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..

2004

22.213 73
58
531.3 (07)

..

58

..
:
-
.-: , 2004.-22 .


, ,
.

150200 230100
.

22.213 73

.., 2004
, 2004



.
, , ,

, , .

:
, , ,
, , ..

,
.

.
,
,
, ,
.

.

1
1.1

, .. ,
,
,
, .
,

,
.
, ,
. .
:

= 0,
qi
,
qi - i .
,
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
,

.
,

.

.

.. :
, ,
1 2
1 2, ,
:
Qi =

< 1;

qi < 2 ,

qi (t)

< 1;

q i (t) < 2 ,

.

-:

,
.
,
, ,
.
,
2

> 0,
q 2

q =0

.
,
q
:

d
dt

= Q,
. q
q

(1.1)

;
q ;
Q .
1.2


, ..

Q=
.
q
, .
, . ,

(1.1)

.
q.
1.3

(1.1)

, q = 0.

, ,
, N
.
.
2
1 N
1 N
T = m k v k = m k r k2 .
(1.2)
2 k =1
2 k =1
, - rk

q, ,
2
.
.2
2 r k
q
r k =

q
(1.2), :
1
T =
2

rk .
m k q q .
k =1

r k
= mk
k =1
q
N


T=

1 .2
q .
2

, rk q
q. (q) q = 0
, :
2 A q2

+ ...
(1.3)
(q) = 0 + q + 2
q 0
q 0 2
0 ,
q = 0.

, (1.3)
0, .
,
,
1 .2
T = aq .
2

(1.4)

.
,
.

q.
q = 0,
2 q 2 3 q3

(q) = 0 +
q + q 2 2 + q 3 3! + ...

q = 0
. (/q)0 Q
, .
,

,
2

> 0.
q 2

2
.
2
q 0

c =

.
, ,
:
1
(q) = cq 2 .
(1.5)
2
(1.4) (1.5) :

..
.
d T

T
=
a
q,
= q.
. = a q,
dt q.

q

(1.1),
:
T
= 0,
q

..

a q + cq = 0.
(1.6)
(1.6) k2 =/,

..

q + k 2 q = 0.
(1.7)

:

k ,
.

(1.7)
.

q = e t .

(1.7):

(1.7)

2 + k 2 = 0.
1,2 = ki.
(1.7)

q = C1 cos kt + C 2 sin kt

(1.8)

q = C1k sin kt + C 2 k cos kt.

(1.9)

1 2 :

. .

t = 0; q = q 0 ,

q = q0 ,

q0 q0
.
(1.8) (1.9), :

1 = q 0 ,

(1.7) :

q
C2 = 0 .
k

q
(1.10)
q = q 0 cos kt + 0 sin kt.
k
(1.10)
.
,
:
q = A sin(kt + ) = A sin cos kt + A cos sin kt.
(1.8) 1 2
:
1 = A sin ,
C 2 = A cos .

C
C
C
A = C12 + C 22 ,
sin = 1 ,
cos = 2 ,
tg = 1 .
(1.11)
A
C2
A

(1.11) 1 2 ,
:
.
,

A=

q 02

q 02
+ 2 ,
k

q
sin = 0 ,
A

q=

q 02
q 0 k

+ 2 sin kt + arctg . .
k

q
cos = 0 ,
Ak

tg =

q0 k

(1.12)

q0
q = 0. q
+.
= (kt +) .
.
(kt +) t = 0.

(1.12), .. s sin. , tg,
.

:

q02

(1.13)

, (1.10)
(1.13), .
,
.
/2 .
,
, .
q ,
2, , q
. t
,
2. :
k (t + ) + = kt + + 2 ,
2
a
=
= 2
.
k
c
.
, ,

1

= = 2 .


().
,
.
,
.

2
k=
= 2 .

, k ,
2 .
1
.
q

q0

2
1 ?
2
, -?
3
?
4
?
5 ?
6 ?
7
?
8
?
9 ?
10 ?
11 ?
12 ?
13 ?
14
?
15
?
16 :
q = 4 cos14t + 3 sin 14t.

?

3 .


, , .
1 ( = (t)) ,
1 (
).
1,
1 3 2 3.
,
.
1
m1 m2 m3

1
2
V0 ,

b, , 0 ,
/

/
0
3,0 7,0 4,0 1000 4000
10
6,0
1,0
/3
1

4,5

5,2

1,0

800

1500

15

/6

4,0

5,5

5,0

6,3

3,5

1500

2700

35

2/3

3,0

3,5

2,0

8,4

6,0

1200

3000

65

/4

5,0

4,0

2,5

3,5

1,5

600

1300

30

/2

8,0

1,5

1,7

3,0

2,0

3000

2200

20

5/6

0,5

2,5

4,5

9,1

7,2

4500

1500

40

3/4

1,0

8,0

1,0

2,0

4,0

1600

3000

50

2,0

4,5

3,8

5,0

3,2

3000

5000

55

2,5

6,0

0,5

1,5

3,0

900

1400

45

/12

0,8

2,0

(
).
: m1, m2 m3 1, 2 3
; 1 2 ; 0
1 ,
; V0 1.
: R = 0,8 ;
x = 0,8R.

