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Established on 1953 under Commonwealth Act No.

Responsible for the formulation of national economic policies

Established on 1962 under Executive Order No. 17

Implementing authority to push development plans

Established on 1966 under Executive Order No. 53

Responsible for assessing human resources and forecasting
the needs for trained personnel at various occupational levels
The National Economic and Development Authority (Pambansang Pangasiwaan
sa Kabuhayan at Pagpapaunlad) or NEDA, is an independent cabinet-level agency of
the government responsible for economic development and planning.
It is headed by the President of the Philippines as chairman of the NEDA board,
with the Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning, concurrently NEDA Director-
General, as vice-chairman. A number of Cabinet members, the Governor of the
Central Bank, the Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, the
Governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the Chairman of the
Commission on Information and Communications Technology, the Chairman of the
Subic-Clark Area Development Corporation, and the National President of the Union
of Local Authorities of the Philippines are members of the NEDA Board.
The responsibility for economic planning was vested in the National Economic
and Development Authority. Created in January 1973, the authority assumed the
mandate both for macroeconomic planning that had been undertaken by its
predecessor organization, the National Economic Council, and project planning and
implementation, previously undertaken by the Presidential Economic Staff.
National Economic and Development Authority plans calling for the expansion of
employment, maximization of growth, attainment of fiscal responsibility and
monetary stability, provision of social services, and equitable distribution of income
were produced by the Marcos administration for 1974-77, 1978-82, and 1983-88, and
by the Aquino administration for 1987-92. Growth was encouraged largely through
the provision of infrastructure and incentives for investment by private capital.
Equity, a derivative goal, was to be achieved as the result of a dynamic economic
expansion within an appropriate policy environment that emphasized labor-intensive
The NEDA Board Members are:
• Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Chairman
• Romulo L. Neri, Vice-Chairman
• Rolando G. Andaya, Jr. (Department of Budget and Management)
• Margarito B. Teves (Department of Finance)
• Domingo F. Panganiban (Department of Agriculture)
• Hermogenes E. Ebdane (Department of Agriculture)
• Angelo T. Reyes (Department of Environment and Natural Resources)
• Leandro R. Mendoza (Department of Transportation and Communications)
• Raphael Perpetuo M. Lotilla (Department of Energy)
• Estrella F. Alabastro (Department of Science and Technology)
• Amando M. Tetangco, Jr. (Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas)
• Bayani F. Fernando (Metropolitan Manila Development Authority)
• Noli de Castro (Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Committee)
• Joseph H. Durano (Department of Tourism )
• Peter B. Favila (Department of Trade and Industry )
• Ramon P. Sales (Commission on Information and Communications Technology)
• Zaldy Uy Ampatuan (Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao)
• Edgardo D. Pamintuan (Subic-Clark Area Development Corporation)
• Rodolfo P. del Rosario (Presidential Adviser for New Government Centers)
• Arthur C. Yap (Presidential Adviser for Job Creation)
• Erico T. Aumentado (Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines)
The Board is assisted by six Cabinet-level inter-agency committees:

• Development Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC)

• Infrastructure Committee (InfraCom)
• Investment Coordination Committee (ICC)
• Social Development Committee (SDC)
• Committee on Tariff and Related Matters (CTRM)
• Regional Development Committee (RDCom).
NEDA Secretariat
The NEDA Secretariat serves as the research and technical support arm of the NEDA Board. It also
provides technical staff support and assistance, including the conduct of studies and formulation of policy
measures and other recommendations on the various aspects of development planning and policy formulation,
and coordination, evaluation and monitoring of plan implementation. It is headed by a Director-General, with the
title of Secretary for Socio-Economic Planning. He is assisted by three deputy directors-general each of whom is
responsible for:
• National Development Office (NDO):
• National Planning and Policy Staff (NPPS)
• Agriculture Staff (AS)
• Trade, Industry and Utilities Staff (TIUS)
• Infrastructure Staff (IS)
• Social Development Staff (SDS)
• Public Investment Staff (PIS)
• Regional Development Office (RDO):
• Regional Development Coordination Staff (RDCS)
• Project Monitoring Staff (PMS)
• Regional Offices (NROs)
• CentraI Support Office(CSO):
• Management Staff (MS)
• Legal Staff (LS)
• Administrative Staff (AdS)
• Information Technology Coordination Staff (ITCS)
• Development Information Staff (DIS)
The Philippines' Presidential Management Staff is an agency
attached to Malacañang that is tasked to manage the development
and formulation of the projects and policies of the Office of the
President. There are three heads of the Presidential Management

