunm (epeu. Ioukos - oAw) nopc1anAnm1 coo npo-
copoxamuo xAo1xu, oAapammuo amooupno nopnuxnoc1rm.
E o1Aunuo o1 au1ou1on, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 nucymuo um qyn-
xuu n nocno1o xononocnwx cocypon, Aoxou1w ocymoc1nAnm1
cnou qynxuu n 1xannx, xypa onu muruym1 nocopc1nom puano-
poaa (epeu. dIa - cxnoar, odosIs - nwxox) nooa moxxAo1onnwo
moAu cocypuc1o c1onxu. E 1 mxA xonu apoonoro noAonoxa co-
poxu1cn 4000 - 8000 Aoxou1on. EcAu cAoxu1r nco Aoxou1w
noAonoxa n opun np, on nw1nno1cn na acc1onnuo oxoAo 525 xm.
K :epuucnm+ .euuouuno+ (epou.ouuno+, o1nocn1cn ueu
npoqu.tume, uAu no.u+opquonoepume, xo1owo coc1anAnm1 o1 93
po 96% ncox ranyAou1on (n copnom 4150 n 1 mxA xonu). Eomn
ux uxyAnuu n xonu no nonwmao1 8 - 12 n, aa1om nocop-
c1nom puanopoaa onu muruym1 n coopunu1oArnym 1xanr. 3o-
Aw no1oquArnw ranyAou1 nopc1anAno1 coo cqounoc-
xym xAo1xy puamo1om 10 - 12 mxm c poArna1wm 1oxAonac1nwm
npom. E npax no1oquArnwx ranyAou1on xonmun (no monoo
? ua 500 no1oquAon) umom1cn 1oAra noAonoro xoma1una (1oAra
Eaa) puamo1om po 1,5 - 2,0 mxm. ToAro Eaa - opna ua pnyx
X-xomocom xAo1ox ocoo xoncxoro noAa, xo1oan n un1oqaao
oc1ao1cn n xonponcuonannom coc1onnuu. Hu1onAaama ranyAou-
1a ora1a ranyAamu pnyx 1unon: no1oquArnwmu u aayoquAr-
nwmu, xo1owo ynac1nym1 n qarou1oao u unax1unauu qarou1u-
onannoro ma1ouaAa. arou1uyn nopyx1w acnapa u muxoo-
ranuamw, no1oquArnwo ranyAou1w noruam1, a ocnooxpam-
muocn nu a1om AuaocomaArnwo qomon1w aaymam1 oxyxammuo
1xanu, cnococ1nyn qomuonanum rnonuxa. E coc1an rnon own-
no nxopn1 aaymonnwo no1oquArnwo ranyAou1w u nopyx1w
aanoAnon romorAounom, ocymoc1nAnmmum noonoc xucAoopa u
yrAoxucAoro raaa. Omoo xoAunoc1no au1ou1on naocAoro noAo-
noxa poc1urao1 25 10
12
, a oman nAomapr nonoxnoc1u ncox au-
1ou1on oxoAo 3800 m
2
. EcAu cAoxu1r nco au1ou1w noAonoxa
n opun np, pAuna ononxu coc1anu1 1?5 000 xm, om moxno wAo
w ononca1r aomno ma oAoo no1wox aa. Au1oArnoc1r xuanu
au1ou1on oxoAo 120 pno, nocAo noro onu aaymam1cn u norAo-
mam1cn maxoqarou1amu n coAoaonxo, xoc1nom moaro u nononu.
E 1900 - 1901 rr. anc1ucxu ynonw K. Aanpmvonop o1-
xwA rynnw xonu. E 1930 r. omy wAa nucyxpona HooAon-
cxan nomun aa o1xw1uo rynn xonu noAonoxa. 0u1ou1
noxw1 u1oAommo 1oAmuno oxoAo ? nm, n xo1oym nc1oonw
an1uronw cuc1om AEO u oayc. Aunueeu - a1o Amoo nomoc1no
(ownno n oro coc1an nxopu1 oAox), xo1ooo cnocono nwana1r
ummynnym oaxum. H++uuon peouuun - a1o o1no1 oranuama
na nnoponuo nyxoro aron1a. E nAaamo xonu xaxporo noAonoxa
umom1cn an1u1oAa no1un an1uronon au1ou1on, xo1owo no
copoxa1cn n oro coc1nonno xonu. Aunune.o - a1o moAoxyAa
oAxa, xo1oan nwaa1wnao1cn opno ua xAo1ox ummynno cuc-
1omw n o1no1 na nnoponuo an1urona. K. anpm1ono onucaA no-
1wo rynnw xonu (1aA. 1?).
An1o onayxuA, n1o nu cmomunanuu nAaamw xonu opnoro
noAonoxa u au1ou1on pyroro nac1o noucxopu1 ux arrAm1una-
un (cxAounanuo). 01o nunopu1 x aaxynounanum moAxux cocy-
pon, n1o moxo1 nunoc1u x cmo1oArnomy ucxopy. An aapoAonun
xonu na rynnw cmomunaAu au1ou1w c nonwmu cwnoo1xa-
mu - 1ax naawnaomwmu cwnoo1xamu an1u-A u an1u-E. K. anpm-
1ono onayxuA, n1o au1ou1w rynnw O no arrAm1unuym1-
cn nu opno ua cwnoo1ox; au1ou1w rynnw AE arrAm1unuy-
m1cn ooumu cwnoo1xamu; au1ou1w rynnw A arrAm1unuy-
m1cn cwnoo1xo an1u-A, no no arrAm1unuym1cn cwnoo1xo
an1u-E; naxono, au1ou1w rynnw E arrAm1unuym1cn cw-
noo1xo an1u-E, no no arrAm1unuym1cn cwnoo1xo an1u-A.
E cwnoo1xo xonu rynnw O copoxa1cn rynnonwo an1u1oAa an1u-A
u an1u-E; n cwnoo1xo rynnw A umom1cn 1oArxo an1u1oAa an1u-E,
n cwnoo1xo rynnw E - an1u1oAa an1u-A, a n cwnoo1xo AE
rynnonwo an1u1oAa o1cy1c1nym1. CAopona1oArno, n coo1no1c1nuu
c qomyAo K. anpm1onoa o cmooponue upoou cooeponcn
To . u u o 1 7
Fpynnm uponn uoAonoua
# #
Tpo+ouunm, uAu xonnnwo nAac1unxu, - ynAomonnwo onaAr-
nwo pnonxonwnyxAwo oa+nponwo qarmon1w xynnwx xAo1ox
moraxuou1on puamo1om 2 - 4 mxm u 1oAmuno 0,5 - 0,?5 mxm.
KoAunoc1no ux poc1urao1 250 - 350 1wc. n 1 mxA xonu. EcAu ac-
noAoxu1r nco 1omou1w noAonoxa npom, 1o noAynu1cn acc1on-
nuo oxoAo 2500 xm, annoo acc1onnum o1 Mocxnw po Hauxa.
Eomn ux uxyAnuu n xonu no nonwmao1 comu pno, nocAo
noro onu nonapam1 n coAoaonxy u Aorxuo, rpo aaymam1cn. Tom-
ou1w ynac1nym1 n cno1wnanuu xonu, oc1anonxo xono1ononu,
nocc1anonu1oArnwx nooccax u n aamu1o oranuama Aaropan
cnoconoc1u qarou1uona1r nuycw, ummynnwo xomnAoxcw u no-
oranunocxuo nac1unxu.
Ocnouoouo upoooneueuun. V apoonoro noAonoxa xono1ononuo
nu anonuu moAxux cocypon noxamao1cn n 1ononuo 1 - 3 mun.
01o nepouuumu ee+ocno: (epeu. haIma - xonr, sIasIs - nonopnux-
noc1r), cnnaannw c cyxonuom cocypon u cxAounanuom 1omou-
1on, xo1owo nuAunam1 x xanm anw. Hu nonoxponuu c1on-
xu xononocnoro cocypa 1omou1w nuAunam1 x num u oaruy-
m1, n oayAr1a1o noro ua 1omou1on nwcnooxpam1cn uoAoru-
nocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na, xo1owo nwawnam1 cyxonuo cocypon.
Hu oAoo ananu1oArnwx nonoxponunx Aaropan cAoxnomy no-
occy onopuuuoeo ee+ocno:o noucxopu1 oc1anonxa xono1ononun.
Hop poc1nuom qomon1a1unno ax1unnoc1u xonu, xo1oan noAy-
nuAa naananuo 1omoxunaaa, oAox nAaamw no1omun, oa-
aymmucn n nononu, nonamao1cn n 1omun, xo1ow nwawnao1
nooxop ac1noumoro nAaamonnoro oAxa quunorona, 1axxo
oaaymmorocn n nononu n noac1noumw quun. HocAopnu u
qomuyo1 ocnonnym nac1r 1oma.
PmxAax noAounncvax coopnnnvoAnnax vuann (PECT) acnoAara-
o1cn noumymoc1nonno no xopy xononocnwx u Aumqa1unocxux cocy-
pon, nonon, noxwnao1 mwmw, oaayo1 c1omy (epeu. sIroma -
nopc1uAxa) - xaxac oranon, coc1nonnym nAac1unxy cAuauc1o
ooAonxu, nayxnym ooAonxy nny1onnux oranon. PECT coc1o-
u1 ua mnoronucAonnwx coc1nonnwx u numAwx xAo1ox: a1o qu-
oAac1w, quou1w, o1uxyAnnwo, nouu1w, maxoqarou-
1w, 1xanonwo aaoquAw, nAaamou1w, xuonwo xAo1xu, nurmon-
1nwo, Aumqou1w, ranyAnnwo Aoxou1w, xo1owo acnoAara-
m1cn n moxxAo1onnom nomoc1no, nopc1anAonnom xoAAarononwmu,
aAac1unocxumu, o1uxyAnnwmu noAoxnamu, noryxonnwmu n oc-
nonnoo (amoqnoo) nomoc1no.
dupo.ocnm (epeu. Ibra - noAoxno, bIasIos - aaopwm) - oc-
nonnwo cnouaAuauonannwo quxcuonannwo xAo1xu coopunu1oAr-
no 1xanu, ora1wo uocomamu, aAomon1amu ranyAnno 0HC u
KI. uoAac1w cun1oauym1 u coxo1uym1 ocnonnwo xomno-
non1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na: noAucaxaupw, nopmoc1nonnuxu
acnapa 1xanu. KoAunoc1no no1oquArnwx ranyAou1on oaxo
noaac1ao1 nu oc1wx nocnaAu1oArnwx u unqoxuonnwx aaoAo-
nanunx.
3o:uuoqu.tume (ouuooqu.tume, epou.ouunm puamo1om
10 - 15 mxm coc1anAnm1 0,5 - 5,0% uxyAuymmux Aoxou1on.
E 1 mxA xonu ux nucAo xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 120 po 350. Onu
uxyAuym1 n xonu no oAoo nocrmu pno, nocAo noro noxupam1
xononocnoo ycAo nooa moAxuo nonyAw u nonuxam1 n wxAym
coopunu1oArnym 1xanr. Ocoonno mnoro ux n cAuauc1o ooAonxo
xumonnuxa u pwxa1oArnwx ny1o. Hx pnyxAonac1noo npo nano-
munao1 no qomo ran1oAm. E u1onAaamo umoo1cn mnoxoc1no xyn-
nwx xacnwx uAu oanxonwx cno1onoAomAnmmux nocxoArxo yp-
Aunonnwx ranyA. 0oaunoquArnwo ranyAou1w ocymoc1nAnm1 qa-
rou1oa, opnaxo monoo ax1unno, nom no1oquArnwo. 0oaunoquAr-
nwo ranyAou1w ynac1nym1 n ummynnwx oaxunx. KoAunoc1no
aoaunoquArnwx ranyAou1on n uxyAuymmo xonu ynoAunu-
nao1cn (aoaunoquAun) nu naaau1anwx aaoAonanunx, aAAoruno-
cxux u ay1oummynnwx nooccax.
KoAunoc1no o:oqu.tumr epou.ouunoo n uxyAuymmo xo-
nu nonoAuxo - oxoAo 0,5% ncox Aoxou1on (40 - 50 xAo1ox n 1 mxA
xonu), a nomn ux uxyAnuu no nonwmao1 12 - 15 n. uamo1
xAo1xu 10 - 12 mxm, n cno1onom muxocxono n xAo1xo nupno mno-
xoc1no xynnwx 1omno-cunux oxyrAwx uAu onaArnwx ranyA,
copoxamux uoAorunocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na - ruc1amun u ro-
naun. KoAunoc1no ux c1oAr noAuxo, n1o onu macxuym1 xynnoo
npo. EaaoquAw 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 qarou1oa u ynac1nym1 n
aAAorunocxux oaxunx.
Ju+qouunm, xo1owo no.nwncn cnpunpum+u o.e+euno
+u u++uuou cucne+m, coc1anAnm1 25 - 40% ncox Aoxou1on
(1000 - 4000 n 1 mxA), onu nooAapam1 n Aumqo. Eco Aumqou1w
umom1 cqounocxym qomy, no o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra cnoumu
aamoamu. uamo1 oArmo nac1u Aumqou1on oxoAo 8 mxm (ma-
Awo Aumqou1w). umqou1w nopaapoAnm1cn na pno xa1orouu:
1 u my c - a a n u c u mwo (T- A u mqo u 1 w) ocymoc1nAnm1 n ocnon-
nom xAo1onnw ummynu1o1, a y c o - a a n u c u mwo (E- A u m-
qo u 1 w) - rymoaArnw ummynu1o1. MoqoAorunocxu onu no
o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra (paxo no cnoo yAr1ac1yx1yo).
Mououunm coc1anAnm1 o1 3 po 11% uxyAuymmux Aoxo-
u1on xonu (200 - 600 n 1 mxA). Eomn ux nownanun n xono-
nocno cuc1omo 2 - 3 pnn, nocAo noro onu muruym1 n 1xanu, rpo
nonamam1cn n maxoqaru u nwnoAnnm1 cnom rAannym qynx-
um - aamu1y oranuama. Monou1 - xAo1xa onaArno qomw
puamo1om oxoAo 15 mxm c xynnwm nonxooaanwm, ora1wm
xoma1unom npom u oArmum xoAunoc1nom u1onAaamw, n xo1o-
o umoo1cn mnoxoc1no Auaocom.
# #
Tpo+ouunm, uAu xonnnwo nAac1unxu, - ynAomonnwo onaAr-
nwo pnonxonwnyxAwo oa+nponwo qarmon1w xynnwx xAo1ox
moraxuou1on puamo1om 2 - 4 mxm u 1oAmuno 0,5 - 0,?5 mxm.
KoAunoc1no ux poc1urao1 250 - 350 1wc. n 1 mxA xonu. EcAu ac-
noAoxu1r nco 1omou1w noAonoxa npom, 1o noAynu1cn acc1on-
nuo oxoAo 2500 xm, annoo acc1onnum o1 Mocxnw po Hauxa.
Eomn ux uxyAnuu n xonu no nonwmao1 comu pno, nocAo
noro onu nonapam1 n coAoaonxy u Aorxuo, rpo aaymam1cn. Tom-
ou1w ynac1nym1 n cno1wnanuu xonu, oc1anonxo xono1ononu,
nocc1anonu1oArnwx nooccax u n aamu1o oranuama Aaropan
cnoconoc1u qarou1uona1r nuycw, ummynnwo xomnAoxcw u no-
oranunocxuo nac1unxu.
Ocnouoouo upoooneueuun. V apoonoro noAonoxa xono1ononuo
nu anonuu moAxux cocypon noxamao1cn n 1ononuo 1 - 3 mun.
01o nepouuumu ee+ocno: (epeu. haIma - xonr, sIasIs - nonopnux-
noc1r), cnnaannw c cyxonuom cocypon u cxAounanuom 1omou-
1on, xo1owo nuAunam1 x xanm anw. Hu nonoxponuu c1on-
xu xononocnoro cocypa 1omou1w nuAunam1 x num u oaruy-
m1, n oayAr1a1o noro ua 1omou1on nwcnooxpam1cn uoAoru-
nocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na, xo1owo nwawnam1 cyxonuo cocypon.
Hu oAoo ananu1oArnwx nonoxponunx Aaropan cAoxnomy no-
occy onopuuuoeo ee+ocno:o noucxopu1 oc1anonxa xono1ononun.
Hop poc1nuom qomon1a1unno ax1unnoc1u xonu, xo1oan noAy-
nuAa naananuo 1omoxunaaa, oAox nAaamw no1omun, oa-
aymmucn n nononu, nonamao1cn n 1omun, xo1ow nwawnao1
nooxop ac1noumoro nAaamonnoro oAxa quunorona, 1axxo
oaaymmorocn n nononu n noac1noumw quun. HocAopnu u
qomuyo1 ocnonnym nac1r 1oma.
PmxAax noAounncvax coopnnnvoAnnax vuann (PECT) acnoAara-
o1cn noumymoc1nonno no xopy xononocnwx u Aumqa1unocxux cocy-
pon, nonon, noxwnao1 mwmw, oaayo1 c1omy (epeu. sIroma -
nopc1uAxa) - xaxac oranon, coc1nonnym nAac1unxy cAuauc1o
ooAonxu, nayxnym ooAonxy nny1onnux oranon. PECT coc1o-
u1 ua mnoronucAonnwx coc1nonnwx u numAwx xAo1ox: a1o qu-
oAac1w, quou1w, o1uxyAnnwo, nouu1w, maxoqarou-
1w, 1xanonwo aaoquAw, nAaamou1w, xuonwo xAo1xu, nurmon-
1nwo, Aumqou1w, ranyAnnwo Aoxou1w, xo1owo acnoAara-
m1cn n moxxAo1onnom nomoc1no, nopc1anAonnom xoAAarononwmu,
aAac1unocxumu, o1uxyAnnwmu noAoxnamu, noryxonnwmu n oc-
nonnoo (amoqnoo) nomoc1no.
dupo.ocnm (epeu. Ibra - noAoxno, bIasIos - aaopwm) - oc-
nonnwo cnouaAuauonannwo quxcuonannwo xAo1xu coopunu1oAr-
no 1xanu, ora1wo uocomamu, aAomon1amu ranyAnno 0HC u
KI. uoAac1w cun1oauym1 u coxo1uym1 ocnonnwo xomno-
non1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na: noAucaxaupw, nopmoc1nonnuxu
acnapa 1xanu. KoAunoc1no no1oquArnwx ranyAou1on oaxo
noaac1ao1 nu oc1wx nocnaAu1oArnwx u unqoxuonnwx aaoAo-
nanunx.
3o:uuoqu.tume (ouuooqu.tume, epou.ouunm puamo1om
10 - 15 mxm coc1anAnm1 0,5 - 5,0% uxyAuymmux Aoxou1on.
E 1 mxA xonu ux nucAo xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 120 po 350. Onu
uxyAuym1 n xonu no oAoo nocrmu pno, nocAo noro noxupam1
xononocnoo ycAo nooa moAxuo nonyAw u nonuxam1 n wxAym
coopunu1oArnym 1xanr. Ocoonno mnoro ux n cAuauc1o ooAonxo
xumonnuxa u pwxa1oArnwx ny1o. Hx pnyxAonac1noo npo nano-
munao1 no qomo ran1oAm. E u1onAaamo umoo1cn mnoxoc1no xyn-
nwx xacnwx uAu oanxonwx cno1onoAomAnmmux nocxoArxo yp-
Aunonnwx ranyA. 0oaunoquArnwo ranyAou1w ocymoc1nAnm1 qa-
rou1oa, opnaxo monoo ax1unno, nom no1oquArnwo. 0oaunoquAr-
nwo ranyAou1w ynac1nym1 n ummynnwx oaxunx. KoAunoc1no
aoaunoquArnwx ranyAou1on n uxyAuymmo xonu ynoAunu-
nao1cn (aoaunoquAun) nu naaau1anwx aaoAonanunx, aAAoruno-
cxux u ay1oummynnwx nooccax.
KoAunoc1no o:oqu.tumr epou.ouunoo n uxyAuymmo xo-
nu nonoAuxo - oxoAo 0,5% ncox Aoxou1on (40 - 50 xAo1ox n 1 mxA
xonu), a nomn ux uxyAnuu no nonwmao1 12 - 15 n. uamo1
xAo1xu 10 - 12 mxm, n cno1onom muxocxono n xAo1xo nupno mno-
xoc1no xynnwx 1omno-cunux oxyrAwx uAu onaArnwx ranyA,
copoxamux uoAorunocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na - ruc1amun u ro-
naun. KoAunoc1no ux c1oAr noAuxo, n1o onu macxuym1 xynnoo
npo. EaaoquAw 1axxo ocymoc1nAnm1 qarou1oa u ynac1nym1 n
aAAorunocxux oaxunx.
Ju+qouunm, xo1owo no.nwncn cnpunpum+u o.e+euno
+u u++uuou cucne+m, coc1anAnm1 25 - 40% ncox Aoxou1on
(1000 - 4000 n 1 mxA), onu nooAapam1 n Aumqo. Eco Aumqou1w
umom1 cqounocxym qomy, no o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra cnoumu
aamoamu. uamo1 oArmo nac1u Aumqou1on oxoAo 8 mxm (ma-
Awo Aumqou1w). umqou1w nopaapoAnm1cn na pno xa1orouu:
1 u my c - a a n u c u mwo (T- A u mqo u 1 w) ocymoc1nAnm1 n ocnon-
nom xAo1onnw ummynu1o1, a y c o - a a n u c u mwo (E- A u m-
qo u 1 w) - rymoaArnw ummynu1o1. MoqoAorunocxu onu no
o1Aunam1cn pyr o1 pyra (paxo no cnoo yAr1ac1yx1yo).
Mououunm coc1anAnm1 o1 3 po 11% uxyAuymmux Aoxo-
u1on xonu (200 - 600 n 1 mxA). Eomn ux nownanun n xono-
nocno cuc1omo 2 - 3 pnn, nocAo noro onu muruym1 n 1xanu, rpo
nonamam1cn n maxoqaru u nwnoAnnm1 cnom rAannym qynx-
um - aamu1y oranuama. Monou1 - xAo1xa onaArno qomw
puamo1om oxoAo 15 mxm c xynnwm nonxooaanwm, ora1wm
xoma1unom npom u oArmum xoAunoc1nom u1onAaamw, n xo1o-
o umoo1cn mnoxoc1no Auaocom.
#! #
Tuume u.enuu, uAu nuoueome o:oqu.m, ononr ora1w xyn-
nwmu (po 2 mxm) momannwmu ranyAamu, copoxamumu uoAo-
runocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na ruc1amun u ronaun, nAunmmuo na
xononocnwo cocypw.
Penuu.npume u.enuu - ypAunonnwo mnoroo1oc1na1wo xAo1-
xu, xo1owo, coopunnncr cnoumu o1oc1xamu, qomuym1 co1r.
Po1uxyAnnwo xAo1xu u noAoxna oaaym1 c1omy oranon um-
mynno cuc1omw u xono1noonun.
upoome u.enuu, uAu oounouunm. PaaAunam1 pna 1una xu-
ono 1xanu: oAym u yym, xo1owo cqomuonanw coo1no1c1non-
no oAwmu uAu ywmu xuonwmu xAo1xamu. 3oAw oououone.t
umu oounouun e.ou upooou nuouu - xynnan (50 - 120 mxm n
puamo1o) maonupnan xAo1xa, non1u noAnoc1rm aann1an xanAo
xua. OpnoxanoArnw apunou1 ocymoc1nAno1 cun1oa u nny1u-
xAo1onnoo naxonAonuo Aunupon n xanoc1no oaonnoro ma1ouaAa.
Muoeouone.tumu oounouun pou upooou nuouu copoxu1 mno-
xoc1no xanoAr xua u oArmoo xoAunoc1no mu1oxonpu.
Hepuuunm oxyxam1 xononocnwo xanuAAnw, acnoAarancr
xnayxu o1 anpo1oAun. Houu1w - a1o o1oc1na1wo xAo1xu, co-
nuxacammuocn o1oc1xamu c xaxpwm anpo1oAuou1om. Onu no-
opam1 nocAopnum nonnoo noayxponuo, n1o cnococ1nyo1 naxon-
Aonum uAu no1oo xAo1xo xupxoc1u. 01o nunopu1 x acmuo-
num uAu cyxonum nocno1a xanuAAna.
Hue+eunume u.enuu, copoxamuo nurmon1 moAanun, aaAora-
m1 n anupomuco, ocoonno nayxnwx noAonwx oranon u oxoAo-
cocxonoro noAn, n apyxxo u coc1nonno cocypuc1o ooAonxo rAaa-
noro nAoxa, n mnrxo moarono ooAonxo. Ha 1 mm
2
nonoxnoc1u
xoxu nuxopu1cn 1200 - 1500 nurmon1nwx xAo1ox. V nopc1anu-
1oAo nono u xoA1o ac xoAunoc1no ux ananu1oArno oArmo.
Hno1 rAaa aanucu1 o1 rono1unocxu po1omunuonannoro xoAunoc1-
na nurmon1nwx xAo1ox n apyxxo rAaaa.
E wxAo noAoxnuc1o coopunu1oArno 1xanu naxopn1cn 1ax-
xo +oupoqoeu, .u+qouunm, :epuucnme .euuouunm.
HAovnax noAounncvax coopnnnvoAnnax vuann xaax1ouayo1-
cn cuArnwm aanu1uom noAoxnuc1wx c1yx1y moxxAo1onnoro
nomoc1na, umommux n ocnonnom nomoc1no ynonpononnoo nanan-
Aonuo (oqomAonnan 1xanr) Auo noonAo1ammuxcn n aanwx na-
nanAonunx (nooqomAonnan 1xanr). HAo1nan coopunu1oArnan
1xanr nwnoAnno1, rAannwm oaaom, ononym qynxum.
K coopunu1oArnwm 1xannm o1nocn1cn 1axxo xnmonan u xoc1-
nan 1xanu. Xpneoon nuout, copoxaman ?0 - 80% nopw, 10 -
15% oranunocxux u 4 - ?% nooranunocxux nomoc1n, coc1ou1 ua
xnmonwx xAo1ox xonpoAac1on u xonpou1on u ocnonnoro (xn-
monoro moxxAo1onnoro) nomoc1na, naxopnmorocn n coc1onnuu roAn,
n xo1oom umom1cn coopunu1oArno1xannwo noAoxna, n ocnonnom
xoAAarona u aAac1una u p. uoAac1w no moo c1aonun nona-
mam1cn n qupouunm, xo1owo nocrma cAao cun1oauym1 xomno-
non1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na PECT. uou1w - mno-
roo1oc1na1wo xAo1xu noo1onooaano qomw, opnwo oranoA-
Aamu, oaaym1 1oxmonym co1r, n noc1anc1nax xo1oo acno-
Aaram1cn aaAunnwo xAo1xu. Ko..oeeuoome oo.ouuo oaaonanw
oAxom xoAAaronom. Tu noAunon1upnwo onu, cxynunancr, oa-
aym1 moAoxyAy 1onoxoAAarona. MoAoxyAw 1onoxoAAarona, o+o-
punnncr moxpy coo, qomuym1 xoAAarononwo noAoxna 1oAmu-
no n nocxoArxo (1 - 20) mxm. H naxono, mnoxoc1no noAoxon, cnn-
awnancr moxpy coo, qomuym1 xoAAarononwo nynxu 1oAmuno
po 150 mxm. KoAAaron umoo1 cnuaArnoo c1oonuo, n1o oocnonuna-
o1 coapanuo nocrma nonnwx maAoac1nxumwx c1yx1y.
3.ocnuuecuue oo.ouuo 1oAmuno o1 1 po 10 mxm oaaonanw
n ocnonnom oAxom aAac1unom, xo1ow 1axxo cun1oauyo1cn
quoAac1amu. E o1Aunuo o1 xoAAarononwx, aAac1unocxuo noAoxna
cnoconw ac1nruna1rcn n 1,5 aaa, nocAo noro noanamam1cn n
ucxopnoo coc1onnuo. 0Aac1unocxuo noAoxna anac1omoauym1 u no-
onAo1am1cn moxpy coo, oaayn co1u, oxonna1wo nAac1unw u
momanw.
Tonxuo (o1 100 nm po 1,5 mxm), aano1nAonnwo, maAoac1nxu-
mwo penuu.npume oo.ouuo, noonAo1ancr moxpy coo, oaay-
m1 moAxono1Auc1ym co1r, n nnoxax xo1oo acnoAoxonw xAo1-
xu. Po1uxyAnnwo noAoxna oaaym1 xaxacw oranon xono1no-
onun u ummynno cuc1omw, nononu, nopxoAyponno xoAoaw u
pyrux naonxuma1oanwx oranon, oxyxam1 xanuAAnw, xono-
nocnwo u Aumqa1unocxuo cocypw, a 1axxo cnnaanw c o1uxyAn-
nwmu xAo1xamu.
Moupoqoe (+oupoqoeouun,. E 1882 r. H.H. Monnuxon nno-
nwo onucaA qarou1oa. E ?0-x rr. XX n. cqomuonaAocr nop-
c1anAonuo o cucne+e +ououu.eopumr qoeouunoo (CM), nxAm-
nammo n con rynny xAo1ox, o+opunonnwx omnoc1rm nouc-
xoxponun (ua monou1on xonu), c1oonun u qynxu (ax1unnw
qarou1oa u nunou1oa).
Ocoonnoc1rm c1yx1yw maxoqaron nnAno1cn oArmoo xoAuno-
c1no Auaocom n ux u1onAaamo. Ocnonnwo qynxuu maxoqaron -
a1o ynac1uo n oc1oc1nonnom, cnouqunocxom, no1unoonyxoAonom um-
mynu1o1o u coxouu aaAunnwx uoAorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n.
H.o:+ouunm, uAu n.o:+onuuecuue u.enuu, noucxopnmuo
ua E-Aumqou1on, - oAoxcun1oauymmuo xAo1xu, ora1wo aAo-
mon1amu 0HC, acnoAarammuocn nAuau moAxux xononocnwx co-
cypon n oranax ummynno cuc1omw, n cAuauc1o ooAonxo numo-
nau1oArno u pwxa1oArno cuc1om. Onu nwaa1wnam1 an1u1oAa
(ummynorAoyAunw), nom onopoAno1cn ux naxnoman oAr n aa-
mu1o oranuama.
#! #
Tuume u.enuu, uAu nuoueome o:oqu.m, ononr ora1w xyn-
nwmu (po 2 mxm) momannwmu ranyAamu, copoxamumu uoAo-
runocxu ax1unnwo nomoc1na ruc1amun u ronaun, nAunmmuo na
xononocnwo cocypw.
Penuu.npume u.enuu - ypAunonnwo mnoroo1oc1na1wo xAo1-
xu, xo1owo, coopunnncr cnoumu o1oc1xamu, qomuym1 co1r.
Po1uxyAnnwo xAo1xu u noAoxna oaaym1 c1omy oranon um-
mynno cuc1omw u xono1noonun.
upoome u.enuu, uAu oounouunm. PaaAunam1 pna 1una xu-
ono 1xanu: oAym u yym, xo1owo cqomuonanw coo1no1c1non-
no oAwmu uAu ywmu xuonwmu xAo1xamu. 3oAw oououone.t
umu oounouun e.ou upooou nuouu - xynnan (50 - 120 mxm n
puamo1o) maonupnan xAo1xa, non1u noAnoc1rm aann1an xanAo
xua. OpnoxanoArnw apunou1 ocymoc1nAno1 cun1oa u nny1u-
xAo1onnoo naxonAonuo Aunupon n xanoc1no oaonnoro ma1ouaAa.
Muoeouone.tumu oounouun pou upooou nuouu copoxu1 mno-
xoc1no xanoAr xua u oArmoo xoAunoc1no mu1oxonpu.
Hepuuunm oxyxam1 xononocnwo xanuAAnw, acnoAarancr
xnayxu o1 anpo1oAun. Houu1w - a1o o1oc1na1wo xAo1xu, co-
nuxacammuocn o1oc1xamu c xaxpwm anpo1oAuou1om. Onu no-
opam1 nocAopnum nonnoo noayxponuo, n1o cnococ1nyo1 naxon-
Aonum uAu no1oo xAo1xo xupxoc1u. 01o nunopu1 x acmuo-
num uAu cyxonum nocno1a xanuAAna.
Hue+eunume u.enuu, copoxamuo nurmon1 moAanun, aaAora-
m1 n anupomuco, ocoonno nayxnwx noAonwx oranon u oxoAo-
cocxonoro noAn, n apyxxo u coc1nonno cocypuc1o ooAonxo rAaa-
noro nAoxa, n mnrxo moarono ooAonxo. Ha 1 mm
2
nonoxnoc1u
xoxu nuxopu1cn 1200 - 1500 nurmon1nwx xAo1ox. V nopc1anu-
1oAo nono u xoA1o ac xoAunoc1no ux ananu1oArno oArmo.
Hno1 rAaa aanucu1 o1 rono1unocxu po1omunuonannoro xoAunoc1-
na nurmon1nwx xAo1ox n apyxxo rAaaa.
E wxAo noAoxnuc1o coopunu1oArno 1xanu naxopn1cn 1ax-
xo +oupoqoeu, .u+qouunm, :epuucnme .euuouunm.
HAovnax noAounncvax coopnnnvoAnnax vuann xaax1ouayo1-
cn cuArnwm aanu1uom noAoxnuc1wx c1yx1y moxxAo1onnoro
nomoc1na, umommux n ocnonnom nomoc1no ynonpononnoo nanan-
Aonuo (oqomAonnan 1xanr) Auo noonAo1ammuxcn n aanwx na-
nanAonunx (nooqomAonnan 1xanr). HAo1nan coopunu1oArnan
1xanr nwnoAnno1, rAannwm oaaom, ononym qynxum.
K coopunu1oArnwm 1xannm o1nocn1cn 1axxo xnmonan u xoc1-
