Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 0

.. 10. .

10.
10.1. . .
. M
, - , ( a) ( NA) ,
l0:
2 p a NA
n=
,
(10.1)
l0
n2
(10.2)
M = INT .
2
(10.2) , 1 n < 2 .
:
2p a NA
.
(10.3)
n 2.405 =
l0

5 .
.

, . ,
.

, . (10.3) - :
2p a NA
l0 lcut =
.
(10.4)
2.405
. 10.1 50/125 62.5/125 1.
10.1.

,

l = 0.85
l = 1.3
50/125
37.0
24.2
13.1
62.5/125
46.2
30.2
16.3
9/125
3.60
2.37
1.28

10.2. .

, .
, . (. 10.1)
x2 + y2
,
F ( x, y ) = exp (10.5)
2

r
mf

0.2, .
1 15

.. 10. .

rmf - .

. 10.1.

Enorm
= 0.85
= 1.31
= 1.55

r,
. 10.2.
.

rmf dmf
1 / =0.369 .


:
2a
(10.6)
rmf =

2
p
a
NA

ln

,
. . 10.2 (10.5) (10.6) ,

10.3. .
.
. , , , - , :

2 15

.. 10. .

1. C
, ;
0.8
2. (. 10.3).
0.6

,
0.4
.
0.2
0
:
1540
1545
1550
1555
1560
Dhr = Dmat + Dw .
(10.7)
,
. 10.3.
n(l) ( ,
) l
:
l d 2n
Dmat = - 2
(10.8)
c dl
. 10.4 (
). ,
= 0mat
0.

Dw , . . . 10.4.

. ,
, ,
.
(.
10.5) , , .
1.0

3 15

.. 10. .

. 10.5.

l0D.

,
l .
. 10.4
( )
( ).
,
,


, .

-




. Dhr ,
l0D (. 10.6).

/ ()
1 1
(
. 10.6.
.
).
Dt
:
2
Dt = t out
- t in2 =| Dhr | Dl L ,

(10.9)

D - , L- .
, .
:
Dl = Dl2sign + Dl2sour ,

(10.10)

Dsign , , Dsour
.
1
. 10.7.

4 15

.. 10. .

100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
1

10

100

, /()

. 10.7. ( ) 3.5 (.), 18 (.) 50 (.) /() ( ) 1 (.), 10 (.) 100 (.) .

, . 10.7 . . Df

:
2
l Df
c
c c (l 1 - l 2 ) c Dl c Dl
.
Df =f 2 - f1 = =
=
2 , Dl =
c
l 2 l1
l1l 2
l1l 2
l

10.4. .

, .

. Dtper1, . -
.

, tout = tT. tin = ktT, k ,
, , tT (k 1). :

Dt per = tT2 - k 2 tT2 = t T 1 - k 2 =

1- k 2
,
C

(10.12)

C .
( ) , (10.9) (10.10):
Dt per
Lmax =
.
(10.13)
| Dhr | Dl 2sign + Dl 2sour

!
1

, (10.13) : Dtper
Dsign.

permissible
5 15

.. 10. .

, .

. , Cmax :
L | Dhr | Dl 2sign (C max ) + Dl 2sour = Dt per (C max )

(10.14)

(10.14) (10.11) (10.12) , , .


(10.14) ,
Dsign Dsour:
(10.15)
L | Dhr | Dl sour = Dt per (C max )
(10.12) (10.15) :
C max =

1- k 2
L | Dhr | Dl sour

(10.16)

10.5. .

8.3
0.34%
(.
n2
10.8) Standard Fiber
125
(SF). n1

8.3
(1260-1360 ).
0.30%

n2

l0D ~ 1.35 .

0.09%

46
l = 1310 3.5
/(),

125
l = 1550 18
.10.8.
/(), 0.2 /
. .
G.652.
1.55 ,
, . (. 10.9)
, , 1550 .
(Dispersion Shifted Fiber - DSF). G.653.
n1

6 15

.. 10. .

.10.9.

= 1550 3.5 /( ), = 1310 18


/( ).

. 10.10.

- (Non Zero Dispersion Shifted Fiber - NZDSF).


.
NZDSF ,
. . 10.2. TrueWave SMF-LS NZDSF :
LEAF Large Effective Area Fiber.
, , .
DFF Dispersion Flattened Fiber. ,
(|D| 1-6 //) 1300 1650 . WDM .

7 15

.. 10. .

10.2.

