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.. 3. .

3.

3.1. .
.
- :
, .
x, x , ,
(3.1)
Dx << l
(. 3.1).
(3.1) x
r, l,
c, g.
c g , r l .
r, l, c,
g
x.

r1 = r2, l1 = l2.
. 3.1.

.
. r1 r2, l1 l2.

. r, l,
c, g x = const x.

()
R, L, C, G (.
3.2):
R Dx = r1 + r2 G Dx = g1
. 3.2.
C Dx = c1
L Dx = l1 + l2 (3.2)

R [/], L [/], C [/], G [/].
, . . R L
, C G .

3.2. .
3.2.1. R

.
-.

1 16

.. 3. .

ra

ra

a
. 3.3.

: (. 3.3)

, :
:
R0 = 2 R0a
(3.3)
:
R0 = 2 c R0a , (3.4)
R0a ,
:

r
1
,
(3.5)
=
2
p ra p s ra2
r - , ; s = 1 r - , 1 / () / .
R0 a =

rc

ra

rb

. 3.4.

: (. 3.4)
() () :
R0 = R0a + R0b .
(3.6)

(3.5), :
1
1
R0b = r
=
(3.7)
2
2
p(rc - rb ) p s (rc2 - rb2 )
(3.7) :

1
.
(3.8)
2p rb t s
sa sb.
R0b =

, r
( H
)
.
ra
.

. .
3.5 ,
. . 3.5.

()

2 16

.. 3. .

, ,
.
, .
( ) - , e = 2.73 :
2
2
,
(3.9)
q=
=
w m m0 s
k
k = w m m 0 s - , 0 = 410-7 / ,
- , - .

. (3.8),
:
R0 a
Ra =
(3.10)
q
q
2 -
ra
ra
, :
2
w skin =
(3.11)
m m 0 s ra2
(3.10)
:
R r
w m m0
1
(3.12)
Ra = 0 a a =
2q
2p ra
2s

. 3.6.

, :
2
w skin =
(3.13)
m m0 s t 2

(. 3.7).
. 3.6. 1 .

.
: . . 3.8 . .
, - . , - .

3 16

.. 3. .

R, /
.
(/),

:
2
2r
G (k ra ) a
a (3.14)
DR = R0
2
2r
1 - a H (k ra )
a
k - , G(kra) H(kra) - ,

kra
3.1.
,
f,
,
. 3.7.

( ) ()
, 1 0.1 , .

.
r
H

. 3.8. () () .

, :
4 16

.. 3. .

R0

+ DR w w skin

q
q
R = 2 -
(3.15)
r
r
a
a

R0
w < w skin

R, /
:
2
ra
1+ 2
a w m m 0 (3.16)
R=
p ra
2s
. 3.9
r /a=
.
r/a=4

r/a=2
1 .
r/a=1
:
r / a = 0.5
r
/ a = 0.25

,
/ mat
. . 3.9.
.
.
. 3.8 H,
.
, ,
.
3.1
G(x)
H(x)
G(x)
H(x)
x = kra
x = kra
0
0
0.0417
3.5
0.499
0.416
0.5
0.000975
0.042
4.0
0.584
0.466
1.0
0.01519
0.053
4.5
0.669
0.503
1.5
0.0691
0.092
5.0
0.755
0.530
2.0
0.1724
0.169
7.0
1.109
0.615
2.5
0.295
0.263
10.0
1.641
0.712
3.0
0.405
0.348
> 10.0
0.75
2 x -1 8

, , .
.
R0a + R0b w w skin a

R = Ra + R0b w skin a < w w skin b

(3.17)
R + R
w > w skin b
b
a

5 16

.. 3. .

1
1
R0b =
-
2
2 p s t t rb
p s a ra
R0 a
, Ra =
- qa qa
2-
ra
ra

R0 a =

1
- 2 p s b q b rb
2
2
, w skin a =
, w skin b =
- ,
2
m m 0 s a ra
m m0 s b t 2

.
, Rb =

3.2.2. L

, :
I r
2 p r 2 , r ra
a
H (r ) =
,
(3.18)
I , r > r
a
2 p r
I - , ra - , r -
, .
:

0,
r < rb
I r2 - r2

b
, rb r rc
H (r ) =
,
(3.19)
2
2
2
r
r

p
c - rb

I
r > rc
2 p r ,
rb , rc .
:
I
H (r ) =
,
(3.20)
2 p r
. 3.10 . . 3.11 3.12 .

, , L L .
, ,
:
L I2
H B
m m0
W =
=
ds =
H 2 ds ,
(3.21)

2
2
2 S
S
B = m m 0 H - , m - . :

6 16

.. 3. .

L =

m m0
H 2 ds .
2

I S

(3.22)

. 3.10. () () .

