Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

Sector: Construction Occupation: Masonry l2 Unit of Competency: Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure

Module Title: Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Institution:Alamata Tvet Center (alamata, Tigray, Ethiopia)

CONTENTS

Unit Module

Erect Simple brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module Code:

Title
Introduction Summary of Learning Outcomes How to Use This TTLM Learning Guide Information Sheet #1 Self Check #1 Model Answer #1 Operation Sheet #1 LAP Test Other References

Page No.
3 3 3 4 5 24 25 26,31 32 32

INTRODUCTION

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module Code:

Welcome to the module Erect Simple Brick and Block Structure . This learners guide was prepared to help you achieve the required competence in Basic Apparel Production Level 2.. This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular occupation with minimum supervision or help from your traines.mary of Learning Outcomes After completing this learning guide, you should be able to: LO1: Prepare for work LO2: Set out brick/ block work LO3: Construct base brick/ block work LO4: Position door and window frames LO5: Construct brick/block walls LO6: Rake joints LO7: Cleaning up work area, tools and equipments How to Use this TTLM Read through the Learning Guide carefully. It is divided into sections that cover all the skills and knowledge that you need. Read Information Sheets and complete the Self-Check at the end of each section to check your progress Read and make sure to Practice the activities in the Operation Sheets. Ask your trainer to show you the correct way to do things or talk to more experienced person for guidance. When you are ready, ask your trainer for institutional assessment and provide you with feedback from your performance.

LEARNING GUIDE

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Learning Activities

Special Instructions/Resources

Read topic on Types of Refer to Information Sheet #1 adapt ohs polis and producer

Answer Self-Check # 1

Compare your answers with Model Answer # 1 Refer to Operation Sheet #1

Read and Practice on how to construct brick or block work

Refer to Operation Sheet Read and Practice on How to construct brick # 1 or block work Perform LAP Test in how to construct brick or block work Refer to LAP Test To be done in the presence of your trainer

Information sheet1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Erection of Brick Structures

Introduction
The art of brick lying consists in arranging and bedding bricks in mortar in such a manner as to form a well-united mass known as bricks work or bricks masonry. Such a mass can withstand forces without disintegration of the structure. In other wards an assemblage of bricks properly bounded together in mortar is called bricks masonry or brick work. The mortar to be used in brick masonry may be cement mortar, lime mortar or cement-lime mortar, depending upon the class and strength of work desired. At this level some of the important topics concerning Bricks Masonry have been discussed in order to provide adequate knowledge to the student about the principles and use of this type of masonry used in building construction. Brick masonry is commonly used for the construction of ordinary as well as important buildings and other structures in areas where natural stone is not obtainable cheaply and abundantly but there is plenty of suitable clay for the manufacture of bricks.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Technical terms used in brick masonry Some important technical terms concerning brick masonry are discussed below: Arises: - The edge formed by the intersection of plane surfaces Frog: - the depression provided on the face of a brick. Course: -A complete layer of bricks laid on the same bed. Bed: - The bottom surface of the brick when it is laid flat. Stretcher: - The side surface of a brick visible in elevation when the brick is laid flat . Header: - The end surface of the brick when the brick is laid flat &end of brick exposed showing (120x 60) mm. Perpends: - These are vertical joints between bricks either in longitudinal or cross directions. Bed joint: -The horizontal mortar joint between two successive courses. Lap: - The horizontal distance between two perpends in two successive courses. Quoins: - The external corner of walls. Bat: - portion of brick greater than a quarter Closer: - The portions made by cutting standard bricks along their length usually one quarter of stretcher Queen closer: - A portion of bricks with the widths half of full brick, but the length equal to full brick. Facing: - the external surface of brick wall. Backing: - the internal surface of brick wall.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Hearting: - The inner portion between the facing and backing of brick wall.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Rules of bonding Most of the following rules are applied to brick masonry work Length of the brick is twice of the width plus one mortar joint, so that it will give us a uniform lap. The vertical joints in the alternate courses should be along the same perpend. Centerline of stretcher should coincide centerline of header. As much as possible the use of brick portions have to be avoided. The lap should be one-fourth of the brick length. Factors governing the strength of brick masonry The following three factors greatly affect the strength of brick masonry work Quality of the brick Quality of the mortar Type of bonding

