Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 91

ENERGY

ENERGY

THE ABILITY TO DO WORK

AND OR TRANSFER HEAT.

WORK

THE ENERGY

TRANSFERRED BY A FORCE TO A MOVING OBJECT.


WORK=FORCE X DISTANCE

WORK
WORK IS

DONE ON AN OBJECT WHEN AN OBJECT IS FORCED TO MOVE

Dodge.com

TYPES AND FORMS OF ENERGY

TYPES OF ENERGY

POTENTIAL KINETIC

POTENTIAL ENERGY
ENERGY AT REST

NOT DOING WORK OR

TRANSFERRING HEAT

POTENTIAL ENERGY

POTENTIAL ENERGY

POTENTIAL ENERGY

gaspumpheaven.com

KINETIC ENERGY
ENERGY OF MOTION

ENERGY IN USE

KINETIC ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

SWING PHYSICS

HOW DOES ENERGY CHANGE AS YOU SWING? POTENTIAL VS. KINETIC ENERGY

SWING PHYSICS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-

a3F7oaRJOw

A
SWING

B
www.spacestationinfo.com/students-64-Energy.html

KINETIC ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

KINETIC ENERGY

Coloradorunner.com

FORMS OF ENERGY
CHEMICAL
ELECTRICAL MECHANICAL

HEAT
RADIANT (LIGHT) NUCLEAR

CHEMICAL

FreeFoto.com

ELECTRICAL ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

MECHANICAL ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

HEAT ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

LIGHT ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

LIGHT ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

NUCLEAR ENERGY

FreeFoto.com

http://fusedweb.llnl.gov

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


ENERGY CAN NOT BE CREATED OR

DESTROYED.
IT CAN ONLY CHANGE FROM ONE

FORM TO ANOTHER.

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


ANY TIME ENERGY CHANGES FROM

ONE FORM TO ANOTHER SOME OF THE ENERGY IS LOST AS HEAT.


ENERGY CONVERSIONS ARE NOT

100% EFFICIENT.

PROFESSOR WALTER LEWINS PENDULUM


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhIOy

lZMg6Q

BOWLING BALL PENDULUM


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2GdY

1OlDpA

NEWTONS CRADLE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Lnbyj

OyEQ8

GIANT NEWTONS CRADLE


http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v

=mFNe_pFZrsA&feature=endscreen

MYTH BUSTERS NEWTONS CRADLE


http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v

=BiLq5Gnpo8Q&feature=endscreen

MYTH BUSTERS CONTINUED


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= OuA-znVMY3I

ENTROPY
THE THERMODYNAMIC MEASURE OF

DISORDER
A SYSTEM TENDS TO BECOME

DISORDERLY
TO MAINTAIN ORDER ENERGY MUST

BE USED

ENTROPY
TO KEEP YOUR ROOM CLEAN YOU

MUST USE ENERGY TO PICK UP AND ORGANIZE


TO MAINTAIN A CAR THE OIL MUST

BE CHANGED, TUNE UPS, SPARK PLUGS REPLACED, FLUIDS TOPPED OFF OR REPLACED, ETC.

www.dodge.com

www.classiccarprojects.com

FOOD CHAIN

90% OF THE ENERGY IS LOST AS

HEAT AT EACH STEP OF A FOOD CHAIN

STATIC ELECTRICITY

THE BUILD UP OF ELECTRONS ON

THE SURFACE OF AN OBJECT.

AN ATOM

ATOMIC PARTS
ELECTRON= NEGATIVE
PROTON= POSITIVE

NEUTRON= NO CHARGE

eia.doe.gov

PERIODIC TABLE

ATOMIC NUMBER

B
10.81

ATOMIC SYMBOL
ATOMIC MASS

ATOMIC TERMS
ATOMIC NUMBER: Number of protons
ATOMIC MASS: Number of protons +

neutrons ION: Atom with a charge ISOTOPE: Atom with a different number of neutrons

STATIC ENERGY

Rubbing a balloon on a wool sweater

creates charges on the surfaces

GAINING OF ELECTRONS

- - - -

OPPOSITES ATTRACT

STATIC ELECTRICITY

VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR

mos.org

Van De Graaf Generator

BILL NYE STATIC ELECTRICITY


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z-

77IzaXGcg

VAN DE GRAPH GENERATOR


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0J5q

43MSw8

STATIC DOG
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aO-

phqmyqdY

STATIC ELECTRICITY BOSTON MUSEUM OF SCIENCE


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= LLPKxk7ym7g

LIGHTNING

STATIC ELECTRICITY

Alaska.net

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS

THROUGH A CONDUCTOR.

