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Tema inmultirea matricelor

1.Fie A= 0
1

1 .Sa se arate ca A3 =I .
3
0

1
0
0

1 1
a
2. Se considera matricele:A=
1 1
,B=
0

3.Fie A= 1
1

1
1
2

0
3

2 ,B= 3
3
1

1
2
5

b
.Sa se afle a C,pentru care A.B=B.A.
5

4 .
1

a)Sa se arate ca A.B=B.A.


b)Sa se calculeze (A+B)2 si A2+2AB+B2.
1
4.Fie A=
b

a
a

,B=

1
1

1
a

,C=

1
b

.
.
Sa se afle a,b C,daca A B=C D.

5.Fie A= 1
0

1
0
1

0
1

1 ,B= 0
1
0

0
1
0

b
1

,D=

1
1

a
.
b

0 .Sa se arate ca t(AB)=AB si tA.tB=B.A.


1

Rezolvarea testului

0 0 1 0 0 0 1

1 . 0 0 1 = 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0

2
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
.
.
=

A A=
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0

A3=I3 0 1 0 = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1 0 0 1

1. A2 = 0

b a
b +5

5 a b + 5

a b 1 1 a b a + b

.
=
B.A=
5

0 5 1 1 5
b + 5 a b a + b
a

a b + 5
=

a=a-b
-b=1 b=-1
b+5=a+b
a=5.
1 0 3
1
2 9
2



4 = 0
3.a)A.B= 1 1 2 . 3 2
1 2 1 3

5
1


0
1 1 a
2.A.B=
1 1
.

B.A= 3

2
5

2 2

4 . 1

1
1

1
1
2

0 9

2 = 0

1
0

0
9
0
0
9
0

0
9

0
9

A.B=B.A
2

b)A+B= 1
1

1
1
2

(A+B)2= 4

1
2

2
1
1
A =
1 2

0 3

2 + 3

2
3

1
2
5

2 5

4 = 4

1
4

2
1
7

2 5
2
2 41


6 . 4
1
6 = 8

7
0
7
0
4
8
0 2 1 0 5
3 2

2 . 1
1 2 = 1
6 4

1
1 2 1 1 3 5
2
1

6
0

6
51
15

14
50

0
9 0 0 18 0

2AB=2. 0 9 0 = 0 18 0
0 0 9 0
0 18

1
2 3
1
2 18
9
0
3

B2 = 3 2 4 . 3 2 4 = 9 27 18
3

5
1
5
1
18 27

3
9

0 18
9
0
5 3 2 18 0

2
2
A +2AB+B = 1 6 4 + 0 18 0 + 9 27 18
1 3 5 0

0 18
18 27

2 18
9
0 41 6
2
23 3

1
24
4
+

9
27

18
=

8
51

14
=


1 3 23 9

18 27
15 50

a a 1 a + a 1 + ab 2a
1 + ab

=
=

1 1 b ab + 1 b + b 1 + ab
2b
b 1 a a + b a 2 + b 2

=
1
a + b
1 b 2
1 + ab a + b a 2 + b 2
2a

=
1 + ab
2b
a + b

2
2a=a+b 2a-a=b
1+ab=a2+b2 a2+b2=2
1
4.A.B=
b

a
C.D=
1

1+ab=2 ab=1
2b=a+b 2b-b=a
a2+b2=2 a2+4a2-4a2+a2=2 a2+a2=2 2a2=2 a=1
a2+b2=2 b2+4b2-4b2+b2 b2+b2=2 2b2=2 b=1

5.AB= 1
0

t(AB)= 1
0

tA.tB= 1
0

BA= 0
1

0 1

1 . 0

0
1

1
0
1
2
0
2
1
0
1
0
1
0

0
1
0

1 0

0 = 2

1
0

1
0
1

2
0

1
0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 . 0 1 0 = 2 0 2

0
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 2 0

0 . 1 0 1 = 1 0 1

1
0 1 0 0 2 0

AB t(AB)
tA.tB BA

Barem de corectare a testului

0 1

1. A2 = 0 0
1 0

0 0

2
A .A= 1 0
0 1

3
A =I3 0
0

0 0

1 . 0

0
1

1
0
0

1 0 1

0 . 0 0

0
1 0
0 0 1

1 0 = 0

0 1
0

0 0

1 = 1

0
0

0
0
1

0
0

0 1 0 0

1 = 0 1 0 0.75p

0
0 0 1
0 0

1 0
0.25p
0 1

b a
b +5

.0.5p
=

5 a b + 5

b 1 1 a b a + b
0.5p
.
=
5
5 1 1 5

1 1 a
2. A.B=
1 1
.

a
0

B.A=

a=a-b
-b=1 b=-10.5p
b+5=a+b
a=5..0.5p
3. 0.25p pentru fiecare relatie corecta...2p

4. Pentru calculul corect al inmultirii AB si CD cate 0.5p1p


a2+b2=2 a2+4a2-4a2+a2=2 a2+a2=2 2a2=2 a=1.0.5p

a2+b2=2 b2+4b2-4b2+b2 b2+b2=2 2b2=2 b=1.0.5p

5.Pentru fiecare calcul corect 0.25p..1p

2 puncte oficiu