nan 1xanu. Xpneoon nuout, copoxaman ?0 - 80% nopw, 10 -
15% oranunocxux u 4 - ?% nooranunocxux nomoc1n, coc1ou1 ua
xnmonwx xAo1ox xonpoAac1on u xonpou1on u ocnonnoro (xn-
monoro moxxAo1onnoro) nomoc1na, naxopnmorocn n coc1onnuu roAn,
n xo1oom umom1cn coopunu1oArno1xannwo noAoxna, n ocnonnom
xoAAarona u aAac1una u p. uoAac1w no moo c1aonun nona-
mam1cn n qupouunm, xo1owo nocrma cAao cun1oauym1 xomno-
non1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na PECT. uou1w - mno-
roo1oc1na1wo xAo1xu noo1onooaano qomw, opnwo oranoA-
Aamu, oaaym1 1oxmonym co1r, n noc1anc1nax xo1oo acno-
Aaram1cn aaAunnwo xAo1xu. Ko..oeeuoome oo.ouuo oaaonanw
oAxom xoAAaronom. Tu noAunon1upnwo onu, cxynunancr, oa-
aym1 moAoxyAy 1onoxoAAarona. MoAoxyAw 1onoxoAAarona, o+o-
punnncr moxpy coo, qomuym1 xoAAarononwo noAoxna 1oAmu-
no n nocxoArxo (1 - 20) mxm. H naxono, mnoxoc1no noAoxon, cnn-
awnancr moxpy coo, qomuym1 xoAAarononwo nynxu 1oAmuno
po 150 mxm. KoAAaron umoo1 cnuaArnoo c1oonuo, n1o oocnonuna-
o1 coapanuo nocrma nonnwx maAoac1nxumwx c1yx1y.
3.ocnuuecuue oo.ouuo 1oAmuno o1 1 po 10 mxm oaaonanw
n ocnonnom oAxom aAac1unom, xo1ow 1axxo cun1oauyo1cn
quoAac1amu. E o1Aunuo o1 xoAAarononwx, aAac1unocxuo noAoxna
cnoconw ac1nruna1rcn n 1,5 aaa, nocAo noro noanamam1cn n
ucxopnoo coc1onnuo. 0Aac1unocxuo noAoxna anac1omoauym1 u no-
onAo1am1cn moxpy coo, oaayn co1u, oxonna1wo nAac1unw u
momanw.
Tonxuo (o1 100 nm po 1,5 mxm), aano1nAonnwo, maAoac1nxu-
mwo penuu.npume oo.ouuo, noonAo1ancr moxpy coo, oaay-
m1 moAxono1Auc1ym co1r, n nnoxax xo1oo acnoAoxonw xAo1-
xu. Po1uxyAnnwo noAoxna oaaym1 xaxacw oranon xono1no-
onun u ummynno cuc1omw, nononu, nopxoAyponno xoAoaw u
pyrux naonxuma1oanwx oranon, oxyxam1 xanuAAnw, xono-
nocnwo u Aumqa1unocxuo cocypw, a 1axxo cnnaanw c o1uxyAn-
nwmu xAo1xamu.
Moupoqoe (+oupoqoeouun,. E 1882 r. H.H. Monnuxon nno-
nwo onucaA qarou1oa. E ?0-x rr. XX n. cqomuonaAocr nop-
c1anAonuo o cucne+e +ououu.eopumr qoeouunoo (CM), nxAm-
nammo n con rynny xAo1ox, o+opunonnwx omnoc1rm nouc-
xoxponun (ua monou1on xonu), c1oonun u qynxu (ax1unnw
qarou1oa u nunou1oa).
Ocoonnoc1rm c1yx1yw maxoqaron nnAno1cn oArmoo xoAuno-
c1no Auaocom n ux u1onAaamo. Ocnonnwo qynxuu maxoqaron -
a1o ynac1uo n oc1oc1nonnom, cnouqunocxom, no1unoonyxoAonom um-
mynu1o1o u coxouu aaAunnwx uoAorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n.
H.o:+ouunm, uAu n.o:+onuuecuue u.enuu, noucxopnmuo
ua E-Aumqou1on, - oAoxcun1oauymmuo xAo1xu, ora1wo aAo-
mon1amu 0HC, acnoAarammuocn nAuau moAxux xononocnwx co-
cypon n oranax ummynno cuc1omw, n cAuauc1o ooAonxo numo-
nau1oArno u pwxa1oArno cuc1om. Onu nwaa1wnam1 an1u1oAa
(ummynorAoyAunw), nom onopoAno1cn ux naxnoman oAr n aa-
mu1o oranuama.
## #"
c xaArunuonannwm ma1uxcom, ypynu oxamAonnwmu 1onxum
cAoom (1 - 2 mxm) nomunoaAuaonanno 1xanu. Ononr pAunnwo (po
50 mxm) o1oc1xu oc1oou1on noxopn1 n xanaArax, nunom onu
o1poAonw o1 xaAruquuonannoro ma1uxca noc1anc1namu mu-
uno oxoAo 0,1 mxm, n xo1owx uxyAuyo1 1xanonan xupxoc1r,
ocymoc1nAnmman nu1anuo xAo1ox. Pacc1onnuo moxpy xaxpwm oc-
1oou1om u Auxamum xanuAAnom no nonwmao1 0,1 - 0,2 mm.
E xoc1no 1xanu umoo1cn omo opna xa1oroun xAo1ox - ocne
ou.ocnm, xo1owo no nnAnm1cn xoc1nwmu, a umom1 monou1a-
noo noucxoxponuo u o1nocn1cn x cuc1omo maxoqaron. Oc1ooxAa-
c1w - a1o xynnwo mnoronponwo (5 - 100 npo) xAo1xu aamoa-
mu po 190 mxm, xo1owo aaymam1 xoc1r u xnm.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una xoc1no 1xanu - penuu.oqupo:uw (ep
ooo.ouuucnw, u n.ocnuuuonw. Honan umoo1cn y aaopwma
noAonoxa; y naocAoro ona acnoAarao1cn n aonax nuxonAonun
cyxoxuAu x xoc1nm u n mnax noona nocAo ux aaac1anun.
H.ocnuuuonon uocnt nauoAoo acnoc1anona n oranuamo.
Ona oaaonana xoc1nwmu nAac1unxamu 1oAmuno o1 4 po 15 mxm,
P u c . 6 3. Cxeua cmpoeus
mpyvamo xocmu:
1 sonoxucmm cno; 2 xauu-
ansm cno; 3 cno sympe-
ux oux nnacmuox; 4 ocme-
o; 5 cucmeua scmasovmx nna-
cmuox; 6 cno sympeux o-
ux nnacmuox; 7 xocmas mpa-
exyna ayvamo xocmu (no
Bapauay)
xoAAarononwo. Xonpou1w acnoAaram1cn n noAoc1nx - Aaxy-
nax, oxyxonnwo moxxAo1onnwm nomoc1nom. PaaAunam1 1u 1una
xnmono 1xanu.
1. Iuo.uuoomu rpn, ua xo1ooro noc1oonw cyc1annwo, o-
onwo, anuquaanwo xnmu u np xnmo ro1anu; rAapxu,
Aoc1nmu, roAyona1o-oAoro no1a.
2. 3.ocnuuecuuu rpn copoxu1 n xnmonom ocnonnom nomo-
c1no mnoronucAonnwo, cAoxno noonAo1ammuocn aAac1unocxuo no-
Aoxna. On monoo noaanon, xoA1ona1oro no1a, o1Aunao1cn yny-
roc1rm. Ha aAac1unocxoro xnma noc1oonw napro1annux, xnm
ymno axonunw, xnmonan nac1r cAyxono 1yw u nayxnoro
cAyxonoro noxopa. E o1Aunuo o1 ruaAunonoro, aAac1unocxu xnm
no oxoc1ononao1 c noaac1om.
3. Eo.ouuucnmu rpn, n ocnonnom xnmonom nomoc1no xo1oo-
ro copoxu1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no xoAAarononwx noAoxon, nupa-
mmux xnmy nonwmonnym nonnoc1r. Ha noAoxnuc1oro xnma no-
c1oonw quoanwo xoAra moxnoanononnwx pucxon, cyc1annwo
pucxu u monucxu, a1um xnmom noxw1w cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u n
nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1nom u rypuno-xAmnunnom cyc1anax.
Kocnuon nuout, o1Aunammancn ocowmu moxanunocxumu cno-
c1namu, coc1ou1 ua xoc1nwx xAo1ox, aamyonannwx n xoc1noo oc-
nonnoo nomoc1no, copoxamoo xoAAarononwo noAoxna u nonu1an-
noo nooranunocxumu coopunonunmu. Copoxanuo nopw n xoc1u
poc1urao1 50%. E cyxom oc1a1xo xoc1no 1xanu copoxu1cn oxoAo
33% oranunocxux nomoc1n u 6?% nooranunocxux coopunonu,
n ocnonnom a1o xuc1aAAw rupoxcuana1u1a.
PaaAunam1 xoc1nwo xAo1xu pnyx 1unon: oc1ooAac1w u oc1oou-
1w. Ocneo.ocnm - a1o mnoroyroArnwo xyunocxuo o1oc1na1wo
moAopwo xAo1xu, ora1wo aAomon1amu aonuc1o anpo-
nAaama1unocxo co1u, uocomamu, xoomo aanu1wm xomnAoxcom
IoArpxu. Hx mnoronucAonnwo o1oc1xu xon1ax1uym1 moxpy co-
o u c o1oc1xamu oc1oou1on. Oc1ooAac1w cun1oauym1 oranu-
nocxuo xomnonon1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na (ma1uxc) u nwpoAn-
m1 ux ua xAo1xu nooa ncm nonoxnoc1r n aaAunnwx nananAonu-
nx, n1o u nunopu1 x oaaonanum nomo (Aaxyn), n xo1owx onu
aaAoram1, nonamancr n oc1oou1w. Oranunocxu ma1uxc xoc1u
umnornuyo1cn xuc1aAAamu rupoxcuana1u1a Ca
10
(PO
4
)
6
(OH)
2
u
amoqnwm qocqa1om xaArun Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
, xo1owo noc1ynam1 n xoc-
1nym 1xanr ua xonu nooa 1xanonym xupxoc1r. Kuc1aAAw rupo-
xcuana1u1a oxy1wnam1 xoAAarononwo quuAAw u amoqnoo nomo-
c1no, a 1axxo acnoAoxonw nny1u quuAA.
Ocneouunm - aoAwo, mnoroo1oc1na1wo noo1onooaanwo
xAo1xu c xynnwm oxyrAwm npom u maAwm xoAunoc1nom ora-
noAA. Oc1oou1w acnoAaram1cn moxpy xoc1nwmu nAac1unxamu n
Aaxynax, opnaxo 1oAa xAo1ox no conuxacam1cn nonocopc1nonno
## #"
c xaArunuonannwm ma1uxcom, ypynu oxamAonnwmu 1onxum
cAoom (1 - 2 mxm) nomunoaAuaonanno 1xanu. Ononr pAunnwo (po
50 mxm) o1oc1xu oc1oou1on noxopn1 n xanaArax, nunom onu
o1poAonw o1 xaAruquuonannoro ma1uxca noc1anc1namu mu-
uno oxoAo 0,1 mxm, n xo1owx uxyAuyo1 1xanonan xupxoc1r,
ocymoc1nAnmman nu1anuo xAo1ox. Pacc1onnuo moxpy xaxpwm oc-
1oou1om u Auxamum xanuAAnom no nonwmao1 0,1 - 0,2 mm.
E xoc1no 1xanu umoo1cn omo opna xa1oroun xAo1ox - ocne
ou.ocnm, xo1owo no nnAnm1cn xoc1nwmu, a umom1 monou1a-
noo noucxoxponuo u o1nocn1cn x cuc1omo maxoqaron. Oc1ooxAa-
c1w - a1o xynnwo mnoronponwo (5 - 100 npo) xAo1xu aamoa-
mu po 190 mxm, xo1owo aaymam1 xoc1r u xnm.
PaaAunam1 pna 1una xoc1no 1xanu - penuu.oqupo:uw (ep
ooo.ouuucnw, u n.ocnuuuonw. Honan umoo1cn y aaopwma
noAonoxa; y naocAoro ona acnoAarao1cn n aonax nuxonAonun
cyxoxuAu x xoc1nm u n mnax noona nocAo ux aaac1anun.
H.ocnuuuonon uocnt nauoAoo acnoc1anona n oranuamo.
Ona oaaonana xoc1nwmu nAac1unxamu 1oAmuno o1 4 po 15 mxm,
P u c . 6 3. Cxeua cmpoeus
mpyvamo xocmu:
1 sonoxucmm cno; 2 xauu-
ansm cno; 3 cno sympe-
ux oux nnacmuox; 4 ocme-
o; 5 cucmeua scmasovmx nna-
cmuox; 6 cno sympeux o-
ux nnacmuox; 7 xocmas mpa-
exyna ayvamo xocmu (no
Bapauay)
xoAAarononwo. Xonpou1w acnoAaram1cn n noAoc1nx - Aaxy-
nax, oxyxonnwo moxxAo1onnwm nomoc1nom. PaaAunam1 1u 1una
xnmono 1xanu.
1. Iuo.uuoomu rpn, ua xo1ooro noc1oonw cyc1annwo, o-
onwo, anuquaanwo xnmu u np xnmo ro1anu; rAapxu,
Aoc1nmu, roAyona1o-oAoro no1a.
2. 3.ocnuuecuuu rpn copoxu1 n xnmonom ocnonnom nomo-
c1no mnoronucAonnwo, cAoxno noonAo1ammuocn aAac1unocxuo no-
Aoxna. On monoo noaanon, xoA1ona1oro no1a, o1Aunao1cn yny-
roc1rm. Ha aAac1unocxoro xnma noc1oonw napro1annux, xnm
ymno axonunw, xnmonan nac1r cAyxono 1yw u nayxnoro
cAyxonoro noxopa. E o1Aunuo o1 ruaAunonoro, aAac1unocxu xnm
no oxoc1ononao1 c noaac1om.
3. Eo.ouuucnmu rpn, n ocnonnom xnmonom nomoc1no xo1oo-
ro copoxu1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no xoAAarononwx noAoxon, nupa-
mmux xnmy nonwmonnym nonnoc1r. Ha noAoxnuc1oro xnma no-
c1oonw quoanwo xoAra moxnoanononnwx pucxon, cyc1annwo
pucxu u monucxu, a1um xnmom noxw1w cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u n
nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1nom u rypuno-xAmnunnom cyc1anax.
Kocnuon nuout, o1Aunammancn ocowmu moxanunocxumu cno-
c1namu, coc1ou1 ua xoc1nwx xAo1ox, aamyonannwx n xoc1noo oc-
nonnoo nomoc1no, copoxamoo xoAAarononwo noAoxna u nonu1an-
noo nooranunocxumu coopunonunmu. Copoxanuo nopw n xoc1u
poc1urao1 50%. E cyxom oc1a1xo xoc1no 1xanu copoxu1cn oxoAo
33% oranunocxux nomoc1n u 6?% nooranunocxux coopunonu,
n ocnonnom a1o xuc1aAAw rupoxcuana1u1a.
PaaAunam1 xoc1nwo xAo1xu pnyx 1unon: oc1ooAac1w u oc1oou-
1w. Ocneo.ocnm - a1o mnoroyroArnwo xyunocxuo o1oc1na1wo
moAopwo xAo1xu, ora1wo aAomon1amu aonuc1o anpo-
nAaama1unocxo co1u, uocomamu, xoomo aanu1wm xomnAoxcom
IoArpxu. Hx mnoronucAonnwo o1oc1xu xon1ax1uym1 moxpy co-
o u c o1oc1xamu oc1oou1on. Oc1ooAac1w cun1oauym1 oranu-
nocxuo xomnonon1w moxxAo1onnoro nomoc1na (ma1uxc) u nwpoAn-
m1 ux ua xAo1xu nooa ncm nonoxnoc1r n aaAunnwx nananAonu-
nx, n1o u nunopu1 x oaaonanum nomo (Aaxyn), n xo1owx onu
aaAoram1, nonamancr n oc1oou1w. Oranunocxu ma1uxc xoc1u
umnornuyo1cn xuc1aAAamu rupoxcuana1u1a Ca
10
(PO
4
)
6
(OH)
2
u
amoqnwm qocqa1om xaArun Ca
3
(PO
4
)
2
, xo1owo noc1ynam1 n xoc-
1nym 1xanr ua xonu nooa 1xanonym xupxoc1r. Kuc1aAAw rupo-
xcuana1u1a oxy1wnam1 xoAAarononwo quuAAw u amoqnoo nomo-
c1no, a 1axxo acnoAoxonw nny1u quuAA.
Ocneouunm - aoAwo, mnoroo1oc1na1wo noo1onooaanwo
xAo1xu c xynnwm oxyrAwm npom u maAwm xoAunoc1nom ora-
noAA. Oc1oou1w acnoAaram1cn moxpy xoc1nwmu nAac1unxamu n
Aaxynax, opnaxo 1oAa xAo1ox no conuxacam1cn nonocopc1nonno
#% #$
P u c . 6 5. Oeuas cxeua cmpoeus syx uuoqupunn
nonepevononocamoao umuevoao sonoxa:
1 capxouep; 2 nonoca A (ucx A); 3 nuus M (uesoqpaaua) s cepeue ucxa A;
4 nonoca l (ucx l); 5 Z-nuus (menoqpaaua) s cepeue ucxa l; 6 uumoxopus;
7 xoevas ucmepa; 8 capxonnasuamuvecxas cems; 9 nonepevme mpyovxu
(no Enuceesy u p., c usueeusuu)
u 1onxuo (ounuuoome), Aoxamuo n pucxo I u nuxonAnmmuocn x
1oAoqarmam, nunom xonw ux nonuxam1 n pucx A moxpy 1oA-
c1wmu quAamon1amu. Vnac1ox muoquuAAw, acnoAoxonnw
moxpy pnymn 1oAoqarmamu, nopc1anAno1 coo copuo+ep - co-
xa1u1oArnym opunuy. Ha ranuo moxpy pucxamu A u I mom-
ana noAoxna nnnnunao1cn, oaayn T-1yonxu, xo1owo aano1n-
Anm1cn nny1u noAoxna. E nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwmonnwx no-
Aoxnax xoomo aanu1a noaonuc1an anponAaama1unocxan (caxon-
Aaama1unocxan) co1r, xo1oan oxyxao1 caxomow.
CxoAo1nwo mwmw unnonuym1cn cnunno-moaronwmu u no-
onnwmu nonamu. Honnw umnyArc noopao1cn no T-1yonxam,
a c nux na xononnwo uc1o-
nw caxonAaama1unocxo
co1u, nwawnan uamononuo no-
nuaomoc1u nocAopnux, n1o
nopo1 x nwxopy uonon xaAr-
un n u1onAaamy. 01o nu-
nopu1 x naaumopoc1num ax-
1una c muoaunom u mwmonno-
my coxamonum. CorAacno 1o-
ouu X. XaucAn n T. Xancona,
mwmonnoo coxamonuo - a1o
oayAr1a1 cxoArxonun 1on-
xux (ax1unonwx) quAamon-
1on o1nocu1oArno 1oAc1wx
(muoaunonwx), Aaropan
nomy pAuna quAamon1on puc-
xa A uamonno1cn, n 1o nomn
xax pucx I ymonrmao1cn n
aamoax u ucnoaao1.
E ocymoc1nAonuu mwmon-
noro coxamonun nunuma-
m1 ynac1uo nocxoArxo oA-
xon: ax1un, muoaun, 1ono-
muoaun u 1ononun (uc. 66).
Ax1unonwo quAamon1w
(F-ax1un) oaaonanw pnymn
cxynonnwmu noAumonwmu
noAoxnamu, xaxpoo ua xo1o-
wx coc1ou1 ua monomoon
xo1owo coc1on1 ua oc1oou1on u 1onxonoAoxnuc1oro xoc1noro oc-
nonnoro nomoc1na. E aanucumoc1u o1 acnoAoxonun xoc1nwx nAac-
1unox aaAunam1 nAo1noo (xomnax1noo) u ryna1oo xoc1noo nomo-
c1no (1aoxyAnnan xoc1r) (uc. 63). E xomnax1nom nomoc1no xoc1-
nwo nAac1unxu acnoAaram1cn n onopoAonnom nonpxo, oaayn
cAoxnwo cuc1omw - oc1oonw. Ocneou - cnpunpuon eouuuuo uoc
nu. On coc1ou1 ua 5 - 20 uAunpunocxux nAac1unox, nc1anAonnwx
opna n pyrym. E on1o xaxporo oc1oona acnoAoxon on1aArnw
xanaA (ranocon), n xo1oom noxopn1 xononocnwo cocypw.
Iuonoe uocnuoe oeecnoo nopc1anAono xoc1nwmu nAac1un-
xamu u nooxAapunamu (1aoxyAamu), nooxomunammumucn
moxpy coo u oaaymmumu mnoxoc1no nnoox. HananAonuo no-
oxAapun connapao1 c xunwmu cxa1un u ac1nxonun, qomuy-
mmumu xonc1yxuu n nupo cnopna1wx aox. Taxoo acnoAoxo-
nuo xoc1nwx 1aoxyA nop yrAom pyr x pyry oocnonunao1 an-
nomonym noopany panAonun uAu 1nru mwmw na xoc1r. Eny1u
xoc1o n xoc1no-moaronwx noAoc1nx u nnoxax ryna1oro nomo-
c1na naxopu1cn xoc1nw moar.
Mmmounmo vuann ocymoc1nAnm1 qynxum pnuxonun, cnoco-
nw coxama1rcn. Cymoc1nym1 pno aanonupnoc1u mwmonno 1xa-
nu: ucnononnan (cxoAo1nan u coponnan) - nonoonnonoAoca1an u
noucnononnan (rAapxan).
Honepeuuono.oconon cue.enuon +mueuuon nuout oaaonana
uAunpunocxumu noAoxnamu pAuno o1 1 po 40 mm u 1oAmuno po
0,1 mxm (uc. 64). Hop nAaama1unocxo momano (caxoAommo)
acnoAarao1cn mnoxoc1no aAAuncoupnwx npo. Humono pno 1o-
1u o+oma noAoxna aanumam1 uAunpunocxuo muoquuAAw, moxpy
xo1owmu aaAoram1 mnoronucAonnwo mu1oxonpuu. EoAoxna o1Au-
nam1cn nonoonno ucnononnoc1rm (uc. 65): 1omnwo noAocw (pucx
A) noopym1cn co cno1Awmu (pucx I). ucx A aapoAon cno1Ao aono
(noAoca H), pucx I - 1omno Aunuo Z (1oAoqarma). MuoquuAAw
copoxa1 coxa1u1oArnwo aAomon1w - muoquAamon1w, copu xo-
1owx aaAunam1 1oAc1wo (+uo:uuoome), aanumammuo pucx A,
P u c . 6 4. Hcvepveas (nonepevononocamas) cxenemas umuevas mxas:
1 umuevoe sonoxo; 2 capxoneuua; 3 uuoqupunnm; 4 spa
#% #$
P u c . 6 5. Oeuas cxeua cmpoeus syx uuoqupunn
nonepevononocamoao umuevoao sonoxa:
1 capxouep; 2 nonoca A (ucx A); 3 nuus M (uesoqpaaua) s cepeue ucxa A;
4 nonoca l (ucx l); 5 Z-nuus (menoqpaaua) s cepeue ucxa l; 6 uumoxopus;
7 xoevas ucmepa; 8 capxonnasuamuvecxas cems; 9 nonepevme mpyovxu
(no Enuceesy u p., c usueeusuu)
u 1onxuo (ounuuoome), Aoxamuo n pucxo I u nuxonAnmmuocn x
1oAoqarmam, nunom xonw ux nonuxam1 n pucx A moxpy 1oA-
c1wmu quAamon1amu. Vnac1ox muoquuAAw, acnoAoxonnw
moxpy pnymn 1oAoqarmamu, nopc1anAno1 coo copuo+ep - co-
xa1u1oArnym opunuy. Ha ranuo moxpy pucxamu A u I mom-
ana noAoxna nnnnunao1cn, oaayn T-1yonxu, xo1owo aano1n-
Anm1cn nny1u noAoxna. E nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwmonnwx no-
Aoxnax xoomo aanu1a noaonuc1an anponAaama1unocxan (caxon-
Aaama1unocxan) co1r, xo1oan oxyxao1 caxomow.
CxoAo1nwo mwmw unnonuym1cn cnunno-moaronwmu u no-
onnwmu nonamu. Honnw umnyArc noopao1cn no T-1yonxam,
a c nux na xononnwo uc1o-
nw caxonAaama1unocxo
co1u, nwawnan uamononuo no-
nuaomoc1u nocAopnux, n1o
nopo1 x nwxopy uonon xaAr-
un n u1onAaamy. 01o nu-
nopu1 x naaumopoc1num ax-
1una c muoaunom u mwmonno-
my coxamonum. CorAacno 1o-
ouu X. XaucAn n T. Xancona,
mwmonnoo coxamonuo - a1o
oayAr1a1 cxoArxonun 1on-
xux (ax1unonwx) quAamon-
1on o1nocu1oArno 1oAc1wx
(muoaunonwx), Aaropan
nomy pAuna quAamon1on puc-
xa A uamonno1cn, n 1o nomn
xax pucx I ymonrmao1cn n
aamoax u ucnoaao1.
E ocymoc1nAonuu mwmon-
noro coxamonun nunuma-
m1 ynac1uo nocxoArxo oA-
xon: ax1un, muoaun, 1ono-
muoaun u 1ononun (uc. 66).
Ax1unonwo quAamon1w
(F-ax1un) oaaonanw pnymn
cxynonnwmu noAumonwmu
noAoxnamu, xaxpoo ua xo1o-
wx coc1ou1 ua monomoon
xo1owo coc1on1 ua oc1oou1on u 1onxonoAoxnuc1oro xoc1noro oc-
nonnoro nomoc1na. E aanucumoc1u o1 acnoAoxonun xoc1nwx nAac-
1unox aaAunam1 nAo1noo (xomnax1noo) u ryna1oo xoc1noo nomo-
c1no (1aoxyAnnan xoc1r) (uc. 63). E xomnax1nom nomoc1no xoc1-
nwo nAac1unxu acnoAaram1cn n onopoAonnom nonpxo, oaayn
cAoxnwo cuc1omw - oc1oonw. Ocneou - cnpunpuon eouuuuo uoc
nu. On coc1ou1 ua 5 - 20 uAunpunocxux nAac1unox, nc1anAonnwx
opna n pyrym. E on1o xaxporo oc1oona acnoAoxon on1aArnw
xanaA (ranocon), n xo1oom noxopn1 xononocnwo cocypw.
Iuonoe uocnuoe oeecnoo nopc1anAono xoc1nwmu nAac1un-
xamu u nooxAapunamu (1aoxyAamu), nooxomunammumucn
moxpy coo u oaaymmumu mnoxoc1no nnoox. HananAonuo no-
oxAapun connapao1 c xunwmu cxa1un u ac1nxonun, qomuy-
mmumu xonc1yxuu n nupo cnopna1wx aox. Taxoo acnoAoxo-
nuo xoc1nwx 1aoxyA nop yrAom pyr x pyry oocnonunao1 an-
nomonym noopany panAonun uAu 1nru mwmw na xoc1r. Eny1u
xoc1o n xoc1no-moaronwx noAoc1nx u nnoxax ryna1oro nomo-
c1na naxopu1cn xoc1nw moar.
Mmmounmo vuann ocymoc1nAnm1 qynxum pnuxonun, cnoco-
nw coxama1rcn. Cymoc1nym1 pno aanonupnoc1u mwmonno 1xa-
nu: ucnononnan (cxoAo1nan u coponnan) - nonoonnonoAoca1an u
noucnononnan (rAapxan).
Honepeuuono.oconon cue.enuon +mueuuon nuout oaaonana
uAunpunocxumu noAoxnamu pAuno o1 1 po 40 mm u 1oAmuno po
0,1 mxm (uc. 64). Hop nAaama1unocxo momano (caxoAommo)
acnoAarao1cn mnoxoc1no aAAuncoupnwx npo. Humono pno 1o-
1u o+oma noAoxna aanumam1 uAunpunocxuo muoquuAAw, moxpy
xo1owmu aaAoram1 mnoronucAonnwo mu1oxonpuu. EoAoxna o1Au-
nam1cn nonoonno ucnononnoc1rm (uc. 65): 1omnwo noAocw (pucx
A) noopym1cn co cno1Awmu (pucx I). ucx A aapoAon cno1Ao aono
(noAoca H), pucx I - 1omno Aunuo Z (1oAoqarma). MuoquuAAw
copoxa1 coxa1u1oArnwo aAomon1w - muoquAamon1w, copu xo-
1owx aaAunam1 1oAc1wo (+uo:uuoome), aanumammuo pucx A,
P u c . 6 4. Hcvepveas (nonepevononocamas) cxenemas umuevas mxas:
1 umuevoe sonoxo; 2 capxoneuua; 3 uuoqupunnm; 4 spa
#' #&
Honepeuuono.oconon cepoeuuon +mueuuon nuout, xo1oan no
c1oonum u qynxuu o1Aunao1cn o1 cxoAo1nwx mwm, coc1ou1 ua
xapuomuou1on, oaaymmux coopunnmmuocn pyr c pyrom xom-
nAoxcw. Ho cnoomy c1oonum coponnan mwmonnan 1xanr noxoxa
na cxoAo1nym (nonoonnonoAoca1an ucnononnoc1r), opnaxo coxa-
monun coponno mwmw no nopxon1oArnw coananum noAonoxa,
ona unnonuyo1cn noro1a1unno nonno cuc1omo.
Hopnnax vuann oaayo1 on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy (ro-
Aonno u cnunno moar) u nouqounocxym (nonw c ux xono-
nwmu nuoamu, nonnwo yaAw). Honnan 1xanr coc1ou1 ua no-
onon u noorAuu. Heupou c o1xopnmumu o1 noro o1oc1xamu
nnAno1cn c1yx1yno-qynxuonaArno opunuo nonno cuc1omw.
Ocnonnan qynxun noona - a1o noAynonuo, nooao1xa, nono-
ponuo u noopana unqomauu, aaxopuonanno n nupo aAox1u-
nocxux uAu xumunocxux curnaAon. E cnnau c nooxopumoc1rm no-
noponun unqomauu (unorpa na paArnuo acc1onnun) xaxpw no-
on umoo1 o1oc1xu. Opun uAu nocxoArxo o1oc1xon, no xo1owm
nonnw umnyArc nunocu1cn x 1oAy noona, naawnao1cn oeuo
puno+. Epunc1nonnw o1oc1ox, no xo1oomy nonnw umnyArc
nananAno1cn o1 xAo1xu, -
a1o oucou. Hepouon u.enuo
ouuo+uuecuu no.npu:ooouo,
n. e. cnocouo nponcuont
u+n.tc no.tuo o oouo+ uo
npoo.euuu, on oeuopuno u
ne. u.enuu, eoe uuqop+o
uun opoonmooencn, u oo
.ee u oucou.
Kax nanuAo, noonw -
opnonponwo xAo1xu; cqo-
unocxoo npo puamo1om
P u c . 6 7. Cxeua
ynsmpauuxpocxonuvecxoao
cmpoeus epso
xnemxu:
P u c . 6 6. Cxeua cmpoeus capxouepa
rAoyAnnoro oAxa O-ax1una. Eoxyr F-ax1una onunao1cn moAo-
xyAa 1onomuoauna, aaAoramman n oro cnuaArnwx xoAoxax.
EpoAr F-ax1una acnoAoxonw moAoxyAw 1ononuna, nuxonAnm-
muocn u x 1onomuoauny. Tononun coc1ou1 ua cy+opunu T (cnn-
awnammo 1onomuoaun), H (cnnawnammo ax1un u unruuym-
mo cnnawnanuo ax1una c muoaunom) u coopunonno c numu C
(cnnawnammo Ca
2-
).
ToAc1wo quAamon1w coc1on1 ua moAoxyA muoauna, nopc1an-
Anmmux coo nu1u, umommuo pno maonupnwo roAonxu. E moAo-
xyAo muoauna umom1cn pna manua: nonw - moxpy rupo-
qonwm c1noAom u rupoquArno moxo, n1oo - moxpy
moxo u roAonxamu. Muoaunonwo moAoxyAw, coopunnncr cno-
umu rupoqonwmu c1noAamu, oaaym1 c1oxonr 1oAc1oro mu-
oquAamon1a, ua xo1ooro nwc1ynam1 moxu u roAonxu, qo-
muymmuo moc1r cnuaArnwx npon. Ha roAonxo muoauna umo-
o1cn cnouaArnw ynac1ox, cnnawnammu ATP. na c1oxnn co-
opunonw moxpy coo c1noAamu, oaayn ynac1ox, Aumonnw
moox u roAonox. Kaxpw muoaunonw quAamon1 oxyxon
moc1rm ax1unonwmu.
E ocnono mwmonnoro coxamonun Aoxu1 naaumopoc1nuo mox-
py ax1unom u muoaunom. Hc1onnuxom pnuxymocn cuAw mwmon-
noro coxamonun nnAno1cn ocnooxponuo anoruu n oayAr1a1o
rupoAuaa ATP, xa1aAuauyomoro muoaunom, xo1ow nnAno1cn
ax1un-aanucumo ATP-aao. 01um cnoc1nom oAapam1 muo-
aunonwo roAonxu 1oArxo nu ycAonuu ux ax1unauu Ca
2-
. Ha-
nomnum, n1o Aaropan naAunum n moAoxyAo muoauna pnyx ma-
nunwx yc1oc1n roAonxu mory1 crua1rcn, nuxonAnncr x
ax1uny u nop1nrunan ax1unonwo quAamon1w na 10 nm. 01o noa-
moxno Aaropan 1omy, n1o oAox -ax1unun, acnoAoxonnw n
oAac1u Aunuu Z, aaxonAno1 xonw 1onxux (ax1unonwx) muo-
quAamon1on.
1 axcooepuvecxu cu-
anc; 2 axcoocouamuvec-
xu cuanc; 3 npecuan-
muvecxue nysmpsxu; 4 npe-
cuanmuvecxas ueupaa;
