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Homework 4

1)
CSTR:
PFR:

= 1 +

= 1 -

CSTR: Efficiency vs. Residence Time


120.00%
100.00%

k=0.01
k=0.1

60.00%

k=1
40.00%

k=10
k=100

20.00%
0.00%
0

10

12

Residence Time ()

PFR: Efficiency vs. Residence Time


120.00%
100.00%

Log Removal (LR)

Efficiency

80.00%

80.00%

k=0.01
k=0.1

60.00%

k=1

40.00%

k=10
20.00%

k=100

0.00%
0

Residence Time ()

10

12

CSTR: Log Removal vs. Residence Time


3.5

Log Removal (LR)

3
2.5
k = 0.01

k=0.1
1.5

k=1

k=10
k=100

0.5
0

10

12

Residence Time ()

PFR: Log Removal vs. Residence Time


500
450

Log Removal (LR)

400
350
300

k=0.01

250

k=0.1

200

k=1

150

k=10

100

k=100

50
0
0

6
Residence Time ()

CSTR

10

12

= ( )
PFR
=

( )

For k = 10/day, in days

For CSTR, 8 log removal is 100 (=10000000/99999.9) times more difficult to reach than 6
log removal.
For PFR, 8 log removal is 1.333 (=1.842068/1.381551) times more difficult to reach than 6
log removal.
For the same value of k, the PFR is more efficient than the CSTR. PFR requires less retention
time to achieve the same efficiency as the CSTR.
2) k = 0.5/day, V = 50 m^3, Q = 10 m^3/day
Configuration A
Tank Volume = 4*50 = 200 m^3
= V/Q = 200/10 = 20 days
1
1
= 1 1+ = 1 1+20(0.5) = 0.9091

Log Removal = 10 (1 0.9091) = 1.04139


Configuration B
1

i = 1 1+ = 1

1
50
1+( )0.5
10

= .

Pi = 1- i = 1- 0.9091 = 0.090909
Pavg = (1/4)(P1+P2+P3+P4) = 0.090909
total = 1- 0.0909 = 0.9091
Log Removal = 10 (1 0.9091) = 1.04139
Configuration C

i = 1 1+ = 1

1
50
5

1+( )(0.5)

= 0.8333

Pi = 1- i = 1- 0.833 = 0.1666
= 1- (P1*P2) = 1- (0.1666)^2 = 0.97222
P1-3 = P2-4 = 1- 0.9722 = 0.02777
Pavg = (1/2)(P1-3 +P2-4) = (1/2)(2*0.02777) = 0.02777
total = 1- 0.02777 = 0.9722
Log Removal = 10 (1 0.9722) = 1.5563
Configuration D
i = 1

1
1+

=1

1
50
1+( )(0.5)
10

= 0.714286

Pi = 1- i = 1- 0.714286 = 0.2857
total = 1- (0.2857)^4 = 0.9933
Log Removal = 10 (1 0.9933) = 2.176
Configuration D (four tanks in series) would give the best overall removal.
Plug Flow Reactor
V = 4(50) = 200 m^3
= V/Q = 200/10 = 20 days
total = 1- 0.5(20) = 0.999955
Log Removal = 10 (1 0.999955) = 4.3429
The addition of baffles increased the efficiency.
Calculations for % improvement over CSTR
Configuration A: (0.999955-0.9091)/0.999955 = 9.085%
Configuration B: (0.999955-0.9091)/0.999955 = 9.085%
Configuration C: (0.999955-0.9722)/0.999955 = 2.776%
Configuration D: (0.999955-0.9933)/0.999955 = 0.665%