Identification of methods of Bond Bonding is a process of arranging bricks with mortar to tie them together in a mass of brickwork. It is the method of arranging bricks in courses so that individual are tied together and the vertical joints of the successive courses due not lie in the same vertical line. It should have a minimum of vertical joints in any part of the work. A wall having continuous vertical joints shall act as independent column. Hence, in such cases, load on wall shall not be uniformly distributed and there are chances of load settlement.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple brick & block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

A more strong and durable brick masonry construction must not have continuous vertical joints. It shall distribute load on a wider area and thereby minimize the tendency to settlement and other horizontal forces. Brick bonds are of various types but at this level we are going to discuss on the following some important bond types in brick masonry wall. TYPES OF BONDS The following are types of bonds commonly used in brick masonry Stretcher bond Header bond English bond Flemish bond (Single and double) Other bond types

1. Stretcher Bond
In this type of bond all the bricks are laid with their length in the direction of the wall. This pattern is used only for walls having thickness 12cm only. For higher thickness walls, this arrangement is not at all practicable.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

brick wall stretcher bond, elevation, first and second course

2. Header bond
It is the one in which all the bricks are laid as headers on the face of the wall. This pattern is used only when the thickness of the wall is equal to one brick (i.e. 25cm).

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block structure

Unit Code: Module code:

In this type of bond three quarter brick bat is amply used in each alternate courses as quoin to achieve the overlap equal to 6 cm. This bond is unsuitable for load bearing walls. However, it is specially used for curved brickwork.

3. English Bond
The bond having headers and stretchers laid in alternate courses is called English Bond. In this bond, a queen closer is placed after every quoin header in the header course to break the continuity of vertical joints. This bond is considered, as the strongest bond and dose not require any special attention in its formation. The bond is commonly adopted for brickwork of buildings where strength is of prime importance.

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick &Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Plan for courses 2, 4, 6, etc 1 brick thick wall, English bond, Elevation, first and second course

Elevation

One Brick thick English bond wall

Plan for courses 1, 3, 5, etc

4,Flemish bond
In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate headers and stretcher. Every alternate course starts with a header at the corner (i.e. quoin header). Queen closers are placed next to the quoin header in alternate courses to develop the face lap. Every header is centrally supported over the stretcher below it.

Flemish bond is of two types


Double Flemish bond Single Flemish bond

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block structure Erecting Simple Brick &Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Double-Flemish bond (One brick thick)

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting Simple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Double Flemish bond (Two bricks thick)

Information1

Unit Module

Erect Simple Brick & Block Structure Erecting imple Brick & Block Structure

Unit Code: Module code:

Concrete Block masonryy Introduction


The term concrete block is applied to various kinds and sizes of hollow or solid blocks, which can be made in either hand molds, steel hand machines or pressed hydraulically in concrete factories and laid by mason. Concrete block masonry can be defined as the construction of structures in concrete blocks with suitable type of mortar. Concrete block can be used successfully for a wide variety of construction purposes, including the erection of buildings, fences, and other similar structure.

Advantages of concrete block masonry


Low cost construction Very good Sound and heat insulation Easy and rapid for erection Uniform in size Structurally strong Saves mortar Great durability High weather and fire resistance

SELF-CHECK # 1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erect ing simple brick & block structure

Answer the Questions


1. Write techinical terms used in brick masonry.at least 3 2. What is the meaning of brick masonry? 3. Flemish bond means? 4. Bond is..?