5 cuanmuvecxas ens;
6 nocmcuanmuvecxas ueu-
paa; 7 sonnasuamuvec-
xas cems; 8 uumoxopus;
9 xounnexc lons+u;
10 epoqupunnm; 11 s-
po; 12 spmuxo
#' #&
Honepeuuono.oconon cepoeuuon +mueuuon nuout, xo1oan no
c1oonum u qynxuu o1Aunao1cn o1 cxoAo1nwx mwm, coc1ou1 ua
xapuomuou1on, oaaymmux coopunnmmuocn pyr c pyrom xom-
nAoxcw. Ho cnoomy c1oonum coponnan mwmonnan 1xanr noxoxa
na cxoAo1nym (nonoonnonoAoca1an ucnononnoc1r), opnaxo coxa-
monun coponno mwmw no nopxon1oArnw coananum noAonoxa,
ona unnonuyo1cn noro1a1unno nonno cuc1omo.
Hopnnax vuann oaayo1 on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy (ro-
Aonno u cnunno moar) u nouqounocxym (nonw c ux xono-
nwmu nuoamu, nonnwo yaAw). Honnan 1xanr coc1ou1 ua no-
onon u noorAuu. Heupou c o1xopnmumu o1 noro o1oc1xamu
nnAno1cn c1yx1yno-qynxuonaArno opunuo nonno cuc1omw.
Ocnonnan qynxun noona - a1o noAynonuo, nooao1xa, nono-
ponuo u noopana unqomauu, aaxopuonanno n nupo aAox1u-
nocxux uAu xumunocxux curnaAon. E cnnau c nooxopumoc1rm no-
noponun unqomauu (unorpa na paArnuo acc1onnun) xaxpw no-
on umoo1 o1oc1xu. Opun uAu nocxoArxo o1oc1xon, no xo1owm
nonnw umnyArc nunocu1cn x 1oAy noona, naawnao1cn oeuo
puno+. Epunc1nonnw o1oc1ox, no xo1oomy nonnw umnyArc
nananAno1cn o1 xAo1xu, -
a1o oucou. Hepouon u.enuo
ouuo+uuecuu no.npu:ooouo,
n. e. cnocouo nponcuont
u+n.tc no.tuo o oouo+ uo
npoo.euuu, on oeuopuno u
ne. u.enuu, eoe uuqop+o
uun opoonmooencn, u oo
.ee u oucou.
Kax nanuAo, noonw -
opnonponwo xAo1xu; cqo-
unocxoo npo puamo1om
P u c . 6 7. Cxeua
ynsmpauuxpocxonuvecxoao
cmpoeus epso
xnemxu:
P u c . 6 6. Cxeua cmpoeus capxouepa
rAoyAnnoro oAxa O-ax1una. Eoxyr F-ax1una onunao1cn moAo-
xyAa 1onomuoauna, aaAoramman n oro cnuaArnwx xoAoxax.
EpoAr F-ax1una acnoAoxonw moAoxyAw 1ononuna, nuxonAnm-
muocn u x 1onomuoauny. Tononun coc1ou1 ua cy+opunu T (cnn-
awnammo 1onomuoaun), H (cnnawnammo ax1un u unruuym-
mo cnnawnanuo ax1una c muoaunom) u coopunonno c numu C
(cnnawnammo Ca
2-
).
ToAc1wo quAamon1w coc1on1 ua moAoxyA muoauna, nopc1an-
Anmmux coo nu1u, umommuo pno maonupnwo roAonxu. E moAo-
xyAo muoauna umom1cn pna manua: nonw - moxpy rupo-
qonwm c1noAom u rupoquArno moxo, n1oo - moxpy
moxo u roAonxamu. Muoaunonwo moAoxyAw, coopunnncr cno-
umu rupoqonwmu c1noAamu, oaaym1 c1oxonr 1oAc1oro mu-
oquAamon1a, ua xo1ooro nwc1ynam1 moxu u roAonxu, qo-
muymmuo moc1r cnuaArnwx npon. Ha roAonxo muoauna umo-
o1cn cnouaArnw ynac1ox, cnnawnammu ATP. na c1oxnn co-
opunonw moxpy coo c1noAamu, oaayn ynac1ox, Aumonnw
moox u roAonox. Kaxpw muoaunonw quAamon1 oxyxon
moc1rm ax1unonwmu.
E ocnono mwmonnoro coxamonun Aoxu1 naaumopoc1nuo mox-
py ax1unom u muoaunom. Hc1onnuxom pnuxymocn cuAw mwmon-
noro coxamonun nnAno1cn ocnooxponuo anoruu n oayAr1a1o
rupoAuaa ATP, xa1aAuauyomoro muoaunom, xo1ow nnAno1cn
ax1un-aanucumo ATP-aao. 01um cnoc1nom oAapam1 muo-
aunonwo roAonxu 1oArxo nu ycAonuu ux ax1unauu Ca
2-
. Ha-
nomnum, n1o Aaropan naAunum n moAoxyAo muoauna pnyx ma-
nunwx yc1oc1n roAonxu mory1 crua1rcn, nuxonAnncr x
ax1uny u nop1nrunan ax1unonwo quAamon1w na 10 nm. 01o noa-
moxno Aaropan 1omy, n1o oAox -ax1unun, acnoAoxonnw n
oAac1u Aunuu Z, aaxonAno1 xonw 1onxux (ax1unonwx) muo-
quAamon1on.
1 axcooepuvecxu cu-
anc; 2 axcoocouamuvec-
xu cuanc; 3 npecuan-
muvecxue nysmpsxu; 4 npe-
cuanmuvecxas ueupaa;
5 cuanmuvecxas ens;
6 nocmcuanmuvecxas ueu-
paa; 7 sonnasuamuvec-
xas cems; 8 uumoxopus;
9 xounnexc lons+u;
10 epoqupunnm; 11 s-
po; 12 spmuxo
$ $
momanw, noa1omy nonnw umnyArc acnoc1anno1cn no no-
ony.
Hoonw, xo1owo noopam1 noayxponuo o1 1onxu nocnun-
1un aapaxonun n on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy u paAoo x a-
onomy orany, cnnaanw moxpy coo c nomomrm mnoxoc1na mox-
xAo1onnwx xon1ax1on - cuuoncoo (epeu. synasys - cnnar), noopa-
mmux nonnw umnyArc o1 opnoro noona x pyromy (uc. 69).
E cunancax noucxopu1 nooaaonanuo aAox1unocxux curnaAon
n xumunocxuo u oa1no - xumunocxux n aAox1unocxuo.
Cunancw, n xo1owx noopana ocymoc1nAno1cn c nomomrm uo-
Aorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n, naawnam1cn xumunocxumu, a nomo-
c1na, ocymoc1nAnmmuo noopany, - ueupo+eouonopo+u (.on.
modIaIor - nocopnux). PoAr mopua1oon nwnoAnnm1 noaponaAun,
ao1uAxoAun, coo1onun, poqamun u p. HmnyArc noc1ynao1 n
cunanc no nocunan1unocxomy oxonnanum, xo1ooo oranunono no-
cunan1unocxo momano (nocunan1unocxo nac1rm) u nocnu-
numao1cn noc1cunan1unocxo momano (noc1cunan1unocxo
nac1rm). Moxpy momanamu acnoAoxona cunan1unocxan moAr.
E nocunan1unocxom oxonnanuu umoo1cn mnoxoc1no mu1oxonpu
u nocunan1unocxux nyawrxon, copoxamux mopua1o. Honnw
umnyArc, noc1ynammu n nocunan1unocxoo oxonnanuo, nwawna-
o1 ocnooxponuo n cunan1unocxym moAr mopua1oa. MoAoxyAw
P u c . 6 8. Home moxu vepes ueupay axcoa
npu npoxo+euu nomeuana ecmsus
(no Cmepepay u coasm., c usueeusuu)
oxoAo 18 mxm n oArmunc1no noonon acnoAoxono on1aArno
(uc. 6?). Ocnonno ocoonnoc1rm c1oonun noonon nnAno1cn na-
Aunuo mnoronucAonnwx nu1o (nooquuAA) u cxonAonu nomo-
c1na HuccAn, ora1oro PHK, xo1ooo nopc1anAno1 coo rynnw
naaAAoArnwx uc1on aonuc1o anponAaama1unocxo co1u u no-
Auuocomw, acnoAarammuocn no nco u1onAaamo xAo1xu u n pon-
pu1ax (o1cy1c1nym1 n axcono). HooquuAAw qomuym1 n xAo1xo
ryc1ym 1oxmonym co1r, onu nonuawnam1 u o1oc1xu.
Hoonw nocnunumam1, nonopn1 u noopam1 unqomaum,
aaxopuonannym n nupo aAox1unocxux u xumunocxux curnaAon.
3anxonnwo moAoxyAw uAu a1omw naawnam1cn uonamu. Ha1u,
xaAu, xaAru u marnu - noAoxu1oArnwo uonw; xAo, qocqa1,
oc1a1xu noxo1owx xucAo1 (nanumo, yroArno), xynnwo uonw
oAxon - o1ua1oArnwo. Eo nnoxAo1onno xupxoc1u noAoxu1oAr-
nwo u o1ua1oArnwo uonw naxopn1cn n annwx coo1nomonunx.
Eny1u xAo1ox nooAapam1 o1ua1oArno aanxonnwo uonw, nom
oycAonAon omu o1ua1oArnw aanp xAo1xu. KaAu - nny1-
uxAo1onnw uon, oro xonon1aun n nonnwx u mwmonnwx xAo1-
xax n 20 - 100 aa nwmo, nom nno xAo1xu, na1u - nnoxAo1onnw
uon, nny1uxAo1onnan oro xonon1aun n xAo1xo n 5 - 15 aa
nuxo nnoxAo1onno. H naooo1, nny1uxAo1onnan xonon1aun
CI n 20 - 100 aa nuxo nnoxAo1onno.
Ho oo c1oonw momanw nonnwx u mwmonnwx xAo1ox,
moxpy nnoxAo1onno u nny1uxAo1onno xupxoc1nmu cymoc1-
nyo1 momannw no1onuaA - aanoc1r no1onuaAon, oro noAu-
nuna - 80 mE. 01o cnnaano c uaua1oArno nonuaomoc1rm
nAaama1unocxo momanw pAn aaAunnwx uonon. K
-
Aorxo puq-
qynpuyo1 nooa momany. E cnnau c oro nwcoxum copoxanu-
om n xAo1xo on nwxopu1 ua noo, nwnocn noAoxu1oArnw aanp.
Eoanuxao1 momannw no1onuaA. Momannw no1onuaA
xAo1xu, naxopnmocn n coc1onnuu noxon, naawnao1cn noneuuu
o.o+ nouon (uc. 68).
Korpa nonnan uAu mwmonnan xAo1xa ax1unuauyo1cn, n no
noanuxao1 no1onuaA poc1nun - wc1w cpnur momannoro no-
1onuaAa n noAoxu1oArnym c1oony. Hu a1om n onopoAonnom yna-
c1xo momanw n o1no1 na aapaxonuo xAo1xa nanunao1 1on1r
cno o1ua1oArnw aanp u Na
-
yc1omAno1cn n xAo1xy, n oayAr-
1a1o noro na 1,1000 c na a1om ynac1xo aanunao1n ponoAnuaaun,
nny1u xAo1xu noanuxao1 noAoxu1oArnw aanp - noneuuuo. oeu
cnoun, uAu nonnw umnyArc (cm. uc. 69). Taxum oaaom, noneu
uuo. oeucnoun - ono npouuuuooeuue nonouo uouoo No
-
uepe: +e+
pou o u.enu. K
-
, copoxamucn n oArmom xoAunoc1no nny1u
xAo1xu u oAapammu nwcoxo nonuaomoc1rm, nanunao1 noxu-
pa1r xAo1xy. 01o nunopu1 x nocc1anonAonum n no o1ua1oArno-
ro aanpa. nuxonuo uonon, noanuxammoo nAuau ponoAnuauo-
nannoro ynac1xa, nunopu1 x ponoAnuaauu cAopymmoro ynac1xa
$ $
momanw, noa1omy nonnw umnyArc acnoc1anno1cn no no-
ony.
Hoonw, xo1owo noopam1 noayxponuo o1 1onxu nocnun-
1un aapaxonun n on1aArnym nonnym cuc1omy u paAoo x a-
onomy orany, cnnaanw moxpy coo c nomomrm mnoxoc1na mox-
xAo1onnwx xon1ax1on - cuuoncoo (epeu. synasys - cnnar), noopa-
mmux nonnw umnyArc o1 opnoro noona x pyromy (uc. 69).
E cunancax noucxopu1 nooaaonanuo aAox1unocxux curnaAon
n xumunocxuo u oa1no - xumunocxux n aAox1unocxuo.
Cunancw, n xo1owx noopana ocymoc1nAno1cn c nomomrm uo-
Aorunocxu ax1unnwx nomoc1n, naawnam1cn xumunocxumu, a nomo-
c1na, ocymoc1nAnmmuo noopany, - ueupo+eouonopo+u (.on.
modIaIor - nocopnux). PoAr mopua1oon nwnoAnnm1 noaponaAun,
ao1uAxoAun, coo1onun, poqamun u p. HmnyArc noc1ynao1 n
cunanc no nocunan1unocxomy oxonnanum, xo1ooo oranunono no-
cunan1unocxo momano (nocunan1unocxo nac1rm) u nocnu-
numao1cn noc1cunan1unocxo momano (noc1cunan1unocxo
nac1rm). Moxpy momanamu acnoAoxona cunan1unocxan moAr.
E nocunan1unocxom oxonnanuu umoo1cn mnoxoc1no mu1oxonpu
u nocunan1unocxux nyawrxon, copoxamux mopua1o. Honnw
umnyArc, noc1ynammu n nocunan1unocxoo oxonnanuo, nwawna-
o1 ocnooxponuo n cunan1unocxym moAr mopua1oa. MoAoxyAw
P u c . 6 8. Home moxu vepes ueupay axcoa
npu npoxo+euu nomeuana ecmsus
(no Cmepepay u coasm., c usueeusuu)
oxoAo 18 mxm n oArmunc1no noonon acnoAoxono on1aArno
(uc. 6?). Ocnonno ocoonnoc1rm c1oonun noonon nnAno1cn na-
Aunuo mnoronucAonnwx nu1o (nooquuAA) u cxonAonu nomo-
c1na HuccAn, ora1oro PHK, xo1ooo nopc1anAno1 coo rynnw
naaAAoArnwx uc1on aonuc1o anponAaama1unocxo co1u u no-
Auuocomw, acnoAarammuocn no nco u1onAaamo xAo1xu u n pon-
pu1ax (o1cy1c1nym1 n axcono). HooquuAAw qomuym1 n xAo1xo
ryc1ym 1oxmonym co1r, onu nonuawnam1 u o1oc1xu.
Hoonw nocnunumam1, nonopn1 u noopam1 unqomaum,
aaxopuonannym n nupo aAox1unocxux u xumunocxux curnaAon.
3anxonnwo moAoxyAw uAu a1omw naawnam1cn uonamu. Ha1u,
xaAu, xaAru u marnu - noAoxu1oArnwo uonw; xAo, qocqa1,
oc1a1xu noxo1owx xucAo1 (nanumo, yroArno), xynnwo uonw
oAxon - o1ua1oArnwo. Eo nnoxAo1onno xupxoc1u noAoxu1oAr-
nwo u o1ua1oArnwo uonw naxopn1cn n annwx coo1nomonunx.
Eny1u xAo1ox nooAapam1 o1ua1oArno aanxonnwo uonw, nom
oycAonAon omu o1ua1oArnw aanp xAo1xu. KaAu - nny1-
uxAo1onnw uon, oro xonon1aun n nonnwx u mwmonnwx xAo1-
xax n 20 - 100 aa nwmo, nom nno xAo1xu, na1u - nnoxAo1onnw
uon, nny1uxAo1onnan oro xonon1aun n xAo1xo n 5 - 15 aa
nuxo nnoxAo1onno. H naooo1, nny1uxAo1onnan xonon1aun
CI n 20 - 100 aa nuxo nnoxAo1onno.
Ho oo c1oonw momanw nonnwx u mwmonnwx xAo1ox,
moxpy nnoxAo1onno u nny1uxAo1onno xupxoc1nmu cymoc1-
nyo1 momannw no1onuaA - aanoc1r no1onuaAon, oro noAu-
nuna - 80 mE. 01o cnnaano c uaua1oArno nonuaomoc1rm
nAaama1unocxo momanw pAn aaAunnwx uonon. K
-
Aorxo puq-
qynpuyo1 nooa momany. E cnnau c oro nwcoxum copoxanu-
om n xAo1xo on nwxopu1 ua noo, nwnocn noAoxu1oArnw aanp.
Eoanuxao1 momannw no1onuaA. Momannw no1onuaA
xAo1xu, naxopnmocn n coc1onnuu noxon, naawnao1cn noneuuu
o.o+ nouon (uc. 68).
Korpa nonnan uAu mwmonnan xAo1xa ax1unuauyo1cn, n no
noanuxao1 no1onuaA poc1nun - wc1w cpnur momannoro no-
1onuaAa n noAoxu1oArnym c1oony. Hu a1om n onopoAonnom yna-
c1xo momanw n o1no1 na aapaxonuo xAo1xa nanunao1 1on1r
cno o1ua1oArnw aanp u Na
-
yc1omAno1cn n xAo1xy, n oayAr-
1a1o noro na 1,1000 c na a1om ynac1xo aanunao1n ponoAnuaaun,
nny1u xAo1xu noanuxao1 noAoxu1oArnw aanp - noneuuuo. oeu
cnoun, uAu nonnw umnyArc (cm. uc. 69). Taxum oaaom, noneu
uuo. oeucnoun - ono npouuuuooeuue nonouo uouoo No
-
uepe: +e+
pou o u.enu. K
-
, copoxamucn n oArmom xoAunoc1no nny1u
xAo1xu u oAapammu nwcoxo nonuaomoc1rm, nanunao1 noxu-
pa1r xAo1xy. 01o nunopu1 x nocc1anonAonum n no o1ua1oArno-
ro aanpa. nuxonuo uonon, noanuxammoo nAuau ponoAnuauo-
nannoro ynac1xa, nunopu1 x ponoAnuaauu cAopymmoro ynac1xa
$! $
P u c . 7 0. Cxeua
cmpoeus epsmx
sonoxo:
A esuuenuosme sonoxa:
1 usaoscxas xnemxa; 2 epsme sonoxa; 3 umonnasua;
4 spo; B opasosaue uuenua: l, ll, lll, lV smanm opasosaus
uuenuoso oonovxu soxpya epsoao sonoxa; 1 spo; 2 umo-
nnasua; 3 axco; 4 spo usaoscxo xnemxu; 5 nnasuamuvec-
xas ueupaa usaoscxo xnemxu; 6 uuenu; B cmpoeue uue-
nuosoao sonoxa: 1 epoqupunnm; 2 spo usaoscxo xnem-
xu; 3 uuenu; 4 umonnasua usaoscxo xnemxu; 5 nnasuamuvec-
xas ueupaa usaoscxo xnemxu; 6 nepexsam Passe (apaua
ue+y syus usaoscxuuu xnemxauu); 7 axco
E aanucumoc1u o1 qynxuu nwpoAnm1 1u ocnonnwx 1una no-
onon.
1. 9ocnoune.tume, peuennopume, u.u oqqepeunume, ueupoum
(.on. aorons - nunocnmu). Kax nanuAo, a1u xAo1xu umom1 pna
nupa o1oc1xon. onpu1 cAopyo1 na nouqoum u aaxannunao1cn
nync1nu1oArnwmu oxonnanunmu - oon1oamu, xo1owo nocnunu-
mam1 nnomnoo aapaxonuo u 1ancqomuym1 oro anorum n ano-
rum nonnoro umnyArca; n1oo - opunonnw axcon nananAno1cn n
roAonno uAu cnunno moar. E aanucumoc1u o1 AoxaAuaauu aaAu-
nam1 nocxoArxo 1unon oon1oon: 1) oucnepopeuennopm, nocnunu-
mammuo aapaxonun nnomno copw, acnoAoxonw n xoxo, cAuau-
c1wx ooAonxax u oranax nync1n; 2) uunepopeuennopm, noAynam-
muo aapaxonuo, rAannwm oaaom, nu uamononunx xumunocxoro
coc1ana nny1onno copw u panAonun, acnoAoxonw n cocypax, 1xa-
nnx u oranax; 3) nponpuopeuennopm aaAoxonw n mwmax, cyxoxu-
Aunx, cnnaxax, qacunx, napxoc1nuo, cyc1annwx xancyAax.
2. 3qqepeunume. ToAa aqqoon1nwx (oqqeunopumr, ooueone.t
umr u.u ceupenopumr) noonon (.on. oorons - nwnocnmu) na-
xopn1cn n HHC (uAu n cumna1unocxux u naacumna1unocxux ya-
Aax). Hx axconw upy1 x aonum oranam (mwmam uAu xoAoaam).
PaaAunam1 pna nupa aonux, uAu ucnoAnu1oArnwx, oranon: anu-
maArnwo - nonoonnonoAoca1wo (cxoAo1nwo) mwmw u noro1a1un-
nwo - rAapxuo mwmw u xoAoaw. Coo1no1c1nonno a1omy umom1cn
nonnwo oxonnanun axconon aqqoon1nwx noonon pnyx 1unon:
pnura1oArnwo u coxo1onwo. Honwo (mo1onwo) oxannunam1cn
na mwmonnwx noAoxnax, oaayn Anmxu, xo1owo n nonoonnono-
Aoca1wx mwmax nopc1anAnm1 axcomwmonnwo cunancw. Honnwo
mopua1oon oaruym1 co cnouqunoc-
xumu oon1onwmu oAxamu xAo1on-
no momanw, monnn oo nonuao-
moc1r pAn onopoAonnwx uonon, n1o
nunopu1 x noanuxnononum no1onu-
aAa poc1nun. Hanpy c xumunocxu-
mu umom1cn aAox1o1onunocxuo cu-
nancw, n xo1owx noopana umnyAr-
con noucxopu1 nonocopc1nonno uo-
aAox1unocxum ny1om moxpy xon1ax-
1uymmumu xAo1xamu.
E nonno cuc1omo cymoc1nym1 pna
nupa cunancon: noayxpammuo u 1o-
moanmuo. E noayxpammux cunancax
opna xAo1xa nwawnao1 ax1unuaaum
pyro. Hu a1om noayxpammu mo-
pua1o nwawnao1 ponoAnuaaum - no-
1ox uonon Na
-
yc1omAno1cn n xAo1-
xy. E 1omoanmux cunancax opna xAo1-
xa 1omoau1 ax1unuaaum pyro. 01o
cnnaano c 1om, n1o 1omoanmu mopua1o nwawnao1 yc1omAonuo
no1oxa o1ua1oArno aanxonnwx uonon n xAo1xu, noa1omy pono-
Anuaauu no noucxopu1.
Honnwo noAoxna nopc1anAnm1 coo o1oc1xu nonnwx xAo-
1ox nmoc1o c noxwnammumu ux ooAonxamu. Onu nopaapoAnm1-
cn na muoAunonwo u oamuoAunonwo (uc. ?0). Ee:+ue.uuoome ue
poume oo.ouuo oaaonanw opnum uAu nocxoArxumu o1oc1xamu
nonnwx xAo1ox (oconwmu uAunpamu), xaxpw ua xo1owx no-
ryxon n 1oAo mnannoncxo xAo1xu (xAo1xa rAuu), noruan oo
u1onAaama1unocxym momany 1ax, n1o moxpy momanamu oco-
noro uAunpa u mnannoncxo xAo1xu umoo1cn noc1anc1no. Cxo-
oc1r nonoponun nonnoro umnyArca no oamuoAunonomy noAox-
ny monoo 1 m,c.
Mue.uuoome uepoume oo.ouuo oaaonanw opnum oconwm uAun-
pom, oxyxonnwm myq1o ua mnannoncxux xAo1ox. MuoAunonw
cAo nopc1anAno1 coo mnoroxa1no cnuaArno aaxynonnym
noxyr oconoro uAunpa mnannoncxym xAo1xy. Cxooc1r nono-
ponun umnyArca no muoAunonomy noAoxny ?0 - 100 m,c.
P u c . 6 9. Cxeua cmpoeus cuanca:
A npecuanmuvecxas vacms; B nocmcuanmuvecxas
vacms; 1 anaxas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 2 epo-
mpyovxa; 3 cuanmuvecxue nysmpsxu; 4 npecuanmuve-
cxas ueupaa c aexcaaoanso cemsk; 5 cuanmuvec-
xas ens; 6 nocmcuanmuvecxas ueupaa; 7 sepuc-
mas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 8 epoqunauemm;
9 uumoxopus
B
B
A
I
II
III IV
7
5
6
4
3
2
1
5
4
6
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
$! $
P u c . 7 0. Cxeua
cmpoeus epsmx
sonoxo:
A esuuenuosme sonoxa:
1 usaoscxas xnemxa; 2 epsme sonoxa; 3 umonnasua;
4 spo; B opasosaue uuenua: l, ll, lll, lV smanm opasosaus
uuenuoso oonovxu soxpya epsoao sonoxa; 1 spo; 2 umo-
nnasua; 3 axco; 4 spo usaoscxo xnemxu; 5 nnasuamuvec-
xas ueupaa usaoscxo xnemxu; 6 uuenu; B cmpoeue uue-
nuosoao sonoxa: 1 epoqupunnm; 2 spo usaoscxo xnem-
xu; 3 uuenu; 4 umonnasua usaoscxo xnemxu; 5 nnasuamuvec-
xas ueupaa usaoscxo xnemxu; 6 nepexsam Passe (apaua
ue+y syus usaoscxuuu xnemxauu); 7 axco
E aanucumoc1u o1 qynxuu nwpoAnm1 1u ocnonnwx 1una no-
onon.
1. 9ocnoune.tume, peuennopume, u.u oqqepeunume, ueupoum
(.on. aorons - nunocnmu). Kax nanuAo, a1u xAo1xu umom1 pna
nupa o1oc1xon. onpu1 cAopyo1 na nouqoum u aaxannunao1cn
nync1nu1oArnwmu oxonnanunmu - oon1oamu, xo1owo nocnunu-
mam1 nnomnoo aapaxonuo u 1ancqomuym1 oro anorum n ano-
rum nonnoro umnyArca; n1oo - opunonnw axcon nananAno1cn n
roAonno uAu cnunno moar. E aanucumoc1u o1 AoxaAuaauu aaAu-
nam1 nocxoArxo 1unon oon1oon: 1) oucnepopeuennopm, nocnunu-
mammuo aapaxonun nnomno copw, acnoAoxonw n xoxo, cAuau-
c1wx ooAonxax u oranax nync1n; 2) uunepopeuennopm, noAynam-
muo aapaxonuo, rAannwm oaaom, nu uamononunx xumunocxoro
coc1ana nny1onno copw u panAonun, acnoAoxonw n cocypax, 1xa-
nnx u oranax; 3) nponpuopeuennopm aaAoxonw n mwmax, cyxoxu-
Aunx, cnnaxax, qacunx, napxoc1nuo, cyc1annwx xancyAax.
2. 3qqepeunume. ToAa aqqoon1nwx (oqqeunopumr, ooueone.t
umr u.u ceupenopumr) noonon (.on. oorons - nwnocnmu) na-
xopn1cn n HHC (uAu n cumna1unocxux u naacumna1unocxux ya-
Aax). Hx axconw upy1 x aonum oranam (mwmam uAu xoAoaam).
PaaAunam1 pna nupa aonux, uAu ucnoAnu1oArnwx, oranon: anu-
maArnwo - nonoonnonoAoca1wo (cxoAo1nwo) mwmw u noro1a1un-
nwo - rAapxuo mwmw u xoAoaw. Coo1no1c1nonno a1omy umom1cn
nonnwo oxonnanun axconon aqqoon1nwx noonon pnyx 1unon:
pnura1oArnwo u coxo1onwo. Honwo (mo1onwo) oxannunam1cn
na mwmonnwx noAoxnax, oaayn Anmxu, xo1owo n nonoonnono-
Aoca1wx mwmax nopc1anAnm1 axcomwmonnwo cunancw. Honnwo
mopua1oon oaruym1 co cnouqunoc-
xumu oon1onwmu oAxamu xAo1on-
no momanw, monnn oo nonuao-
moc1r pAn onopoAonnwx uonon, n1o
nunopu1 x noanuxnononum no1onu-
aAa poc1nun. Hanpy c xumunocxu-
mu umom1cn aAox1o1onunocxuo cu-
nancw, n xo1owx noopana umnyAr-
con noucxopu1 nonocopc1nonno uo-
aAox1unocxum ny1om moxpy xon1ax-
1uymmumu xAo1xamu.
E nonno cuc1omo cymoc1nym1 pna
nupa cunancon: noayxpammuo u 1o-
moanmuo. E noayxpammux cunancax
opna xAo1xa nwawnao1 ax1unuaaum
pyro. Hu a1om noayxpammu mo-
pua1o nwawnao1 ponoAnuaaum - no-
1ox uonon Na
-
yc1omAno1cn n xAo1-
xy. E 1omoanmux cunancax opna xAo1-
xa 1omoau1 ax1unuaaum pyro. 01o
cnnaano c 1om, n1o 1omoanmu mopua1o nwawnao1 yc1omAonuo
no1oxa o1ua1oArno aanxonnwx uonon n xAo1xu, noa1omy pono-
Anuaauu no noucxopu1.
Honnwo noAoxna nopc1anAnm1 coo o1oc1xu nonnwx xAo-
1ox nmoc1o c noxwnammumu ux ooAonxamu. Onu nopaapoAnm1-
cn na muoAunonwo u oamuoAunonwo (uc. ?0). Ee:+ue.uuoome ue
poume oo.ouuo oaaonanw opnum uAu nocxoArxumu o1oc1xamu
nonnwx xAo1ox (oconwmu uAunpamu), xaxpw ua xo1owx no-
ryxon n 1oAo mnannoncxo xAo1xu (xAo1xa rAuu), noruan oo
u1onAaama1unocxym momany 1ax, n1o moxpy momanamu oco-
noro uAunpa u mnannoncxo xAo1xu umoo1cn noc1anc1no. Cxo-
oc1r nonoponun nonnoro umnyArca no oamuoAunonomy noAox-
ny monoo 1 m,c.
Mue.uuoome uepoume oo.ouuo oaaonanw opnum oconwm uAun-
pom, oxyxonnwm myq1o ua mnannoncxux xAo1ox. MuoAunonw
cAo nopc1anAno1 coo mnoroxa1no cnuaArno aaxynonnym
noxyr oconoro uAunpa mnannoncxym xAo1xy. Cxooc1r nono-
ponun umnyArca no muoAunonomy noAoxny ?0 - 100 m,c.
P u c . 6 9. Cxeua cmpoeus cuanca:
A npecuanmuvecxas vacms; B nocmcuanmuvecxas
vacms; 1 anaxas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 2 epo-
mpyovxa; 3 cuanmuvecxue nysmpsxu; 4 npecuanmuve-
cxas ueupaa c aexcaaoanso cemsk; 5 cuanmuvec-
xas ens; 6 nocmcuanmuvecxas ueupaa; 7 sepuc-
mas sonnasuamuvecxas cems; 8 epoqunauemm;
9 uumoxopus
B
B
A
I
II
III IV
7
5
6
4
3
2
1
5
4
6
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
$# $"
OROPHO-BHFATERLHLH ARRAPAT
RACCHBHAR HACTL
OROPHO-BHFATERLHOFO ARRAPATA
Opno ua naxnomux qynxu oranuama noAonoxa nnAno1cn
noopnuxonuo n noc1anc1no. Eo nwnoAnno1 onono-pnura1oAr-
nw annaa1, coc1onmu ua pnyx nac1o: naccunno u ax1unno.
K nono o1nocn1cn coopunnmmuocn moxpy coo xoc1u, xo n1o-
o - nunopnmuo ux n pnuxonuo mwmw.
CuoAov (epeu. skoIoIon - nwcoxmu, nwcymonnw) nwnoAnno1
mnoxoc1no qynxu: ononym, aamu1nym, Aoxomo1onym, qo-
mooaaymmym, noopoAonuo cuAw 1nxoc1u. Oman macca cxoAo-
1a coc1anAno1 o1 1,? po 1,5 maccw 1oAa noAonoxa. CxoAo1 nopaa-
poAno1cn na ocono (noanononnw c1oA, rypnan xAo1xa u noon)
u poanonnw (xoc1u noncon u cnoopnwx xononnoc1o) (uc. ?1,
1aA. 18). E oro coc1an nxopu1 oAoo 200 xoc1o: noanononnw
c1oA (26 xoc1o), noon (29 xoc1o), rypnan xAo1xa (25 xoc1o);
xoc1u noxnux (64) u nuxnux (62) xononnoc1o.
Koc1u cxoAo1a nnAnm1cn wnaramu, nunopumwmu n pnuxo-
nuo mwmamu. E oayAr1a1o a1oro nac1u 1oAa uamonnm1 noAoxo-
nuo no o1nomonum pyr x pyry u noopnuram1 oro n noc1an-
c1no. K xoc1nm nuxonAnm1cn cnnaxu, mwmw, cyxoxuAun, qac-
uu. CxoAo1 oaayo1 nmoc1uAumo pAn oranon, aamuman ux o1
nnomnux noapoc1nu: n noAoc1u noona acnoAoxon roAonno moar,
n noanononnom xanaAo - cnunno, n rypno xAo1xo - copo u
xynnwo cocypw, Aorxuo, numonop u p., n noAoc1u 1aaa - monono-
Aonwo oranw. Koc1u ynac1nym1 n munoaArnom omono, onu nn-
Anm1cn pono xaArun, qocqoa u 1. p. Hunan xoc1r copoxu1 nu-
1amunw A, D, C u p.
CxoAo1 oaaonan aanonupnoc1nmu coopunu1oArno 1xanu -
xoc1no u xnmono. V aaopwma noAonoxa u pyrux noanonon-