• Presidential Chief of Staff: Joey Sarte Salceda

• Presidential Management Staff: Cerge M. Remonde
• Cabinet Secretary: Ricardo L. Saludo.
The Presidential Management Staff can trace its lineage to the Program
Implementation Agency (PIA), which was created by President Diosdado Macapagal to
serve as his technical staff for the socio-economic projects, which his administration
was implementing. It was created on August 24, 1962 under the leadership of Assistant
Executive Secretary Sixto K. Roxas and Armand Fabella, who was appointed Director-
The PIA reported directly to the President and conducted socio-economic planning,
formulate policy recommendations, established priorities, and programmed the
utilization of public funds, manpower resources, materials and equipment. It also
ensured that the projects of the Office of the President were completed on-time as as
On February 1, 1966, President Ferdinand E. Marcos dissolved the PIA and
established the Presidential Economic Staff (PES) in its place through Executive Order
No. 8. The PES retained all the functions of the PIA and in addition, it was tasked to
establish ties with international financial institutions to help the government and the
private sector to tap foreign credit and assistance. The PES was headed by Placido
Mapa and Apolinario Orosa and translated the economic targets of the National
Economic Council into actual projects.
On July 29, 1970, President Marcos then issued Executive Order No. 250, which
created the Development Management Staff (DMS) under the Office of the President.
The DMS was located at the Arlegui Guest House.
In 1972, Internal Reorganization Plan was implemented and the PES was abosrbed
by the National Economic and Development Authority and the DMS was retained as an
attached agency of the Office of the President, serving as the principal information and
staff resource of Malacañang on matters involving monitoring, coordinating, and
controlling development programs at execution. Executive Secretary Alejandro Melchor
was appointed to run the DMS; he then proceeded to hire 50 young men and women,
including Colonel Luis M. Mirasol, whom he would appoint as Managing Director.
The DMS held office at the New Executive Office Building (San Miguel Building) and
produced regular status reports for 21 priority programs as well as provided staff to
various government programs and agencies. The priority programs included projects
related to land reform, housing, education, and rural electrification. These status
reports would then be used for briefings as well as Cabinet Meetings.
On July 8, 1976, Presidential Decree No. 955 reorganized the Office of the President,
renaming the DMS as the Presidential Management Staff.
Established on 1954 under Republic Act No. 1124
Highest policy-making body in education at that time

• To formulate objectives, functions and activities of different types of educational
• To set up general goal of accomplishments for the entire school system
• To establish guidelines, policies, criteria on the basis of which the examination,
evaluation and approval of textbooks
• To compile educational statistics, keeps record on education, conduct researches,
surveys and studies
• To secure data and information from all government offices, educational
institutions, public and private necessary for the Board to discharge its functions
• To submit an annual report to the President and Congress
Formulated by Committee on Educational Planning created by
Director of Public Schools in 1964
Created 5-year educational program (1965-1970)

Relate projected occupational requirements to vocational-

technical education but the conclusion were primarily directed
towards the cost of vocational education and did not establish
actual targets
in the past years the educational planning in the Philippine both
at policy and implementing was more concerned with
humanistic quality instruction and cost-determination than with
integration into the general strategy for accelerated economic
enjoined the bureaus and agencies under the Department (1965)
to create their respective committees on planning for effective
integration and coordination of efforts
to effect a closer cooperation with the national agencies, NEC and PES

group of agencies and bureaus formed as a nucleus planning

unit within the department (1965)
all bureau of agency committees on planning prepared
individual developmental programs within the framework of the
overall program of the Department of Education
The Department of Education (Kagawaran ng Edukasyon),
also DepEd, is the executive department of the government
responsible for the management and upkeep of the system
of education. It is the chief formulator of educational policy
and is responsible for the primary and secondary school
system. Higher education is managed by the DepEd in
coordination with another body, the Commission on Higher
Education The DepEd is also known by its old name, the
Department of Education, Culture and Sports (Kagawaran ng
Edukasyon, Kultura at Palakasan), or DECS

