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Designation: A494/A494M 091

Standard Specication for

Castings, Nickel and Nickel Alloy1


This standard is issued under the xed designation A494/A494M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon () indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1 NOTETable 1 was editorially corrected in February 2010.

1. Scope* 1.1 This specication covers nickel, nickel-copper, nickelcopper-silicon, nickel-molybdenum, nickel-chromium, and nickel-molybdenum-chromium alloy castings for corrosionresistant service. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards:2 A370 Test Methods and Denitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products A488/A488M Practice for Steel Castings, Welding, Qualications of Procedures and Personnel A732/A732M Specication for Castings, Investment, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application, and Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures A781/A781M Specication for Castings, Steel and Alloy, Common Requirements, for General Industrial Use E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials E29 Practice for Using Signicant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specications E30 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Steel, Cast Iron, Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron3
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E38 Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Chromium and Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys3 E76 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Nickel-Copper Alloys3 E354 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of HighTemperature, Electrical, Magnetic, and Other Similar Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys 3. Terminology 3.1 Denitions: 3.1.1 master heata single furnace charge of rened alloy, which may either be poured directly into castings or into remelt alloy for individual melts. 3.1.2 meltsa single furnace charge poured into castings. When master heats are used to prepare melts, a melt analysis shall be reported. 4. General Conditions for Delivery 4.1 Material furnished to this specication shall conform to the requirements of Specication A781/A781M, including any supplementary requirements that are indicated in the purchase order. Failure to comply with the general requirements of Specication A781/A781M constitutes nonconformance with this specication. In case of conict between the requirements of this specication and Specication A781/A781M, this specication shall prevail. 5. Ordering Information 5.1 Orders for castings to this specication should include the following information: 5.1.1 Quantity, in pieces, and 5.1.2 Grade designation (Table 1) and class (Table 2). 5.2 The purchaser shall specify any of the following information required to describe adequately the desired material: 5.2.1 Heat-treat condition (see 6.1 and 6.2), 5.2.2 Repair welding (see Section 11) 5.2.3 Source inspection requirements, if any (see Specication A781/A781M), 5.2.4 Marking-for-identication requirements, if any (see 13.1), and

1 This specication is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved May 1, 2009. Published May 2009. Originally approved in 1963. Last previous edition approved in 2008 as A494/A494M 08. DOI: 10.1520/A0494_A0494M-09. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standards Document Summary page on the ASTM website. 3 Withdrawn. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.astm.org.

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.


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NOTEValues are maximum unless otherwise indicated.


Alloy Family Grade UNS Numbers Ni CZ100 N02100 M25S N24025 M30CA N24130 Ni-Cu M30H N24030 M35-1A N24135 M35-2 N24020 N3M J30003 Ni-Mo N7M J30007 N12MV N30012 CU5MCuC N08826 CW2M N26455 CW6M N30107 Ni-Cr CW6MC CW12MW N26625 N30002 CX2M N26059 CX2MW N26022 CY40 N06040 Other CY5SnBiM N26055

C Mn Si P S Cu Mo Fe Ni Cr Cb (Nb) W V Bi Sn
A B

1.00 1.50 2.00 0.03 0.03 1.25 ... 3.00 95.00 min ... ... ... ... ... ...

0.25 1.50 3.5-4.5 0.03 0.03 27.0-33.0 ... 3.50 balance ...
B

0.30 1.50 1.0-2.0 0.03 0.03 26.0-33.0 ...

0.30 1.50 2.7-3.7 0.03 0.03 27.0-33.0 ...

30.030.026.0-30.0 2.5-3.5 33.0 33.0 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.50 3.00 3.00 4.0-6.0 balance balance balance balance balance balance balance balance 38.0-44.0 ...
B

0.35 1.50 1.25 0.03 0.03 26.033.0 ...

... 1.0-3.0 ... ... ... ...

... 0.5 ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ...

... ... ... ...

Order M35-1 or M30C when weldability is required. Element to be analyzed and reported for information only. Editorially corrected.