nwx xuno1nwx cxoAo1 coc1anAno1 oxoAo 50% maccw ncoro 1oAa.
Opnaxo noc1ononno xnm aamonno1cn xoc1rm, u y naocAoro noAo-
noxo macca xnma coc1anAno1 oxoAo 2% maccw 1oAa. 01o cyc1an-
nwo xnmu, moxnoanononnwo pucxu, xnmu noca, yxa, ro1anu,
1axou, onxon u oo. Xnm oaaonan xnmono 1xanrm.
Kocvn oaaonanw xoc1no 1xanrm. Cono1unAonuo cnoxo
xoc1u na uaAom 1axoo xo, xax mopu, u n ponn1r aa oArmo, nom
cnuna. Koc1r nwpoxunao1 cxa1uo 10 xr,mm
2
(anaAorunno nyry-
ny), a nopoA nonnoc1u oo na uaAom - 110 xr,cm
2
.
Koc1r xax oran, xomo conAononnwx nonoxnoc1o, noxw1a
cnayxu uoouocnuuueu, xo1oan nonno camona c xoc1rm. Ha-
yxnw cAo napxoc1nuw - noAoxnuc1w, nny1onnu cAo -
oc1ooronnw (xoc1ooaaymmu), nuAoxu1 nonocopc1nonno
oxonnanun noucnononno (rAapxo) mwmonno 1xanu oaaym1
napy1un, n xo1owx 1axxo copoxa1cn cunan1unocxuo nyawrxu.
Coxo1onwo oxonnanun xon1ax1uym1 c xoAoauc1wmu xAo1xamu.
3. Ecnooouume ueupoum noopam1 noayxponuo c aqqoon1-
noro na aqqoon1nw noon.
FAnx (noporAnx). Komo noonon, n nonno 1xanu umom1cn
xAo1xu noorAuu, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 ononym, 1oqunocxym,
aamu1nym, uaoAuymmym u coxo1onym qynxuu. Copu xAo1ox
aaAunam1 +oupoe.uw (anonpumou1w, oAuroponpou1w u ac1-
ou1w) u +uupoe.uw.
Honnan, mwmonnan 1xanu u xoAoauc1w anu1oAu o1nocn1cn
x noa6ypnmmm vuanxm, xo1owo n o1no1 na noapoc1nuo c1umyAa
(aapaxu1oAn) nooxopn1 ua coc1onnun noxon n coc1onnuo noa-
yxponun. Hu a1om noayxponuo, noanuxammoo n opnom ynac1xo
mwmonnoro uAu nonnoro noAoxna, wc1o noopao1cn na cocop-
nuo ynac1xu a1oro noAoxna, a 1axxo c nonnoro noAoxna na pyruo
nooa cunanc uAu c nonnoro noAoxna na unnonuyomym umu c1yx-
1yy. Doa6ypnmocvn - a1o cnoconoc1r xAo1ox nocnunuma1r ua-
mononun nnomno copw u o1nona1r na nux oaxuo noayxpo-
nun. Hponopnmocvn - cnoconoc1r 1xano nonopu1r noayxponuo.
Mwmonnwo 1xanu oAapam1 coupavnmocvnm, 1. o. cnoconoc1rm
o1nona1r coxamonuom na aapaxonuo.
OPFAHL, CHCTEML
H ARRAPATL OPFAHOB
Txanu oaaym1 oranw. Kaxpw opeou o1Aunao1cn cnoc1non-
no Aumr omy qomo u c1oonuom, nucnocoAonnwmu x nwnoA-
nonum onopoAonno qynxuu, u copoxu1 nco nupw 1xano, op-
naxo opna ua nux nnAno1cn ocnonno, aono, nwnoAnnmmo
rAannym qynxum orana.
Oranw ana1omunocxu u qynxuonaArno o+opunnm1cn n cuc-
1omw oranon. Cuc1oma - a1o np oranon, umommux omu nAan
c1oonun, opunc1no noucxoxponun u nwnoAnnmmux opny oAr-
mym qynxum (nanumo, numonaonun, pwxanun). E oranuamo
noAonoxa nwpoAnm1 cAopymmuo cuc1omw oranon: nueoopeuun (nu
eoopune.tuw,, omrouun (omrone.tuw,, +oueomoe.une.tuw,
no.oow, uepouw, upooeuocuw, .u+qonuuecuw u u++uuw (opeo
um upooenoopeuun u u++uuou cucne+m,, opeoum uocno (ceucop
ume cucne+m,. Hoxo1owo oranw o+opunnm1cn no qynxuonaAr-
nomy nuanaxy n annaa1w. Onu aanac1ym umom1 aaAunnoo c1oo-
nuo u noucxoxponuo, mory1 w1r no cnnaanw ana1omunocxu, no
ux o+opunno1 ynac1uo n nwnoAnonuu omo qynxuu (nanumo,
onopuoooueone.tumu, ouooupuuumu onnoponm), Auo a1u oranw
aaAunnw no cnoum qynxuonaArnwm aapanam, no cnnaanw opu-
nwm noucxoxponuom (+oueno.ooou onnopon).
$# $"
OROPHO-BHFATERLHLH ARRAPAT
RACCHBHAR HACTL
OROPHO-BHFATERLHOFO ARRAPATA
Opno ua naxnomux qynxu oranuama noAonoxa nnAno1cn
noopnuxonuo n noc1anc1no. Eo nwnoAnno1 onono-pnura1oAr-
nw annaa1, coc1onmu ua pnyx nac1o: naccunno u ax1unno.
K nono o1nocn1cn coopunnmmuocn moxpy coo xoc1u, xo n1o-
o - nunopnmuo ux n pnuxonuo mwmw.
CuoAov (epeu. skoIoIon - nwcoxmu, nwcymonnw) nwnoAnno1
mnoxoc1no qynxu: ononym, aamu1nym, Aoxomo1onym, qo-
mooaaymmym, noopoAonuo cuAw 1nxoc1u. Oman macca cxoAo-
1a coc1anAno1 o1 1,? po 1,5 maccw 1oAa noAonoxa. CxoAo1 nopaa-
poAno1cn na ocono (noanononnw c1oA, rypnan xAo1xa u noon)
u poanonnw (xoc1u noncon u cnoopnwx xononnoc1o) (uc. ?1,
1aA. 18). E oro coc1an nxopu1 oAoo 200 xoc1o: noanononnw
c1oA (26 xoc1o), noon (29 xoc1o), rypnan xAo1xa (25 xoc1o);
xoc1u noxnux (64) u nuxnux (62) xononnoc1o.
Koc1u cxoAo1a nnAnm1cn wnaramu, nunopumwmu n pnuxo-
nuo mwmamu. E oayAr1a1o a1oro nac1u 1oAa uamonnm1 noAoxo-
nuo no o1nomonum pyr x pyry u noopnuram1 oro n noc1an-
c1no. K xoc1nm nuxonAnm1cn cnnaxu, mwmw, cyxoxuAun, qac-
uu. CxoAo1 oaayo1 nmoc1uAumo pAn oranon, aamuman ux o1
nnomnux noapoc1nu: n noAoc1u noona acnoAoxon roAonno moar,
n noanononnom xanaAo - cnunno, n rypno xAo1xo - copo u
xynnwo cocypw, Aorxuo, numonop u p., n noAoc1u 1aaa - monono-
Aonwo oranw. Koc1u ynac1nym1 n munoaArnom omono, onu nn-
Anm1cn pono xaArun, qocqoa u 1. p. Hunan xoc1r copoxu1 nu-
1amunw A, D, C u p.
CxoAo1 oaaonan aanonupnoc1nmu coopunu1oArno 1xanu -
xoc1no u xnmono. V aaopwma noAonoxa u pyrux noanonon-
nwx xuno1nwx cxoAo1 coc1anAno1 oxoAo 50% maccw ncoro 1oAa.
Opnaxo noc1ononno xnm aamonno1cn xoc1rm, u y naocAoro noAo-
noxo macca xnma coc1anAno1 oxoAo 2% maccw 1oAa. 01o cyc1an-
nwo xnmu, moxnoanononnwo pucxu, xnmu noca, yxa, ro1anu,
1axou, onxon u oo. Xnm oaaonan xnmono 1xanrm.
Kocvn oaaonanw xoc1no 1xanrm. Cono1unAonuo cnoxo
xoc1u na uaAom 1axoo xo, xax mopu, u n ponn1r aa oArmo, nom
cnuna. Koc1r nwpoxunao1 cxa1uo 10 xr,mm
2
(anaAorunno nyry-
ny), a nopoA nonnoc1u oo na uaAom - 110 xr,cm
2
.
Koc1r xax oran, xomo conAononnwx nonoxnoc1o, noxw1a
cnayxu uoouocnuuueu, xo1oan nonno camona c xoc1rm. Ha-
yxnw cAo napxoc1nuw - noAoxnuc1w, nny1onnu cAo -
oc1ooronnw (xoc1ooaaymmu), nuAoxu1 nonocopc1nonno
oxonnanun noucnononno (rAapxo) mwmonno 1xanu oaaym1
napy1un, n xo1owx 1axxo copoxa1cn cunan1unocxuo nyawrxu.
Coxo1onwo oxonnanun xon1ax1uym1 c xoAoauc1wmu xAo1xamu.
3. Ecnooouume ueupoum noopam1 noayxponuo c aqqoon1-
noro na aqqoon1nw noon.
FAnx (noporAnx). Komo noonon, n nonno 1xanu umom1cn
xAo1xu noorAuu, xo1owo nwnoAnnm1 ononym, 1oqunocxym,
aamu1nym, uaoAuymmym u coxo1onym qynxuu. Copu xAo1ox
aaAunam1 +oupoe.uw (anonpumou1w, oAuroponpou1w u ac1-
ou1w) u +uupoe.uw.
Honnan, mwmonnan 1xanu u xoAoauc1w anu1oAu o1nocn1cn
x noa6ypnmmm vuanxm, xo1owo n o1no1 na noapoc1nuo c1umyAa
(aapaxu1oAn) nooxopn1 ua coc1onnun noxon n coc1onnuo noa-
yxponun. Hu a1om noayxponuo, noanuxammoo n opnom ynac1xo
mwmonnoro uAu nonnoro noAoxna, wc1o noopao1cn na cocop-
nuo ynac1xu a1oro noAoxna, a 1axxo c nonnoro noAoxna na pyruo
nooa cunanc uAu c nonnoro noAoxna na unnonuyomym umu c1yx-
1yy. Doa6ypnmocvn - a1o cnoconoc1r xAo1ox nocnunuma1r ua-
mononun nnomno copw u o1nona1r na nux oaxuo noayxpo-
nun. Hponopnmocvn - cnoconoc1r 1xano nonopu1r noayxponuo.
Mwmonnwo 1xanu oAapam1 coupavnmocvnm, 1. o. cnoconoc1rm
o1nona1r coxamonuom na aapaxonuo.
OPFAHL, CHCTEML
H ARRAPATL OPFAHOB
Txanu oaaym1 oranw. Kaxpw opeou o1Aunao1cn cnoc1non-
no Aumr omy qomo u c1oonuom, nucnocoAonnwmu x nwnoA-
nonum onopoAonno qynxuu, u copoxu1 nco nupw 1xano, op-
naxo opna ua nux nnAno1cn ocnonno, aono, nwnoAnnmmo
rAannym qynxum orana.
Oranw ana1omunocxu u qynxuonaArno o+opunnm1cn n cuc-
1omw oranon. Cuc1oma - a1o np oranon, umommux omu nAan
c1oonun, opunc1no noucxoxponun u nwnoAnnmmux opny oAr-
mym qynxum (nanumo, numonaonun, pwxanun). E oranuamo
noAonoxa nwpoAnm1 cAopymmuo cuc1omw oranon: nueoopeuun (nu
eoopune.tuw,, omrouun (omrone.tuw,, +oueomoe.une.tuw,
no.oow, uepouw, upooeuocuw, .u+qonuuecuw u u++uuw (opeo
um upooenoopeuun u u++uuou cucne+m,, opeoum uocno (ceucop
ume cucne+m,. Hoxo1owo oranw o+opunnm1cn no qynxuonaAr-
nomy nuanaxy n annaa1w. Onu aanac1ym umom1 aaAunnoo c1oo-
nuo u noucxoxponuo, mory1 w1r no cnnaanw ana1omunocxu, no
ux o+opunno1 ynac1uo n nwnoAnonuu omo qynxuu (nanumo,
onopuoooueone.tumu, ouooupuuumu onnoponm), Auo a1u oranw
aaAunnw no cnoum qynxuonaArnwm aapanam, no cnnaanw opu-
nwm noucxoxponuom (+oueno.ooou onnopon).
$% $$
To . u u o 1 S
CuoAov
P u c . 7 1. Cxenem venosexa (su cnepeu):
1 vepen; 2 nossoovm cmon; 3 xnkvua; 4 pepo;
5 apyua; 6 nnevesas xocms; 7 nyvesas xocms;
8 noxmesas xocms; 9 xocmu sanscmss; 10 nscmme
xocmu; 11 qanaau nanses xucmu; 12 nossouas
xocms; 13 xpecme; 14 noxosas xocms; 15 ceanu-
as xocms; 16 epeas xocms; 17 axoneux;
18 onsueeposas xocms; 19 uanoeposas xocms;
20 xocmu npennkcm; 27 nnkcesme xocmu; 22 qa-
naau nanses cmonm
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
22
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
x xoc1no 1xanu. E nom acnoAoxonw no-
xonmuocn oc1ooronnwo xAo1xu, aa cno1 xo-
1owx noucxopu1 aanu1uo, oc1 n 1oA-
muny u nocc1anonAonuo xoc1o nocAo no-
noxponun.
PaaAunam1 xoc1u npuonme (oponnan,
nAononan, nnc1nwo, nAmcnonwo u p.), euonme
(1oAa noanonxon, xoc1u aannc1rn u p.), n.oc
uue (xoc1u xwmu noona, rypuna), c+euou
ume (noanonxu, xoc1u ocnonanun noona), oo:
orouocume (Aonan, xAunonupnan, noxnnn no-
Amc1r, omo1na1an).
V npuonou uocnu aaAunam1 oo ypAunon-
nym copnmm nac1r - ne.o uocnu, uAu ouoqu:,
ownno uAunpunocxo uAu Auaxo x 1oxran-
no qomw, u y1oAmonnwo xonw - onuqu:m. Ha nux acnoAaram1-
cn cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u, noxw1wo cyc1annwm xnmom, cAyxa-
muo pAn coopunonun c cocopnumu xoc1nmu. Vnac1ox xoc1u, acnoAo-
xonnw moxpy puaquaom u anuquaom, naawnao1cn +enoqu:o+. E
po1cxom u mnomocxom noaac1o oc1 xoc1o n pAuny noucxopu1 aa
cno1 ruaAunonoro anuquaanoro (mo1aanuquaanoro) xnma, xo1o-
w naxopu1cn moxpy puaquaom u anuquaom 1yna1o xoc1u.
Copu 1yna1wx xoc1o nwpoAnm1cn pAunnwo 1yna1wo xoc-
1u (nAononan, oponnan, xoc1u nopnAonrn u roAonu) u xoo1xuo
(xoc1u nnc1u, nAmcnw, qaAanru naAron). uaquaw noc1oonw ua
xomnax1no, anuquaw - ua ryna1o xoc1u, noxw1o 1onxum
cAoom xomnax1no.
Iuonme uocnu, 1ax xo xax u anuquaw 1yna1wx xoc1o,
coc1on1 ua ryna1oro nomoc1na, noxw1oro 1onxum cAoom xomnax-
1noro nomoc1na.
H.ocuue uocnu ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu noAoc1o, noncon
xononnoc1o, nwnoAnnm1 qynxum aamu1w (xoc1u xwmu noo-
na, rypuna). K ux nonoxnoc1u nuxonAnm1cn mwmw.
C+euouume uocnu umom1 cAoxnym qomy. Onu coc1on1 ua
nocxoArxux nac1o, umommux aaAunnoo c1oonuo, ono1anuo u
noucxoxponuo, nanumo noanonxu, xoc1u ocnonanun noona.
$% $$
To . u u o 1 S
CuoAov
P u c . 7 1. Cxenem venosexa (su cnepeu):
1 vepen; 2 nossoovm cmon; 3 xnkvua; 4 pepo;
5 apyua; 6 nnevesas xocms; 7 nyvesas xocms;
8 noxmesas xocms; 9 xocmu sanscmss; 10 nscmme
xocmu; 11 qanaau nanses xucmu; 12 nossouas
xocms; 13 xpecme; 14 noxosas xocms; 15 ceanu-
as xocms; 16 epeas xocms; 17 axoneux;
18 onsueeposas xocms; 19 uanoeposas xocms;
20 xocmu npennkcm; 27 nnkcesme xocmu; 22 qa-
naau nanses cmonm
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
22
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
x xoc1no 1xanu. E nom acnoAoxonw no-
xonmuocn oc1ooronnwo xAo1xu, aa cno1 xo-
1owx noucxopu1 aanu1uo, oc1 n 1oA-
muny u nocc1anonAonuo xoc1o nocAo no-
noxponun.
PaaAunam1 xoc1u npuonme (oponnan,
nAononan, nnc1nwo, nAmcnonwo u p.), euonme
(1oAa noanonxon, xoc1u aannc1rn u p.), n.oc
uue (xoc1u xwmu noona, rypuna), c+euou
ume (noanonxu, xoc1u ocnonanun noona), oo:
orouocume (Aonan, xAunonupnan, noxnnn no-
Amc1r, omo1na1an).
V npuonou uocnu aaAunam1 oo ypAunon-
nym copnmm nac1r - ne.o uocnu, uAu ouoqu:,
ownno uAunpunocxo uAu Auaxo x 1oxran-
no qomw, u y1oAmonnwo xonw - onuqu:m. Ha nux acnoAaram1-
cn cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u, noxw1wo cyc1annwm xnmom, cAyxa-
muo pAn coopunonun c cocopnumu xoc1nmu. Vnac1ox xoc1u, acnoAo-
xonnw moxpy puaquaom u anuquaom, naawnao1cn +enoqu:o+. E
po1cxom u mnomocxom noaac1o oc1 xoc1o n pAuny noucxopu1 aa
cno1 ruaAunonoro anuquaanoro (mo1aanuquaanoro) xnma, xo1o-
w naxopu1cn moxpy puaquaom u anuquaom 1yna1o xoc1u.
Copu 1yna1wx xoc1o nwpoAnm1cn pAunnwo 1yna1wo xoc-
1u (nAononan, oponnan, xoc1u nopnAonrn u roAonu) u xoo1xuo
(xoc1u nnc1u, nAmcnw, qaAanru naAron). uaquaw noc1oonw ua
xomnax1no, anuquaw - ua ryna1o xoc1u, noxw1o 1onxum
cAoom xomnax1no.
Iuonme uocnu, 1ax xo xax u anuquaw 1yna1wx xoc1o,
coc1on1 ua ryna1oro nomoc1na, noxw1oro 1onxum cAoom xomnax-
1noro nomoc1na.
H.ocuue uocnu ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu noAoc1o, noncon
xononnoc1o, nwnoAnnm1 qynxum aamu1w (xoc1u xwmu noo-
na, rypuna). K ux nonoxnoc1u nuxonAnm1cn mwmw.
C+euouume uocnu umom1 cAoxnym qomy. Onu coc1on1 ua
nocxoArxux nac1o, umommux aaAunnoo c1oonuo, ono1anuo u
noucxoxponuo, nanumo noanonxu, xoc1u ocnonanun noona.
$' $&
xnma umoo1cn nooArman moAonupnan
noAoc1r, nanumo, moxnoanononnwo
cumquaw, Aoxonw u cumqua yxon1xu
rypunw (uc. ?2).
Ccnoom nopc1anAnm1 coo nown-
nwo coopunonun, y xo1owx moxpy coopu-
nnmmumucn xoc1nmu ncorpa umoo1cn cy-
c1annan moAr. Kaxpw cyc1an umoo1 cyc-
1annwo nonoxnoc1u xoc1o, noxw1wo,
xax nanuAo, ruaAunonwm cyc1annwm xn-
mom, cyc1annym xancyAy u yaxym cyc1an-
nym noAoc1r, aanoAnonnym cunonuaArno
xupxoc1rm (uc. ?3, 1aA. 19).
nuxonun n cyc1anax conomam1cn
noxyr 1ox oco: noxyr qon1aArno -
cruanuo u aaruanuo, nu xo1owx yroA
moxpy conAonnmmumucn xoc1nmu ymonr-
mao1cn uAu ynoAununao1cn; noxyr caru1-
1aArno - nunoponuo, nu xo1oom opna
ua conAonnmmuxcn xoc1o nuAuxao1-
cn n copunno nAocxoc1u, u o1noponuo,
nu xo1oom xoc1r ypaAno1cn o1 noo; nu na-
monuu xoc1r pnurao1cn noxyr cnoo nopoAr-
no ocu. Kyronoo pnuxonuo nnAno1cn cAox-
nwm - Aaropan nocAopona1oArnomy pnuxo-
num noxyr ncox oco cnoopnw xono pnu-
xymocn xoc1u (xononnoc1u, 1yAonumo, ro-
Aona) onucwnao1 oxyxnoc1r.
oma conAonnmmuxcn nonoxnoc1o oyc-
AonAunao1 xoAunoc1no oco, noxyr xo1owx
moxo1 conoma1rcn pnuxonuo. E aanucumoc-
1u o1 a1oro cyc1anw poAn1cn na opno-, pnyx- u
mnoroocnwo (uc. ?4, 1aA. 20).
Hu.uuopuuecuuu u .ouoououmu cyc1a-
nw nnAnm1cn oouoocum+u. 3..uncoououmu,
+me.uoomu u ceo.oououmu cyc1anw - oo
rocume. Hopoououmu u n.ocuuu cyc1anw -
+uoeoocume. Hu namonuu noAonunw xy-
ra noxyr oro puamo1a oaayo1cn ma. Ko-
mo pnuxonun noxyr 1ox oco n a1ux cyc1a-
nax conomao1cn omo u xyronoo pnuxonuo (nanumo, nAonono
u 1aaooponnw cyc1anw).
Hpocnme ccnoom umom1 pno cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u, c.o
ume - oAoo pnyx (nanumo, Aox1ono cyc1an). Ko+uuupooouume
ccnoom nopc1anAnm1 coo pna ana1omunocxu uaoAuonannwx
P u c . 7 2. Henpepmsme
coeueus xocme
u nonycycmas:
A cuecuos: 1 ue+xocmas
nepenoxa npennevss; B cu-
xopos: 2 ue+nossoovm
ucx; B nonycycmas: 3 noxo-
sm cuuqus
A
B
B
2
3
1
P u c . 7 3. Cmpoeue
cycmasa:
1 axocmua; 2 xocms;
3 cycmasas xancyna;
4 cycmaso xps;
5 cycmasas nonocms
2
3
4
1
5
Eo:orouocume uocnu umom1 n cnoom 1oAo noAoc1r, nwc1Aan-
nym cAuauc1o ooAonxo u aanoAnonnym noapyxom, nanumo no-
xo1owo xoc1u noona - Aonan, xAunonupnan, omo1na1an, nox-
nnn noAmc1r.
Eny1u xoc1o n xoc1no-moaronwx noAoc1nx u nnoxax ryna-
1oro nomoc1na, nwc1Aannwx anpoc1om (cAoom nAocxux oc1ooron-
nwx xAo1ox, Aoxamux na 1onxo coopunu1oArno1xanno nAac1un-
xo), naxopu1cn uocnumu +o:e. E nouop nny1uy1onoro aanu-
1un, a 1axxo y nonooxponnwx no ncox xoc1nwx noAoc1nx naxo-
pu1cn xacnw xoc1nw moar, nwnoAnnmmu xono1nonym u
aamu1nym qynxuu. V naocAoro noAonoxa xacnw xoc1nw moar
copoxu1cn 1oArxo n nnoxax ryna1oro nomoc1na nAocxux xoc1o
(rypuna, xwArn nopnapomnwx xoc1o), n ryna1wx xoc1nx u
anuquaax 1yna1wx xoc1o. E puaquaax, 1. o. n xoc1no-moaronwx
noAoc1nx, naxopu1cn xoA1w xoc1nw moar.
Pocn u npouuocnt uocneu onpeoe.nwncn uuneucuouocntw oe
nne.tuocnu npuupen.nwurcn u uu+ +muu.
CKEAET H EFO COEHHEHHH
CxoAo1 noAonoxa coc1ou1 ua noanononnoro c1oAa, oo c ry-
puno, cxoAo1a xononnoc1o u noona. CxoAo1 noAonoxa - ynu-
xaArnoo 1noonuo! On cymoc1nonno o1Aunao1cn o1 cxoAo1a xuno1-
nwx. E nonym onoopr a1o o1nocu1cn x oro nonounm; noony,
nmomammomy roAonno moar u oranw nync1n; cnoopnwm nox-
num xononnoc1nm, ocymoc1nAnmmum 1yponwo nooccw; nuxnum
xononnoc1nm, cAyxamum onoo nu nnmoxoxponuu. CxoAo1 no-
Aonoxa oAapao1 npom xaax1onwx ocoonnoc1o, nauoAoo nax-
nwmu ua xo1owx nnAnm1cn no1uxaArno acnoAoxonnw noano-
nonnw c1oA c uaruamu; ynAomonnan muoxan rypnan xAo1xa;
noon, n xo1oom nooAapao1 moarono o1poA, c oxyrAo nwnyx-
Ao xwmo, noanwmammocn nap Auonwm o1poAom.
Coopnnonnx uocvo. Koc1u, coopunnncr moxpy coo, oaay-
m1 nopnuxnwo coopunonun uAu nonnwo nonopnuxnwo xonc1yx-
uu. Eco coopunonun xoc1o poAn1cn na 1u oArmuo rynnw: no-
nownnwo, noAycyc1anw, uAu cumquaw, u nownnwo, uAu cuno-
nuaArnwo (cyc1anw). E uenpepmoumr coeouueuunr xoc1u cnnaanw
moxpy coo c nomomrm aaAunnwx nupon coopunu1oArno 1xanu
(coc1nonno coopunu1oArno 1xanu, xnma, xoc1u), n xo1owx o1-
cy1c1nyo1 moAr uAu noAoc1r moxpy xoc1nmu. Honownnwo coopu-
nonun nocrma nonnw, no nonopnuxnw. K nonownnwm coopuno-
nunm o1nocn1cn cnnaxu, momanw, mnw (nanumo, noona), co-
opunonun puaquaon xoc1o c ux anuquaamu, xo1owo c noaac1om
oxoc1ononam1, nonamancr n xoc1nwo. Cu+qu:m (epeu. symhIsIs-
cac1anuo) - a1o noAynopnuxnwo xnmonwo coopunonun. E 1oAmo
$' $&
xnma umoo1cn nooArman moAonupnan
noAoc1r, nanumo, moxnoanononnwo
cumquaw, Aoxonw u cumqua yxon1xu
rypunw (uc. ?2).
Ccnoom nopc1anAnm1 coo nown-
nwo coopunonun, y xo1owx moxpy coopu-
nnmmumucn xoc1nmu ncorpa umoo1cn cy-
c1annan moAr. Kaxpw cyc1an umoo1 cyc-
1annwo nonoxnoc1u xoc1o, noxw1wo,
xax nanuAo, ruaAunonwm cyc1annwm xn-
mom, cyc1annym xancyAy u yaxym cyc1an-
nym noAoc1r, aanoAnonnym cunonuaArno
xupxoc1rm (uc. ?3, 1aA. 19).
nuxonun n cyc1anax conomam1cn
noxyr 1ox oco: noxyr qon1aArno -
cruanuo u aaruanuo, nu xo1owx yroA
moxpy conAonnmmumucn xoc1nmu ymonr-
mao1cn uAu ynoAununao1cn; noxyr caru1-
1aArno - nunoponuo, nu xo1oom opna
ua conAonnmmuxcn xoc1o nuAuxao1-
cn n copunno nAocxoc1u, u o1noponuo,
nu xo1oom xoc1r ypaAno1cn o1 noo; nu na-
monuu xoc1r pnurao1cn noxyr cnoo nopoAr-
no ocu. Kyronoo pnuxonuo nnAno1cn cAox-
nwm - Aaropan nocAopona1oArnomy pnuxo-
num noxyr ncox oco cnoopnw xono pnu-
xymocn xoc1u (xononnoc1u, 1yAonumo, ro-
Aona) onucwnao1 oxyxnoc1r.
oma conAonnmmuxcn nonoxnoc1o oyc-
AonAunao1 xoAunoc1no oco, noxyr xo1owx
moxo1 conoma1rcn pnuxonuo. E aanucumoc-
1u o1 a1oro cyc1anw poAn1cn na opno-, pnyx- u
mnoroocnwo (uc. ?4, 1aA. 20).
Hu.uuopuuecuuu u .ouoououmu cyc1a-
nw nnAnm1cn oouoocum+u. 3..uncoououmu,
+me.uoomu u ceo.oououmu cyc1anw - oo
rocume. Hopoououmu u n.ocuuu cyc1anw -
+uoeoocume. Hu namonuu noAonunw xy-
ra noxyr oro puamo1a oaayo1cn ma. Ko-
mo pnuxonun noxyr 1ox oco n a1ux cyc1a-
nax conomao1cn omo u xyronoo pnuxonuo (nanumo, nAonono
u 1aaooponnw cyc1anw).
Hpocnme ccnoom umom1 pno cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u, c.o
ume - oAoo pnyx (nanumo, Aox1ono cyc1an). Ko+uuupooouume
ccnoom nopc1anAnm1 coo pna ana1omunocxu uaoAuonannwx
P u c . 7 2. Henpepmsme
coeueus xocme
u nonycycmas:
A cuecuos: 1 ue+xocmas
nepenoxa npennevss; B cu-
xopos: 2 ue+nossoovm
ucx; B nonycycmas: 3 noxo-
sm cuuqus
A
B
B
2
3
1
P u c . 7 3. Cmpoeue
cycmasa:
1 axocmua; 2 xocms;
3 cycmasas xancyna;
4 cycmaso xps;
5 cycmasas nonocms
2
3
4
1
5
Eo:orouocume uocnu umom1 n cnoom 1oAo noAoc1r, nwc1Aan-
nym cAuauc1o ooAonxo u aanoAnonnym noapyxom, nanumo no-
xo1owo xoc1u noona - Aonan, xAunonupnan, omo1na1an, nox-
nnn noAmc1r.
Eny1u xoc1o n xoc1no-moaronwx noAoc1nx u nnoxax ryna-
1oro nomoc1na, nwc1Aannwx anpoc1om (cAoom nAocxux oc1ooron-
nwx xAo1ox, Aoxamux na 1onxo coopunu1oArno1xanno nAac1un-
xo), naxopu1cn uocnumu +o:e. E nouop nny1uy1onoro aanu-
1un, a 1axxo y nonooxponnwx no ncox xoc1nwx noAoc1nx naxo-
pu1cn xacnw xoc1nw moar, nwnoAnnmmu xono1nonym u
aamu1nym qynxuu. V naocAoro noAonoxa xacnw xoc1nw moar
copoxu1cn 1oArxo n nnoxax ryna1oro nomoc1na nAocxux xoc1o
(rypuna, xwArn nopnapomnwx xoc1o), n ryna1wx xoc1nx u
anuquaax 1yna1wx xoc1o. E puaquaax, 1. o. n xoc1no-moaronwx
noAoc1nx, naxopu1cn xoA1w xoc1nw moar.
Pocn u npouuocnt uocneu onpeoe.nwncn uuneucuouocntw oe
nne.tuocnu npuupen.nwurcn u uu+ +muu.
CKEAET H EFO COEHHEHHH
CxoAo1 noAonoxa coc1ou1 ua noanononnoro c1oAa, oo c ry-
puno, cxoAo1a xononnoc1o u noona. CxoAo1 noAonoxa - ynu-
xaArnoo 1noonuo! On cymoc1nonno o1Aunao1cn o1 cxoAo1a xuno1-
nwx. E nonym onoopr a1o o1nocu1cn x oro nonounm; noony,
nmomammomy roAonno moar u oranw nync1n; cnoopnwm nox-
num xononnoc1nm, ocymoc1nAnmmum 1yponwo nooccw; nuxnum
xononnoc1nm, cAyxamum onoo nu nnmoxoxponuu. CxoAo1 no-
Aonoxa oAapao1 npom xaax1onwx ocoonnoc1o, nauoAoo nax-
nwmu ua xo1owx nnAnm1cn no1uxaArno acnoAoxonnw noano-
nonnw c1oA c uaruamu; ynAomonnan muoxan rypnan xAo1xa;
noon, n xo1oom nooAapao1 moarono o1poA, c oxyrAo nwnyx-
Ao xwmo, noanwmammocn nap Auonwm o1poAom.
Coopnnonnx uocvo. Koc1u, coopunnncr moxpy coo, oaay-
m1 nopnuxnwo coopunonun uAu nonnwo nonopnuxnwo xonc1yx-
uu. Eco coopunonun xoc1o poAn1cn na 1u oArmuo rynnw: no-
nownnwo, noAycyc1anw, uAu cumquaw, u nownnwo, uAu cuno-
nuaArnwo (cyc1anw). E uenpepmoumr coeouueuunr xoc1u cnnaanw
moxpy coo c nomomrm aaAunnwx nupon coopunu1oArno 1xanu
(coc1nonno coopunu1oArno 1xanu, xnma, xoc1u), n xo1owx o1-
cy1c1nyo1 moAr uAu noAoc1r moxpy xoc1nmu. Honownnwo coopu-
nonun nocrma nonnw, no nonopnuxnw. K nonownnwm coopuno-
nunm o1nocn1cn cnnaxu, momanw, mnw (nanumo, noona), co-
opunonun puaquaon xoc1o c ux anuquaamu, xo1owo c noaac1om
oxoc1ononam1, nonamancr n xoc1nwo. Cu+qu:m (epeu. symhIsIs-
cac1anuo) - a1o noAynopnuxnwo xnmonwo coopunonun. E 1oAmo
% %
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
9
C
o
o
p
n
n
o
n
n
x