0,5R

1
1

3
3

0,3R

1,5R

2R

2R

3
2

1,5R R

R
b

3
c1

1,5R

1
5

1
0,7R 0,3R

1
3

3
2

1
2

1,5R

1,5R
R

R
b

2
1

R/2

R/3

3
R

1
3

R/3

1
2

4
: m1 = 2 ; m2 = 4 ; m3 = 5 ; 1 = 20 /; 2 = 30 /; b = 0,3 ;
R = 0,5 .

, , ,
.
1,
1 ( )
1, V0 = 3 /;
y0 = 6 c.

4
:
y 1
, .
:
d T T

=
.

dt y y
y

(4.1)


1, 2 3:
xA T = T + T + T . 900 - /2
3
V1 A 2

VAx

Vc

P
V1

V
y
2 = 1 = ;
R2 R2

y
Vc = 3 R = ;
2

y
3 =
;
2R

y
V A = 3 AP =
AP.
2R
AC =
:
s(180 ) =

BC b
= ,
AC R

b
.
R

s =

b
= R 2 + R 2 2 R R cos = 2 R 2 2 R 2 cos = 2 R 2 2 R 2 ( ) .
R
,

AP = R 21 +

VA =

b
,
R

y b
21 + .
2 R

2
J2 =

m2 R22
.
2

3
m3 R 2
J 3 =
.
2
1, ,

m1V12 m1 y
T1 =
=
2
2

2, ,

m2 R22 y 2
.
2
2
J 2 22
R2 m 2 y 2
;
T2 =
=
=
2
2
4

3, ,

m V 2 J 2
T3 = 3 C + C 3 3 =
2
2

.
y
m3
2

.
m3 R y

2 2 R

3m y 2
= 3
.
16

m y
T= 1
2

m y
+ 2
4

3m y
+ 3
16

y2
(8m1 + 4m2 + 3m3 )
=
16

1 .
T = a y 2,
2

a = 8m1 + 4m2 + 3m3 = 8 2 + 4 4 + 3 5 = 47.


,
1
, , ,
:
= mg + c .

1:
mg = m1 g y.

:
= 1 + 2 ,

1 1,
2 2.
2
1 ( + f 1 )2 1 f
1
,
1 =

2
2

f1 .
2

2
2 (x A + f 2 )2 2 f
2
=

,
2
2

f2 ;
xA 2,
.
.

x A = V Ax dt = V A cos 90 dt = V A sin dt =
2
2
2

xA =

21 + sin dt.
R
2

y b

21 + sin .
2 R
2

, :
b
1+
1 cos
R,
sin =
=
2
2
2

,
b
(
1
+
) y
y b
b

R
21 +
= 1 + .
xA =
2 R 2
2 R

, 2

2 =

b
2 1 + + f 2
R
2

2
2 f
2

.
2


2
1 ( + f 1 )2 f
1
= m1 gy +

+
2
2

b
2 1 + + f 2
R
2

2
2 f
2

c2 y 2 b 2
1 2
b

= m1 gy + c1 y + 2c1 yf c1 +
1 + + c 2 yf 2 1 + .
2
4 R
R

( = 0),
,

= 0,

=0

b
1

= m1 g + c1 f c1 + c 2 f 2 1 + = 0.
R
2

= 0

, :
c y2
1
= c1 y 2 + 2
2
4

2
c
b 1 2

1
+
= c1 + 2

R 2
4

2
b

1
+

1
= 2 ,
2


2
c2 b 2

3000 0,3

1+
c = c1 + 1 + = 2000 +
= 3920 .

4 R
4 0,5

(4.1):

= 0;
y

= y;
y

..
d T
=
a
y.
dt q.

(4.1)

..

a y = cy.

..

y+

c
y=0
a

..

y + k 2 y = 0.

(4.2)

c
3920
=
= 9,13 -1 .
a
47

k=

2 2 3,14
=
= 0,67 .
k
9,13
1

y = C1 cos kt + C 2 sin kt.


(4.3)
1 2 1

y = C1k sin kt + C 2 k cos kt.


:
t = 0; 0 = 0,06 ,

y 0 = V0 = 3 /.

V0 3,0
=
= 0,33 .
k 9,13
1, 2 k (4.3),
1 :
1 = y 0 = 0,06 ,

C2 =

y = 0,06 cos 9,13t + 0,33 sin 9,13t.


, (1.11):

= 12 + 22 = 0,06 2 + 0,33 2 = 0,335 .

5
1 .., .., ..
: . 3- . .2. . - .:
, 1991. - 640.
2 .., .., .. :
. .2. . -.: , 1979. - 543 .
3 .., .., ..
. .: , 1974. 527 .
4 .. : .
/ . .. , .. , .. .: , 1986. 448 .
5 :
/ .., ..,
.. .; . .. . - .: , 1985. - 367 .
6 .., .. . .: .
, 1990. 255.