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TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements

Composition, % 0.35 1.50 2.00 0.03 0.03 26.0-33.0 ... 0.03 1.00 0.50 0.040 0.030 ... 0.07 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 ... 0.12 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 ... 0.050 1.0 1.0 0.030 0.030 1.50-3.50 0.02 1.00 0.80 0.03 0.03
B

0.07 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030


B

0.06 1.00 1.00 0.015 0.015


B

0.12 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030


B

0.02 1.00 0.50 0.020 0.020


B

0.02 1.00 0.80 0.025 0.025


B

0.40 1.50 3.00 0.03 0.03


B

0.05 1.5 0.5 0.03 0.03 ...

A494/A494M 091

15.0-17.5 2.0 balance 15.0-17.5


B

17.08.0-10.0 20.0 3.0 5.0 balance balance 17.020.0


B B

B 16.015.0-16.5 12.518.0 14.5 4.5-7.5 1.50 2.0-6.0 11.0 balance balance balance balance

2.0-3.5 2.0 balance 11.0-14.0 ... ... ... 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.0

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... 0.5 ... ... ... ...

1.0 ... ...


B

1.0 ... ...


B

1.00 ... ... 0.20-0.60 ... ...

19.5-23.5 0.60-1.20
B

1.0
B

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

... ...

20.0-23.0 15.517.5 3.15-4.50 B B 3.755.25 B 0.200.40 ... ... ... ...

22.0-24.0 20.022.5
B B B

14.0-17.0
B B

2.5-3.5 0.35 ... ...

... ...

... ...

A494/A494M 091
TABLE 2 Heat Treat Requirements
Grade CZ100, M35-1, M35-2, CY40 Class 1, M30H, M30C, M25S Class 1, CY5SnBiM M25S, Class 2A As cast Load into furnace at 600F [315C] maximum. Heat to 1600F [870C] and hold for 1 h plus an additional 30 min for each 12 in. [13 mm] of cross section over 1 in.B Cool to 1300F [705C]C and hold at temperature for 30 min then quench in oil to room temperature. Load into furnace at 600F [315C] maximum. Heat slowly to 1100F [605C] and hold to develop maximum hardness. Furnace or air cool to room temperature. Heat to 2000F [1095C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2150F [1175C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 1900F [1040C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2200F [1205C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid air cool by other means. Heat to 2100F [1150C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water. Stabilize at 1725-1815F [940-990C], hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means. Heat to 2100F [1150C] minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat castings to temperature, quench in water or rapid air cool by other means. Heat Treatment

M25S, Class 3 N12MV, N7M, N3M CW12MW, CW6M, CW6MC, CW2M CY40, Class 2 CX2MW CU5MCuC

CX2M

A M25S, while machinable in the as-cast condition, is capable of being solution treated for improved machinability. It may be subsequently age hardened to the hardness specied in Table 3 and nished machined or ground. B For cross sections over 6 in. [125 mm], it may be necessary to increase the hold time if maximum softness is desired. C For maximum softness and the least variation in hardness levels, castings should be transferred from an oven at 1600F [870C] to a second oven at 1300F [705C].

5.2.5 Supplementary requirements desired, including the standards of acceptance. 6. Heat Treatment 6.1 Castings shall be heat treated in accordance with the requirements in Table 2.
NOTE 1Proper heat treatment of these alloys is usually necessary to enhance corrosion resistance and, in some cases, to meet mechanical properties. Minimum heat-treat temperatures are specied; however, it is sometimes necessary to heat treat at higher temperatures, hold for some minimum time at temperature, and then rapidly cool the castings in order to enhance the corrosion resistance and meet mechanical properties.