MODEL ANSWER #1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

1.arrises Bed frog 2.The art of brick lying consists in arranging and bedding bricks in mortar in such a manner as to form a well-united mass known as bricks work or bricks masonry. 3. In this type of bond, each course is comprised of alternate headers and stretcher. 4.Bonding is a process of arranging bricks with mortar to tie them together in a mass of brickwork.

SELF-CHECK # 2

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erect ing simple brick & block structure

Define the ff questhions


1. Enumerate thebrick cutting procedure? 2. What are the use of brick cutting procedure?

MODEL ANSWER #2

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

1. Strike from the backside of the brick Strike the brick with cutting edge of the hammer Turn the brick in your hand 2. the walls have to be the same lap ,perpend

OPERATION SHEET # 1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erect ing simple brick & block structure

How to construct brick work

: Brick or masonry is commonly used for the construction of ordinary as well as important buildings and other structures in areas where natural stone is not obtainable cheaply and abundantly but there is plenty of suitable clay for the manufacture of bricks. :Spirit level Plumb bob Alignment string /masons line/ Graphite Pencil Folding meter/rule-2/ Hose level Measuring tape Walling Hammer/Mason hammer/ Club hammer and bolster Block laying trowel Chisel Mortar barrel/ drum Mortar spade Brush Bucket Concrete/ Mortar Mixer Wheelbarrow brick

OPERATION SHEET # 1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Laying of Bricks in wall After Preparations and arrangement of work place as discussed earlier and cutting brick pieces to desired size, the following points are to be considered. i) In some areas hot, dry wind and weather conditions, these who to be laid in cement or lime mortar, it necessary to wet the bricks before they are laid.This may apply depending on the weather conditions of the site. It should be properly wetted with water to: Prevent the bricks from absorbing any moisture from the mortar so that the mortar can properly set. Provide better bond between the bricks and mortar as kiln dust is washed away during wetting the blocks and to facilitate spreading the mortar more evenly on the surface of bricks.

General Methods and procedure of laying the bricks


Methods and Procedure: About 20mm thick layer of prepared mortar is first spread on the top of surface or floor in the area to be occupied by the corners of wall. Then the extreme corners of the wall are constructed in the required bond up to 3 to 5 courses in height and the bases of each corner is extended in steps. The height of each course is checked and then surface of the extreme corners are made truly plumb. After this each course is competed in turn by stretching mason line at the upper level between the extreme corners to mark the edges of the wall. In each course, the selected bricks for facing work are laid first in line and level with the external mason line and then other bricks are laid in between the external line on the layer of mortar according to the specified bond. When the masonry works up to the top of these extreme corners is completed. Again extreme corners 3 to 5 courses in height are constructed and this process is repeated till the wall is constructed about 1.25m from the ground level. For constructing walls beyond 1.25m in height above ground level, a temporary raised platform or scaffold is constructed for the mason to stand up on, to do the masonry work

OPERATIO N SHEET # 1

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Precaution:
Use all safety signs & signals Before starting to work, ready all tools & equipments Select materials according to the given specification Calculate the Quantity of Materials Quality Criteria: Extreme corners of the wall are constructed in the required bond up to 3 to 5 courses in height and the bases of each corner are extended in steps. The height of each course is checked and then surface of the extreme corners are made truly plumb All brick use the face side The walls are to measure truly plub bob The walls is a good apearance

OPERATION SHEET 2

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Unit Code: Module code:

How to construct block work

:blockor masonry is commonly used for the construction of ordinary as well as important buildings and other structures . :Spirit level Plumb bob Alignment string /masons line/ Graphite Pencil Folding meter/rule-2/ Hose level Measuring tape Walling Hammer/Mason hammer/ Club hammer and bolster Block laying trowel Chisel Mortar barrel/ drum Mortar spade Brush Bucket Concrete/ Mortar Mixer Wheelbarrow