The Office of Planning Service (OPS) is responsible for providing the

department with effective and efficient services like generating and
processing of education- related data, developing educational
programs/projects, program monitoring, assessment and evaluation,
planning and programming of educational facilities and providing technical
assistance to requesting offices from the national to the sub-national levels
related to the planning and related activities.
The OPS is composed of four (4) divisions namely: Planning and
Programming Division, Project Development and Evaluation Division,
Research and Statistics Division, and Physical Facilities Division.
1. Project Development and Evaluation Division
This division prepares and reviews packaged project proposals in
priority areas established by the Office of the Secretary in coordination with
appropriate DECS units. It also undertakes and coordinates projects related
to research including feasibility and pre-investment studies. It is also their
responsibility to undertake fund sourcing for education development

2. Planning and Programming Division

This division spearheads the formulation of education plans and policies.
It also works closely with the Budget Division in programming and
budgeting activities leading to the preparation of a rational DECS budget. It
is engaged in technology transfer through the compilation and
dissemination of reports containing "best practices" educational programs
and technologies developed within and outside the Philippines.
3. Research and Statistics Division (RSD) and Database Management Unit (DBMU)
The RSD and DBMU collect and provide educational statistics needed in the formulation
of policies, plans and budgetary proposals. They compile, analyze and interpret statistical
data related to or equivalent in the assessment of the performance of the school system.
They prepare enrolment projections and forecasts needed for planning and programming.
They produce statistical bulletins and statistical reports needed for policy dialogues and
decision-making. They facilitate and promote the use of basic education data and
information to meet the demand of various local agencies and international organizations
and data users.
The RSD and DBMU are making basic education statistics available on line
through the DECS Website, hosted and maintained by FAPENET and through the Science
and Technology Education Network (STEDNET), in coordination with DOST-SEI. On-line
materials include the DECS Statistical Bulletins, DECS Facts and Figures, Basic Education
Statistics, DECS Fact Sheet and other education data/information.

4. Physical Facilities Division

It formulates policies, guidelines and standards to upgrade, improve and
maintain the physical plant, educational facilities and equipment for basic education. It is
also responsible for the preparation of the Annual School building Program and for the
monitoring of its implementation.
Third Elementary Education Project (TEEP)
The TEEP was conceived to curtail the threat of illiteracy, accelerate the learning
achievement and completion rate of schoolgoers in 26 poverty-plagued areas. As
programmed, the beneficiary provinces are Ifugao, Benguet, Antique, Guimaras, Agusan
del Sur, Surigao del Sur, Romblon, Masbate, Negros Oriental, Biliran, Leyte, Southern
Leyte, Zamboanga del Sur, North Cotabato, Abra, Kalinga, Apayao, Mountain Province,
Batanes, Aurora, Capiz, Eastern Samar, Maguindanao, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and Basilan.

Mindanao Basic Education Development Project (Mbdep) (2000-2007)

Unlike other DECS package programs, MBEP is primarily geared towards providing an
educational system that is fitting to the diverse culture and needs of learners in Mindanao.
This proposed package of assistance shall benefit children and youth in Mindanao
within seven years.

Decentralization of Basic Education Development Project (DBEM)

The DECS Decentralization Task Force is responsible for developing a ten-year
strategic plan for the decentralization of basic education management.
Mindanao - Basic Education And Community Needs
This AusAid assisted project aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning in
Mindanao and will also address basic education needs of Madaris and Indigineous

Early Childhood Development Program

Under this six-year program (1998-2004), DECS is providing an eight-week refresher
course for grade 1 entrants in their first two-month-stay in school. Aside from DECS, the
Department of Health and Social Welfare and Development will be jointly delivering
services to the school children.

Secondary Education Development and Improvement Program (SEDIP) (2000-2007)

The SEDIP is a 6.8 billion worth package of assistance which will benefit high school
students in 26 low-income provinces within seven years.
The program involves the construction of new school buildings; improvement of school
facilities; provision of textbooks, manuals and instructional aids; and extensive in service
training programs for teachers and school administrations.

Adopt a School Program

Education Sector Study/Review
The Education Sector Study was prompted by the need to identify and prioritize
educational issues and prepare policy alternatives in the light of recent changes in
education and its enabling environment.