representative sample taken during the pouring of the master heat. Chemical composition shall be reported to the purchaser or his representative. 7.4 Test Methods E76 or Test Methods E354 shall be used for referee purposes. Test Methods E30 or Methods E38 shall be used if Test Methods E76 or Test Methods E354 do not include a method for some element present in the material. 8. Tensile Properties 8.1 One tension test shall be made from each master heat except for grades M25S and CY5SnBiM when the master heat is used to pour the castings. One tension test shall be made from each melt except for grades M25S and CY5SnBiM. Test results shall conform to the tensile requirements specied in Table 3. Test bars shall be poured in special blocks from the same heat as the castings represented. 8.2 The bar from which the test specimen is taken shall be heat treated in production furnaces to the same procedure as the castings it represents. If the castings are not heat treated, the bar used for the test specimen must not be heat treated. 8.3 Test specimens may be cut from castings, at the producers option, instead of from test bars. 8.4 When castings are produced by methods other than investment process, tension test coupons shall be machined to the form and dimension shown in Fig. 8 of, and tested in accordance with, Test Methods E8. 8.4.1 When castings are produced by the investment process, test specimens in accordance with Specication A732/ A732M shall be used for measurement of tensile properties. 8.5 If any specimen shows defective machining or develops aws, it may be discarded and another substituted from the same heats. 8.6 To determine conformance with the tension test requirements, an observed value or calculated value shall be rounded in accordance with Practice E29 to the nearest 500 psi [3.5
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6.2 When Class 1 is specied, grades CY40 and M25S shall be supplied in the as-cast condition. When Class 2 is specied, grades CY40 and M25S shall be supplied in the solutiontreated condition. When Class 3 is specied, grade M25S shall be supplied in the age-hardened condition. 7. Chemical Composition 7.1 These alloys shall conform to the chemical composition requirements prescribed in Table 1. 7.2 The grades that pertain to this specication are placed into the ve general categories given below. The producer shall report for information all elements in Table 1 for which a limit is given for any alloy in the same alloy family. The alloy families are: (1) Nickel CZ100 (2) Nickel-copper M35-1, M35-2, M30C, M30H, M25S (3) Nickel-molybdenum N12MV, N7M, N3M (4) Nickel-chromium CY40, CW6M, CW2M, CW6MC, CX2MW, CU5MCuC, CX2M (5) Other CY5SnBiM 7.3 An analysis of each master heat shall be made by the manufacturer to determine the percentages of the elements specied in Table 1. The analysis shall be made from a
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A494/A494M 091
TABLE 3 Mechanical Properties
Alloy Family Ni Ni-Cu Ni-Mo Ni-Cr Other

CZ100 M25S M30C M30H M35-1 M35-2 N3M N7M N12MV CU5- CW2M CW6M CW6MC CW- CX2M CX2MW CY40 CY5SMCuC 12MW nBiM Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] Yield strength, min, ksi [MPa] Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm],A min, % Hardness HB
A

50 [345] 18 [125] 10 ...

... ... ...


B

65 [450] 32.5 [225] 25 ...

100 [690] 60 [415] 10 ...

65 [450] 25 [170] 25 ...

65 [450] 30 [205] 25 ...

76 [525] 40 [275] 20.0 ...

76 [525] 40 [275] 20 ...

76 [525] 40 [275] 6 ...

75 [520] 35 [240] 20 ...

72 [495] 40 [275] 20 ...

72 [495] 40 [275] 25 ...

70 [485] 40 [275] 25 ...

72 [495] 40 [275] 4 ...

72 [495] 39 [270] 40 ...

80 [550] 45 [310] 30 ...

70 [485] 28 [195] 30 ...

... ... ... ...

When ICI test bars are used in tensile testing as provided for in Specication A732/A732M, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4 to 1. B 300 HB minimum for the age hardened condition.

MPa] for yield and tensile strength and to the nearest 1 % for elongation and reduction of area. 9. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance 9.1 Critical surfaces of all castings intended for corrosionresistant service shall be cleaned. Cleaning may be accomplished by blasting with clean sand or metallic corrosionresistant shot or by other approved methods. 10. Quality 10.1 The castings shall not be peened, plugged, or impregnated to stop leaks. 10.2 Internal chills and chaplets may be used in the manufacture of castings. However, the chills, chaplets and affected cast material must be completely removed. 11. Repair by Welding 11.1 Repairs shall be made by using a welding procedure and operators capable of producing sound welds. The composition of deposited weld metal shall be similar to that of the castings. 11.2 Weld repairs shall be considered major in the case of a casting that has leaked on hydrostatic test or when the depth of the cavity after preparation for repair exceeds 20 % of the actual wall thickness, or 1 in. [25 mm], whichever is smaller, or when the extent of the cavity exceeds approximately 10 in.2[65 cm2]. All other weld repairs shall be considered minor. Major and minor weld repairs shall be subject to the same quality standards as are used to inspect the castings. 11.3 Castings of M30H, M25S, and CY5SnBiM may not be weld repaired. 11.4 Grades N12MV, N7M, N3M, CW12MW, CW6M, CW2M, CX2MW, CX2M, CW6MC, and CU5MCuC may require post-weld heat treatment after major weld repairs. If