()

TrueWave
1550

SMF-LS
1550

0.22 - 0.25
0.25

LEAF
1550

.
0.25
1550 (/)
.
/
/
0.50
1310 (/)

0.8 ( 1540-60
/
1.0 (1540-60 )
(/)
)
4.6 ( 1540-60 -3.5 ( 1530-60 6.0 (1540-60 )
(/)
)
)

/
/
0.092
(/2))
/

1520
1560
()
. . 8.4 0.6
8.4 0.5
9.5 0.5
1550 ()
/

1260
1260
()

DFF
1550
/
/
1.0 (1540-60 )
3.0 (1540-60 )
/
/
/
/

10.6.
.
10.6.1. .

,
.
. 10.11.

. 10.11. .

, .

10.6.2. DCF.
:
8 15

.. 10. .

, ;
,
( , ).
, . ,
( ) ,
().
.

Dispersion Compensation Fiber (DCF).

. 10.12.
. 10.12.
DCF.

(. 10.13), .
DCF 5 ( ) . . 10.13 , 2.5
, .
DCF SF ,
. DCF
, 19 2, SF - 85 2.

. 10.13. DCF.

DCF : Corning, Lucent Technologies, Sumitomo


Electric .
DCM. . 10.3.
10.3
-

,
, /
,
,
-

DCM-20
20
-3295
<3,2

DCM-40
40
-65810
<5,0

Corning
DCM-60
60
-98810
<6,8

DCM-80
80
-131715
<8,6

DCM-95
95
-156415
<10,0

<0,8

<1,1

<1,4

<1,5

<1,6

Lucent Technologies
9 15

.. 10. .

,
, /
,
,

DK-40
40
-68021
<5,2

DK-60
60
-102031
<7,0

DK-80
80
-136041
<8,9

<0,6

<0,75

<0,9

. 10.14

DCM SDH WDM (. 10.14).

10.6.3. .

/ 1310 1550 . ,
, .
( ) .
Lrs.
, . , Dt Dtper. Dt (10.9), Dtper (10.12). , Dt Dt per , . .
- . Dtper. LDCF :
Dt per =| Dhr | Lrs Dl 2sign + Dl 2sour - | DDCF | LDCF Dl 2sign + Dl 2sour
:
Dt per
| D | Lrs
LDCF = hr
,
| DDCF | | DDCF | Dl 2sign + Dl 2sour

(10.17)
(10.18)

DDCF DCF.
- DCM.
DCF , DCF SF:
a DCM = a DCF LDCF + 2 a DCF-SF ,
(10.19)
aDCF DCF, aDCF-SF DCF
SF.
10 15

.. 10. .

, . , .
:
1. , :
L
a SF = a Lrs + rs a n ,
(10.20)
Ls
a - SF ( , 1310 1550 ), Ls SF , an SF-SF.
2. DCM, (10.19).
:
L
a = a SF + a DCM = a Lrs + rs a n + a DCF LDCF + 2 a DCF-SF .
(10.21)
Ls
(8.8) pS pR min:
a max = p S - p R min .

pS pR min !

a amax, .
a > amax, ,
.

10.6.4. .
1. DCM . ,
, .
2. DCM - .

10.7. - .
- .
, -
. .
(. 10.15). .

11 15

.. 10. .

. 10.15. -


(. 10.16).
, . . ,
.. - .

. 10.16. -

. . , L
Dt = D p L ,
(10.22)
Dp - ( ).
-
0.02 0.2 /0.5.
- . , . (10 / ) (1000 )
- ,
, .

12 15

.. 10. .

10.4
STM

, /

STM-1
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64
STM-256

0.156
0.622
2500
10000
40000

6400
1600
400
100
25

,
640.0
160,0
40.0
10.0
2.5

-
. ,
0.1
. 10.4

.
, - , . - :
0.1
Dt per = 0.1 tT =
,
(10.23)
C
tT , C .

- .
,
, .
.
, .

10.8. - .

- ,
.

, .
- - . . (10.22) :
Lmax

Dt per
=
D
p

(10.24)

- ,
.

. , , (10.22) (10.23):
0.1
Dt per =
= Dp L
C max
0.1
(10.25)
C max =
Dp L

13 15

.. 10. .

10.9.
.
. 10.17-10.19 (. 10.17), (. 10.18) - (. 10.19) .
C, /

50/125
62.5/125

L,
. 10.17
1300

,
0.5 .
, - , .
, .
.

, . 10.18
.
Dl = 0.

. 10.19 , , , 0.1 .

14 15

.. 10. .
. 10.18.
1550 .

C, /
/0.5
/0.5
/0.5

L,
. 10.19.
.

15 15