Fifth Country Program For Children (CPC)

The program is geared towards building models of Children Friendly System (CFSS)
that will meet the basic learning needs of families, including illiterate parents, care-givers
and out-of-school children and youth.

Canadian International Development Agency - Policy Training And Technical Assistance

Facility II
The 5-year program will enhance the capability of DECS to formulate plans, manage
programs/projects and support policy reforms.

Belgian Integrated Agrarian Reform Support System

The project aims to improve and uplift the economic well-being of farmer beneficiaries
in the 33 Agrarian Reform Communities (ARC's) in Region VII and 60 ARC's in Region IX by
providing them with a package of services designated to upgrade their productive
• Office of the Secretary
• Administrative Services
• Financial and Management Service
• Human Resource Development Service
• Planning Service
• Technical Service
• Bureau of Elementary Education
• Bureau of Secondary Education
• Bureau of Non-Formal Education
• Bureau of Physical Education & School Sports
• National Educational Testing and Research Center
• Educational Development Project Implementing Task Force
• National Educators Academy of the Philippines
• Center for Students & Co-Curricular Affairs
• School Health and Nutrition Center
Superior Commission of Primary
1863 Chairman Educational Decree of 1863
General Act. No. 74 of the Philippine
1901-1916 Department of Public Instruction
Superintendent Commission, Jan. 21, 1901
Organic Act Law of 1916
1916-1942 Department of Public Instruction Secretary
(Jones Law)
Renamed by the Japanese
Department of Education, Health and
1942-1944 Commissioner Executive Commission, June
Public Welfare
11, 1942
Department of Education, Health and Renamed by Japanese
1944 Minister
Public Welfare Sponsored Philippine Republic
Renamed by Japanese
1944 Department of Public Instruction Secretary
Sponsored Philippine Republic

Department of Public Instruction and Renamed by the

1945-1946 Secretary
Information Commonwealth Government

Renamed by the
1946-1947 Department of Instruction Secretary
Commonwealth Government

E.O. No. 94 October 1947

1947-1975 Department of Education Secretary
(Reorganization Act of 1947)

Proc. No. 1081, September 24,

1975-1978 Department of Education and Culture Secretary

1978-1984 Ministry of Education and Culture Minister P.D. No. 1397, June 2, 1978

Ministry of Education, Culture and

1984-1986 Minister Education Act of 1982
Department of Education, Culture and
1987-1994 Secretary E.O. No. 117. January 30, 1987
RA 7722 and RA 7796, 1994
Department of Education, Culture and
1994-2001 Secretary Trifocalization of Education
RA 9155, August 2001
2001 - present Department of Education Secretary (Governance of Basic
Education Act)
The Commission on Higher Education is the governing body covering
both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-
granting programs in all tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines.
The CHED was established in May 18, 1994 through Republic Act 7722
or the Higher Education Act of 1994.
The Commission en banc acts as a collegial body in formulating plans,
policies and strategies relating to higher education and the operation of
the CHED. It is composed of five full-time members, the chairman and four
commissioners, each having a term of office of four years.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is responsible for
formulating and implementing policies, plans and programs for the
development and efficient operation of the system of higher education in
the country. The delivery of higher education in the Philippines is
provided by private and public higher education institutions.
Pursuant to RA 7722, the CHED is mandated to undertake the
following tasks:
Promote quality education
Take appropriate steps to ensure that education shall be accessible to
Ensure and protect academic freedom for the continuing intellectual
growth, the advancement of learning and research, the development of
responsible and effective leadership, the education of high level
professionals, and the enrichment of historical and cultural heritage.
There are 1,647 higher education institutions in the country classified as follows:

Distribution of Higher Education Institutions by Region, Sector and Type of Institution

Academic Year 2005-2006


Special Total Non- Total
SUCs CSI LUCs Gov't Sectarian
HEIs (Public) Sectarian (Private)

I 5 2 7 63 14 77 84
II 5 1 6 41 8 49 55
III 13 3 1 17 119 26 145 162
IV-A 5 5 1 11 144 47 191 202
IV-B 6 1 7 22 10 32 39
V 8 14 22 77 19 96 118
VI 11 8 19 49 28 77 96
VII 5 2 7 86 29 115 122
VIII 11 1 1 13 38 18 56 69
IX 6 1 7 36 13 49 56
X 6 5 11 44 19 63 74
XI 4 4 51 18 69 73
XII 4 1 5 50 16 66 71
NCR 8 13 3 24 209 57 266 290
CAR 6 1 7 21 8 29 36
ARMM 4 1 6 11 41 3 44 55
Caraga 4 4 33 8 41 45