u
o
c
v
o

% %
T
o

.
u
u
o

1
9
C
o
o
p
n
n
o
n
n
x

u
o
c
v
o

%! %
T
o

.
u
u
o

z
0
K
A
a
c
c
n
q
n
u
a

n
x

n
p
o
p
m
n
n
m
x

(
c
n
n
o
n
n
a
A
n
n
m
x
)

c
o
o
p
n
n
o
n
n


(
c
y
c
v
a
n
o
n
)
n
o

q
o
p
m
o

n
x

c
y
c
v
a
n
n
m
x

n
o
n
o
p
x
n
o
c
v
o

%! %
T
o

.
u
u
o

z
0
K
A
a
c
c
n
q
n
u
a

n
x

n
p
o
p
m
n
n
m
x

(
c
n
n
o
n
n
a
A
n
n
m
x
)

c
o
o
p
n
n
o
n
n


(
c
y
c
v
a
n
o
n
)
n
o

q
o
p
m
o

n
x

c
y
c
v
a
n
n
m
x

n
o
n
o
p
x
n
o
c
v
o

%# %"
2 3
4
8
9 10 1
6 5 7
11
oranununam1 noxnmm u nuxnmm no-
anononnwo nwoaxu. Hu coopunonuu
noanonxon pyr c pyrom nuxnnn nw-
oaxa nwmoAoxamoro noanonxa u nox-
nnn nuxoAoxamoro oaaym1 cnana u
cAona moxnoanononnwo o1noc1un, no-
oa xo1owo noxopn1 cnunnomoaronwo
nonw u xononocnwo cocypw.
EAaropan nnmoxoxponum noAonoxa
cymoc1nonno o1Aunam1cn o1 oc1aArnwx I
u II monwo noanonxu, conAonnmmuocn
c noonom u nocymuo na coo oro 1nxoc1r.
Hepomu ueuumu no:oouou, uAu a1Aan1,
Aumon oc1uc1oro o1oc1xa (uc. ??). Copnnn nac1r 1oAa a1Aan1a,
o1poAunmucr, nuocAa x 1oAy II noanonxa, oaaonan oro ay. A1-
Aan1 Aumon u cyc1annwx o1oc1xon. Emoc1o nux na noxno u nux-
no nonoxnoc1nx Aa1oaArnwx macc naxopn1cn cyc1annwo nmxu, no-
xnuo conAonnm1cn c mwmoAxamu aa1wAonno xoc1u, oaayn on
.ouno:onm.ouume ccnoom; nuxnuo - c noxnumu cyc1annwmu
nonoxnoc1nmu II noanonxa, oaayn oxonwo on.ounooceome cc
noom. Enopou ueuumu no:oouou ocono (uc. ?8). Eoxyr oro aya
u noucxopn1 namonun a1Aan1a nmoc1o c noonom n cpeouuuo+ on
.ounooceoo+ ccnooe. Honwo noanonxu
o1Aunam1cn o1 pyrux cnoumu maAwmu aa-
moamu u naAunuom nooArmoro o1noc1un
P u c . 7 5. Hossoovm
cmon:
A su cnepeu; B csau;
B coxy. Omenm: l uem;
ll apyo; lll noscuvm;
lV xpecmosm; V xonvuxosm;
1, 3 uem u noscuvm
noposm; 2, 4 apyo u xpec-
mosm xuqosm; 5 umc (no
Cuensuxosy)
A B B
I
II
III
IV
V
2
3
4
1
5
P u c . 7 6. Hossoox:
A su csepxy; B su coxy; 1 meno; 2 nossoov-
oe omsepcmue; 3 ocmucmm ompocmox; 4 sepx-
u cycmas ompocmox; 5 nonepevm ompocmox;
6 u+u cycmas ompocmox
A B
2
3
4
1
6
5
3
1
P u c . 7 7. Hepsm uem nossoox:
1 sau yaopox; 2 oposa nossoovo apme-
puu; 3 omsepcmue nossoovo apmepuu (none-
pevoe omsepcmue); 4 namepansas uacca;
5 suxa sya; 6 nepess yaa; 7 nepeu y-
aopox; 8 nonepevm ompocmox; 9 sepxss cyc-
masas suxa; 10 sass yaa; 11 nossoovoe
omsepcmue
P u c . 7 4.
Cxeuamuvecxoe
usopa+eue cycmasmx
nosepxocme.
Cycmasm: A noxosum;
B snnuncoum; B ce-
nosum; l uaposum
A
B
B
F
cyc1ana, xo1owo qynxuonuym1 conmo-
c1no (nanumo, nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1nwo
cyc1anw). E uo+n.eucumr ccnooor mox-
py conAonnmmumucn cyc1annwmu xona-
mu umom1cn pucxu uAu monucxu (nanu-
mo, xoAonnw cyc1an).
CuoAov vyAonnma oaaonan noanonon-
nwm c1oAom u rypno xAo1xo. HaAunuo
noanononnoro c1oAa cAyxu1 naxnomum
o1Aunu1oArnwm nuanaxom ncox nop-
c1anu1oAo noanononnwx xuno1nwx. Ho-
anononnux cnnawnao1 nac1u 1oAa, nwnoA-
nno1 aamu1nym u ononym qynxuu pAn
cnunnoro moara u nwxopnmux ua noano-
nonnoro xanaAa xoomxon cnunnomoaro-
nwx nonon. Eoxnu xono noanononnu-
xa noppoxunao1 roAony. Koc1u cnoopnwx
xononnoc1o nuxonAnm1cn x cxoAo1y 1y-
Aonuma nocopc1nom noncon. Hoanononnux
noopao1 1nxoc1r 1oAa noncy nuxnux xo-
nonnoc1o.
HoAoxonuo u qoma noanononnuxa no-
Aonoxa oycAonAunao1 noamoxnoc1r nn-
moxoxponun. Hoanononnw c1oA nwpo-
xunao1 ananu1oArnym nac1r 1nxoc1u no-
Aononocxoro 1oAa.
Hoanononnux noAonoxa nopc1anAno1
pAunnw uaorny1w c1oA, coc1onmu ua
33 - 34 Aoxamux opun na pyrom u no-
c1ononno ynoAununammuxcn n aamoax cnoxy nnua noanonxon
(uc. ?5); nauoAoo 1ununno cAopymmoo ux xoAunoc1no: monwx - ?,
rypnwx - 12, noncnunnwx - 5, xoc1onwx - 5, xonnuxonwx - 4.
Hoanonxu aanwx o1poAon o1Aunam1cn no qomo u noAununo. Opna-
xo nco onu umom1 np omux nuanaxon - onu romoAorunnw. Kax-
pw no:oouou (uc. ?6) coc1ou1 ua 1oAa, acnoAoxonnoro cnoopu,
u pyru (caapu), oranununammux muoxoo noanononnoo o1noc1uo.
HaxAapwnancr cnoopno opno na pyroo, o1noc1un oaaym1 pAun-
nw noanononnw xanaA, n xo1oom aaAorao1 cnunno moar, napox-
no aamumonnw c1onxamu xanaAa.
O1 pyru noanonxa o1xopn1 comr o1oc1xon. Kaapu nananAno1-
cn nonanw oc1uc1w o1oc1ox. Eomunw mnorux ua nux Aorxo
nomynwnam1cn y noAonoxa no copno Aunuu co cnunw. Eo qon-
1aArno nAocxoc1u cnana u cAona acnoAaram1cn nanwo nono-
onnwo o1oc1xu. Enox u nnua o1 pyru nananAonw noxnuo u
nuxnuo cyc1annwo o1oc1xu. Ocnonanun cyc1annwx o1oc1xon
%# %"
2 3
4
8
9 10 1
6 5 7
11
oranununam1 noxnmm u nuxnmm no-
anononnwo nwoaxu. Hu coopunonuu
noanonxon pyr c pyrom nuxnnn nw-
oaxa nwmoAoxamoro noanonxa u nox-
nnn nuxoAoxamoro oaaym1 cnana u
cAona moxnoanononnwo o1noc1un, no-
oa xo1owo noxopn1 cnunnomoaronwo
nonw u xononocnwo cocypw.
EAaropan nnmoxoxponum noAonoxa
cymoc1nonno o1Aunam1cn o1 oc1aArnwx I
u II monwo noanonxu, conAonnmmuocn
c noonom u nocymuo na coo oro 1nxoc1r.
Hepomu ueuumu no:oouou, uAu a1Aan1,
Aumon oc1uc1oro o1oc1xa (uc. ??). Copnnn nac1r 1oAa a1Aan1a,
o1poAunmucr, nuocAa x 1oAy II noanonxa, oaaonan oro ay. A1-
Aan1 Aumon u cyc1annwx o1oc1xon. Emoc1o nux na noxno u nux-
no nonoxnoc1nx Aa1oaArnwx macc naxopn1cn cyc1annwo nmxu, no-
xnuo conAonnm1cn c mwmoAxamu aa1wAonno xoc1u, oaayn on
.ouno:onm.ouume ccnoom; nuxnuo - c noxnumu cyc1annwmu
nonoxnoc1nmu II noanonxa, oaayn oxonwo on.ounooceome cc
noom. Enopou ueuumu no:oouou ocono (uc. ?8). Eoxyr oro aya
u noucxopn1 namonun a1Aan1a nmoc1o c noonom n cpeouuuo+ on
.ounooceoo+ ccnooe. Honwo noanonxu
o1Aunam1cn o1 pyrux cnoumu maAwmu aa-
moamu u naAunuom nooArmoro o1noc1un
P u c . 7 5. Hossoovm
cmon:
A su cnepeu; B csau;
B coxy. Omenm: l uem;
ll apyo; lll noscuvm;
lV xpecmosm; V xonvuxosm;
1, 3 uem u noscuvm
noposm; 2, 4 apyo u xpec-
mosm xuqosm; 5 umc (no
Cuensuxosy)
A B B
I
II
III
IV
V
2
3
4
1
5
P u c . 7 6. Hossoox:
A su csepxy; B su coxy; 1 meno; 2 nossoov-
oe omsepcmue; 3 ocmucmm ompocmox; 4 sepx-
u cycmas ompocmox; 5 nonepevm ompocmox;
6 u+u cycmas ompocmox
A B
2
3
4
1
6
5
3
1
P u c . 7 7. Hepsm uem nossoox:
1 sau yaopox; 2 oposa nossoovo apme-
puu; 3 omsepcmue nossoovo apmepuu (none-
pevoe omsepcmue); 4 namepansas uacca;
5 suxa sya; 6 nepess yaa; 7 nepeu y-
aopox; 8 nonepevm ompocmox; 9 sepxss cyc-
masas suxa; 10 sass yaa; 11 nossoovoe
omsepcmue
P u c . 7 4.
Cxeuamuvecxoe
usopa+eue cycmasmx
nosepxocme.
Cycmasm: A noxosum;
B snnuncoum; B ce-
nosum; l uaposum
A
B
B
F
cyc1ana, xo1owo qynxuonuym1 conmo-
c1no (nanumo, nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1nwo
cyc1anw). E uo+n.eucumr ccnooor mox-
py conAonnmmumucn cyc1annwmu xona-
mu umom1cn pucxu uAu monucxu (nanu-
mo, xoAonnw cyc1an).
CuoAov vyAonnma oaaonan noanonon-
nwm c1oAom u rypno xAo1xo. HaAunuo
noanononnoro c1oAa cAyxu1 naxnomum
o1Aunu1oArnwm nuanaxom ncox nop-
c1anu1oAo noanononnwx xuno1nwx. Ho-
anononnux cnnawnao1 nac1u 1oAa, nwnoA-
nno1 aamu1nym u ononym qynxuu pAn
cnunnoro moara u nwxopnmux ua noano-
nonnoro xanaAa xoomxon cnunnomoaro-
nwx nonon. Eoxnu xono noanononnu-
xa noppoxunao1 roAony. Koc1u cnoopnwx
xononnoc1o nuxonAnm1cn x cxoAo1y 1y-
Aonuma nocopc1nom noncon. Hoanononnux
noopao1 1nxoc1r 1oAa noncy nuxnux xo-
nonnoc1o.
HoAoxonuo u qoma noanononnuxa no-
Aonoxa oycAonAunao1 noamoxnoc1r nn-
moxoxponun. Hoanononnw c1oA nwpo-
xunao1 ananu1oArnym nac1r 1nxoc1u no-
Aononocxoro 1oAa.
Hoanononnux noAonoxa nopc1anAno1
pAunnw uaorny1w c1oA, coc1onmu ua
33 - 34 Aoxamux opun na pyrom u no-
c1ononno ynoAununammuxcn n aamoax cnoxy nnua noanonxon
(uc. ?5); nauoAoo 1ununno cAopymmoo ux xoAunoc1no: monwx - ?,
rypnwx - 12, noncnunnwx - 5, xoc1onwx - 5, xonnuxonwx - 4.
Hoanonxu aanwx o1poAon o1Aunam1cn no qomo u noAununo. Opna-
xo nco onu umom1 np omux nuanaxon - onu romoAorunnw. Kax-
pw no:oouou (uc. ?6) coc1ou1 ua 1oAa, acnoAoxonnoro cnoopu,
u pyru (caapu), oranununammux muoxoo noanononnoo o1noc1uo.
HaxAapwnancr cnoopno opno na pyroo, o1noc1un oaaym1 pAun-
nw noanononnw xanaA, n xo1oom aaAorao1 cnunno moar, napox-
no aamumonnw c1onxamu xanaAa.
O1 pyru noanonxa o1xopn1 comr o1oc1xon. Kaapu nananAno1-
cn nonanw oc1uc1w o1oc1ox. Eomunw mnorux ua nux Aorxo
nomynwnam1cn y noAonoxa no copno Aunuu co cnunw. Eo qon-
1aArno nAocxoc1u cnana u cAona acnoAaram1cn nanwo nono-
onnwo o1oc1xu. Enox u nnua o1 pyru nananAonw noxnuo u
nuxnuo cyc1annwo o1oc1xu. Ocnonanun cyc1annwx o1oc1xon
%% %$
noopnuo xonw no poxopn1 po rypunw u aaxannunam1cn n mwm-
ax noopno mmno c1onxu.
HAocxan epouuo coc1ou1 ua 1ox nac1o: muoxo yxon1xu
nnoxy, ypAunonnoro 1oAa u mononupnoro o1oc1xa nnuay.
Hopon ycAonno nopaapoAno1cn na moarono u Auono o1po-
Aw. Moarono o1poA (oro o+om 1400 - 1500 cm
3
) nnAno1cn nmoc-
1uAumom pAn roAonnoro moara. E nopoAax nucoaArnoro, uAu
Auonoro, o1poAa nanunam1cn cuc1omw oranon numonaonun, pw-
xanun, Aoxa1 oranw nync1n. ToArxo y noAonoxa aaymnoro ox-
yrAw moarono noon acnoAarao1cn nap Auonwm. Hoon no-
Aonoxa coc1ou1 ua 23 xoc1o, ua nux 8 nanwx u ? nonanwx
(uc. ?9, 80).
Comr xoc1o noona oo:oro
uocume, 1. o. onu umom1 nny1u
noAoc1u, aanoAnonnwo noapyxom
u coomammuocn c noAoc1rm
noca. 01o .ouon, u.uuoououon,
peuenuonon, nopume oucouuon u
oeprunn ue.wcnt.
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
P u c . 7 9. epen venosexa. Bu coxy:
1 meueas xocms; 2 seevm uos;
3 nom yaop; 4 sucovas nosepxocms
onsuoao xpmna xnuosuo xocmu; 5 anas-
uvas nnacmuxa peuemvamo xocmu; 6 cnes-
as xocms; 7 ocosas xocms; 8 sucovas
suxa; 9 nepess ocosas ocms; 10 meno sepx-
e venkcmu; 11 u+ss venkcms; 12 cxy-
nosas xocms; 13 cxynosas yaa; 14 uuno-
sum ompocmox; 15 umenxosm ompoc-
mox u+e venkcmu; 16 cocesum
ompocmox; 17 apy+m cnyxoso npoxo;
18 nauosum uos; 19 veuys samm-
novo xocmu; 20 sepxss sucovas nuus;
21 veuyvamas vacms sucovo xocmu
P u c . 8 0. epen venosexa.
Bu cnepeu:
1 seevm uos; 2 meueas xocms;
3 anasuvas vacms noo xocmu;
4 anasuvas nosepxocms onsuoao
xpmna xnuosuo xocmu; 5 cxynosas
xocms; 6 u+ss ocosas paxosua;
7 sepxss venkcms; 8 noopoovm
smcmyn u+e venkcmu; 9 nonocms
oca; 10 couux; 11 nepneuxynspas
nnacmuxa peuemvamo xocmu; 12 anas-
uvas nosepxocms sepxe venkcmu;
13 u+ss anasuvas ens; 14 cnes-
as xocms; 15 anasuvas nnacmuxa pe-
uemvamo xocmu; 16 sepxss anasuv-
as ens; 17 veuyvamas vacms su-
covo xocmu; 18 cxynoso ompocmox
noo xocmu; 19 spumensm xaan;
20 ocosas xocms; 21 nom yaop
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
n xaxpom nonoonnom o1oc1xo (no-
oa o1noc1un noxopu1 noanonon-
nan a1oun, nananAnmmancn n no-
Aoc1r noona).
Ha oxonwx nonoxnoc1nx 1oA
epoumr no:oouuoo umom1cn oo-
nwo nmxu pAn conAononun c roAon-
xamu oo, a na y1oAmonnwx xon-
ax nonoonnwx o1oc1xon pocn1u
noxnux rypnwx noanonxon umom1cn oonwo nmxu, c xo1owmu
conAonnm1cn coo1no1c1nymmuo um no cno1y oa. Hn1r xynnwx
noncuuuumr no:oouuoo oocnonunam1 oArmym nopnuxnoc1r a1o
nac1u noanononnoro c1oAa.
Hn1r upecnuoomr no:oouuoo y naocAoro noAonoxa, cac1ancr,
oaaym1 maccunnw upecneu 1oyroArno qomw. Ha oxonwx
nac1nx xoc1a naxopn1cn ymxonupnwo nonoxnoc1u pAn conAono-
nun c 1aaonwmu xoc1nmu (upecnuooonooo:oouume ccnoom). Kon
uuu ownno cac1ao1cn c noxymxo xoc1a. V naocAoro noAono-
xa xonnux oaaonan pnymn - nn1rm (namo no1wrmn) ypumon-
1anwmu xonnuxonwmu noanonxamu.
Hoanononnw c1oA noAononocxoro aaopwma u nAopa umoo1
qomy pyru, oamonno nwnyxAoc1rm xaapu. V nonooxponnoro
oonxa noanononnux non1u nnmo, xunuanw aanunam1cn no-
c1ononno n cnnau c 1nro mwm. Korpa oonox nanunao1 poxa1r
roAony, noanuxao1 monw Aopoa (oxoAo 3 moc.); xorpa on capu1-
cn - rypno xuqoa (oxoAo 6 moc.), xorpa nanunao1 c1on1r - nonc-
nunnw Aopoa (9 - 12 moc.), a nmoc1o c num u xoc1onw xuqoa.
Oxonna1oArnoo aanu1uo uaruon noanononnuxa noucxopu1 x
moc1u-comu ropam, n a1o nomn yc1ananAunao1cn u ueunp nnec
nu - na yonno n1ooro xoc1onoro noanonxa. O1nocnan Aunun
a1oro on1a noxopu1 na 5 cm xaapu o1 nonoonno Aunuu, coopu-
nnmmo 1aaooponnwo cyc1anw, u na 3 cm xnoopu o1 nonoon-
no ocu roAonoc1onnwx cyc1anon.
Fpypnax uAovua oaaonana coopunonnwmu moxpy coo 12 na-
amu oo, rypuno u 12 rypnwmu noanonxamu. Honwo VII o-
o naawnam1cn uc1unnwmu, xnm xaxporo ua nux coopunno1cn
c rypuno, VIII - X oa naawnam1cn Aoxnwmu, xonw ux xn-
mo cac1am1cn moxpy coo u c xnmamu nuxnux oo, oa-
ayn oonwo pyru; XI - XII oa - xoAoAmmuocn, 1ax xax ux
2
3
4
8 9 10
6 5
7
1
P u c . 7 8. Bmopo uem nossoox:
1 sy; 2 nepess cycmasas nosepxocms; 3 sa-
ss cycmasas nosepxocms; 4 sepxss cycmasas
nosepxocms; 5 omsepcmue nonepevoao ompocm-
xa; 6 yaa; 7 ocmucmm ompocmox; 8 u+u cyc-
maso ompocmox; 9 nonepevm ompocmox;
10 meno
%% %$
noopnuo xonw no poxopn1 po rypunw u aaxannunam1cn n mwm-
ax noopno mmno c1onxu.
HAocxan epouuo coc1ou1 ua 1ox nac1o: muoxo yxon1xu
nnoxy, ypAunonnoro 1oAa u mononupnoro o1oc1xa nnuay.
Hopon ycAonno nopaapoAno1cn na moarono u Auono o1po-
Aw. Moarono o1poA (oro o+om 1400 - 1500 cm
3
) nnAno1cn nmoc-
1uAumom pAn roAonnoro moara. E nopoAax nucoaArnoro, uAu
Auonoro, o1poAa nanunam1cn cuc1omw oranon numonaonun, pw-
xanun, Aoxa1 oranw nync1n. ToArxo y noAonoxa aaymnoro ox-
yrAw moarono noon acnoAarao1cn nap Auonwm. Hoon no-
Aonoxa coc1ou1 ua 23 xoc1o, ua nux 8 nanwx u ? nonanwx
(uc. ?9, 80).
Comr xoc1o noona oo:oro
uocume, 1. o. onu umom1 nny1u
noAoc1u, aanoAnonnwo noapyxom
u coomammuocn c noAoc1rm
noca. 01o .ouon, u.uuoououon,
peuenuonon, nopume oucouuon u
oeprunn ue.wcnt.
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
P u c . 7 9. epen venosexa. Bu coxy:
1 meueas xocms; 2 seevm uos;
3 nom yaop; 4 sucovas nosepxocms
onsuoao xpmna xnuosuo xocmu; 5 anas-
uvas nnacmuxa peuemvamo xocmu; 6 cnes-
as xocms; 7 ocosas xocms; 8 sucovas
suxa; 9 nepess ocosas ocms; 10 meno sepx-
e venkcmu; 11 u+ss venkcms; 12 cxy-
nosas xocms; 13 cxynosas yaa; 14 uuno-
sum ompocmox; 15 umenxosm ompoc-
mox u+e venkcmu; 16 cocesum
ompocmox; 17 apy+m cnyxoso npoxo;
18 nauosum uos; 19 veuys samm-
novo xocmu; 20 sepxss sucovas nuus;
21 veuyvamas vacms sucovo xocmu
P u c . 8 0. epen venosexa.
Bu cnepeu:
1 seevm uos; 2 meueas xocms;
3 anasuvas vacms noo xocmu;
4 anasuvas nosepxocms onsuoao
xpmna xnuosuo xocmu; 5 cxynosas
xocms; 6 u+ss ocosas paxosua;
7 sepxss venkcms; 8 noopoovm
smcmyn u+e venkcmu; 9 nonocms
oca; 10 couux; 11 nepneuxynspas
nnacmuxa peuemvamo xocmu; 12 anas-
uvas nosepxocms sepxe venkcmu;
13 u+ss anasuvas ens; 14 cnes-
as xocms; 15 anasuvas nnacmuxa pe-
uemvamo xocmu; 16 sepxss anasuv-
as ens; 17 veuyvamas vacms su-
covo xocmu; 18 cxynoso ompocmox
noo xocmu; 19 spumensm xaan;
20 ocosas xocms; 21 nom yaop
2
3
4
8
9
10
1
6
5
7
21
12
13
14
18
19
20
11
16
15
17
n xaxpom nonoonnom o1oc1xo (no-
oa o1noc1un noxopu1 noanonon-
nan a1oun, nananAnmmancn n no-
Aoc1r noona).
Ha oxonwx nonoxnoc1nx 1oA
epoumr no:oouuoo umom1cn oo-
nwo nmxu pAn conAononun c roAon-
xamu oo, a na y1oAmonnwx xon-
ax nonoonnwx o1oc1xon pocn1u
noxnux rypnwx noanonxon umom1cn oonwo nmxu, c xo1owmu
conAonnm1cn coo1no1c1nymmuo um no cno1y oa. Hn1r xynnwx
noncuuuumr no:oouuoo oocnonunam1 oArmym nopnuxnoc1r a1o
nac1u noanononnoro c1oAa.
Hn1r upecnuoomr no:oouuoo y naocAoro noAonoxa, cac1ancr,
oaaym1 maccunnw upecneu 1oyroArno qomw. Ha oxonwx
nac1nx xoc1a naxopn1cn ymxonupnwo nonoxnoc1u pAn conAono-
nun c 1aaonwmu xoc1nmu (upecnuooonooo:oouume ccnoom). Kon
uuu ownno cac1ao1cn c noxymxo xoc1a. V naocAoro noAono-
xa xonnux oaaonan pnymn - nn1rm (namo no1wrmn) ypumon-
1anwmu xonnuxonwmu noanonxamu.
Hoanononnw c1oA noAononocxoro aaopwma u nAopa umoo1
qomy pyru, oamonno nwnyxAoc1rm xaapu. V nonooxponnoro
oonxa noanononnux non1u nnmo, xunuanw aanunam1cn no-
c1ononno n cnnau c 1nro mwm. Korpa oonox nanunao1 poxa1r
roAony, noanuxao1 monw Aopoa (oxoAo 3 moc.); xorpa on capu1-
cn - rypno xuqoa (oxoAo 6 moc.), xorpa nanunao1 c1on1r - nonc-
nunnw Aopoa (9 - 12 moc.), a nmoc1o c num u xoc1onw xuqoa.
Oxonna1oArnoo aanu1uo uaruon noanononnuxa noucxopu1 x
moc1u-comu ropam, n a1o nomn yc1ananAunao1cn u ueunp nnec
nu - na yonno n1ooro xoc1onoro noanonxa. O1nocnan Aunun
a1oro on1a noxopu1 na 5 cm xaapu o1 nonoonno Aunuu, coopu-
nnmmo 1aaooponnwo cyc1anw, u na 3 cm xnoopu o1 nonoon-
no ocu roAonoc1onnwx cyc1anon.
Fpypnax uAovua oaaonana coopunonnwmu moxpy coo 12 na-
amu oo, rypuno u 12 rypnwmu noanonxamu. Honwo VII o-
o naawnam1cn uc1unnwmu, xnm xaxporo ua nux coopunno1cn
c rypuno, VIII - X oa naawnam1cn Aoxnwmu, xonw ux xn-
mo cac1am1cn moxpy coo u c xnmamu nuxnux oo, oa-
ayn oonwo pyru; XI - XII oa - xoAoAmmuocn, 1ax xax ux
2
3
4
8 9 10
6 5
7
1
P u c . 7 8. Bmopo uem nossoox:
1 sy; 2 nepess cycmasas nosepxocms; 3 sa-
ss cycmasas nosepxocms; 4 sepxss cycmasas
nosepxocms; 5 omsepcmue nonepevoao ompocm-
xa; 6 yaa; 7 ocmucmm ompocmox; 8 u+u cyc-
maso ompocmox; 9 nonepevm ompocmox;
10 meno
%' %&
pno noxnuo u nuxnnn. Ocooo moc1o copu xoc1o aanumao1 pyro-
oaanan noozn:muuon uocnt, acnoAoxonnan n noopno oAac1u
mou moxpy ro1anrm u nuxno noAmc1rm u coopunonnan c xoc1n-
mu noona Aumr cnnaxamu u mwmamu.
Coopnnonnx uocvo uopona noumymoc1nonno qupo:ume
(uom,. E oAac1u Auonoro noona mnw onnwo, rAapxuo, nAocxuo
(ramonunnwo), y moaronoro noona - ayna1wo, a moxpy 1omon-
no u nomyo nuconno xoc1u- mon nomyna1w. Ha ocnonanuu
noona y oonxa umom1cn rpneome coeouueuun (cuurouopo:m,,
xo1owo c noaac1om oxoc1ononam1, nonamancr n cunoc1oaw.
umr nuxnnn noAmc1r oaayo1 c noonom nopnuxnoo coopuno-
nuo - nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1no cyc1an.
Hoanononnw c1oA coopunno1cn c noonom on.ouno:onm.ou
um+u, cpeouuum+ u .onepo.tum+u on.ounooceom+u ccnooo+u,
n xo1owx ocymoc1nAnm1cn xuna1oArnwo, nama1oArnwo pnuxo-
nun, a 1axxo oxonwo naxAonw roAonw.
Ha Auonom noono umoo1cn np nocrma naxnwx oaaonanu.
E noAoc1u rAaanuw acnoAoxonw rAaanoo nAoxo u ncnomora-
1oArnwo oaaonanun orana aonun. Hon1aArnoo noAoxonuo n
Auonom noono aanumao1 noAoc1r noca. Paxonunw poAn1 oxono
o1poA noAoc1u noca na 1u noconwx xopa: nuxnu, copnu u no-
xnu, n xo1owo o1xwnam1cn nococAoanw xanaA u noAoc1u noa-
pyxonocnwx xoc1o. HoAoc1r 1a nnoopu u c oxon oranunona
(ua xoc1nwx c1yx1y) noxno u nuxno aArnooAnnwmu pyramu
c ayamu, nac1unno 1oAom u no1nrm nuxno noAmc1u, a cnoxy -
1nopwm noom.
E noocco unpunupyaArnoro aanu1un noon no1ononao1
cymoc1nonnwo uamononun. V nonooxponnoro oonxa mnon no1,
noc1anc1na moxpy xoc1nmu aanoAnonw coopunu1oArno 1xanrm.
E ynac1xax, rpo cxopn1cn nocxoArxo xoc1o, umoo1cn moc1r poo
uuuuoo, aaxw1wx coopunu1oArno1xannwmu nAac1unxamu: pna no-
nanwx (noopnu u aapnu) u pna nanwx (xAunonupnw u co-
conupnw). Camw xynnw - noopnu, uAu Aonw, opnunox
omonupno qomw acnoAoxon 1am, rpo cAuxam1cn nanan u
Aonan noAonunw Aono u oo 1omonnwo xoc1u. EAaropan op-
nunxam noon nonooxponnoro ononr aAac1unon, oro qoma moxo1
uamonn1rcn. Eo nomn noxoxponun roAonxu nAopa nooa oponwo
ny1u xan xoc1no xwmu noona naxAapwnam1cn noonuoo-
aano opun na pyro, n1o u nunopu1 x ymonrmonum oro aamo-
on. omuonanuo mnon noona aaxannunao1cn n ocnonnom x pnym
ropam xuanu, x a1omy nomonu aaxwnam1cn u opnunxu.
Konounocvn oaaonanw noncamu u cnoopnwmu aAomon1amu,
xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAonw na 1u cormon1a: noxnu
(noxcumaArnw) umoo1 opny xoc1r, copnu - pno u nuxnu -
mnoxoc1no xoc1o. Koc1u oaaym1 cuc1omy wnaron.
Moarono ovpoA uopona naocAoro noAonoxa coc1anAnm1 cAopy-
mmuo xoc1u: Aonan, aa1wAonnan, xAunonupnan, omo1na1an, pno
nuconnwo u pno 1omonnwo. Honanan noapyxonocnan .ouon uocnt
coc1ou1 ua nomyu, pnyx rouaon1aArnwx rAaanunnwx nac1o u no-
cono nac1u. onan xoc1r qomuyo1 Ao u noco1 na coo Aonwo
yrw, nnAnmmuocn xaax1ono ocoonnoc1rm noAonoxa aaym-
noro, a 1axxo oaayo1 noxnuo c1onxu rAaanu, noAoc1u noca,
nuconnwx nmox, nuxnmm u noopnmm c1onxu noopno noonno
nmxu.
Hanan ne+euuon uocnt ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu xwmu
(cnopa) noona, n on1o xoc1u naxopu1cn 1omonno yro. Tomon-
nwo xoc1u ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu cnopa noona. 3onm.ouuon
uocnt, ynac1nymman n qomuonanuu cnopa u ocnonanun noona,
aapno noonno nmxu, coc1ou1 ua no1wox nac1o (aauAnno
nnoopu, pnyx oxonwx u nomyu), acnoAoxonnwx noxyr oAr-
moro (aa1wAonnoro) o1noc1un. na onaArnwx aa1wAonnwx mw-
moAxa, acnoAoxonnwx na nayxno nonoxnoc1u oxonwx nac-
1o, conAonnm1cn c a1Aan1om, oaayn on.ouno:onm.ouume cc
noom, n xo1owx conomam1cn xuna1oArnwo pnuxonun u oxonwo
naxAonw roAonw.
Honanan noapyxonocnan u.uuoououon uocnt umoo1 1oAo, na
noxno nonoxnoc1u xo1ooro naxopu1cn runoquaanan nmxa,
rpo aaAorao1 runoqua. O1 1oAa n c1oonw o1xopn1 oArmuo xw-
Arn, nnox u Aa1oaArno - maAwo xwArn, nnua - xwAonupnwo
o1oc1xu. KAunonupnan xoc1r ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu rAaa-
nuw, noopno noonno, nopnuconnwx u xwAonupno-nonwx
nmox.
HauoAoo cAoxno yc1oona nanan noapyxonocnan oucouuon
uocnt, xo1oan ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu cnopa u ocnonanun no-
ona u nnAno1cn nmoc1uAumom orana cAyxa u annonocun. Ona
coc1ou1 ua nuamupw, n xo1oo acnoAoxona aaannan noAoc1r
u nny1onnoo yxo; aaanno nac1u, n xo1oo naxopu1cn nayx-
noo cAyxonoo o1noc1uo u nayxnw cAyxono noxop; nomyna-
1o nac1u, na nayxno nonoxnoc1u xo1oo acnoAarao1cn rAy-
oxan nuxnonoAmc1nan nmxa, xypa nxopu1 mwmoAxonw o1oc-
1ox nuxno noAmc1u, oaayn oucouuouuueue.wcnuou ccnoo.
CxyAono o1oc1ox, coopunnncr co cxyAono xoc1rm, qomuyo1
cxyAonym pyry.
Honanan noapyxonocnan peuenuonon uocnt coc1ou1 ua mno-
xoc1na nnoox (omo1na1wo Aauun1w).
Anono ovpoA uopona oaaonan nanwmu xoc1nmu: oepruu+u
ue.wcnn+u, uum+u, cu.oom+u, uocoom+u, c.e:um+u, uuuu
+u uocoom+u pouoouuo+u, a 1axxo nonanwmu: couuuuo+ u
uuueu ue.wcntw. K Auonomy noony o1nocn1 u nop+nawnnym
xoc1r. Ocnonnym maccy cxoAo1a Auonoro noona oaaym1 noAmc1u:
%' %&
pno noxnuo u nuxnnn. Ocooo moc1o copu xoc1o aanumao1 pyro-
oaanan noozn:muuon uocnt, acnoAoxonnan n noopno oAac1u
mou moxpy ro1anrm u nuxno noAmc1rm u coopunonnan c xoc1n-
mu noona Aumr cnnaxamu u mwmamu.
Coopnnonnx uocvo uopona noumymoc1nonno qupo:ume
(uom,. E oAac1u Auonoro noona mnw onnwo, rAapxuo, nAocxuo
(ramonunnwo), y moaronoro noona - ayna1wo, a moxpy 1omon-
no u nomyo nuconno xoc1u- mon nomyna1w. Ha ocnonanuu
noona y oonxa umom1cn rpneome coeouueuun (cuurouopo:m,,
xo1owo c noaac1om oxoc1ononam1, nonamancr n cunoc1oaw.
umr nuxnnn noAmc1r oaayo1 c noonom nopnuxnoo coopuno-
nuo - nuconno-nuxnonoAmc1no cyc1an.
Hoanononnw c1oA coopunno1cn c noonom on.ouno:onm.ou
um+u, cpeouuum+ u .onepo.tum+u on.ounooceom+u ccnooo+u,
n xo1owx ocymoc1nAnm1cn xuna1oArnwo, nama1oArnwo pnuxo-
nun, a 1axxo oxonwo naxAonw roAonw.
Ha Auonom noono umoo1cn np nocrma naxnwx oaaonanu.
E noAoc1u rAaanuw acnoAoxonw rAaanoo nAoxo u ncnomora-
1oArnwo oaaonanun orana aonun. Hon1aArnoo noAoxonuo n
Auonom noono aanumao1 noAoc1r noca. Paxonunw poAn1 oxono
o1poA noAoc1u noca na 1u noconwx xopa: nuxnu, copnu u no-
xnu, n xo1owo o1xwnam1cn nococAoanw xanaA u noAoc1u noa-
pyxonocnwx xoc1o. HoAoc1r 1a nnoopu u c oxon oranunona
(ua xoc1nwx c1yx1y) noxno u nuxno aArnooAnnwmu pyramu
c ayamu, nac1unno 1oAom u no1nrm nuxno noAmc1u, a cnoxy -
1nopwm noom.
E noocco unpunupyaArnoro aanu1un noon no1ononao1
cymoc1nonnwo uamononun. V nonooxponnoro oonxa mnon no1,
noc1anc1na moxpy xoc1nmu aanoAnonw coopunu1oArno 1xanrm.
E ynac1xax, rpo cxopn1cn nocxoArxo xoc1o, umoo1cn moc1r poo
uuuuoo, aaxw1wx coopunu1oArno1xannwmu nAac1unxamu: pna no-
nanwx (noopnu u aapnu) u pna nanwx (xAunonupnw u co-
conupnw). Camw xynnw - noopnu, uAu Aonw, opnunox
omonupno qomw acnoAoxon 1am, rpo cAuxam1cn nanan u
Aonan noAonunw Aono u oo 1omonnwo xoc1u. EAaropan op-
nunxam noon nonooxponnoro ononr aAac1unon, oro qoma moxo1
uamonn1rcn. Eo nomn noxoxponun roAonxu nAopa nooa oponwo
ny1u xan xoc1no xwmu noona naxAapwnam1cn noonuoo-
aano opun na pyro, n1o u nunopu1 x ymonrmonum oro aamo-
on. omuonanuo mnon noona aaxannunao1cn n ocnonnom x pnym
ropam xuanu, x a1omy nomonu aaxwnam1cn u opnunxu.
Konounocvn oaaonanw noncamu u cnoopnwmu aAomon1amu,
xo1owo, n cnom onoopr, nopaapoAonw na 1u cormon1a: noxnu
(noxcumaArnw) umoo1 opny xoc1r, copnu - pno u nuxnu -
mnoxoc1no xoc1o. Koc1u oaaym1 cuc1omy wnaron.
Moarono ovpoA uopona naocAoro noAonoxa coc1anAnm1 cAopy-
mmuo xoc1u: Aonan, aa1wAonnan, xAunonupnan, omo1na1an, pno
nuconnwo u pno 1omonnwo. Honanan noapyxonocnan .ouon uocnt
coc1ou1 ua nomyu, pnyx rouaon1aArnwx rAaanunnwx nac1o u no-
cono nac1u. onan xoc1r qomuyo1 Ao u noco1 na coo Aonwo
yrw, nnAnmmuocn xaax1ono ocoonnoc1rm noAonoxa aaym-
noro, a 1axxo oaayo1 noxnuo c1onxu rAaanu, noAoc1u noca,
nuconnwx nmox, nuxnmm u noopnmm c1onxu noopno noonno
nmxu.
Hanan ne+euuon uocnt ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu xwmu
(cnopa) noona, n on1o xoc1u naxopu1cn 1omonno yro. Tomon-
nwo xoc1u ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu cnopa noona. 3onm.ouuon
uocnt, ynac1nymman n qomuonanuu cnopa u ocnonanun noona,
aapno noonno nmxu, coc1ou1 ua no1wox nac1o (aauAnno
nnoopu, pnyx oxonwx u nomyu), acnoAoxonnwx noxyr oAr-
moro (aa1wAonnoro) o1noc1un. na onaArnwx aa1wAonnwx mw-
moAxa, acnoAoxonnwx na nayxno nonoxnoc1u oxonwx nac-
1o, conAonnm1cn c a1Aan1om, oaayn on.ouno:onm.ouume cc
noom, n xo1owx conomam1cn xuna1oArnwo pnuxonun u oxonwo
naxAonw roAonw.
Honanan noapyxonocnan u.uuoououon uocnt umoo1 1oAo, na
noxno nonoxnoc1u xo1ooro naxopu1cn runoquaanan nmxa,
rpo aaAorao1 runoqua. O1 1oAa n c1oonw o1xopn1 oArmuo xw-
Arn, nnox u Aa1oaArno - maAwo xwArn, nnua - xwAonupnwo
o1oc1xu. KAunonupnan xoc1r ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu rAaa-
nuw, noopno noonno, nopnuconnwx u xwAonupno-nonwx
nmox.
HauoAoo cAoxno yc1oona nanan noapyxonocnan oucouuon
uocnt, xo1oan ynac1nyo1 n qomuonanuu cnopa u ocnonanun no-
ona u nnAno1cn nmoc1uAumom orana cAyxa u annonocun. Ona
coc1ou1 ua nuamupw, n xo1oo acnoAoxona aaannan noAoc1r
u nny1onnoo yxo; aaanno nac1u, n xo1oo naxopu1cn nayx-
noo cAyxonoo o1noc1uo u nayxnw cAyxono noxop; nomyna-
1o nac1u, na nayxno nonoxnoc1u xo1oo acnoAarao1cn rAy-