OPERATIO N SHEET # 2

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Laying of blockin wall i) In some areas hot, dry wind and weather conditions, these who to be laid in cement or lime mortar, it necessary to wet the blocks before they are laid.This may apply depending on the weather conditions of the site. It should be properly wetted with water to: Prevent the blocks from absorbing any moisture from the mortar so that the mortar can properly set. Provide better bond between the blocks and mortar as kiln dust is washed away during wetting the blocks and to facilitate spreading the mortar more evenly on the surface of blocks General Methods and procedure of laying the blocks

Methods and Procedure: About 20mm thick layer of prepared mortar is first spread on the top of surface or floor in the area to be occupied by the corners of wall. Then the extreme corners of the wall are constructed in the required bond up to 3 to 5 courses in height and the bases of each corner is extended in steps. The height of each course is checked and then surface of the extreme corners are made truly plumb. After this each course is competed in turn by stretching mason line at the upper level between the extreme corners to mark the edges of the wall. In each course, the selected blocksfor facing work are laid first in line and level with the external mason line and then other blocks are laid in between the external line on the layer of mortar according to the specified bond. When the masonry works up to the top of these extreme corners is completed. Again extreme corners 3 to 5 courses in height are constructed and this process is repeated till the wall is constructed about 1.25m from the ground level.

OPERATIO N SHEET # 2

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Precaution: Use all safety signs & signals before starting to ready all tools & equipments Select materials according to the given specification Calculating Quantity Materials Quality Criteria: Extreme corners of the wall are constructed in the required bond up to 3 to 5 courses in height and the bases of each corner are extended in steps. The height of each course is checked and then surface of the extreme corners are made truly plumb Use all blocks on the face side The walls should be measured though plub bob The walls should be in good apearance

OPERATIO N SHEET # 3

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Procedures and steps of cutting brick & blocks :cutting brick & blocks are used tothe same perpend or lap to the bonds :-hamer, chisel When several pieces of same size such as closer and half brick or block, etc., are to be cut, it is better to cut a number of them all at one time rather than one at a time as they needed.

Strike from the backside of the brick or block

Strike the brick with cutting edge of the hammer

Turn the brick or block in your hand

Before proceeding to lay or carryout brick masonry wall, in various brick bond types, it is important to know parts of bricks to be cut and use in the process. Brick is cut in different shapes and sizes o fulfill the bond joints perfectly in wall construction.

OPERATIO N SHEET # 3

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

6cm

Full brick

25cm

12cm

brick

brick

brick

OPERATIO N SHEET # 3

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

10cm

20cm fullblock 40cm

Half block

20cm

20cm

OPERATIO N SHEET # 3

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Precaution: To use all safety signs & signals before starting to ready all tools & equipments Quality Criteria: the cutting bricks accurately level all bricks & blocks is the same size you must put it in safe condition

LAP TEST

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erecting simple brick & block structure

Name______________________Date: _________________ Time Started: ________Time Finished: 0:20mints


Instructions: You are required to perform the following-

Attempt all questions very carefully Neatness has its own value Follow the necessary Steps in each question Cheating leads to total cancellation of the exam

1.Request a tools and materials Spirit level Plumb bob Alignment string /masons line/ Graphite Pencil Folding meter/rule-2/ Hose level Measuring tape Walling Hammer/Mason hammer/ Club hammer and bolster Block laying trowel Chisel Mortar barrel/ drum Mortar spade Brush Bucket Concrete/ Mortar Mixer Wheelbarrow

2. Construct the walls by the given specification a.use stretcher bond b.length of the wall 103cm width 12cm the height of the wall 69cm 3. Construct the walls by the given specification block a. the length of wall 4m width 10cm height 209cm b.use 10cm,20cm,40cm blocks c.use the stretcher bond

OTHER REFERENCES

Unit Module

Erect simple brick & block structure Erect ing simple brick & block structure

Motivate Building construction Masonry homes Building consruction & practice