post-weld heat treatment is required, it must be specied along with the grade. If required, it shall be performed in accordance with Section 6. 11.5 For grade CU5MCuC, the composition of the deposited weld metal shall be similar to that of AWS A5.14 ER NiCrMo3 or AWS A5.11 E NiCrMo3. 12. Rejection and Rehearing 12.1 Samples that represent rejected material shall be preserved for two weeks from the date of transmission of the rejection report. In case of dissatisfaction with the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make claim for a rehearing within that time. 13. Product Marking 13.1 Castings shall be marked for the material identication with the ASTM specication designation (A494/A494M) and grade symbol, that is, CY40. The manufacturers name or identication mark and the pattern number shall be cast or stamped on all castings except those of such small size as to make such marking impractical. To minimize small defects caused by dislodged particles of molding sand, the number of cast identication marks shall be minimized. The marking of heat numbers on individual castings shall be agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser. Markings shall be in such position as not to injure the usefulness of the casting. 13.1.1 When the castings are too small to mark individually, a symbol traceable to the heat shall be placed on the castings and the required identication then placed on a tag affixed to the container in which these castings are shipped. 14. Keywords 14.1 corrosion-resistant applications; nickel; nickel alloy castings; nickel alloys; nickel castings

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A494/A494M 091
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS The following supplementary requirements shall not apply unless specied in the purchase order. A list of standard supplementary requirements for use at the option of the purchaser is included in Specication A781/A781M. Those which are ordinarily considered for use with this specication are given below; others enumerated in Specication A781/A781M may be used with this specication upon agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. S2. Radiographic Examination S3. Liquid Penetrant Examination S6. Certication S10. Hardness Tests S10.1 When composition M25S material is ordered with a hardness maximum or range in the as-cast or solution-treated condition, hardness tests shall be made in accordance with Test Methods and Denitions A370. The test location, number of tests, and hardness values shall be agreed upon between the manufacturer and purchaser. S10.1.1 If castings are ordered in the as-cast condition, hardness determinations shall be made on two different representative areas of each casting or coupon selected for test. S10.1.1.1 By agreement between purchaser and producer, those as-cast castings that fail to meet the required hardness may be accepted in the solution annealed and hardened condition if the hardness thus developed meets the hardness requirement of the specication. S10.1.2 If castings ordered are in the solution-treated condition, two sample castings or two coupons representing the lot shall be heat treated for tests (see S10.1.1). Hardness determinations shall be made on two different representative areas of each casting or coupon. S10.1.3 When hardness tests are made, the specimens shall be at least 14 in. [6 mm] in thickness and the area to be tested shall be ground clean before the hardness tests are made. S22. Weldability Test S22.1 If weldability tests are specied for M30C or M35-1, prepare a coupon obtained from a test bar shown in Fig. S22.1 or Fig. S22.2 for each lot of composition M30C or M35-1 castings. The weld test to be used shall be agreed upon between the purchaser and manufacturer. S22.1.1 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance with Fig. S22.1 and in accordance with Fig. S22.3. S22.1.1.1 Machine the cast skin and unsound metal from two adjacent faces of the as-cast specimen, exclude the riser face, and cut the specimen into approximately 6-in. [150-mm] lengths. S22.1.1.2 Clamp the two 6-in. [150 mm] lengths together to form a double V-joint and weld two passes at a time on alternate sides of the specimen using 18-in. [3-mm] diameter electrodes that will deposit metal of similar composition of the test pieces. S22.1.1.3 Allow the specimen to cool to room temperature between passes, remove all ux, and examine visually for cracks.
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Metric Equivalents in. [mm] 1 [25] 3 [75] 4 [100] 12 [305]