oxan nuxnonoAmc1nan nmxa, xypa nxopu1 mwmoAxonw o1oc-
1ox nuxno noAmc1u, oaayn oucouuouuueue.wcnuou ccnoo.
CxyAono o1oc1ox, coopunnncr co cxyAono xoc1rm, qomuyo1
cxyAonym pyry.
Honanan noapyxonocnan peuenuonon uocnt coc1ou1 ua mno-
xoc1na nnoox (omo1na1wo Aauun1w).
Anono ovpoA uopona oaaonan nanwmu xoc1nmu: oepruu+u
ue.wcnn+u, uum+u, cu.oom+u, uocoom+u, c.e:um+u, uuuu
+u uocoom+u pouoouuo+u, a 1axxo nonanwmu: couuuuo+ u
uuueu ue.wcntw. K Auonomy noony o1nocn1 u nop+nawnnym
xoc1r. Ocnonnym maccy cxoAo1a Auonoro noona oaaym1 noAmc1u:
& &
Aynono xoc1u, oaayn aAAuncoupnw .
ue:onncnumu cyc1an, n xo1oom ocymoc1n-
Ano1cn cruanuo, aaruanuo, nunoponuo u
o1noponuo xuc1u. Koc1u, acnoAoxonnwo n
puc1aArnom npy aannc1rn, coopunnncr mox-
py coo u co n1oo - nn1o nnc1nwmu xo-
c1nmu, oaaym1 cyc1anw, yxonAonnwo
cnnaxamu. Onu qomuym1 noepow ocuoo
uucnu, xo1oan o1Aunao1cn oArmo non-
noc1rm. Koc1u aannc1rn oaaym1 xoc1nw
cnop, oamonnw nwnyxAoc1rm x 1wAy xu-
c1u, a norny1oc1rm n c1oony Aaponu.
Hnc1r coc1ou1 ua nn1u xoc1o, xaxpan ua xo1owx nopc1an-
Ano1 coo xoo1xym 1yna1ym xoc1r, conAonnmmymcn c noxcu-
maArno qaAanro coo1no1c1nymmoro naAra, oaayn nncnuo
qo.oueoomu ccnoo, u c xoc1nmu aannc1rn, oaayn :onncnuo
nncnume ccnoom. Ocoonno naxon copAonupnw :onncnuonnc
numu cyc1an oArmoro naAra. E nom conomam1cn aanooaanwo
pnuxonun, copu xo1owx oArmym oAr n 1ypono pon1oArnoc-
1u urao1 no1unonoc1anAonuo oArmoro naAra oc1aArnwm.
CxoAo1 naAron oaaonan xoo1xumu 1yna1wmu xoc1nmu -
qo.oueo+u. V nonoro naAra - pno qaAanru, y n1ooro, 1o1roro
u no1no1oro - no 1u. aAanru conAonnm1cn moxpy coo, oa-
ayn Aoxonupnwo +eqo.oueoome ccnoom, n xo1owx conoma-
o1cn cruanuo u aaruanuo qaAanr.
Hnxnxx uonounocvn noAonoxa nnAno1cn oranom onow u no-
opnuxonun, u oo c1oonuo nauAynmum oaaom nucnocoAono x
nwnoAnonum a1ux naxnwx qynxu. Kononnoc1r coc1ou1 ua no-
nca - a1o 1aaonwo xoc1u, moxpy xo1owmu caapu xax w nxAunu-
nao1cn xoc1o, u cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u.
Kocvn noxca nnxno uonounocvn. To:ooon uocnt - nanan
nAocxan xoc1r, oaaonana nopnapomno, Aoxono u copaAum-
no xoc1nmu, cac1ammumucn moxpy coo xo nomonu noAonoro
coaonanun n oAac1u no1Ayxno nnapunw - rAyoxo nmxu,
conAonnmmocn c roAonxo oponno xoc1u. CopaAumnan u Ao-
xonan xoc1u oranununam1 xynnoo aanua1oArnoo o1noc1uo
onaArno qomw, aa1nny1oo coopunu1oArno1xanno aanua1oAr-
no momano.
P u c . 8 1. locmu npaso xucmu
(naoas nosepxocms):
1 xocms-mpaneus; 2 mpaneuesuas xocms; 3 nase-
suas xocms; 4 nyvesas xocms; 5 noxmesas xocms;
6 nonynyas xocms; 7 mpexapaas xocms; 8 aopoxo-
suas xocms; 9 aonosvamas xocms; 10 xpkvxosuas
xocms; 11 nscmas xocms; 12 npoxcuuansas qanaaa;
13 cpess qanaaa; 14 ucmansas qanaaa
11
13
14
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
1
12
ToArxo y noAonoxa qynxun xononnoc1o no1xo aaranunona:
noxnuo nnAnm1cn oranom 1ypa, nuxnuo - onow u noopnuxo-
nun. Ocoonnoc1u ana1omunocxoro c1oonun yxu nnAnm1cn mo-
qoAorunocxo ocnono oo qynxuu - 1ypa, cnouqunocxoro 1oArxo
pAn noAonoxa aaymnoro. Aunnan xAmnua, coopunnmman cno-
opnym noxnmm xononnoc1r c xoc1nmu 1yAonuma u o1opnuram-
man yxy o1 noro, cnococ1nyo1 ynoAunonum o+oma pnuxonu n
nAononom cyc1ano. Coopunonun cnoopno noxno xononnoc1u, oco-
onno n oAac1u nopnAonrn u xuc1u (n nonym onoopr copAonup-
nw aannc1no-nnc1nw cyc1an oArmoro naAra), u nwcoxopuqqo-
onuonannwo mwmw noanoAnm1 nwnoAnn1r mnorooaanwo 1on-
xuo u cAoxnwo 1yponwo nooccw. CxoAo1 nuxno xononnoc1u,
nnAnmmocn y noAonoxa oranom onow u noomomonun 1oAa n
noc1anc1no, coc1ou1 ua oAoo 1oAc1wx u maccunnwx xoc1o, co-
opunonnwx moxpy coo monoo nopnuxnwmu, nom y noxnux xo-
nonnoc1o, conAononunmu.
Kocvn noxca nopxno uonounocvn. K.wuuuo - nanan, S-o-
aano uaorny1an 1yna1an xoc1r, xo1oan conAonno1cn c rypu-
no u c axomuaArnwm o1oc1xom Aona1xu, oaayn epouuou.w
uuuumu u oupo+uo.tuou.wuuuumu cyc1anw.
Jononuo - nAocxan xoc1r 1oyroArno qomw, nuAoramman
x aapno nonoxnoc1u rypno xAo1xu cnoo oono nonoxnoc-
1rm. a1oaArnw yroA Aona1xu aaxannunao1cn y1oAmonuom c yr-
AyAonno cyc1anno nnapuno, ynac1nymmo n oaaonanuu n.e
ueooeo ccnooo.
Kocvn cno6opno nopxno uonounocvn. H.eueoon uocnt - pAun-
nan 1yna1an xoc1r, coc1onman ua uAunpunocxoro 1oAa, xo1o-
oo nnuay nuoo1ao1 1oxrannym qomy, nnoxy umoo1 mao-
nupnym roAonxy, conAonnmmymcn c Aona1xo, oaayn maonup-
nw mnoroocnw n.eueoou ccnoo, xo1ow y noAonoxa n cnnau c
nnmoxoxponuom nauoAoo cnoopon. Enuay nAononan xoc1r aa-
xannunao1cn cAoxno yc1oonnwm mwmoAxom, oaaonannwm Ao-
xom u roAonxo, conAonnmmumucn c ooumu xoc1nmu nopnAonrn.
Jouneoon uocnt - pAunnan, 1yna1an. EoAoo maccunnw no-
xnu anuqua conAonno1cn c nAonono u Aox1ono xoc1nmu. Hux-
nu anuqua Aox1ono xoc1u (oo roAonxa) conAonno1cn c Aynono
xoc1rm. Aunnan 1yna1an .ueoon uocnt umoo1 roAonxy, xo1o-
an conAonno1cn c nAonono u Aox1ono xoc1nmu. Huxnu anuqua
Aynono xoc1u conAonno1cn c noxnum npom xoc1o aannc1rn.
Kucnt poAu1cn na 1u o1poAa: aannc1ro, nnc1r u naArw (uc.
81). Eocomr xoc1o :onncntn acnoAaram1cn n pna npa. E noxcu-
maArnom Aoxa1 (nanunan o1 Aynonoro xan) Aapronupnan, noAyAyn-
nan, 1oxrannan, rooxonupnan (cocamonupnan xoc1r); n puc1aAr-
nom - xoc1r-1anoun (oArman mnoroyroArnan), 1anouonupnan,
roAonna1an u xmnxonupnan. Koc1u aannc1rn conAonnm1cn moxpy
coo, xoc1u noxnoro npa - c aannc1no cyc1anno nonoxnoc1rm
& &
Aynono xoc1u, oaayn aAAuncoupnw .
ue:onncnumu cyc1an, n xo1oom ocymoc1n-
Ano1cn cruanuo, aaruanuo, nunoponuo u
o1noponuo xuc1u. Koc1u, acnoAoxonnwo n
puc1aArnom npy aannc1rn, coopunnncr mox-
py coo u co n1oo - nn1o nnc1nwmu xo-
c1nmu, oaaym1 cyc1anw, yxonAonnwo
cnnaxamu. Onu qomuym1 noepow ocuoo
uucnu, xo1oan o1Aunao1cn oArmo non-
noc1rm. Koc1u aannc1rn oaaym1 xoc1nw
cnop, oamonnw nwnyxAoc1rm x 1wAy xu-
c1u, a norny1oc1rm n c1oony Aaponu.
Hnc1r coc1ou1 ua nn1u xoc1o, xaxpan ua xo1owx nopc1an-
Ano1 coo xoo1xym 1yna1ym xoc1r, conAonnmmymcn c noxcu-
maArno qaAanro coo1no1c1nymmoro naAra, oaayn nncnuo
qo.oueoomu ccnoo, u c xoc1nmu aannc1rn, oaayn :onncnuo
nncnume ccnoom. Ocoonno naxon copAonupnw :onncnuonnc
numu cyc1an oArmoro naAra. E nom conomam1cn aanooaanwo
pnuxonun, copu xo1owx oArmym oAr n 1ypono pon1oArnoc-
1u urao1 no1unonoc1anAonuo oArmoro naAra oc1aArnwm.
CxoAo1 naAron oaaonan xoo1xumu 1yna1wmu xoc1nmu -
qo.oueo+u. V nonoro naAra - pno qaAanru, y n1ooro, 1o1roro
u no1no1oro - no 1u. aAanru conAonnm1cn moxpy coo, oa-
ayn Aoxonupnwo +eqo.oueoome ccnoom, n xo1owx conoma-
o1cn cruanuo u aaruanuo qaAanr.
Hnxnxx uonounocvn noAonoxa nnAno1cn oranom onow u no-
opnuxonun, u oo c1oonuo nauAynmum oaaom nucnocoAono x
nwnoAnonum a1ux naxnwx qynxu. Kononnoc1r coc1ou1 ua no-
nca - a1o 1aaonwo xoc1u, moxpy xo1owmu caapu xax w nxAunu-
nao1cn xoc1o, u cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u.
Kocvn noxca nnxno uonounocvn. To:ooon uocnt - nanan
nAocxan xoc1r, oaaonana nopnapomno, Aoxono u copaAum-
no xoc1nmu, cac1ammumucn moxpy coo xo nomonu noAonoro
coaonanun n oAac1u no1Ayxno nnapunw - rAyoxo nmxu,
conAonnmmocn c roAonxo oponno xoc1u. CopaAumnan u Ao-
xonan xoc1u oranununam1 xynnoo aanua1oArnoo o1noc1uo
onaArno qomw, aa1nny1oo coopunu1oArno1xanno aanua1oAr-
no momano.
P u c . 8 1. locmu npaso xucmu
(naoas nosepxocms):
1 xocms-mpaneus; 2 mpaneuesuas xocms; 3 nase-
suas xocms; 4 nyvesas xocms; 5 noxmesas xocms;
6 nonynyas xocms; 7 mpexapaas xocms; 8 aopoxo-
suas xocms; 9 aonosvamas xocms; 10 xpkvxosuas
xocms; 11 nscmas xocms; 12 npoxcuuansas qanaaa;
13 cpess qanaaa; 14 ucmansas qanaaa
11
13
14
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
1
12
ToArxo y noAonoxa qynxun xononnoc1o no1xo aaranunona:
noxnuo nnAnm1cn oranom 1ypa, nuxnuo - onow u noopnuxo-
nun. Ocoonnoc1u ana1omunocxoro c1oonun yxu nnAnm1cn mo-
qoAorunocxo ocnono oo qynxuu - 1ypa, cnouqunocxoro 1oArxo
pAn noAonoxa aaymnoro. Aunnan xAmnua, coopunnmman cno-
opnym noxnmm xononnoc1r c xoc1nmu 1yAonuma u o1opnuram-
man yxy o1 noro, cnococ1nyo1 ynoAunonum o+oma pnuxonu n
nAononom cyc1ano. Coopunonun cnoopno noxno xononnoc1u, oco-
onno n oAac1u nopnAonrn u xuc1u (n nonym onoopr copAonup-
nw aannc1no-nnc1nw cyc1an oArmoro naAra), u nwcoxopuqqo-
onuonannwo mwmw noanoAnm1 nwnoAnn1r mnorooaanwo 1on-
xuo u cAoxnwo 1yponwo nooccw. CxoAo1 nuxno xononnoc1u,
nnAnmmocn y noAonoxa oranom onow u noomomonun 1oAa n
noc1anc1no, coc1ou1 ua oAoo 1oAc1wx u maccunnwx xoc1o, co-
opunonnwx moxpy coo monoo nopnuxnwmu, nom y noxnux xo-
nonnoc1o, conAononunmu.
Kocvn noxca nopxno uonounocvn. K.wuuuo - nanan, S-o-
aano uaorny1an 1yna1an xoc1r, xo1oan conAonno1cn c rypu-
no u c axomuaArnwm o1oc1xom Aona1xu, oaayn epouuou.w
uuuumu u oupo+uo.tuou.wuuuumu cyc1anw.
Jononuo - nAocxan xoc1r 1oyroArno qomw, nuAoramman
x aapno nonoxnoc1u rypno xAo1xu cnoo oono nonoxnoc-
1rm. a1oaArnw yroA Aona1xu aaxannunao1cn y1oAmonuom c yr-
AyAonno cyc1anno nnapuno, ynac1nymmo n oaaonanuu n.e
ueooeo ccnooo.
Kocvn cno6opno nopxno uonounocvn. H.eueoon uocnt - pAun-
nan 1yna1an xoc1r, coc1onman ua uAunpunocxoro 1oAa, xo1o-
oo nnuay nuoo1ao1 1oxrannym qomy, nnoxy umoo1 mao-
nupnym roAonxy, conAonnmmymcn c Aona1xo, oaayn maonup-
nw mnoroocnw n.eueoou ccnoo, xo1ow y noAonoxa n cnnau c
nnmoxoxponuom nauoAoo cnoopon. Enuay nAononan xoc1r aa-
xannunao1cn cAoxno yc1oonnwm mwmoAxom, oaaonannwm Ao-
xom u roAonxo, conAonnmmumucn c ooumu xoc1nmu nopnAonrn.
Jouneoon uocnt - pAunnan, 1yna1an. EoAoo maccunnw no-
xnu anuqua conAonno1cn c nAonono u Aox1ono xoc1nmu. Hux-
nu anuqua Aox1ono xoc1u (oo roAonxa) conAonno1cn c Aynono
xoc1rm. Aunnan 1yna1an .ueoon uocnt umoo1 roAonxy, xo1o-
an conAonno1cn c nAonono u Aox1ono xoc1nmu. Huxnu anuqua
Aynono xoc1u conAonno1cn c noxnum npom xoc1o aannc1rn.
Kucnt poAu1cn na 1u o1poAa: aannc1ro, nnc1r u naArw (uc.
81). Eocomr xoc1o :onncntn acnoAaram1cn n pna npa. E noxcu-
maArnom Aoxa1 (nanunan o1 Aynonoro xan) Aapronupnan, noAyAyn-
nan, 1oxrannan, rooxonupnan (cocamonupnan xoc1r); n puc1aAr-
nom - xoc1r-1anoun (oArman mnoroyroArnan), 1anouonupnan,
roAonna1an u xmnxonupnan. Koc1u aannc1rn conAonnm1cn moxpy
coo, xoc1u noxnoro npa - c aannc1no cyc1anno nonoxnoc1rm
&! &
Haonupnan roAonxa oponno xoc1u conAonno1cn c no1Ayxno
nnapuno 1aaono xoc1u, oaayn maonupnw mnorooc1nw no
:oeopeuumu ccnoo. Aunnan moxa, coopunnmman roAonxy c
1oAom oponno xoc1u, acnoAoxona nop yrAom x nocAopnomy.
V myxnun a1o1 yroA 1yno (oxoAo 130), y xonmun non1u nnmo.
To1nac nop moxo Aa1oaArno acnoAoxon oArmo no1oA, c
mopuaArno c1oonw naxopu1cn maAw no1oA. HauoAoo cAoxno
yc1oon nuxnu anuqua oponno xoc1u, na xo1oom naxopn1cn
pna momnwx mwmoAxa, aapoAonnwo rAyoxo moxmwmoAxono
nmxo, nooxopnmo nnoopu n napxoAonnuxonym nonoxnoc1r.
Hoouo.euuuu nopc1anAno1 coo cocamonupnym xoc1r, Aoxamym
n 1oAmo cyxoxuAun no1woxrAano mwmw opa, Aorxo nomy-
nwnammymcn y xunoro noAonoxa.
Maccunnan pAunnan 1yna1an o.tueepuooon uocnt - opun-
c1nonnan ua pnyx xoc1o roAonu, xo1oan conAonno1cn c opon-
no. Momnw muoxu noxnu anuqua umoo1 pna mwmoAxa,
nocymuo na cnoux noxnux xonax cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u. An
poc1uxonun coo1no1c1nun qomw mwmoAxon opa cyc1annwm no-
noxnoc1nm oArmooono xoc1u moxpy numu naxopn1cn pna
xnmonwx monucxa. Toxrannoo 1oAo oArmooono xoc1u no-
oxopu1 n oo nuxnu anuqua, numono no1woxyroArno qo-
mw, xo1ow noco1 na coo nuxnmm cyc1annym nonoxnoc1r pAn
conAononun c 1aanno xoc1rm c1onw. MopuaArnw xono oro o1-
1nny1 u oaayo1 mopuaArnym Aopwxxy.
Tonxan pAunnan 1yna1an +o.oepuooon uocnt nnuay oxan-
nunao1cn y1oAmonno Aa1oaArno Aopwxxo, cnaxonno cyc-
1anno nonoxnoc1rm.
E cnone aaAunam1 nopnAmcny, nAmcny u naArw (uc. 83).
Koc1u npeon.wcum, ucnw1wnammuo oArmym naryaxy, maccun-
nwo, nonnwo. 01o comr xoo1xux xoc1o, acnoAoxonnwx n pna
npa. E noxcumaArnom (aapnom) - 1aannan u nn1onnan xoc1u, n
puc1aArnom (noopnom) Aa1oaArno acnoAarao1cn xyonupnan
xoc1r, mopuaArno - yaxan Aapronupnan u nnoopu noo - 1u xAu-
nonupnwo xoc1u. Huxnnn cyc1annan nonoxnoc1r oArmooo-
no xoc1u u cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u Aopwxox oaaym1 nuAxy,
P u c . 8 3. locmu npaso cmonm:
1 nsmovas xocms; 2 nox mapao
xocmu; 3 mapaas xocms; 4 nas-
esuas xocms; 5 ueuansas xnuosu-
as xocms; 6 npoue+ymovas xnuosu-
as xocms; 7 l nnkcesas xocms; 8 npo-
xcuuansas qanaaa; 9 ucmansas
qanaaa; 10 cpess qanaaa; 11 ya-
pucmocms V nnkceso xocmu; 12 xyo-
suas xocms; 13 namepansas xnuo-
suas xocms; 14 nsmovm yaop
11
14
2 3 4
8
9
10
6 5
7
1
12
Ceoo.uuon xoc1r umoo1 1oAo, xo1ooo ynac1nyo1 n oaaona-
nuu no1Ayxno nnapunw, a oo no1nr oranununao1 aanua1oAr-
noo o1noc1uo u oaayo1 momnw copaAumnw yro, xoomo
nwaxonnw y noAonoxa aaymnoro. Jouooon uocnt 1axxo umo-
o1 1oAo, ynac1nymmoo n qomuonanuu no1Ayxno nnapunw, u
pno no1nu - noxnmm u nuxnmm, coopunnmmuocn moxpy coo
nop yrAom. Ha mopuaArno nonoxnoc1u yrAa umoo1cn cumquau-
aArnan nonoxnoc1r, xo1oan, coopunnncr c 1axo xo nonoxnoc-
1rm no1unonoAoxno xoc1u, oaayo1 Aoxonw cumqua.
Hooo:oouuon uocnt coc1ou1 ua maccunnoro 1oAa u 1onxoro xw-
Aa, oxannunammorocn nopnapomnwm ronom. Eorny1an nny1on-
nnn nonoxnoc1r xwAa nopnapomno xoc1u qomuyo1 nopnapom-
nym nmxy. Koc1ono-1aaonan nonoxnoc1r noco1 na coo ymxonup-
nym nonoxnoc1r, conAonnmmymcn c opnoumonno nonoxnoc1rm
xoc1a, oaayn nAocxu upecnuooonooo:oouumu ccnoo, yxon-
Aonnw momnwmu cnnaxamu, n xo1oom nax1unocxu pnuxonun
o1cy1c1nym1. EAaropan a1omy oaayo1cn nonnoo 1aaonoo xoAro,
umommoo aonnoo c1oonuo, nocymoo na coo 1nxoc1r 1yAonuma u
noopammoo oo maccunnwm xoc1nm cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u.
Taa coc1ou1 ua pnyx o1poAon - oArmoro 1aaa u maAoro 1aaa.
Eo.tuou no: oaaonan xwArnmu nopnapomnwx xoc1o u 1oAom
V noncnunnoro noanonxa. Mo.mu no: oranunon no1nnmu Aoxo-
nwx u copaAumnwx xoc1o, copaAumnwmu yramu, xoc1ono-
yronwmu cnnaxamu, xoc1om u xonnuxom.
HoAonwo o1Aunun xoncxoro 1aaa cnopn1cn n ocnonnom x oro
oArmum aamoam, oArmomy o+omy u ynoAunonum nuxnoro
o1noc1un (uc. 82). 01o cnnaano c nwnoAnonuom ocnonno qynx-
uu - 1aa xonmunw nnAno1cn nmoc1uAumom aanunammorocn n
ma1xo nAopa, xo1ow no nomn opon noxupao1 noAoc1r 1aaa no-
oa nuxnmm ano1yy. HoAonwo aaAunun 1aaa nanunam1 nonn-
An1rcn n noaac1o 8 - 10 Ao1.
Kocvn cno6opno nnxno uonounocvn. Eeopeuuon uocnt - nau-
oAoo xynnan, maccunnan 1yna1an xoc1r cxoAo1a noAonoxa. Cy-
moc1nyo1 nnman xooAnun moxpy oo pAuno u oc1om noAonoxa.
P u c . 8 2. ecxu mas:
1 onsuo mas; 2 xpmno nossouo
xocmu; 3 nossoum apees; 4 sepx-
ss nepess nossouas xocms; 5 u+-
ss nepess nossouas xocms; 6 ua-
nm mas; 7 sepmny+as snaua; 8 meno
noxoso xocmu; 9 noxosm yaopox;
10 meno ceanuo xocmu; 11 cea-
num yaop; 12 semss ceanuo xo-
cmu; 13 noxosas yaa; 14 sanupamens-
oe omsepcmue; 15 npasm xpecmoso-
nossoum cycmas; 16 xpecme
11
13
14
16 15
8
10
5
7
1
12
2 3
4
9
6
13
&! &
Haonupnan roAonxa oponno xoc1u conAonno1cn c no1Ayxno
nnapuno 1aaono xoc1u, oaayn maonupnw mnorooc1nw no
:oeopeuumu ccnoo. Aunnan moxa, coopunnmman roAonxy c
1oAom oponno xoc1u, acnoAoxona nop yrAom x nocAopnomy.
V myxnun a1o1 yroA 1yno (oxoAo 130), y xonmun non1u nnmo.
To1nac nop moxo Aa1oaArno acnoAoxon oArmo no1oA, c
mopuaArno c1oonw naxopu1cn maAw no1oA. HauoAoo cAoxno
yc1oon nuxnu anuqua oponno xoc1u, na xo1oom naxopn1cn
pna momnwx mwmoAxa, aapoAonnwo rAyoxo moxmwmoAxono
nmxo, nooxopnmo nnoopu n napxoAonnuxonym nonoxnoc1r.
Hoouo.euuuu nopc1anAno1 coo cocamonupnym xoc1r, Aoxamym
n 1oAmo cyxoxuAun no1woxrAano mwmw opa, Aorxo nomy-
nwnammymcn y xunoro noAonoxa.
Maccunnan pAunnan 1yna1an o.tueepuooon uocnt - opun-
c1nonnan ua pnyx xoc1o roAonu, xo1oan conAonno1cn c opon-
no. Momnw muoxu noxnu anuqua umoo1 pna mwmoAxa,
nocymuo na cnoux noxnux xonax cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u. An
poc1uxonun coo1no1c1nun qomw mwmoAxon opa cyc1annwm no-
noxnoc1nm oArmooono xoc1u moxpy numu naxopn1cn pna
xnmonwx monucxa. Toxrannoo 1oAo oArmooono xoc1u no-
oxopu1 n oo nuxnu anuqua, numono no1woxyroArno qo-
mw, xo1ow noco1 na coo nuxnmm cyc1annym nonoxnoc1r pAn
conAononun c 1aanno xoc1rm c1onw. MopuaArnw xono oro o1-
1nny1 u oaayo1 mopuaArnym Aopwxxy.
Tonxan pAunnan 1yna1an +o.oepuooon uocnt nnuay oxan-
nunao1cn y1oAmonno Aa1oaArno Aopwxxo, cnaxonno cyc-
1anno nonoxnoc1rm.
E cnone aaAunam1 nopnAmcny, nAmcny u naArw (uc. 83).
Koc1u npeon.wcum, ucnw1wnammuo oArmym naryaxy, maccun-
nwo, nonnwo. 01o comr xoo1xux xoc1o, acnoAoxonnwx n pna
npa. E noxcumaArnom (aapnom) - 1aannan u nn1onnan xoc1u, n
puc1aArnom (noopnom) Aa1oaArno acnoAarao1cn xyonupnan
xoc1r, mopuaArno - yaxan Aapronupnan u nnoopu noo - 1u xAu-
nonupnwo xoc1u. Huxnnn cyc1annan nonoxnoc1r oArmooo-
no xoc1u u cyc1annwo nonoxnoc1u Aopwxox oaaym1 nuAxy,
P u c . 8 3. locmu npaso cmonm:
1 nsmovas xocms; 2 nox mapao
xocmu; 3 mapaas xocms; 4 nas-
esuas xocms; 5 ueuansas xnuosu-
as xocms; 6 npoue+ymovas xnuosu-
as xocms; 7 l nnkcesas xocms; 8 npo-
xcuuansas qanaaa; 9 ucmansas
qanaaa; 10 cpess qanaaa; 11 ya-
pucmocms V nnkceso xocmu; 12 xyo-
suas xocms; 13 namepansas xnuo-
suas xocms; 14 nsmovm yaop
11
14
2 3 4
8
9
10
6 5
7
1
12
Ceoo.uuon xoc1r umoo1 1oAo, xo1ooo ynac1nyo1 n oaaona-
nuu no1Ayxno nnapunw, a oo no1nr oranununao1 aanua1oAr-
noo o1noc1uo u oaayo1 momnw copaAumnw yro, xoomo
nwaxonnw y noAonoxa aaymnoro. Jouooon uocnt 1axxo umo-
o1 1oAo, ynac1nymmoo n qomuonanuu no1Ayxno nnapunw, u
pno no1nu - noxnmm u nuxnmm, coopunnmmuocn moxpy coo
nop yrAom. Ha mopuaArno nonoxnoc1u yrAa umoo1cn cumquau-
aArnan nonoxnoc1r, xo1oan, coopunnncr c 1axo xo nonoxnoc-
1rm no1unonoAoxno xoc1u, oaayo1 Aoxonw cumqua.
Hooo:oouuon uocnt coc1ou1 ua maccunnoro 1oAa u 1onxoro xw-
Aa, oxannunammorocn nopnapomnwm ronom. Eorny1an nny1on-
nnn nonoxnoc1r xwAa nopnapomno xoc1u qomuyo1 nopnapom-
nym nmxy. Koc1ono-1aaonan nonoxnoc1r noco1 na coo ymxonup-
nym nonoxnoc1r, conAonnmmymcn c opnoumonno nonoxnoc1rm
xoc1a, oaayn nAocxu upecnuooonooo:oouumu ccnoo, yxon-
Aonnw momnwmu cnnaxamu, n xo1oom nax1unocxu pnuxonun
o1cy1c1nym1. EAaropan a1omy oaayo1cn nonnoo 1aaonoo xoAro,
umommoo aonnoo c1oonuo, nocymoo na coo 1nxoc1r 1yAonuma u
noopammoo oo maccunnwm xoc1nm cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u.
Taa coc1ou1 ua pnyx o1poAon - oArmoro 1aaa u maAoro 1aaa.
Eo.tuou no: oaaonan xwArnmu nopnapomnwx xoc1o u 1oAom
V noncnunnoro noanonxa. Mo.mu no: oranunon no1nnmu Aoxo-
nwx u copaAumnwx xoc1o, copaAumnwmu yramu, xoc1ono-
yronwmu cnnaxamu, xoc1om u xonnuxom.
HoAonwo o1Aunun xoncxoro 1aaa cnopn1cn n ocnonnom x oro
oArmum aamoam, oArmomy o+omy u ynoAunonum nuxnoro
o1noc1un (uc. 82). 01o cnnaano c nwnoAnonuom ocnonno qynx-
uu - 1aa xonmunw nnAno1cn nmoc1uAumom aanunammorocn n
ma1xo nAopa, xo1ow no nomn opon noxupao1 noAoc1r 1aaa no-
oa nuxnmm ano1yy. HoAonwo aaAunun 1aaa nanunam1 nonn-
An1rcn n noaac1o 8 - 10 Ao1.
Kocvn cno6opno nnxno uonounocvn. Eeopeuuon uocnt - nau-
oAoo xynnan, maccunnan 1yna1an xoc1r cxoAo1a noAonoxa. Cy-
moc1nyo1 nnman xooAnun moxpy oo pAuno u oc1om noAonoxa.
P u c . 8 2. ecxu mas:
1 onsuo mas; 2 xpmno nossouo
xocmu; 3 nossoum apees; 4 sepx-
ss nepess nossouas xocms; 5 u+-
ss nepess nossouas xocms; 6 ua-
nm mas; 7 sepmny+as snaua; 8 meno
noxoso xocmu; 9 noxosm yaopox;
10 meno ceanuo xocmu; 11 cea-
num yaop; 12 semss ceanuo xo-
cmu; 13 noxosas yaa; 14 sanupamens-
oe omsepcmue; 15 npasm xpecmoso-
nossoum cycmas; 16 xpecme
11
13
14
16 15
8
10
5
7
1
12
2 3
4
9
6
13
&# &"
moqoquauoAorunocxux noxaaa1oAo (1oAmunw noAoxon, copo-
xanun n nux muorAouna, xoAunoc1na mu1oxonpu, ax1unnoc1u
oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on) aaAunam1 xacnwo, oAwo u nomo-
xy1onnwo nonoonnonoAoca1wo mwmonnwo noAoxna. Kpocume oo
.ouuo ora1w caxonAaamo, muorAounom u mu1oxonpunmu, ax-
1unnoc1r oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on n nux nwcoxan, opnaxo onu
camwo 1onxuo, xoAunoc1no muoquuAA n nux nonoAuxo, u onu
acnoAoxonw rynnamu. EoAoo 1oAc1wo npo+enouume oo.ou
uo opnoo muorAounom u mu1oxonpunmu. H naxono, camwo
1oAc1wo e.me oo.ouuo copoxa1 monrmo ncoro caxonAaamw, muo-
rAouna u mu1oxonpu, no xoAunoc1no muoquuAA n nux oAr-
mo, u acnoAaram1cn onu annomono, n nux nuxo ax1unnoc1r
oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on. C1yx1ya u qynxun noAoxon noaa-
wnno cnnaanw moxpy coo. C qynxuonaArno 1onxu aonun,
mwma coc1ou1 ua pnura1oArnwx opunu. Kaxpan ooueone.tuon
eouuuuo- a1o rynna mwmonnwx noAoxon (muocumnAac1on), un-
nonuyomwx opnum pnura1oArnwm noonom noopnux oron cnun-
noro moara, xo1owo coxamam1cn opnonomonno. V noAonoxa pnu-
ra1oArnan opunua, xax nanuAo, coc1ou1 ua 150 (u oAoo) mw-
monnwx noAoxon, nunom n aaAunnwx mwmax nucAo noAoxon,
nxopnmux n coc1an pnura1oArno opunuw, aaAunno. Tax, na-
numo, n nayxno nnmo mwmo rAaaa noAonoxa pnura1oAr-
nan opunua nxAmnao1 13 - 20 mwmonnwx noAoxon, n pnyrAano
mwmo nAona - ?50 - 1000, n mopuaArno roAonxo uxonoxno
mwmw - 1500 - 2000 (H. Pmarr, 1985). Eypynu unnonuyomw-
mu opnum pnura1oArnwm noonom, nco mwmonnwo noAoxna opno
pnura1oArno opunuw coxamam1cn opnonomonno, no aaAun-
nwo pnura1oArnwo opunuw mory1 coxama1rcn xax opnonomon-
no, 1ax u nocAopona1oArno.
HonoonnonoAoca1wo mwmonnwo noAoxna opno pnura1oArno
opunuw upon1unnw no cnoomy c1oonum u qynxuonaArnwm oco-
onnoc1nm. PaaAunam1 pno aanonupnoc1u pnura1oArnwx opunu:
mopAonnwo u wc1wo. Meo.euume ooueone.tume eouuuum coc1o-
n1 ua nooArmoro nucAa ora1wx mu1oxonpunmu u oxucAu1oAr-
nwmu qomon1amu xacnwx mwmonnwx noAoxon, xo1owo xoo-
mo xonocnaxam1cn (4 - 6 xanuAAnon na opno mwmonnoo no-
Aoxno). Taxuo pnura1oArnwo opunuw aanunam1 nooArmym cuAy,
coxamam1cn mopAonno, nwnoAnnm1 pAu1oArnym ao1y ymoon-
no momnoc1u, nax1unocxu no y1omAnncr.
Emcnpme ooueone.tume eouuuum, n cnom onoopr, nopaapo-
Anm1cn na pno rynnw: Aorxo y1omAnomwo u yc1onunwo x y1om-
Aonum. orxo y1omAnomwo oaaonanw oArmum xoAunoc1nom o-
Awx mwmonnwx noAoxon, onu coxamam1cn c oArmo cxooc-
1rm, aanunan nu a1om oArmym cuAy, opnaxo wc1o y1omAnm1-
cn. 01u pnura1oArnwo opunuw cnoconw nwnoAnn1r oArmym
xo1oan oxna1wnao1 Aox 1aanno xoc1u cnoxy u c oxon, oa-
ayn cAoxnw Aoxonupnw eo.euocnonumu ccnoo. Koc1u nop-
nAmcnw coopunonw moxpy coo mnoxoc1nom cyc1anon.
Hn1r xoo1xux 1yna1wx n.wcueomr xoc1o cnoumu ocnona-
nunmu conAonnm1cn c xAunonupnwmu u xyonupno xoc1nmu, o-
aayn maAonopnuxnwo npeon.wcuen.wcueome ccnoom, a cnou-
mu roAonxamu - c ocnonanunmu coo1no1c1nymmux noxcumaArnwx
qaAanr.
CxoAo1 naAron oaaonan xoo1xumu 1yna1wmu xoc1nmu -
qo.oueo+u. KoAunoc1no ux coo1no1c1nyo1 qaAanram naAron xuc-
1u, opnaxo onu o1Aunam1cn nooArmumu aamoamu.
C1ona noAonoxa - oran onow u noopnuxonun- noco1 na coo
ncm 1nxoc1r noAononocxoro 1oAa. 01o naxAapwnao1 cymoc1nonnw
o1nona1ox na oo c1oonuo u xaax1o coopunonun xoc1o. Cnono
nocnpoeuo no nun npouuou u npeou cooouonou opuu c uopon
uu+u no.tuo+u. Ocnonnwo ocoonnoc1u c1oonun c1onw conomon-
noro noAonoxa aaymnoro - a1o naAunuo cnopon, nonnoc1r, no-
nuonannoo noAoxonuo, yxonAonuo mopuaArnoro xan, yxoono-
nuo naAron, yxonAonuo u nunoponuo nonoro naAra, xo1ow,
n o1Aunuo o1 oArmoro naAra xuc1u, no no1unonoc1anAno1cn oc-
1aArnwm, u acmuonuo oro puc1aArno qaAanru. omuonanuo
cnopon oycAonAono 1om, n1o xoc1u mopuaArnoro xan nopnAmc-
nw Aoxa1 nwmo, nom xoc1u Aa1oaArnoro xan. CAopyo1 nopnox-
ny1r, uvo Anmn y uoAonoua nmoovcx cnopuavax cvona. Ona nopc1an-
Aona nn1rm nopoArnwmu u opnum nonoonnwm cnopamu (pyra-
mu), xo1owo oamonw nwnyxAoc1rm xnoxy.
AKTHBHAR HACTL
OROPHO-BHFATERLHOFO ARRAPATA
CuoAovnmo mmmm nunopn1 n pnuxonuo xoc1u, ax1unno uamo-
nnm1 noAoxonuo 1oAa noAonoxa, ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu c1onox
o1ono, mmno noAoc1o, 1aaa, nxopn1 n coc1an c1onox rAo1xu,
noxno nac1u numonopa, ro1anu, ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun rAaano-
ro nAoxa u cAyxonwx xoc1onox, pwxa1oArnwo u rAo1a1oArnwo pnu-
xonun. CxoAo1nwo mwmw ypoxunam1 1oAo noAonoxa n annono-
cuu, noomomam1 oro n noc1anc1no. Oman macca cxoAo1no myc-
xyAa1yw nonooxponnoro oonxa 20 - 22% maccw 1oAa; naocAoro
noAonoxa poc1urao1 40%; noxuAwx u c1awx Ampo ymonrmao1cn po
25 - 30%. V noAonoxa oxoAo 400 nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwm, coxa-
mammuxcn nouanoArno nop noapoc1nuom umnyArcon, noc1ynammux
no nonam ua on1aArno nonno cuc1omw.
Hynxu nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwmonnwx noAoxon oaaym1 cxo-
Ao1nwo mwmw, xo1owo unnonuym1cn pnura1oArnwmu noo-
namu noopnux oron cnunnoro moara. E aanucumoc1u o1 npa
&# &"
moqoquauoAorunocxux noxaaa1oAo (1oAmunw noAoxon, copo-
xanun n nux muorAouna, xoAunoc1na mu1oxonpu, ax1unnoc1u
oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on) aaAunam1 xacnwo, oAwo u nomo-
xy1onnwo nonoonnonoAoca1wo mwmonnwo noAoxna. Kpocume oo
.ouuo ora1w caxonAaamo, muorAounom u mu1oxonpunmu, ax-
1unnoc1r oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on n nux nwcoxan, opnaxo onu
camwo 1onxuo, xoAunoc1no muoquuAA n nux nonoAuxo, u onu
acnoAoxonw rynnamu. EoAoo 1oAc1wo npo+enouume oo.ou
uo opnoo muorAounom u mu1oxonpunmu. H naxono, camwo
1oAc1wo e.me oo.ouuo copoxa1 monrmo ncoro caxonAaamw, muo-
rAouna u mu1oxonpu, no xoAunoc1no muoquuAA n nux oAr-
mo, u acnoAaram1cn onu annomono, n nux nuxo ax1unnoc1r
oxucAu1oArnwx qomon1on. C1yx1ya u qynxun noAoxon noaa-
wnno cnnaanw moxpy coo. C qynxuonaArno 1onxu aonun,
mwma coc1ou1 ua pnura1oArnwx opunu. Kaxpan ooueone.tuon
eouuuuo- a1o rynna mwmonnwx noAoxon (muocumnAac1on), un-
nonuyomwx opnum pnura1oArnwm noonom noopnux oron cnun-
noro moara, xo1owo coxamam1cn opnonomonno. V noAonoxa pnu-
ra1oArnan opunua, xax nanuAo, coc1ou1 ua 150 (u oAoo) mw-
monnwx noAoxon, nunom n aaAunnwx mwmax nucAo noAoxon,
nxopnmux n coc1an pnura1oArno opunuw, aaAunno. Tax, na-
numo, n nayxno nnmo mwmo rAaaa noAonoxa pnura1oAr-
nan opunua nxAmnao1 13 - 20 mwmonnwx noAoxon, n pnyrAano
mwmo nAona - ?50 - 1000, n mopuaArno roAonxo uxonoxno
mwmw - 1500 - 2000 (H. Pmarr, 1985). Eypynu unnonuyomw-