111 1 56 9 5 182 1,124 341 1,465 1,647
SUCs – State Universities and Colleges
Legend: LUCs – Local Universities and Colleges
CSIs - CHED Supervised Institution
Private higher education institutions are established under the Corporation Code
and are governed by special laws and general provisions of this Code. Those under
non-sectarian are duly incorporated, owned and operated by private entities that are
not affiliated to any religious organization while those under sectarian are usually
non-stock, non profit, duly incorporated, owned and operated by a religious
Generally, private higher education institutions (PHEIs) are covered by the
policies, standards and guidelines (PSGs) set by the Commission on Higher
Education in terms of program offerings, curriculum, administration and faculty
academic qualifications, among others. The heads of PHEIs usually manage its
internal organization and implement the PSGs formulated by the CHED.
A total of 79 PHEIs were granted autonomy or deregulated status by CHED in
recognition of their committed service through quality education, research, and
extension work (CMO No. 32, s. 2001, CMO No. 21, s. 2003, CMO No. 21, s. 2004)
The State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) are chartered public higher education
institutions established by law, administered and financially subsidized by the
government. The Local Universities and Colleges (LUCs) are those established by
the local government through resolutions or ordinances LUCs are financially
supported by the local government concerned. The CHED Supervised Institution
(CSI) is non-chartered public post-secondary education institution established by
law, administered, supervised and financially supported by the government. Other
Government Schools (OGS) are public secondary and post-secondary education
institutions usually a technical-vocational education institution that offer higher
education programs. Special HEIs are directly under the government agency
stipulated in the law that created them. They provide specialized training in areas
such as military science and national defense.
The SUCs have their own charters. The board of regents for state universities and
a board of trustees for state colleges maintain the formulation and approval of
policies, rules and standards in SUCs. The Chairman of the CHED heads these
boards. However, CHED Order No. 31 series of 2001 of the Commission en banc has
also authorized the CHED Commissioners to head the board of trustees or board of
regents of SUCs. Implementation of policies and management are vested on the
president, staff, and support units of the public higher education institutions.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is the
government agency under the Department of Education tasked to manage and
supervise technical education and skills development (TESD) in the Philippines. It
was created by virtue of Republic Act 7796, otherwise known as the “Technical
Education and Skills Development Act of 1994”. The said Act integrated the
functions of the former National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC), the Bureau
of Technical-Vocational Education of the Department of Education, Culture and
Sports (BTVE-DECS) and the Office of Apprenticeship of the Department of Labor
and Employment (DOLE).
TESDA was created to mobilize the full participation of industry, labor, technical
and vocational institutions, local government, and civil society for skilled manpower
development programs.
TESDA formulates manpower and skills plans, sets appropriate skills standards
and tests, coordinates and monitors manpower policies and programs, and
provides policy directions and guidelines for resource allocation for the TVET
institutions in both the private and public sectors.
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established
through the enactment of Republic Act No. 7796 otherwise known as the "Technical Education
and Skills Development Act of 1994", which was signed into law by President Fidel V. Ramos
on August 25, 1994. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the
industry, labor, local government units and technical-vocational institutions in the skills
development of the country's human resources.
The merging of the National Manpower and Youth Council (NMYC) of the Department of
Labor and Employment (DOLE). The Bureau of Technical and Vocational Education (BTVE) of
the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), and The Apprenticeship Program of
the Bureau of Local Employment (BLE) of the DOLE gave birth to TESDA.
The fusion of the above offices was one of the key recommendations of the 1991 Report of
the Congressional Commission on Education, which undertook a national review of the state of
Philippine education and manpower development. It was meant to reduce overlapping in skills
development activities initiated by various public and private sector agencies, and to provide
national directions for the country's technical-vocational education and training (TVET) system.
Hence, a major thrust of TESDA is the formulation of a comprehensive development plan for
middle-level manpower based on the National Technical Education and Skills Development
Plan. This plan shall provide for a reformed industry-based training program that includes
apprenticeship, dual training system and other similar schemes.