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

BATTERIES
STORED ELECTRICITY

All-Battery.com

BAGDAD BATTERY BCE 250

smith.edu

ELECTRON SHELLS
First: 2 electrons
Second: 8 electrons Third: 18 electrons

Fourth: 32 electrons
Fifth: 50 electrons

***HAVING A COMPLETE OUTER ELECTRON SHELL MAKES THE ATOM MORE STABLE.

ELECTRON SHELLS

web.jjay.cuny.edu

ZINC ATOM

chemicalelements.com

NEEDS TO GAIN 30 OR LOSE 2

COPPER ATOM

chemicalelements.com

CARBON ATOM

chemicalelements.com

BATTERY FUNCTION
A BATTERY HAS A

CATHODE WHICH

TENDS TO ACCEPT ELECTRONS TO BE MORE STABLE AND AN ANODE WHICH TENDS TO GIVE UP ELECTRONS TO BE MORE STABLE AND ELECTROLYTE PASTE WHICH TRANSFERS MOST OF THE ELECTRONS BACK TO THE ANODE WHEN A CIRCUIT IS COMPLETE

CIRCUIT
A CONDUCTOR WHICH CONNECTS A

PATHWAY BETWEEN THE CATHODE (+) AND ANODE (-)

CATHODE

wikipedia.org

ANODE

WET CELL BATTERY

/lemcellguard.com/battery

DRY CELL BATTERY

wikipedia.org

MERCURY BATTERY
wikipedia.org

wikipedia.org

POTATO BATTERY

www.miniscience.com

SIMPLE POTATO BATTERY

pbskids.org/zoom/activities

500 POUND POTATO BATTERY

latteier.com/potato

DIFFERENT TYPES OF WIRING

SERIES
cosmology.berkeley.edu

PARALLEL

PARALLEL AND SERIES


PARALLEL: SAME POWER LONGER TIME

SERIES: MORE POWER SAME TIME

CURRENT ELECTRICITY

orkneypics.com

SO WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?

aecl.ca/kidszone

ELECTRICITY
THE FLOW OF ELECTRONS

THROUGH A CIRCUIT
CAN BE USED TO DO WORK
CAN BE TRANSFORMED INTO

MECHANICAL, RADIANT, SOUND AND HEAT ENERGY

GALVANOMETER

A device that detects the flow of

electricity

ELECTROMAGNET
AN ELECTRIC CURRENT FLOWING

THROUGH A WIRE FORMED A MAGNETIC FORCE


AN ELECTROMAGNET CAN BE SHUT

OFF

TO BUILD A STRONGER

ELECTROMAGNET USE:

MORE WIRE IN THE COIL A MORE POWERFUL SOURCE OF ELECTRONS

MAGNETISM
A FORCE BY WHICH MATERIALS

ATTRACT OR REPEL OTHER MATERIAL


FORMED BY AN ELECTRIC CURRENT

(ELECTROMAGNETISM) OR THE SPIN OF ELECTRONS (PERMANENT MAGNETS)

MAGNETIC FIELD

Wikipedia.com

MAGNETIC FIELD

eia.doe.gov

THE MAGNETIC FIELD OF A BAR MAGNET

MAGNETOSPHERE

www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov

LIKE MAGNETIC CHARGES REPEL/ OPPOSITES ATTRACT

eia.doe.gov

GENERATOR
A GENERATOR IS A DEVICE THAT

TURNS MECHANICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY


THE PARTS ARE

A COIL OF WIRE A MAGNET

GENERATOR

eia.doe.gov

GENERATOR
A MECHANICAL FORCE MOVES THE

WIRE COIL OR THE MAGNET CAUSING THE ELECTRONS OF THE WIRE TO MOVE

GENERATOR
TO MAKE A GENERATOR WORK A

MECHANICAL FORCE IS USED


TO MAKE A STRONGER GENERATOR

USE:

A MORE POWERFUL MAGNET MORE WIRE IN THE COIL A MORE POWERFUL MECHANICAL SOURCE

TURBINE
A DEVICE USED TO SPIN A PART

(MAGNET OR COIL) OF THE GENERATOR THE TURBINE CAN BE MOVED BY:


FLOWING WATER WIND STEAM

FLOWING WATER
ADVANTAGES:

LITTLE POLLUTION FREE SOURCE

DISADVANTAGES COSTLY TO BUILD MUST BE ON A RIVER AFFECTS FISH MIGRATION