mu opnum pnura1oArnwm noonom, nco mwmonnwo noAoxna opno
pnura1oArno opunuw coxamam1cn opnonomonno, no aaAun-
nwo pnura1oArnwo opunuw mory1 coxama1rcn xax opnonomon-
no, 1ax u nocAopona1oArno.
HonoonnonoAoca1wo mwmonnwo noAoxna opno pnura1oArno
opunuw upon1unnw no cnoomy c1oonum u qynxuonaArnwm oco-
onnoc1nm. PaaAunam1 pno aanonupnoc1u pnura1oArnwx opunu:
mopAonnwo u wc1wo. Meo.euume ooueone.tume eouuuum coc1o-
n1 ua nooArmoro nucAa ora1wx mu1oxonpunmu u oxucAu1oAr-
nwmu qomon1amu xacnwx mwmonnwx noAoxon, xo1owo xoo-
mo xonocnaxam1cn (4 - 6 xanuAAnon na opno mwmonnoo no-
Aoxno). Taxuo pnura1oArnwo opunuw aanunam1 nooArmym cuAy,
coxamam1cn mopAonno, nwnoAnnm1 pAu1oArnym ao1y ymoon-
no momnoc1u, nax1unocxu no y1omAnncr.
Emcnpme ooueone.tume eouuuum, n cnom onoopr, nopaapo-
Anm1cn na pno rynnw: Aorxo y1omAnomwo u yc1onunwo x y1om-
Aonum. orxo y1omAnomwo oaaonanw oArmum xoAunoc1nom o-
Awx mwmonnwx noAoxon, onu coxamam1cn c oArmo cxooc-
1rm, aanunan nu a1om oArmym cuAy, opnaxo wc1o y1omAnm1-
cn. 01u pnura1oArnwo opunuw cnoconw nwnoAnn1r oArmym
xo1oan oxna1wnao1 Aox 1aanno xoc1u cnoxy u c oxon, oa-
ayn cAoxnw Aoxonupnw eo.euocnonumu ccnoo. Koc1u nop-
nAmcnw coopunonw moxpy coo mnoxoc1nom cyc1anon.
Hn1r xoo1xux 1yna1wx n.wcueomr xoc1o cnoumu ocnona-
nunmu conAonnm1cn c xAunonupnwmu u xyonupno xoc1nmu, o-
aayn maAonopnuxnwo npeon.wcuen.wcueome ccnoom, a cnou-
mu roAonxamu - c ocnonanunmu coo1no1c1nymmux noxcumaArnwx
qaAanr.
CxoAo1 naAron oaaonan xoo1xumu 1yna1wmu xoc1nmu -
qo.oueo+u. KoAunoc1no ux coo1no1c1nyo1 qaAanram naAron xuc-
1u, opnaxo onu o1Aunam1cn nooArmumu aamoamu.
C1ona noAonoxa - oran onow u noopnuxonun- noco1 na coo
ncm 1nxoc1r noAononocxoro 1oAa. 01o naxAapwnao1 cymoc1nonnw
o1nona1ox na oo c1oonuo u xaax1o coopunonun xoc1o. Cnono
nocnpoeuo no nun npouuou u npeou cooouonou opuu c uopon
uu+u no.tuo+u. Ocnonnwo ocoonnoc1u c1oonun c1onw conomon-
noro noAonoxa aaymnoro - a1o naAunuo cnopon, nonnoc1r, no-
nuonannoo noAoxonuo, yxonAonuo mopuaArnoro xan, yxoono-
nuo naAron, yxonAonuo u nunoponuo nonoro naAra, xo1ow,
n o1Aunuo o1 oArmoro naAra xuc1u, no no1unonoc1anAno1cn oc-
1aArnwm, u acmuonuo oro puc1aArno qaAanru. omuonanuo
cnopon oycAonAono 1om, n1o xoc1u mopuaArnoro xan nopnAmc-
nw Aoxa1 nwmo, nom xoc1u Aa1oaArnoro xan. CAopyo1 nopnox-
ny1r, uvo Anmn y uoAonoua nmoovcx cnopuavax cvona. Ona nopc1an-
Aona nn1rm nopoArnwmu u opnum nonoonnwm cnopamu (pyra-
mu), xo1owo oamonw nwnyxAoc1rm xnoxy.
AKTHBHAR HACTL
OROPHO-BHFATERLHOFO ARRAPATA
CuoAovnmo mmmm nunopn1 n pnuxonuo xoc1u, ax1unno uamo-
nnm1 noAoxonuo 1oAa noAonoxa, ynac1nym1 n oaaonanuu c1onox
o1ono, mmno noAoc1o, 1aaa, nxopn1 n coc1an c1onox rAo1xu,
noxno nac1u numonopa, ro1anu, ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun rAaano-
ro nAoxa u cAyxonwx xoc1onox, pwxa1oArnwo u rAo1a1oArnwo pnu-
xonun. CxoAo1nwo mwmw ypoxunam1 1oAo noAonoxa n annono-
cuu, noomomam1 oro n noc1anc1no. Oman macca cxoAo1no myc-
xyAa1yw nonooxponnoro oonxa 20 - 22% maccw 1oAa; naocAoro
noAonoxa poc1urao1 40%; noxuAwx u c1awx Ampo ymonrmao1cn po
25 - 30%. V noAonoxa oxoAo 400 nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwm, coxa-
mammuxcn nouanoArno nop noapoc1nuom umnyArcon, noc1ynammux
no nonam ua on1aArno nonno cuc1omw.
Hynxu nonoonnonoAoca1wx mwmonnwx noAoxon oaaym1 cxo-
Ao1nwo mwmw, xo1owo unnonuym1cn pnura1oArnwmu noo-
namu noopnux oron cnunnoro moara. E aanucumoc1u o1 npa
&% &$
noxo1owx pnuxonunx noAo-
xonun quxcuonanno u nop-
nuxno 1onox monnm1cn.
Eypynu o1nocu1oArno 1onxum, cyxoxuAuo maAoac1nxumo, o-
Aapao1 ananu1oArno nonnoc1rm u nwpoxunao1 oromnwo na-
ryaxu. Tax, nanumo, cyxoxuAuo no1woxrAano mwmw opa
cnocono nwpoxa1r ac1nxonuo cuAo n 600 xr, axuAAono cyxo-
xuAuo - n 400 xr.
Mwmw umom1 np ncnomora1oArnwx oaaonanu. Kaxpan
mwma uAu rynna cxopnwx no qynxunm mwm oxyxonw cno-
o coc1nonno qocuueu. Cuuoouo.tuoe o.oeo.ue o1poAno1 pnu-
xymoocn cyxoxuAuo o1 nonopnuxnwx c1onox quoanoro nAara-
Auma u yc1anno1 ux 1onuo. CunonuaArnoo nAaraAumo nopc1an-
Ano1 coo aanoAnonnym nooArmum xoAunoc1nom xupxoc1u no-
Aoc1r, oranunonnym nucoaArnwm u nauo1aArnwm Auc1xamu.
CxoAo1nwo mwmw 1oAa noAonoxa nopaapoAnm1cn na mwmw
roAonw, mou, cnunw, xuno1a, xononnoc1o (uc. 85, 86).
Mmmm roAonm poAn1cn na pno rynnw: mumunocxuo u xona-
1oArnwo. E npo cAynaon onu qynxuonuym1 conmoc1no (nAono-
aapoArnan onr, xonanuo, rAo1anuo, aono1a). Mu+uuecuue +mu
um acnoAaram1cn nop xoxo Aua, n ocnonnom apuaArno uAu
uxyAnno noxyr o1onoro, noconoro o1noc1u, rAaanuw, na-
yxnoro cAyxonoro noxopa. Onu nanunam1cn o1 xoc1o uAu qac-
u u nnAo1am1cn n xoxy, ocymoc1nAnn mumunocxuo pnuxonun.
K mumunocxum o1nocn1cn mwmw cnopa noona, ymno axonu-
nw, oxyxnoc1u rAaano u o1ono moAo, noconwx o1noc1u.
eoone.tume +muum acnoAaram1cn na oxonwx o1poAax no-
ona no no1wo c xaxpo c1oonw, pno ua nux (eoone.tuon u
oucouuon) - oAoo nonoxnoc1no, pno (upm.oououme) - n nuxnonu-
conno nmxo. Eco onu nanunam1cn na xoc1nx Aua u nuxonAnm1-
cn x nuxno noAmc1u, nunopn oo n pnuxonuo. Hona1oArnwo mwm-
w noAonoxa monoo aanu1w, nom y noAonoxooaanwx ooarnn.
Mmmm cnnnm acnoAaram1cn nocAono. PaaAunam1 nonox-
noc1nwo u rAyoxuo mwmw. Honoxnoc1nwo mwmw (nponeuue
ououon, uupououuon cnuum, o.tuon u +o.on po+oououme, noo
uu+owon .ononu, oeprunn u uuunn :oouue po+oououme, nu-
xonAnm1cn x Aona1xo, xAmnuo, nAonono xoc1u u ocymoc1nAn-
m1 ux pnuxonuo. HocAopnuo pno nuxonAnm1cn x oam,
ynac1nym1 n ax1o npoxa. IAyoxuo mwmw (pe+euuon +muuo ueu
u eo.oom, +muuo, omnpn+.nwon no:oououuuu, - ocoo aanu1a y
noAonoxa n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom, nonepeuuoocnucnon, +eoc
nucnme u +enonepeuume) aaruam1 noanononnux u ypoxunam1
P u c . 8 4. Cxeua avana
u npuxpenneus umum:
1 umuevme nyvxu; 2 cyxo+unue
2
1
ao1y n 1ononuo xoo1xoro nomonu. Emcnpme, cnouuuome u no+
.euuw ooueone.tume eouuuum cuArnwo u coxamam1cn wc1o. Onu
oaaonanw nomoxy1onnwmu noAoxnamu, xo1owo no cnoum moqo-
qynxuonaArnwm ocoonnoc1nm aanumam1 noAoxonuo moxpy mopAon-
nwmu noy1omAnomwmu (xacnwo) u wc1wmu y1omAnomwmu (oAwo).
CxoAo1nwo mwmw noAonoxa copoxa1 mwmonnwo noAoxna ncox
1unon, opnaxo n aanucumoc1u o1 qynxuu mwmw n no nooAapa-
o1 1o1 uAu uno 1un noAoxon. Hanumo, n no1woxrAano mwmo
opa noAonoxa o1nocu1oArnoo xoAunoc1no xacnwx noAoxon (mop-
Aonnwx opunu) xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 40 po 98%. E 1o xo
nomn coo1nomonuo 1ox u pyrux n xaxpo mwmo c1oro unpunu-
pyaArno u po1omunuonano rono1unocxu. Hom oArmo n mwmax
oAwx (wc1wx) noAoxon, 1om noAonox Aynmo nucnocoAon x nw-
noAnonum quaunocxo ao1w, 1oymmo oArmo cuAw u cxoo-
c1u; nom oArmo xacnwx (mopAonnwx) noAoxon, 1om nwnocAunoo
noAonox. AnaAorunnwo o1nomonun u y xuno1nwx. V pAu1oArno
Ao1ammux n1u, nanumo, n rypnwx mwmax nooAapam1 xac-
nwo noAoxna, n 1o nomn xax y noAo1ammux xy - oAwo.
Mmma uau opran coc1ou1 ua nynxon nonoonnonoAoca1wx
mwmonnwx noAoxon, xaxpoo ua xo1owx noxw1o coopunu1oArno1-
xanno ooAonxo (anpomuau). Hynxu noAoxon aaAunno noAu-
nunw o1poAonw pyr o1 pyra nocAoxamu coopunu1oArno 1xanu,
xo1owo oaaym1 noumuau. Mwma n oAom noxw1a nayx-
nwm noumuauom (anumuau), xo1ow nooxopu1 na cyxoxuAuo
(uc. 84). Ha anumuaun n mwmy nonuxam1 xononocnwo cocypw,
aano1nAnmmuocn no nny1onnom noumuauu u anpomuauu, n nocAo-
pnom acnoAaram1cn xanuAAnw u nonnwo noAoxna. Mwmw u
cyxoxuAun ora1w nync1nu1oArnwmu nonnwmu oxonnanunmu, noc-
nunumammumu mwmonnoo u cyxoxuArnoo nync1no - unqoma-
um o 1onyco mwmonnwx noAoxon, c1ononu ux coxamonun, ac1n-
xonuu cyxoxuAu - u noopammumu oo no nonam n moar. 01u
oon1ow oaaym1 nonno-mwmonnwo u nonno-cyxoxuArnwo no-
o1ona, oxyxonnwo coopunu1oArno1xanno xancyAo. nura1oAr-
nwo oxonnanun axconon oaaym1 mo1onwo Anmxu (axcomwmon-
nwo cunancw), nanomunammuo no cnoomy c1oonum cunancw.
Mwmonnwo nynxu qomuym1 mmxo, nooxopnmoo n cyxo-
xuArnym nac1r. HoxcumaArnw o1poA mwmw- oo roAonxa - na-
nunao1cn o1 xoc1u; puc1aArnw xono- xnoc1 (cyxoxuAuo) - nu-
xonAno1cn x pyro xoc1u. HcxAmnonuom ua a1oro nanuAa nnAn-
m1cn mumunocxuo mwmw, mwmw pna noAoc1u 1a u nomoxnoc-
1u, xo1owo no nuxonAnm1cn x xoc1nm. HanaAo mwmw naxo-
pu1cn noxcumaArnoo, nom 1onxa oo nuxonAonun, xo1oan
acnoAarao1cn puc1aArnoo. HanaAo coxamammocn mwmw oc-
1ao1cn nonopnuxnwm, a1o oo quxcuonannan 1onxa. Ha pyro
xoc1u, x xo1oo nuxonAnm1cn mwmw, naxopu1cn nopnuxnan
1onxa. Hu coxamonuu mwmw ona uamonno1 cnoo noAoxonuo. Hu
&% &$
noxo1owx pnuxonunx noAo-
xonun quxcuonanno u nop-
nuxno 1onox monnm1cn.
Eypynu o1nocu1oArno 1onxum, cyxoxuAuo maAoac1nxumo, o-
Aapao1 ananu1oArno nonnoc1rm u nwpoxunao1 oromnwo na-
ryaxu. Tax, nanumo, cyxoxuAuo no1woxrAano mwmw opa
cnocono nwpoxa1r ac1nxonuo cuAo n 600 xr, axuAAono cyxo-
xuAuo - n 400 xr.
Mwmw umom1 np ncnomora1oArnwx oaaonanu. Kaxpan
mwma uAu rynna cxopnwx no qynxunm mwm oxyxonw cno-
o coc1nonno qocuueu. Cuuoouo.tuoe o.oeo.ue o1poAno1 pnu-
xymoocn cyxoxuAuo o1 nonopnuxnwx c1onox quoanoro nAara-
Auma u yc1anno1 ux 1onuo. CunonuaArnoo nAaraAumo nopc1an-
Ano1 coo aanoAnonnym nooArmum xoAunoc1nom xupxoc1u no-
Aoc1r, oranunonnym nucoaArnwm u nauo1aArnwm Auc1xamu.
CxoAo1nwo mwmw 1oAa noAonoxa nopaapoAnm1cn na mwmw
roAonw, mou, cnunw, xuno1a, xononnoc1o (uc. 85, 86).
Mmmm roAonm poAn1cn na pno rynnw: mumunocxuo u xona-
1oArnwo. E npo cAynaon onu qynxuonuym1 conmoc1no (nAono-
aapoArnan onr, xonanuo, rAo1anuo, aono1a). Mu+uuecuue +mu
um acnoAaram1cn nop xoxo Aua, n ocnonnom apuaArno uAu
uxyAnno noxyr o1onoro, noconoro o1noc1u, rAaanuw, na-
yxnoro cAyxonoro noxopa. Onu nanunam1cn o1 xoc1o uAu qac-
u u nnAo1am1cn n xoxy, ocymoc1nAnn mumunocxuo pnuxonun.
K mumunocxum o1nocn1cn mwmw cnopa noona, ymno axonu-
nw, oxyxnoc1u rAaano u o1ono moAo, noconwx o1noc1u.
eoone.tume +muum acnoAaram1cn na oxonwx o1poAax no-
ona no no1wo c xaxpo c1oonw, pno ua nux (eoone.tuon u
oucouuon) - oAoo nonoxnoc1no, pno (upm.oououme) - n nuxnonu-
conno nmxo. Eco onu nanunam1cn na xoc1nx Aua u nuxonAnm1-
cn x nuxno noAmc1u, nunopn oo n pnuxonuo. Hona1oArnwo mwm-
w noAonoxa monoo aanu1w, nom y noAonoxooaanwx ooarnn.
Mmmm cnnnm acnoAaram1cn nocAono. PaaAunam1 nonox-
noc1nwo u rAyoxuo mwmw. Honoxnoc1nwo mwmw (nponeuue
ououon, uupououuon cnuum, o.tuon u +o.on po+oououme, noo
uu+owon .ononu, oeprunn u uuunn :oouue po+oououme, nu-
xonAnm1cn x Aona1xo, xAmnuo, nAonono xoc1u u ocymoc1nAn-
m1 ux pnuxonuo. HocAopnuo pno nuxonAnm1cn x oam,
ynac1nym1 n ax1o npoxa. IAyoxuo mwmw (pe+euuon +muuo ueu
u eo.oom, +muuo, omnpn+.nwon no:oououuuu, - ocoo aanu1a y
noAonoxa n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom, nonepeuuoocnucnon, +eoc
nucnme u +enonepeuume) aaruam1 noanononnux u ypoxunam1
P u c . 8 4. Cxeua avana
u npuxpenneus umum:
1 umuevme nyvxu; 2 cyxo+unue
2
1
ao1y n 1ononuo xoo1xoro nomonu. Emcnpme, cnouuuome u no+
.euuw ooueone.tume eouuuum cuArnwo u coxamam1cn wc1o. Onu
oaaonanw nomoxy1onnwmu noAoxnamu, xo1owo no cnoum moqo-
qynxuonaArnwm ocoonnoc1nm aanumam1 noAoxonuo moxpy mopAon-
nwmu noy1omAnomwmu (xacnwo) u wc1wmu y1omAnomwmu (oAwo).
CxoAo1nwo mwmw noAonoxa copoxa1 mwmonnwo noAoxna ncox
1unon, opnaxo n aanucumoc1u o1 qynxuu mwmw n no nooAapa-
o1 1o1 uAu uno 1un noAoxon. Hanumo, n no1woxrAano mwmo
opa noAonoxa o1nocu1oArnoo xoAunoc1no xacnwx noAoxon (mop-
Aonnwx opunu) xoAoAo1cn n nopoAax o1 40 po 98%. E 1o xo
nomn coo1nomonuo 1ox u pyrux n xaxpo mwmo c1oro unpunu-
pyaArno u po1omunuonano rono1unocxu. Hom oArmo n mwmax
oAwx (wc1wx) noAoxon, 1om noAonox Aynmo nucnocoAon x nw-
noAnonum quaunocxo ao1w, 1oymmo oArmo cuAw u cxoo-
c1u; nom oArmo xacnwx (mopAonnwx) noAoxon, 1om nwnocAunoo
noAonox. AnaAorunnwo o1nomonun u y xuno1nwx. V pAu1oArno
Ao1ammux n1u, nanumo, n rypnwx mwmax nooAapam1 xac-
nwo noAoxna, n 1o nomn xax y noAo1ammux xy - oAwo.
Mmma uau opran coc1ou1 ua nynxon nonoonnonoAoca1wx
mwmonnwx noAoxon, xaxpoo ua xo1owx noxw1o coopunu1oArno1-
xanno ooAonxo (anpomuau). Hynxu noAoxon aaAunno noAu-
nunw o1poAonw pyr o1 pyra nocAoxamu coopunu1oArno 1xanu,
xo1owo oaaym1 noumuau. Mwma n oAom noxw1a nayx-
nwm noumuauom (anumuau), xo1ow nooxopu1 na cyxoxuAuo
(uc. 84). Ha anumuaun n mwmy nonuxam1 xononocnwo cocypw,
aano1nAnmmuocn no nny1onnom noumuauu u anpomuauu, n nocAo-
pnom acnoAaram1cn xanuAAnw u nonnwo noAoxna. Mwmw u
cyxoxuAun ora1w nync1nu1oArnwmu nonnwmu oxonnanunmu, noc-
nunumammumu mwmonnoo u cyxoxuArnoo nync1no - unqoma-
um o 1onyco mwmonnwx noAoxon, c1ononu ux coxamonun, ac1n-
xonuu cyxoxuAu - u noopammumu oo no nonam n moar. 01u
oon1ow oaaym1 nonno-mwmonnwo u nonno-cyxoxuArnwo no-
o1ona, oxyxonnwo coopunu1oArno1xanno xancyAo. nura1oAr-
nwo oxonnanun axconon oaaym1 mo1onwo Anmxu (axcomwmon-
nwo cunancw), nanomunammuo no cnoomy c1oonum cunancw.
Mwmonnwo nynxu qomuym1 mmxo, nooxopnmoo n cyxo-
xuArnym nac1r. HoxcumaArnw o1poA mwmw- oo roAonxa - na-
nunao1cn o1 xoc1u; puc1aArnw xono- xnoc1 (cyxoxuAuo) - nu-
xonAno1cn x pyro xoc1u. HcxAmnonuom ua a1oro nanuAa nnAn-
m1cn mumunocxuo mwmw, mwmw pna noAoc1u 1a u nomoxnoc-
1u, xo1owo no nuxonAnm1cn x xoc1nm. HanaAo mwmw naxo-
pu1cn noxcumaArnoo, nom 1onxa oo nuxonAonun, xo1oan
acnoAarao1cn puc1aArnoo. HanaAo coxamammocn mwmw oc-
1ao1cn nonopnuxnwm, a1o oo quxcuonannan 1onxa. Ha pyro
xoc1u, x xo1oo nuxonAnm1cn mwmw, naxopu1cn nopnuxnan
1onxa. Hu coxamonuu mwmw ona uamonno1 cnoo noAoxonuo. Hu
&' &&
P u c . 8 6. Hosepxocmme
umum (sass nosepxocms):
1 sucovas umua; 2 sammnov-
oe pkuxo sammnovo-noo
umum; 3 apyuo-xnkvuvo-co-
cesuas umua; 4 mpaneue-
suas umua; 5 ensmosuas
umua; 6 onsuas xpyanas umu-
a; 7 nuas aonosxa mpexana-
so umum nneva; 8 ueuansas
aonosxa mpexanaso umum nneva;
9 nnevesas umua; 10 uupova-
uas umua cnum; 11 noxmeso
cauamens sanscmss; 12 nosep-
xocmm cauamens nanses;
13 noxmeso pasauamens sansc-
mss; 14 pasauamens uusua;
15 pasauamens nanses; 16 cpe-
ss saouvas umua; 17 onsuas
saouvas umua; 18 nossou-
o-onsueeposm mpaxm uupo-
xo qacuu epa; 19 nuas
aonosxa syanaso umum epa;
20 nonycyxo+unsas umua;
21 nonynepenovamas umua;
22 uxpoo+as umua; 23 xau-
anosuas umua; 24 nuas
uanoeposas umua; 25 xopom-
xas uanoeposas umua; 26 ns-
movoe (axunnoso) cyxo+unue;
27 moxas umua; 28 umua,
omsosas uusue; 29 pasaua-
mens nanses; 30 pasauamens
uusua; 31 mmnsme ue+xocmme
umum; 32 apy+as xocas umu-
a +usoma; 33 noxmesas umua;
34 onsuas pouosuas umua;
35 namepansas aonosxa mpex-
anaso umum nneva; 36 no-
ocmas umua
1oAo noAonoxa n no1uxaArnom
noAoxonuu. Ho1wo noo:onm.ou
ume +muum (oArman u maAan
nnmwo, noxnnn u nuxnnn xo-
cwo) ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun
roAonw.
Mmmm mon poAn1cn na pno
oArmuo rynnw: mwmw, Aoxamuo nonox ro1anu u xononoc-
nwx cocypon, u rAyoxuo. Mwm w, A o xa mu o n o n o x r o -
1 a n u u x o n o n o c n wx c o c y p o n , poAn1cn na 1u rynnw:
P u c . 8 5. Hosepxocmme
umum (nepess nosepxocms):
1 nooe pkuxo sammnovo-noo
umum; 2 umua aopeos; 3 xpy-
aosas umua anasa; 4 onsuas u ua-
nas cxynosme umum: umua, nou-
uakas yaon pma, umua, nou-
uakas sepxkk ayy u xpmno oca;
5 umua cuexa: umua, onycxakas
yaon pma; 6 ensmosuas umua;
7 xopomxas aonosxa syanaso umu-
m nneva; 8 nuas aonosxa sya-
naso umum nneva; 9 namepansas
aonosxa, nuas aonosxa mpexanaso
umum nneva; 10 nnevesas umua;
11 xpyanm npoamop; 12 nneveny-
vesas umua; 13 nuas umua,
omsosas onsuo nane xucmu;
14 nyveso cauamens sanscmss;
15 umua, omsosas uusue;
16 xopomxas umua, omsosas
onsuo nane xucmu; 17 anpsaa-
mens uupoxo qacuu epa; 18 no-
ssouo-noscuvas umua; 19 ape-
evamas umua; 20 nuas npu-
sosas umua; 21 moxas umua;
22 npsuas umua epa; 23 nop-
ms+as umua; 24 namepansas
uupoxas umua epa, ueuansas
uupoxas umua epa; 25 nepess
onsueeposas umua; 26 umua,
omsosas onsuo nane cmonm;
27 cyxo+unue nuoao pasauame-
ns nansa; 28 nsmovoe (axunnoso)
cyxo+unue; 29 num cauamens
nanses cmonm; 30 xauanosuas
umua; 31 uxpoo+as umua; 32 xo-
pomxas naoas umua; 33 nu-
as naoas umua; 34 anoespos
apy+o xoco umum +usoma;
35 npsuas umua +usoma; 36 a-
py+as xocas umua +usoma; 37 ne-
pess syvamas umua; 38 uupo-
vauas umua cnum; 39 onsuas
apyas umua; 40 apyuo-no-
ssmvas umua; 41 apyuo-xnk-
vuvo-cocesuas umua; 42 no-
xo+as umua ueu; 43 umua, onyc-
xakas u+kk ayy
28
29
30
26
27
32
33
34
38
39
40
36
35
37
31
42
43
41
22
23
24
25
21
11
13
14
18
19
20
16
15
17
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
1
12
22
23
24
28
29
30
26
25
27
21
11
13
14
18
19
20
16
15
17
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
12
1
32
33
34
36
35
31
&' &&
P u c . 8 6. Hosepxocmme
umum (sass nosepxocms):
1 sucovas umua; 2 sammnov-
oe pkuxo sammnovo-noo
umum; 3 apyuo-xnkvuvo-co-
cesuas umua; 4 mpaneue-
suas umua; 5 ensmosuas
umua; 6 onsuas xpyanas umu-
a; 7 nuas aonosxa mpexana-
so umum nneva; 8 ueuansas
aonosxa mpexanaso umum nneva;
9 nnevesas umua; 10 uupova-
uas umua cnum; 11 noxmeso
cauamens sanscmss; 12 nosep-
xocmm cauamens nanses;
13 noxmeso pasauamens sansc-
mss; 14 pasauamens uusua;
15 pasauamens nanses; 16 cpe-
ss saouvas umua; 17 onsuas
saouvas umua; 18 nossou-
o-onsueeposm mpaxm uupo-
xo qacuu epa; 19 nuas
aonosxa syanaso umum epa;
20 nonycyxo+unsas umua;
21 nonynepenovamas umua;
22 uxpoo+as umua; 23 xau-
anosuas umua; 24 nuas
uanoeposas umua; 25 xopom-
xas uanoeposas umua; 26 ns-
movoe (axunnoso) cyxo+unue;
27 moxas umua; 28 umua,
omsosas uusue; 29 pasaua-
mens nanses; 30 pasauamens
uusua; 31 mmnsme ue+xocmme
umum; 32 apy+as xocas umu-
a +usoma; 33 noxmesas umua;
34 onsuas pouosuas umua;
35 namepansas aonosxa mpex-
anaso umum nneva; 36 no-
ocmas umua
1oAo noAonoxa n no1uxaArnom
noAoxonuu. Ho1wo noo:onm.ou
ume +muum (oArman u maAan
nnmwo, noxnnn u nuxnnn xo-
cwo) ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun
roAonw.
Mmmm mon poAn1cn na pno
oArmuo rynnw: mwmw, Aoxamuo nonox ro1anu u xononoc-
nwx cocypon, u rAyoxuo. Mwm w, A o xa mu o n o n o x r o -
1 a n u u x o n o n o c n wx c o c y p o n , poAn1cn na 1u rynnw:
P u c . 8 5. Hosepxocmme
umum (nepess nosepxocms):
1 nooe pkuxo sammnovo-noo
umum; 2 umua aopeos; 3 xpy-
aosas umua anasa; 4 onsuas u ua-
nas cxynosme umum: umua, nou-
uakas yaon pma, umua, nou-
uakas sepxkk ayy u xpmno oca;
5 umua cuexa: umua, onycxakas
yaon pma; 6 ensmosuas umua;
7 xopomxas aonosxa syanaso umu-
m nneva; 8 nuas aonosxa sya-
naso umum nneva; 9 namepansas
aonosxa, nuas aonosxa mpexanaso
umum nneva; 10 nnevesas umua;
11 xpyanm npoamop; 12 nneveny-
vesas umua; 13 nuas umua,
omsosas onsuo nane xucmu;
14 nyveso cauamens sanscmss;
15 umua, omsosas uusue;
16 xopomxas umua, omsosas
onsuo nane xucmu; 17 anpsaa-
mens uupoxo qacuu epa; 18 no-
ssouo-noscuvas umua; 19 ape-
evamas umua; 20 nuas npu-
sosas umua; 21 moxas umua;
22 npsuas umua epa; 23 nop-
ms+as umua; 24 namepansas
uupoxas umua epa, ueuansas
uupoxas umua epa; 25 nepess
onsueeposas umua; 26 umua,
omsosas onsuo nane cmonm;
27 cyxo+unue nuoao pasauame-
ns nansa; 28 nsmovoe (axunnoso)
cyxo+unue; 29 num cauamens
nanses cmonm; 30 xauanosuas
umua; 31 uxpoo+as umua; 32 xo-
pomxas naoas umua; 33 nu-
as naoas umua; 34 anoespos
apy+o xoco umum +usoma;
35 npsuas umua +usoma; 36 a-
py+as xocas umua +usoma; 37 ne-
pess syvamas umua; 38 uupo-
vauas umua cnum; 39 onsuas
apyas umua; 40 apyuo-no-
ssmvas umua; 41 apyuo-xnk-
vuvo-cocesuas umua; 42 no-
xo+as umua ueu; 43 umua, onyc-
xakas u+kk ayy
28
29
30
26
27
32
33
34
38
39
40
36
35
37
31
42
43
41
22
23
24
25
21
11
13
14
18
19
20
16
15
17
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
1
12
22
23
24
28
29
30
26
25
27
21
11
13
14
18
19
20
16
15
17
2
3
4
8
9
10
6
5
7
12
1
32
33
34
36
35
31
' '
nopnapomno oc1rm u Aoxonwm yroxom, nopnoanunancr nny1r
n nupo xoAoa. 01o1 xa naawnao1cn norooou con:uou.
HoAonupnw nanw naxonw xanaA pAuno 4 - 5 cm acno-
Aoxon n naxono oAac1u n 1oAmo mwm xuno1a, nananAon xoco
xnuay u mopuaArno, y myxnun nooa noro noxopu1 comonno xa-
na1ux, y xonmun - xyrAan cnnaxa ma1xu.
naqparma cAyxu1 noxno c1onxo mmno noAoc1u, ona
ynac1nyo1 n ax1o pwxanun u nmoc1o c mwmamu xuno1a - n ocymo-
c1nAonuu qynxuu mmnoro nocca. uaqarma, xo1oan umoo1cn
1oArxo y mAoxonu1ammux, nopc1anAno1 coo 1onxym mwmy, uaor-
ny1ym n nupo xynoAa, oamonnoro n rypnym noAoc1r. Hanan nac1r
xynoAa acnoAoxona nocxoArxo nwmo, nom Aonan. Mwmonnwo nyn-
xu, xonnoruyn o1 nouqouu x coopuno puaqarmw, nooxopn1
n oo cyxoxuArnw on1. Hooa puaqarmy noxopn1 ao1a, numo-
nop, cumna1unocxuo c1noAw, nonw, nonw u 1. p.
no maAoro vaaa (nuxnnn c1onxa mmno noAoc1u) cqomu-
onano pnymn rynnamu mwm, oaaymmux puaqarmw 1aaa u
mononoAonym. [uoqpoe+o no:o oaaonana momno +muueu, noo
uu+oweu :oouuu nporoo. Mwma qomuyo1 pno noAoc1u 1aaa u
yxonAno1 oro, a y xonmun, xomo 1oro, cyxunao1 nAaraAumo.
E nonoxnoc1nom cAoo Aoxu1 uopumu cquuunep :ooueeo nporo
oo, acnoAoxonnw nonocopc1nonno nop xoxo.
E +oueno.ooou ouoqpoe+e naxopu1cn ceoo.uuoneepucnon
+muuo, cnococ1nymman aoxuu noAonoro nAona uAu xAu1oa, u
nonepeuuon +muuo npo+euocnu. Mwmw ooux puaqarm oxy-
1anw qacuaArnwmu Auc1xamu. EoArmunc1no mwm nomoxnoc-
1u nnAo1am1cn n cyxoxuArnw on1, xo1ow oaaonan nynxa-
mu nAo1no noAoxnuc1o coopunu1oArno 1xanu.
Mmmm nopxno uonounocvn. Pyxa xax oran 1ypa nwnoA-
nno1 mnoronucAonnwo u aanooaanwo pnuxonun, xo1owo ocy-
moc1nAno1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no mwm. Mnoruo ua nux nanunam1-
cn na oax, rypuno u noanononnuxo u nuxonAnm1cn x xoc1nm
nonca noxno xononnoc1u u nAonono xoc1u. Onu onucanw nwmo.
Mwmw noxno xononnoc1u nopaapoAnm1cn na mwmw nAono-
noro nonca u mwmw cnoopno noxno xononnoc1u.
Mmmm nAouonoro noxca co ncox c1oon oxyxam1 nAonono
cyc1an. Honoxnoc1nw cAo oaaonan oe.tnoououou +muueu,
rAyoxu - uoo u nooocnuou, o.tuou u +o.ou upe.m+u, noo
.ononouuou u u.wooououon.eueoou +muuo+u.
Mmmm cno6opno nopxno uonounocvn. Mwm w n A o n a
poAn1cn na pno rynnw: nepeouue nnAnm1cn crua1oAnmu (ooe.o
oon u n.eueoon), :oouue - aarua1oAnmu (npere.ooon u .oune
oon). Mwm w n o p n A o n r n 1axxo poAn1cn na pno rynnw:
noopnmm u aapnmm. K nono o1nocn1cn ce+t ceuone.eu uucnu u
no.tueo: n.eue.ueoon, .ueoou u .ouneoou ceuone.u :onncntn,
nonoxnoc1nwo, napnop+nawnnwo u nopnop+nawnnwo. HocAopnuo
pno rynnw ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun nop+nawnno xoc1u.
K nooepruocnum+ +muuo+ o1nocn1cn cuArno opyuonan-
nan noououon +muuo ueu u epouuou.wuuuuococueououon, nau-
oAoo aanu1an y noAonoxa n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom.
Hoonoozn:muume +muum acnoAoxonw moxpy nuxno noAm-
c1rm u nop+nawnno xoc1rm. 01o oopwuuon, uu.onoozn:mu
uon, ue.wcnuonoozn:muuon u nooopooouuonoozn:muuon. Onu
nopnumam1 nop+nawnnym xoc1r.
Hoonoozn:muume +muum acnoAoxonw nop xoxo nnoopu ro-
1anu, 1axou u mu1onupno xoAoaw. 01o epouuonoozn:muuon,
epouuounoououon, .ononouuonoozn:muuon u unonoozn:mu
uon. Onu ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun ro1anu u onycxam1 nop+n-
awnnym xoc1r.
I A y o x u o mwm w acnoAoxonw na monom o1poAo no-
anononnuxa (cnoopu u coxy). K num o1nocn1cn .ecnuuuume, o.uu
ume +muum eo.oom u ueu.
Mmmm rpypn 1axxo acnoAaram1cn nocAono. Ho n o x n o -
c 1 n wo mwm w (o.tuon u +o.on epoume, noou.wuuuuon u
nepeounn :uonon) nuxonAnm1cn x Aona1xo, xAmnuo u nAo-
nono xoc1u, onu ocymoc1nAnm1 ux pnuxonun.
IA y o x u o mwm w rypu (uopume u ounpeuuue +e
peepume, noopeepume, noouu+owue pepo u nonepeuume) ac-
noAoxonw oAuxom na rypu u ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun oo.
E ycuAonnom npoxo ynac1nym1 1axxo puaqarma, Aoc1nunnwo, ry-
puno-xAmnunno-coconupnan, oArmuo u maAwo rypnwo u pyruo
mwmw; n ycuAonnom nwpoxo - nopoonwo, nonoonnan rypu,
mwmw xuno1a.
Mmmm xnnova. E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom mmnan c1onxa
noAonoxa no noco1 1nxoc1u nny1onnoc1o. Ona Aumona xoc1noro cxo-
Ao1a, u momnwo mwmw, oaaymmuo mmno nocc, xomnoncuy-
m1 o1cy1c1nuo cxoAo1a. Mwmw xuno1a acnoAoxonw nocAono.
PaaAunam1 1u rynnw: mwm w o x o n wx c 1 o n o x (uop
uon u ounpeuunn uocme, nonepeuume), mwm w n o o p n o
c 1 o n x u (npn+on, nupo+uoo.tuon) u mwm w a a p n o c 1 o n -
x u (uoooponuon +muuo noncuuum). Mwmw xuno1a- mmno
nocc - nopoxannm1 nny1onnoc1u, oxaawnam1 na nux panAonuo
u ypoxunam1 n onopoAonnom noAoxonuu, a 1axxo ynac1nym1 n
pnuxonunx noanononnuxa u oo.
Mwmw oxonwx c1onox nooxopn1 n omunwo onoueopo:m.
E oayAr1a1o nooxoc1a noAoxon anononoaon ooux c1oon oaay-
o1cn e.on .uuun uoono, acnoAoxonnan no oro copno Aunuu
o1 mononupnoro o1oc1xa rypunw po Aoxonoro cumquaa. Hon1u na
coopuno oo naxopu1cn nynonnoo xoAro. Huxnu xa anononoaa
nayxno xoco mwmw nooxupwnao1cn moxpy noxno noopno
' '
nopnapomno oc1rm u Aoxonwm yroxom, nopnoanunancr nny1r
n nupo xoAoa. 01o1 xa naawnao1cn norooou con:uou.
HoAonupnw nanw naxonw xanaA pAuno 4 - 5 cm acno-
Aoxon n naxono oAac1u n 1oAmo mwm xuno1a, nananAon xoco
xnuay u mopuaArno, y myxnun nooa noro noxopu1 comonno xa-
na1ux, y xonmun - xyrAan cnnaxa ma1xu.
naqparma cAyxu1 noxno c1onxo mmno noAoc1u, ona
ynac1nyo1 n ax1o pwxanun u nmoc1o c mwmamu xuno1a - n ocymo-
c1nAonuu qynxuu mmnoro nocca. uaqarma, xo1oan umoo1cn
1oArxo y mAoxonu1ammux, nopc1anAno1 coo 1onxym mwmy, uaor-
ny1ym n nupo xynoAa, oamonnoro n rypnym noAoc1r. Hanan nac1r
xynoAa acnoAoxona nocxoArxo nwmo, nom Aonan. Mwmonnwo nyn-
xu, xonnoruyn o1 nouqouu x coopuno puaqarmw, nooxopn1
n oo cyxoxuArnw on1. Hooa puaqarmy noxopn1 ao1a, numo-
nop, cumna1unocxuo c1noAw, nonw, nonw u 1. p.
no maAoro vaaa (nuxnnn c1onxa mmno noAoc1u) cqomu-
onano pnymn rynnamu mwm, oaaymmux puaqarmw 1aaa u
mononoAonym. [uoqpoe+o no:o oaaonana momno +muueu, noo
uu+oweu :oouuu nporoo. Mwma qomuyo1 pno noAoc1u 1aaa u
yxonAno1 oro, a y xonmun, xomo 1oro, cyxunao1 nAaraAumo.
E nonoxnoc1nom cAoo Aoxu1 uopumu cquuunep :ooueeo nporo
oo, acnoAoxonnw nonocopc1nonno nop xoxo.
E +oueno.ooou ouoqpoe+e naxopu1cn ceoo.uuoneepucnon
+muuo, cnococ1nymman aoxuu noAonoro nAona uAu xAu1oa, u
nonepeuuon +muuo npo+euocnu. Mwmw ooux puaqarm oxy-