.
, , .
(3.22) (3.18) :
m m0
L a 0 =
.
(3.23)
8p

:
m m0
L s 0 = 2 L a 0 =
.
(3.24)
4p
.
(3.23).
() (/):
m m 0 1 - 3 x 2 4 x 4 ln x
L b0 =
,
(3.25)
2
8p 1 - x 2
1 - x 2

7 16

.. 3. .

x = rb rc . rb0 ( ), x0 (3.25) :
L b 0 L a 0 = m m 0 8p . rbrc ( ), x1
(3.25) : L b 0 0 -
.

. 3.11. () ()

:
m m 0 x 2 - 3
4 ln x
L b0 =
(3.26)
2
2
8p 1 - x
1 - x 2
, :
m m 0 x 2 - 3
4 ln x
L k 0 =
(3.27)
1+
8p 1 - x 2 1 - x 2 2

- .
(3.25), x
:
8 16

.. 3. .

x = (ra - q ) ra .

(3.28)

. 3.12. () ()

:
m m 0 1 - 3 x 2 4 x 4 ln x
L s =
,
(3.29)
2
4p 1 - x 2
1 - x 2
x (3.28).
(3.25), x :

9 16

.. 3. .

, q rc - rb
rb rc
(3.30)
x=
(rc - q ) rc , q < rc - rb
(3.25, 3.28) (3.29, 3.30) . , x, , (
x (3.28), (3.30)), x1 x2:
m m 0 1 - 3 x12 4 x14 ln x1 m m 0 x 22 - 3 4 ln x 2
L k =
+
(3.30)
2
8p 1 - x12
8p 1 - x22 1 - x22 2
1 - x12
(3.29) (3.31) . 3.13. : - ra = 0.5 ,
a = 4 ; - ra = 0.5 , rb = 2 , rc = 3 .

8p
m m0

8p
m m0

()

()

. 3.13. () () .

.
:
F
L =
,
(3.32)
I l
F = B ds = m m 0 H ds - B
S

. 3.14. .

S , m
- , .
(.
3.14). F , .
, :
m m l I
a - ra
ln
F = 2 F1 = 0
, (3.33)
p
ra
-

10 16

.. 3. .

m m0
a - ra
(3.34)
ln
p
ra
(. 3.15).
(. 3.12).
, :
rb
m m l I
r
I
F = m m0 l
ln b ,
dr = 0
(3.35)

2
2
r
r
p
p
a
ra

L, /

+
+
+

+
+

:
L = L + L
(3.37)
. 3.22 .
: ra = 0.5 , a = 4 ; ra = 0.5 , rb = 2 , rc = 3 .

:
m m
r
(3.36)
L k = 0 ln b .
2p
ra
. 3.16
.

L s =

. 3.15. .

L, /

a / ra

rb / ra

()

()

. 3.16. () () .

3.2.3. C.

, . . 3.18.
,
rl (. 3.18) :

11 16

.. 3. .

rl

E=
= 2p e e 0 r
e e0
0

, r > ra

, /

(3.38)

, r < ra
L, /

Cu
Al
Pb

f,

()

()

. 3.17. () () .

D, E
()

r
0

. 3.18.

ra
()

. , rl . . 3.19 , .
,
:

12 16

.. 3. .

E1

r1

E2

r2

+
a
()
. 3.19. .

()

r r
r
E = E1 + E 2
(3.39)
. 3.19 .
. ,
rl . :
rl

, ra r rb

E = 2p e e 0 r

0
, 0 < r < ra , r > rb
(3.40)
. 3.25
.

, , .
:
Q
= ,
(3.41)
U
Q , U - .

. 3.20. .
:
r
= l,
(3.42)
U
rl - , l - , U -
.

13 16

.. 3. .

(. 3.21):
a - ra
rl
a - ra
U = (E1 (r ) - E2 (r ))dr =
ln
(3.43)

p
e
e
r
0
a
ra
(3.42)
:
. 3.21.
p e e0
,
(3.44)
=
a - ra
ln
ra
(3.40), :
rb
rl
r
ln b
U = E (r )dr =
(3.45)
2
p

e
r
0
a
ra
, /
= 2.2-2.4
= 3.5-6.0

rb / ra
()

()

. 3.22. () () .

(3.42) :
2p e e 0
=
ln rb ra

(3.46)

3.2.4. G.

. , :
(3.47)
G = wC
, .
. 2
. .
.
. , . . -

14 16

.. 3. .

. 3.23.
.

,
.
. .

. , , , . D
E , de.
:
G = w tg d e
(3.48)

, .
:
G = G0 + w tg d e .
(3.49)
. 3.23.

15 16

.. 3. .

3.2.5.
. 3.24
:
. 3.25 3.26

.

. 3.24. .

. 3.25. .

. 3.26. .

16 16