NOTERiser shall be machined off and 1 in. [25 mm] square by 12 in. [305 mm] coupon shall be used for x-weld test. See Fig. S22.3.
FIG. S22.1 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)

S22.1.1.4 The clamps may be removed from the specimen after the rst two weld passes have been completed. S22.1.1.5 Deposit alternate series of passes until the double V-groove has been completely lled. After the second series (number 4 pass) a 532-in. [4-mm] diameter electrode may be used if desired. S22.1.1.6 During welding allow each pass to cool, clean, and examine visually for cracks. The presence of cracks shall be cause for rejection. S22.1.1.7 Upon completion of the welding, cut one section approximately 34 in. [19 mm] long transverse to the weld from each end and discard. S22.1.1.8 Polish each end of the remaining center section on a 100/200-grit wheel and etch with concentrated HNO3 or with Lepitos etchant. Prepare Lepitos etchant as follows: (1) 15 g of (NH4) 2SO4 dissolved in 75 cm3 of water; (2) 250 g of FeCl3(powdered) dissolved in 100 cm3 of HCl; (3) mix solutions (1) and (2) and add 30 cm3of HNO3. S22.1.1.9 Examine the etched section under low magnication (5 to 103). The lot represented by the test specimen shall be accepted if it complies with the following crack requirements: (1) Three cracks maximum in linear inch of base metal and (2) the length of any crack in the base metal does not exceed 0.20 in. [5 mm]. S22.1.1.10 Cracks observed in the weld metal during the low-magnication examination shall not be cause for rejection.
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A494/A494M 091

Metric Equivalents in. [mm]


14

38

34

1 1 8 [30]

2 3 4 [70]

3 1 4 [85]

6 [155]

[5]

[10]

[20]

FIG. S22.2 Weld Test Bar (As Cast)

Metric Equivalents in. [mm]


34

4 1 2 [115]

[20]

FIG. S22.3 X-Weld Test

S22.1.1.11 Failure of welded test bars to comply with any of the requirements S22.1 through S22.1.1.10 shall result in rejection of the lot represented. S22.1.2 Prepare and weld the test bar cast in accordance with Fig. S22.2 as follows: S22.1.2.1 Fill the groove in the block completely with weld deposit using manual metallic arc process with 18-in. [3.2mm]

or 532-in. [4-mm] diameter electrodes that will deposit metal of similar composition of the test piece. S22.1.2.2 Remove one 38-in. [10-mm] thick bend coupon longitudinally from the welded block by machining, sawing, abrasive cutting, or other suitable means. Make a transverse side bend test of the welded joint in accordance with Practice A488/A488M. S22.1.2.3 Remove a transverse weld macro-specimen from the welded plate and visually examine for cracks. This specimen may be the same one to be used for the bend specimen. S22.1.3 Acceptance: S22.1.3.1 Cracks as tears in the casting in the fusion zone or heat-affected zone of the macro-specimen shall be cause for rejection. Cracks originating at the weld bead undercuts, at weld slag inclusions, or at casting defects shall not be cause for rejection. S22.1.3.2 Cracks or other open defects exceeding 18-in. [3.2 mm] measured in any direction on the convex surface of the bent specimens shall be cause for rejection, except that cracks occurring on the corners while testing and cracks originating at weld bead undercuts shall not be considered.

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A494/A494M 091
SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee A01 has identied the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A494/A494M 08) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved May 1, 2009.) (1) Table 1 was corrected to include correct UNS numbers: N26059 for alloy CX2M and N26022 for alloy CX2MW. Committee A01 has identied the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue (A494/A494M 07) that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved Oct. 1, 2008.)
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(1) Added a new Paragraph 7.2 with requirements for unspecied residual elements and renumbered the following two paragraphs.

(2) Added alloy family headings and re-grouped the alloys. (3) Added Footnote B in Table 1 for new elemental analysis and reporting requirements.

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