1anw qacuaArnwmu Auc1xamu. EoArmunc1no mwm nomoxnoc-
1u nnAo1am1cn n cyxoxuArnw on1, xo1ow oaaonan nynxa-
mu nAo1no noAoxnuc1o coopunu1oArno 1xanu.
Mmmm nopxno uonounocvn. Pyxa xax oran 1ypa nwnoA-
nno1 mnoronucAonnwo u aanooaanwo pnuxonun, xo1owo ocy-
moc1nAno1 oArmoo xoAunoc1no mwm. Mnoruo ua nux nanunam1-
cn na oax, rypuno u noanononnuxo u nuxonAnm1cn x xoc1nm
nonca noxno xononnoc1u u nAonono xoc1u. Onu onucanw nwmo.
Mwmw noxno xononnoc1u nopaapoAnm1cn na mwmw nAono-
noro nonca u mwmw cnoopno noxno xononnoc1u.
Mmmm nAouonoro noxca co ncox c1oon oxyxam1 nAonono
cyc1an. Honoxnoc1nw cAo oaaonan oe.tnoououou +muueu,
rAyoxu - uoo u nooocnuou, o.tuou u +o.ou upe.m+u, noo
.ononouuou u u.wooououon.eueoou +muuo+u.
Mmmm cno6opno nopxno uonounocvn. Mwm w n A o n a
poAn1cn na pno rynnw: nepeouue nnAnm1cn crua1oAnmu (ooe.o
oon u n.eueoon), :oouue - aarua1oAnmu (npere.ooon u .oune
oon). Mwm w n o p n A o n r n 1axxo poAn1cn na pno rynnw:
noopnmm u aapnmm. K nono o1nocn1cn ce+t ceuone.eu uucnu u
no.tueo: n.eue.ueoon, .ueoou u .ouneoou ceuone.u :onncntn,
nonoxnoc1nwo, napnop+nawnnwo u nopnop+nawnnwo. HocAopnuo
pno rynnw ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun nop+nawnno xoc1u.
K nooepruocnum+ +muuo+ o1nocn1cn cuArno opyuonan-
nan noououon +muuo ueu u epouuou.wuuuuococueououon, nau-
oAoo aanu1an y noAonoxa n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom.
Hoonoozn:muume +muum acnoAoxonw moxpy nuxno noAm-
c1rm u nop+nawnno xoc1rm. 01o oopwuuon, uu.onoozn:mu
uon, ue.wcnuonoozn:muuon u nooopooouuonoozn:muuon. Onu
nopnumam1 nop+nawnnym xoc1r.
Hoonoozn:muume +muum acnoAoxonw nop xoxo nnoopu ro-
1anu, 1axou u mu1onupno xoAoaw. 01o epouuonoozn:muuon,
epouuounoououon, .ononouuonoozn:muuon u unonoozn:mu
uon. Onu ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun ro1anu u onycxam1 nop+n-
awnnym xoc1r.
I A y o x u o mwm w acnoAoxonw na monom o1poAo no-
anononnuxa (cnoopu u coxy). K num o1nocn1cn .ecnuuuume, o.uu
ume +muum eo.oom u ueu.
Mmmm rpypn 1axxo acnoAaram1cn nocAono. Ho n o x n o -
c 1 n wo mwm w (o.tuon u +o.on epoume, noou.wuuuuon u
nepeounn :uonon) nuxonAnm1cn x Aona1xo, xAmnuo u nAo-
nono xoc1u, onu ocymoc1nAnm1 ux pnuxonun.
IA y o x u o mwm w rypu (uopume u ounpeuuue +e
peepume, noopeepume, noouu+owue pepo u nonepeuume) ac-
noAoxonw oAuxom na rypu u ocymoc1nAnm1 pnuxonun oo.
E ycuAonnom npoxo ynac1nym1 1axxo puaqarma, Aoc1nunnwo, ry-
puno-xAmnunno-coconupnan, oArmuo u maAwo rypnwo u pyruo
mwmw; n ycuAonnom nwpoxo - nopoonwo, nonoonnan rypu,
mwmw xuno1a.
Mmmm xnnova. E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom mmnan c1onxa
noAonoxa no noco1 1nxoc1u nny1onnoc1o. Ona Aumona xoc1noro cxo-
Ao1a, u momnwo mwmw, oaaymmuo mmno nocc, xomnoncuy-
m1 o1cy1c1nuo cxoAo1a. Mwmw xuno1a acnoAoxonw nocAono.
PaaAunam1 1u rynnw: mwm w o x o n wx c 1 o n o x (uop
uon u ounpeuunn uocme, nonepeuume), mwm w n o o p n o
c 1 o n x u (npn+on, nupo+uoo.tuon) u mwm w a a p n o c 1 o n -
x u (uoooponuon +muuo noncuuum). Mwmw xuno1a- mmno
nocc - nopoxannm1 nny1onnoc1u, oxaawnam1 na nux panAonuo
u ypoxunam1 n onopoAonnom noAoxonuu, a 1axxo ynac1nym1 n
pnuxonunx noanononnuxa u oo.
Mwmw oxonwx c1onox nooxopn1 n omunwo onoueopo:m.
E oayAr1a1o nooxoc1a noAoxon anononoaon ooux c1oon oaay-
o1cn e.on .uuun uoono, acnoAoxonnan no oro copno Aunuu
o1 mononupnoro o1oc1xa rypunw po Aoxonoro cumquaa. Hon1u na
coopuno oo naxopu1cn nynonnoo xoAro. Huxnu xa anononoaa
nayxno xoco mwmw nooxupwnao1cn moxpy noxno noopno
'! '
o.tuon u +o.on noncuuuume, epueououon, ounpeuunn :onupo
ne.tuon), u nayxnym, acnoAoxonnym na oxono nonoxnoc1u
1aaa u n oAac1u nropuw (o.tuon, cpeounn u +o.on neoouuume,
uoooponuon eopo, uonpneone.t uupouou qocuuu, uopuon :o
nupone.tuon u ooe .u:ueuume). Mwmw nayxno rynnw Ao-
xa1 n nocxoArxo cAoon. Onu ononr xoomo aanu1w y noAonoxa n
cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom (ocoonno oArman nropunnan). Hropun-
nwo mwmw oryAuym1 annonocuo 1oAa nu c1onnuu u xopro, y
nonooxponnwx u rypnwx po1o onu aanu1w cAao. Ho moo
1oro xax po1u nanunam1 xopu1r, aanunam1cn nropunnwo mwmw.
Mmmm cno6opno nnxno uonounocvn. Mwm w o p a
aanu1w ononr xoomo n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom. Onu no 1oArxo
ynac1nym1 n noopnuxonuu 1oAa, no u ypoxunam1 1oAo n no1u-
xaArnom noAoxonuu. Mwmw opa poAn1cn na 1u rynnw: nepeo
unn (po:euone.u, - uenmpere.ooon u nopnunuon; :oounn (ceu
one.u,- no.crou.tuon, no.nepenouuonon, ooe.ooon; +e
ouo.tuon (npuooonue, - epeeuuonon, nouuon, o.uuuon, uopon
uon u o.tuon npuooonue. E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom cruanuo
u aaruanuo n xoAonnom cyc1ano y noAonoxa oAornono, noa1omy
mwmw-crua1oAu (aapnnn rynna) aanu1w cAaoo, a no1wox-
rAanan Aynmo, nom y noAonoxooaanwx ooarnn.
Mwmw r o A o n u 1axxo ynac1nym1 n nnmoxoxponuu u ypo-
xanuu 1oAa n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu. Hopono nopnAonrm, y1oA-
monnwo mwmonnwo nac1u Aoxa1 n noxcumaArnom o1poAo, no na-
nanAonum x c1ono onu nooxopn1 n cyxoxuAun. Ha roAonu o1cy1-
c1nym1 nama1oAu. Mwmw roAonu poAn1cn na 1u rynnw:
nepeouww (1wArnoo cruanuo c1onw u aaruanuo naAron) - nepe
ounn o.tueepuooon, o.uuumu po:euone.t no.tueo, o.uuumu po:
euone.t o.tuoeo no.tuo; :oouww (nopomnonnoo cruanuo c1onw
u naAron) - npere.ooon, nooouoeuuon, noouo.euuon, o.uuume ceu
one.u no.tueo u o.tuoeo no.tuo cnonm u :oounn o.tueepuo
oon; .onepo.tuw (nonaun u Aa1oaArnoo cruanuo c1onw) - ooe
+o.oepuoome: uoponuon u o.uuuon. Ha aapno nonoxnoc1u xo-
Aonnoro cyc1ana mwmw pnyrAanan u noAynoononna1an (cnoxy) u
oo roAonxu uxonoxno (cnuay) oranununam1 nopxoAonnym nmxy,
umommym qomy oma, n xo1oo noxopn1 cocypw u nonw.
E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom noAonoxy noc1onnno nuxopu1cn
noopoAona1r cuAy 1nxoc1u, xo1oan c1omu1cn corny1r nuxnuo
xononnoc1u n roAonoc1onnom cyc1ano 1ax, n1ow 1oAo ynaAo nno-
op. Hoa1omy y noAonoxa umoo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no mwm, ocy-
moc1nAnmmux nopomnonnoo cruanuo c1onw (8), a maAooonwo
mwmw nnAnm1cn crua1oAnmu. 01omy cnococ1nyo1 1axxo aanu-
1uo nayxno Aopwxxu y noAonoxa u naAunuo momnoro axuAAona
cyxoxuAun.
o.uuuon .ooouuon (nac1o o1cy1c1nyo1), nooepruocnumu u e.o
uuu ceuone.u no.tueo, o.uuumu ceuone.t o.tuoeo no.tuo u
pna npouonopo: upe.mu u uoooponumu. Crua1oAu naAron ocy-
moc1nAnm1 noanwnano 1onxuo u nwcoxopuqqoonuonannwo
pnuxonun, xo1owo cnoc1nonnw Aumr noAonoxy. Eo n1oym rynny
nxopn1 oeonnt po:euone.eu uucnu u no.tueo: o.uuumu u uo
ponuuu .ueome po:euone.u :onncntn, .ouneoou po:euone.t
:onncntn, po:euone.t no.tueo, po:euone.u +u:uuuo u uo:o
ne.tuoeo no.tuo, o.uuumu u uoponuuu po:euone.u o.tuoeo
no.tuo, o.uuuon +muuo, onooonon o.tuou no.eu, u oouu c
nuuonop. Eco onu acnoAaram1cn n nocxoArxo cAoon.
Mmmm uncvn. E xuanopon1oArnoc1u xaxporo noAonoxa xuc1r
n oAom, u ocoonno naArw, uram1 ononr naxnym oAr, 1ax xax
umonno onu nonocopc1nonno nwnoAnnm1 pnuxonun u conuxaca-
m1cn c nopmo1amu. Eco a1u pnuxonun ocymoc1nAnm1cn oArmum
xoAunoc1nom mwm nopnAonrn u xuc1u. HocAopnuo (18) acnoAa-
ram1cn 1oArxo na Aaponno nonoxnoc1u, na 1wArno Aumr no-
xopn1 cyxoxuAun onucannwx nwmo aarua1oAo, Aoxamux na
nopnAonro. Mwmw xuc1u poAn1cn na 1u rynnw: +muuo oo:
omueuun o.tuoeo no.tuo (uoponuon onooonon, uoponuuu ceu
one.t, npuooonon u nponuoonocnoo.nwon o.tuou no.eu);
oo:omueuun \ no.tuo (uoponuon .ooouuon, onooonon, uopon
uuu ceuone.t u nponuoonocnoo.nwon +u:uueu); cpeounn epn
no (uenmpe uepoeopo:ume, npu .ooouume u uenmpe nm.tume +e
uocnume). Mwmw oArmoro naAra nauoAoo aanu1w y noAono-
xa no cannonum c pyrumu numa1amu, 1ax xax onu uananaArno
nucnocoAonw pAn 1yponwx nooccon.
Mmmm nnxno uonounocvn. Huxnnn xononnoc1r noAonoxa,
nnAnncr oranom onow u noopnuxonun, umoo1 nauoAoo mom-
nym mycxyAa1yy, na poAm xo1oo nuxopu1cn oAoo 50% nco
maccw mwm. CorAacno poAonum xononnoc1u na cormon1w aaAu-
nam1 mwmw 1aaa u cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u (opa, roAo-
nu u c1onw). Ha ncox mwm nuxno xononnoc1u y noAonoxa nau-
oAoo aanu1w oArman nropunnan, nwnoAnnmman qynxuu aa-
rua1oAn opa u noppoxanun 1oAa n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu,
no1woxrAanan mwma opa, aaruamman roAonr u noppoxu-
namman 1oAo n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu, u xamaAonupnan, xo-
1oan, u a1o ocoonno naxno (!), ocymoc1nAno1 nopomnonnoo cru-
anuo c1onw, nanaArnwo a1anw pnuxonun (nopo1namao1 naxAon
1oAa nnoop).
Mmmm vaaa oxyxam1 co ncox c1oon 1aaooponnw cyc-
1an. Eco onu nanunam1cn o1 xoc1o 1aaa u nuxonAnm1cn x nox-
no 1o1u oponno xoc1u. Mwmw 1aaa poAn1cn na pno rynnw:
nny1onnmm, xo1oan acnoAoxona n noAoc1u 1aaa (nooo:oouuon,
'! '
o.tuon u +o.on noncuuuume, epueououon, ounpeuunn :onupo
ne.tuon), u nayxnym, acnoAoxonnym na oxono nonoxnoc1u
1aaa u n oAac1u nropuw (o.tuon, cpeounn u +o.on neoouuume,
uoooponuon eopo, uonpneone.t uupouou qocuuu, uopuon :o
nupone.tuon u ooe .u:ueuume). Mwmw nayxno rynnw Ao-
xa1 n nocxoArxo cAoon. Onu ononr xoomo aanu1w y noAonoxa n
cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom (ocoonno oArman nropunnan). Hropun-
nwo mwmw oryAuym1 annonocuo 1oAa nu c1onnuu u xopro, y
nonooxponnwx u rypnwx po1o onu aanu1w cAao. Ho moo
1oro xax po1u nanunam1 xopu1r, aanunam1cn nropunnwo mwmw.
Mmmm cno6opno nnxno uonounocvn. Mwm w o p a
aanu1w ononr xoomo n cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom. Onu no 1oArxo
ynac1nym1 n noopnuxonuu 1oAa, no u ypoxunam1 1oAo n no1u-
xaArnom noAoxonuu. Mwmw opa poAn1cn na 1u rynnw: nepeo
unn (po:euone.u, - uenmpere.ooon u nopnunuon; :oounn (ceu
one.u,- no.crou.tuon, no.nepenouuonon, ooe.ooon; +e
ouo.tuon (npuooonue, - epeeuuonon, nouuon, o.uuuon, uopon
uon u o.tuon npuooonue. E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom cruanuo
u aaruanuo n xoAonnom cyc1ano y noAonoxa oAornono, noa1omy
mwmw-crua1oAu (aapnnn rynna) aanu1w cAaoo, a no1wox-
rAanan Aynmo, nom y noAonoxooaanwx ooarnn.
Mwmw r o A o n u 1axxo ynac1nym1 n nnmoxoxponuu u ypo-
xanuu 1oAa n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu. Hopono nopnAonrm, y1oA-
monnwo mwmonnwo nac1u Aoxa1 n noxcumaArnom o1poAo, no na-
nanAonum x c1ono onu nooxopn1 n cyxoxuAun. Ha roAonu o1cy1-
c1nym1 nama1oAu. Mwmw roAonu poAn1cn na 1u rynnw:
nepeouww (1wArnoo cruanuo c1onw u aaruanuo naAron) - nepe
ounn o.tueepuooon, o.uuumu po:euone.t no.tueo, o.uuumu po:
euone.t o.tuoeo no.tuo; :oouww (nopomnonnoo cruanuo c1onw
u naAron) - npere.ooon, nooouoeuuon, noouo.euuon, o.uuume ceu
one.u no.tueo u o.tuoeo no.tuo cnonm u :oounn o.tueepuo
oon; .onepo.tuw (nonaun u Aa1oaArnoo cruanuo c1onw) - ooe
+o.oepuoome: uoponuon u o.uuuon. Ha aapno nonoxnoc1u xo-
Aonnoro cyc1ana mwmw pnyrAanan u noAynoononna1an (cnoxy) u
oo roAonxu uxonoxno (cnuay) oranununam1 nopxoAonnym nmxy,
umommym qomy oma, n xo1oo noxopn1 cocypw u nonw.
E cnnau c nnmoxoxponuom noAonoxy noc1onnno nuxopu1cn
noopoAona1r cuAy 1nxoc1u, xo1oan c1omu1cn corny1r nuxnuo
xononnoc1u n roAonoc1onnom cyc1ano 1ax, n1ow 1oAo ynaAo nno-
op. Hoa1omy y noAonoxa umoo1cn oArmoo xoAunoc1no mwm, ocy-
moc1nAnmmux nopomnonnoo cruanuo c1onw (8), a maAooonwo
mwmw nnAnm1cn crua1oAnmu. 01omy cnococ1nyo1 1axxo aanu-
1uo nayxno Aopwxxu y noAonoxa u naAunuo momnoro axuAAona
cyxoxuAun.
o.uuuon .ooouuon (nac1o o1cy1c1nyo1), nooepruocnumu u e.o
uuu ceuone.u no.tueo, o.uuumu ceuone.t o.tuoeo no.tuo u
pna npouonopo: upe.mu u uoooponumu. Crua1oAu naAron ocy-
moc1nAnm1 noanwnano 1onxuo u nwcoxopuqqoonuonannwo
pnuxonun, xo1owo cnoc1nonnw Aumr noAonoxy. Eo n1oym rynny
nxopn1 oeonnt po:euone.eu uucnu u no.tueo: o.uuumu u uo
ponuuu .ueome po:euone.u :onncntn, .ouneoou po:euone.t
:onncntn, po:euone.t no.tueo, po:euone.u +u:uuuo u uo:o
ne.tuoeo no.tuo, o.uuumu u uoponuuu po:euone.u o.tuoeo
no.tuo, o.uuuon +muuo, onooonon o.tuou no.eu, u oouu c
nuuonop. Eco onu acnoAaram1cn n nocxoArxo cAoon.
Mmmm uncvn. E xuanopon1oArnoc1u xaxporo noAonoxa xuc1r
n oAom, u ocoonno naArw, uram1 ononr naxnym oAr, 1ax xax
umonno onu nonocopc1nonno nwnoAnnm1 pnuxonun u conuxaca-
m1cn c nopmo1amu. Eco a1u pnuxonun ocymoc1nAnm1cn oArmum
xoAunoc1nom mwm nopnAonrn u xuc1u. HocAopnuo (18) acnoAa-
ram1cn 1oArxo na Aaponno nonoxnoc1u, na 1wArno Aumr no-
xopn1 cyxoxuAun onucannwx nwmo aarua1oAo, Aoxamux na
nopnAonro. Mwmw xuc1u poAn1cn na 1u rynnw: +muuo oo:
omueuun o.tuoeo no.tuo (uoponuon onooonon, uoponuuu ceu
one.t, npuooonon u nponuoonocnoo.nwon o.tuou no.eu);
oo:omueuun \ no.tuo (uoponuon .ooouuon, onooonon, uopon
uuu ceuone.t u nponuoonocnoo.nwon +u:uueu); cpeounn epn
no (uenmpe uepoeopo:ume, npu .ooouume u uenmpe nm.tume +e
uocnume). Mwmw oArmoro naAra nauoAoo aanu1w y noAono-
xa no cannonum c pyrumu numa1amu, 1ax xax onu uananaArno
nucnocoAonw pAn 1yponwx nooccon.
Mmmm nnxno uonounocvn. Huxnnn xononnoc1r noAonoxa,
nnAnncr oranom onow u noopnuxonun, umoo1 nauoAoo mom-
nym mycxyAa1yy, na poAm xo1oo nuxopu1cn oAoo 50% nco
maccw mwm. CorAacno poAonum xononnoc1u na cormon1w aaAu-
nam1 mwmw 1aaa u cnoopno nuxno xononnoc1u (opa, roAo-
nu u c1onw). Ha ncox mwm nuxno xononnoc1u y noAonoxa nau-
oAoo aanu1w oArman nropunnan, nwnoAnnmman qynxuu aa-
rua1oAn opa u noppoxanun 1oAa n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu,
no1woxrAanan mwma opa, aaruamman roAonr u noppoxu-
namman 1oAo n no1uxaArnom noAoxonuu, u xamaAonupnan, xo-
1oan, u a1o ocoonno naxno (!), ocymoc1nAno1 nopomnonnoo cru-
anuo c1onw, nanaArnwo a1anw pnuxonun (nopo1namao1 naxAon
1oAa nnoop).
Mmmm vaaa oxyxam1 co ncox c1oon 1aaooponnw cyc-
1an. Eco onu nanunam1cn o1 xoc1o 1aaa u nuxonAnm1cn x nox-
no 1o1u oponno xoc1u. Mwmw 1aaa poAn1cn na pno rynnw:
nny1onnmm, xo1oan acnoAoxona n noAoc1u 1aaa (nooo:oouuon,
'# '"
xo1oan noanoAno1 noppoxa1r nooxopumoo noAoxonuo 1oAa u
oro cormon1on pAn nwnoAnonun ao1w.
EwnoAnonuo Amo ao1w 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu. Oman no-
1onoc1r n anoruu - a1o cymma ocnonnoro u aonoro omona.
Ocnonno o6mon - xoAunoc1no anoruu, aa1anunaomoo oranua-
mom n ycAonunx noAnoro noxon pAn noppoxanun xuanu. V myxnun
a1a noAununa n copnom coc1anAno1 1 xxaA na 1 xr maccw 1oAa n 1 n
(4,2 xx). V xonmun 0,9 xxaA (3,8 xx). Pa6oun o6mon - a1o aa-
1a1a anoruu pAn nwnoAnonun nnomno ao1w. Oman no1onoc1r
n anoruu nu ymc1nonnom 1ypo anna 2500 - 3200 xxaA (10 4?5 -
13 410 xx), nu moxanuauonannom 1ypo uAu Aorxo nomoxanu-
auonanno ao1o- 3200 - 3500 xxaA (13 410 - 14 665 xx),
nu nac1unno moxanuauonannom 1ypo uAu nomoxanuauonannom 1ypo
ymoonno 1nxoc1u - 3500 - 4500 xxaA (14665 - 18855 xx), nu
1nxoAom nomoxanuauonannom quaunocxom 1ypo - 4500 - 5000 xxaA
(18855 - 20950 xx).
mcvnonnax pa6ova - a1o mwmAonuo. Vmc1nonnan ao1a nxAm-
nao1 nuom u nooao1xy unqomauu, oo cannonuo c unqoma-
uo, xannmocn n namn1u, nooaaonanuo unqomauu, ono-
poAonuo noAom u ny1o ux omonun, qomuonanuo oAu.
Vmc1nonnan ao1a 1ocno cnnaana c nAonoaapoArno onrm, 1ax
xax noAonox umoo1 poAo no c xonxo1nwmu nopmo1amu, nnAonun-
mu uAu xunwmu oranuamamu, a c onopoAnmmumu ux cumnoAa-
mu uAu nonn1unmu.
Vmc1nonnan ao1a nxAmnao1 mwcAu1oArnw u amouonaAr-
nw xomnonon1w. Mmc.une.tumu uo+noueun cnnaan c un1oA-
Aox1yaArnwmu cnoconoc1nmu noAonoxa, on 1oyo1 opymwna-
nun, xonon1auu nnumanun. 3+ouuouo.tumu uo+noueun nxAm-
nao1 camooonxy noAonoxa xax cy+ox1a ymc1nonnoro 1ypa, oon-
xy ananumoc1u oAu u copc1n. 0mouonaArnw xomnonon1
nonnAno1cn no1xumu oaxunmu noro1a1unno nonno cuc1o-
mw u uamononunmu nac1oonun noAonoxa, nwawnan noanuxnono-
nuo mnoronucAonnwx amou. 0mouonaArnwo naryaxu, nonno-
ncuxunocxan nooryaxa nwawnam1 c1umyAnum cumna1unocxo
nac1u noro1a1unno nonno cuc1omw, n1o nonnAno1cn ynoAuno-
nuom nac1o1w nyArca, muny1noro o+oma copa u pwxanun, no-
1oo1poAonuom.
mnanuocuax pa6ova cnnaana c pon1oArnoc1rm onono-pnura-
1oArnoro annaa1a, ocnonnym oAr n a1om nwnoAnnm1 cxoAo1nwo
mwmw. EcAu Aaropan coxamonum mwmw monno1cn noAo-
xonuo nac1u 1oAa, 1o noopoAonao1cn cuAa cono1unAonun, 1. o.
nwnoAnno1cn npeooo.eoowon poono. Pao1a, nu xo1oo cuAa
mwmw yc1ynao1 poc1num cuAw 1nxoc1u u ypoxunaomoro ry-
aa, naawnao1cn cnnoweu. E a1om cAynao mwma qynxuonu-
yo1, opnaxo ona no yxoanunao1cn, a ypAunno1cn, nanumo,
xorpa nonoamoxno nopnn1r uAu ypoxa1r na nocy 1oAo, umommoo
Mmmm cvonm. n uxo nun na A r o n c 1 o nw no a na n u-
1 o A r n w. Hx ocymoc1nAnm1, nomumo mwm roAonu, cocnoeuume
+muum, acnoAoxonnwo na 1wAo c1onw (uoponuue po:euone.u
no.tueo u o.tuoeo no.tuo) u na nopomno, nocAopnuo nooAapam1.
Hooouoeuume +muum yxonAnm1 cnop c1onw. Onu poAn1cn na 1u
rynnw: +eouo.tuw, xo1oan ocymoc1nAno1 pnuxonun oArmoro
naAra (onooonon, npuooonon u uoponuuu ceuone.t); .onepo.t
uw, nunopnmym n pnuxonuo muauno (onooonon u uoponuuu
ceuone.t,; cpeouww (uenmpe uepoeopo:ume, uoponuuu ceuone.t
no.tueo, uoooponuon +muuo nooouom, ce+t +euocnumr - npu
nooouoeuume u uenmpe nm.tume,. acun nopomnw oaxo y1oAma-
o1cn u oaayo1 nooouoeuumu onoueopo:, upymu o1 nn1onnoro yr-
a x ocnonanunm naAron, o1 xo1ooro upy1 pno nooroopxu nrAyr,
aapoAnmmuo onucannwo rynnw mwm.
PAEOTOCHOCOEHOCTL, PAEOTA,
TOMAEHHE H OTLX
Pa6ova - a1o ocymoc1nAonuo xAo1xo, oranom, cuc1omo ora-
non uAu oranuamom cnoc1nonnwx um qynxu. HoAonox aaymnw
nwnoAnno1, xax nanuAo, omoc1nonno noAoanym ao1y. Haynno-
1oxnunocxu norocc uamonuA xaax1o ao1w noAonoxa. Ha cmo-
ny 1nxoAomy quaunocxomy 1ypy numoA 1yp ymc1nonnw. EoAr-
munc1no conomonnwx aonux nwnoAnnm1 aapanu, 1oymmuo ac-
noanananun oaaon, wc1oro noAynonun u nooao1xu unqoma-
uu, a 1axxo cnoconoc1u aaaa1wna1r nAanw u nunuma1r
omonun, - numo1 uanoc1nw quauoAor 1ypa I.VArmo (199?).
H a1o naxAapwnao1 coroanw o1nona1ox na apoonro noAonoxa.
Pa6ovocnoco6nocvn - a1o cnoconoc1r noAonoxa nwnoAnn1r max-
cumaArno noamoxnoo xoAunoc1no ao1w na no1nxonuu onopoAon-
noro (aapannoro) nomonu u c onopoAonno aqqox1unnoc1rm. Pao-
1ocnoconoc1r, nopono ao1o, nopaapoAno1cn na ymc1nonnym u qu-
aunocxym. Hcxopn ua nunoponnoro nwmo onopoAonun, +cnoeu
uon poonocnocouocnt - a1o cnoconoc1r nwnoAnn1r onopoAonnoo
xoAunoc1no ao1w, 1oymmo ananu1oArno ax1unauu nonno-
ncuxunocxo cqow; qu:uuecuon poonocnocouocnt - a1o cnoco-
noc1r nwnoAnn1r maxcumaArno noamoxnoo xoAunoc1no quaunocxo
ao1w aa cno1 ax1unauu onono-pnura1oArnoro annaa1a. Ec1oc1non-
no, quaunocxan ao1ocnoconoc1r aanucu1 u o1 coc1onnun nonno
cuc1omw, unnonuymmo onono-pnura1oArnw annaa1.
EoArmoo xoAunoc1no qax1oon nAuno1 na ao1ocnoconoc1r
noAonoxa. 01o, n nonym onoopr, coc1onnuo oro apoonrn, yo-
nonr 1onuonannoc1u, onw1, quaunocxoo u ncuxunocxoo coc1on-
nuo, cxAonnoc1r x panno ao1o (1. o. 1aAan1), mo1unaun x 1y-
py u amouu; coc1onnuo oxyxammo copw; oranuaaun 1ypa.
Eaxnym oAr urao1 on1umaArnan oranuaaun aonoro moc1a,
'# '"
xo1oan noanoAno1 noppoxa1r nooxopumoo noAoxonuo 1oAa u
oro cormon1on pAn nwnoAnonun ao1w.
EwnoAnonuo Amo ao1w 1oyo1 aa1a1 anoruu. Oman no-
1onoc1r n anoruu - a1o cymma ocnonnoro u aonoro omona.
Ocnonno o6mon - xoAunoc1no anoruu, aa1anunaomoo oranua-
mom n ycAonunx noAnoro noxon pAn noppoxanun xuanu. V myxnun
a1a noAununa n copnom coc1anAno1 1 xxaA na 1 xr maccw 1oAa n 1 n
(4,2 xx). V xonmun 0,9 xxaA (3,8 xx). Pa6oun o6mon - a1o aa-
1a1a anoruu pAn nwnoAnonun nnomno ao1w. Oman no1onoc1r
n anoruu nu ymc1nonnom 1ypo anna 2500 - 3200 xxaA (10 4?5 -
13 410 xx), nu moxanuauonannom 1ypo uAu Aorxo nomoxanu-
auonanno ao1o- 3200 - 3500 xxaA (13 410 - 14 665 xx),
nu nac1unno moxanuauonannom 1ypo uAu nomoxanuauonannom 1ypo
ymoonno 1nxoc1u - 3500 - 4500 xxaA (14665 - 18855 xx), nu
1nxoAom nomoxanuauonannom quaunocxom 1ypo - 4500 - 5000 xxaA
(18855 - 20950 xx).
mcvnonnax pa6ova - a1o mwmAonuo. Vmc1nonnan ao1a nxAm-
nao1 nuom u nooao1xy unqomauu, oo cannonuo c unqoma-
uo, xannmocn n namn1u, nooaaonanuo unqomauu, ono-
poAonuo noAom u ny1o ux omonun, qomuonanuo oAu.
Vmc1nonnan ao1a 1ocno cnnaana c nAonoaapoArno onrm, 1ax
xax noAonox umoo1 poAo no c xonxo1nwmu nopmo1amu, nnAonun-
mu uAu xunwmu oranuamamu, a c onopoAnmmumu ux cumnoAa-
mu uAu nonn1unmu.
Vmc1nonnan ao1a nxAmnao1 mwcAu1oArnw u amouonaAr-
nw xomnonon1w. Mmc.une.tumu uo+noueun cnnaan c un1oA-
Aox1yaArnwmu cnoconoc1nmu noAonoxa, on 1oyo1 opymwna-
nun, xonon1auu nnumanun. 3+ouuouo.tumu uo+noueun nxAm-
nao1 camooonxy noAonoxa xax cy+ox1a ymc1nonnoro 1ypa, oon-
xy ananumoc1u oAu u copc1n. 0mouonaArnw xomnonon1
nonnAno1cn no1xumu oaxunmu noro1a1unno nonno cuc1o-
mw u uamononunmu nac1oonun noAonoxa, nwawnan noanuxnono-
nuo mnoronucAonnwx amou. 0mouonaArnwo naryaxu, nonno-
ncuxunocxan nooryaxa nwawnam1 c1umyAnum cumna1unocxo
nac1u noro1a1unno nonno cuc1omw, n1o nonnAno1cn ynoAuno-
nuom nac1o1w nyArca, muny1noro o+oma copa u pwxanun, no-
1oo1poAonuom.
mnanuocuax pa6ova cnnaana c pon1oArnoc1rm onono-pnura-
1oArnoro annaa1a, ocnonnym oAr n a1om nwnoAnnm1 cxoAo1nwo
mwmw. EcAu Aaropan coxamonum mwmw monno1cn noAo-
xonuo nac1u 1oAa, 1o noopoAonao1cn cuAa cono1unAonun, 1. o.
nwnoAnno1cn npeooo.eoowon poono. Pao1a, nu xo1oo cuAa
mwmw yc1ynao1 poc1num cuAw 1nxoc1u u ypoxunaomoro ry-
aa, naawnao1cn cnnoweu. E a1om cAynao mwma qynxuonu-
yo1, opnaxo ona no yxoanunao1cn, a ypAunno1cn, nanumo,
xorpa nonoamoxno nopnn1r uAu ypoxa1r na nocy 1oAo, umommoo
Mmmm cvonm. n uxo nun na A r o n c 1 o nw no a na n u-
1 o A r n w. Hx ocymoc1nAnm1, nomumo mwm roAonu, cocnoeuume
+muum, acnoAoxonnwo na 1wAo c1onw (uoponuue po:euone.u
no.tueo u o.tuoeo no.tuo) u na nopomno, nocAopnuo nooAapam1.
Hooouoeuume +muum yxonAnm1 cnop c1onw. Onu poAn1cn na 1u
rynnw: +eouo.tuw, xo1oan ocymoc1nAno1 pnuxonun oArmoro
naAra (onooonon, npuooonon u uoponuuu ceuone.t); .onepo.t
uw, nunopnmym n pnuxonuo muauno (onooonon u uoponuuu
ceuone.t,; cpeouww (uenmpe uepoeopo:ume, uoponuuu ceuone.t
no.tueo, uoooponuon +muuo nooouom, ce+t +euocnumr - npu
nooouoeuume u uenmpe nm.tume,. acun nopomnw oaxo y1oAma-
o1cn u oaayo1 nooouoeuumu onoueopo:, upymu o1 nn1onnoro yr-
a x ocnonanunm naAron, o1 xo1ooro upy1 pno nooroopxu nrAyr,
aapoAnmmuo onucannwo rynnw mwm.
PAEOTOCHOCOEHOCTL, PAEOTA,
TOMAEHHE H OTLX
Pa6ova - a1o ocymoc1nAonuo xAo1xo, oranom, cuc1omo ora-
non uAu oranuamom cnoc1nonnwx um qynxu. HoAonox aaymnw
nwnoAnno1, xax nanuAo, omoc1nonno noAoanym ao1y. Haynno-
1oxnunocxu norocc uamonuA xaax1o ao1w noAonoxa. Ha cmo-
ny 1nxoAomy quaunocxomy 1ypy numoA 1yp ymc1nonnw. EoAr-
munc1no conomonnwx aonux nwnoAnnm1 aapanu, 1oymmuo ac-
noanananun oaaon, wc1oro noAynonun u nooao1xu unqoma-
uu, a 1axxo cnoconoc1u aaaa1wna1r nAanw u nunuma1r
omonun, - numo1 uanoc1nw quauoAor 1ypa I.VArmo (199?).
H a1o naxAapwnao1 coroanw o1nona1ox na apoonro noAonoxa.
Pa6ovocnoco6nocvn - a1o cnoconoc1r noAonoxa nwnoAnn1r max-
cumaArno noamoxnoo xoAunoc1no ao1w na no1nxonuu onopoAon-
noro (aapannoro) nomonu u c onopoAonno aqqox1unnoc1rm. Pao-
1ocnoconoc1r, nopono ao1o, nopaapoAno1cn na ymc1nonnym u qu-
aunocxym. Hcxopn ua nunoponnoro nwmo onopoAonun, +cnoeu
uon poonocnocouocnt - a1o cnoconoc1r nwnoAnn1r onopoAonnoo
xoAunoc1no ao1w, 1oymmo ananu1oArno ax1unauu nonno-
ncuxunocxo cqow; qu:uuecuon poonocnocouocnt - a1o cnoco-
noc1r nwnoAnn1r maxcumaArno noamoxnoo xoAunoc1no quaunocxo
ao1w aa cno1 ax1unauu onono-pnura1oArnoro annaa1a. Ec1oc1non-
no, quaunocxan ao1ocnoconoc1r aanucu1 u o1 coc1onnun nonno
cuc1omw, unnonuymmo onono-pnura1oArnw annaa1.
EoArmoo xoAunoc1no qax1oon nAuno1 na ao1ocnoconoc1r
noAonoxa. 01o, n nonym onoopr, coc1onnuo oro apoonrn, yo-
nonr 1onuonannoc1u, onw1, quaunocxoo u ncuxunocxoo coc1on-
nuo, cxAonnoc1r x panno ao1o (1. o. 1aAan1), mo1unaun x 1y-
py u amouu; coc1onnuo oxyxammo copw; oranuaaun 1ypa.
Eaxnym oAr urao1 on1umaArnan oranuaaun aonoro moc1a,
'% '$
Hooa 3 - 5 mun. nocAo aanomonun 1axo ao1w nac1o1a co-
ponnwx coxamonu nomaAuayo1cn. Hu 1nxoAo ao1o c1a-
uonanoo coc1onnuo no nac1ynao1, aanunao1cn y1omAonuo,
nac1o1a coponnwx coxamonu ynoAununao1cn, a nocAo noxa-
monun 1nxoAo ao1w nouop nocc1anonAonun nomaArno nac-
1o1w coponnwx coxamonu pAu1cn nocxoArxo nacon. V xaxpo-
ro noAonoxa oc1r cno unpunupyaArnw npopoA yvomnvoAnno
pa6ovm. On aapoAno1 pna yonnn ao1ocnoconoc1u. Pao1a,
xo1oym noAonox moxo1 nwnoAnn1r n 1ononuo 8 n oa aanu1un
nuanaxon mwmonnoro y1omAonun, cnu1ao1cn Aorxo, ona nuxo
nopoAa.
Ewmo noro naxopu1cn oAac1r maxcumaArno ao1ocnocono-
c1u, nwnoAnonuo xo1oo cymoc1nonno oranunono no nomonu.
MaxcumaArnan ao1ocnoconoc1r cnuxao1cn no moo ynoAunonun
pAu1oArnoc1u ao1w. Tonuonxa nonwmao1 ao1ocnoconoc1r
noAonoxa.
Kax xo onopoAu1r nopoA y1omu1oArno punamunocxo ao-
1w? Opnum ua naxnwx noxaaa1oAo nnAno1cn nac1o1a nyArca, xo1o-
an coxanno1cn noc1onnno no nomn ao1w, no ynoAununancr n cnn-
au c y1omAonuom. V no1onuonannwx Ampo n noaac1o o1 20 po 30
Ao1 ona no nonwmao1 130 ypaon n 1 mun., monoo nom nooa 5 muny1
nocAo noxamonun ao1w nac1o1a nyArca c1anonu1cn monoo 100.
DoccvanonAonno - a1o noocc noc1ononnoro noanamonun qyn-
xu oranuama x ucxopnomy coc1onnum nocAo noxamonun a-
o1w. Ho moo nocc1anonAonun c1ononr y1omAonun ymonrmao1cn,
a ao1ocnoconoc1r ynoAununao1cn. EcAu noAonox nwnoAnno1 a-
o1y, Aoxamym nwmo nopoAon oro y1omAonun, nooxopumo nou-
opunocxu o1pwxa1r. ynmo mnoro xa1xonomonnwx noownon
pAn o1pwxa, nom opun-pna pAunnwx.
axo n coc1onnuu noAnoro noxon cxoAo1nan mwma coxanno1
cnom aAac1unnoc1r u onopoAonnym c1ononr nannxonun. 01o na-
awnao1cn mmmounmm vonycom. Mwmonnw 1onyc no cononoxpa-
o1cn y1omAonuom.
vomAonno - a1o quauoAorunocxoo coc1onnuo noAonoxa, na-
c1ynammoo ncAopc1nuo nannxonno uAu pAu1oArno ao1w,
P u c . 8 7. Cxeua aamouuvecxoao
(cnnouas nuus) u qusuonoauvecxoao
(npepmsucmas nuus) nonepevuxos
umu pasnuvo qopum:
l nemosuas umua; ll sepemeoopas-
as umua; lll oonepucmas umua
I II III
oArmym maccy. Hu oArmom ycuAuu mwm nuxopu1cn onyc-
1u1r a1o 1oAo na xaxym-nuypr nonoxnoc1r.
Voepuoowon poono nwnoAnno1cn, ocAu Aaropan coxa-
monum mwm 1oAo uAu rya ypoxunao1cn n on