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2008
1

519.6
22.19
327

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.: . , 2008. 204 c.

ISBN 978-5-374-00071-9

.. , .. , .. , 2008

, 2008
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1. .....................................................................................
1.1. ......................................................................................................
1.2. ........................................................................................
1 ..................................................................................................................................
2. ................................................................................................
2.1. ....................................................................................................................
2.1.1. ..............................................................................................................
2.1.2. ........................................................................................
2.2. ..............................................................................................
2.3. ................................................................
2.3.1. .......................................................................
2.3.2. ................................................
2.3.3. - ............................................................................................
2.4. ....................................................................................................
2.4.1. N- ....................................................
2.4.2. .................................................
2.5. MS EXCEL........................................

5
5
6
13
23
23
23
24
27
31
31
32
33
37
37
37
40

26 ....................................................................................................................

47

3. ................................................................................................
3.1. ...................................................
3.1.1. ............................
3.1.2. .............................................
3.1.3. .....................................
3.2. ....................................................................................
3.3. () .........................................................
3.4. -.........................................................
3.5. - (-) .................................................................
3.6. -.............................................................

55
55
55
57
57
58
62
67
79
85

712 ..................................................................................................................

91

4. ............................................
4.1. ......................................
4.2. ............................................................
4.3. MS EXEL ..................................................................................
4.4. MS EXCEL ....................................................

103
103
107
111
126

13 ......................................................................................................................

138

5. ...........................................................
5.1. ......................
() .............................................................................................
5.2. .........................................................................................................

143
144
149

1415 ................................................................................................................

157

6. , ...................................
6.1. ...............................................
6.2. , .................................
6.3. .........................................................................................................

163
163
175
182

1617 ................................................................................................................

191

.....................................................................................................................................
................................................................................

202
204

1.


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0,061 + 0,042 + 0,023 0,03 (%) ,
21 + 42 + 33 3,25 (%) ,

1 + 2 + 3 = 1 () 1 .
, .
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min f ( X ) = 30 X 1 + 30 X 2 + 45 X 3

0,061 + 0,042 + 0,023 0,03


21 + 42 + 33 3,25
1 + 2 + 3 = 1
1,2,3 0.

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20 000 , 8- . ( 8 ) 500 = 0,5 .
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20 000 0,5 = 10 000 .
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0,381 + 0,0012 + 0,0023 0,008 10 000,
0,092 + 0,503 0,22 10 000,
0,022 + 0,083 0,05 10 000.
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min f ( X ) = 0,04 X 1 + 0,15 X 2 + 0,40 X 3



1 + 2 + 3 = 10 000
0.381 + 0.0012 + 0.0023 80
0.092 + 0.503 2200
0.022 + 0.083 500
j 0, j = 1, 2, 3.

(1.3)

1.4. ( , ()).

2 . , . . 1.4.
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1
2
3

()
0,5
0,7
0,9


150
200
300

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1.5
()
0,5
0,7
0,9
()


1
0
1
1
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2
2
1
0
0,3

3
2
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1
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4
4
0
0
0

5
1
2
0
0,1

6
0
0
2
0,2

150
200
300
-

22 + 23 + 44 + 5 = 150 0,5 ,
1 + 2 + 25 = 200 0,7 ,
1 + 3 + 26 = 300 0,9 .
() ( )
0,41 + 0,32 + 0,13 + 0,15 + 0,26
, :

( )

min f X = 0,4X1 + 0,3X2 + 0,1X3 + 0,1X5 + 0,2X6


:
2X2 + 2X3 + 4X4 + X5 =150
X1 + X2 + 2X5 = 200
X1 + X3 + 2X6 = 300
Xj 0; Xj ; j = 1,..., 6.


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25. 4 : ,
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22

2.


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2.1.
2.1.1.
: A = (aij) m n
, m n :

a 11

a 21
A=
....

a m1

a 12 ...
a 22 ...
....
a m 2 ...

a 1n

a2n
.
....

a mn

ij (I = 1...m; j = 1...n), , : i , j .
m = n, n. ,

2 9 3

A = 1 5 0,8 .
2 7
4

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b11

b
B = 21 -.
...

b
m1
23



aij,
(I = j), .
, . ,

5 0 0

A = 0 8 0 .
0 0 9

n-
, n- , -

1 0 0

E. , E = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1

, -, :

0
0 =
mn
...

0
0
...
0

0
.
...

...
...
...
...

= (ij)m,n = (bij)m,n ,
, .. = , aij = bij, i=1...m; j = 1...n.
2.1.2.
= (ij)m,n = (bij)m,n = + ,
ij ij bij .

2 3 0
0 1 4
2 4 4
, B =
, C = A + B =
.
1 5 6
2 5 1
3 10 7

: A =

:
1. + = + ;
2. + ( + ) = ( + ) + ;
3. + 0 = , 0 .
= (ij)m,n = ,
bij : bij = aij, i = 1...m; j = 1...n. ,

2 4
10 20
, 5A =
.
A =
3 2
15 10
:
4. ( A) = ( ) A .
1. =
2. 1 =
5. ( + ) A = A + A .
3. 0 = 0
6. (A + B) = A + B .
: (-) = (-1) .
: A B = A +(-1) B.
24


m k k n (.. ) =
m n , ij
ij = ai1b1j + ai2b2j + ... + aikbki , I = 1...m; j = 1...n.
: , i- j- , i- j- .
:
1. () = ()
2. () = ( )

3. (+) = +
4. (+) =+

, .. .
= , . , , , = = .
2.1. :

0 1
0 0
, B =
.
A =
0 0
1 0
:

0
AB =
0
0
BA =
1

1 0 0 0 0 + 1 1

=
0 1 0 0 0 + 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 + 0 0
=

0 0 0 1 0 + 0 0

0 0 + 1 0 1 0
=

0 0 + 0 0 0 0
.
0 1 + 0 0 0 0

=
1 1 + 0 0 0 1

2.2. AB :

7

7
A = (2 3 8 0), B = .
4

1

. - (1 4) - (4 1) (1 1) :

AB = (14 + (21) + 32 + 0) = 25.


2.3. KL :

0 3

2 3 1 0
.
K = 1 5 , L =
1 3 5 4
1 1

25

0 3

2 3 1 0
=
KL = 1 5
1 1 1 3 5 4

0 3 + 33
0 (1) + 3 5
0 0 + 3 4
0 2 + 3 1

1 3 + 5 3
1 (1) + 5 5
1 0 + 5 4 =
1 2 + 5 1
(1) 2 + 1 1 (1) 3 + 1 3 (1) (1) + 1 5 (1) 0 + 1 4

3 9 15 12

= 7 18 24 20 .
1 0 6 4

, . : A, AT .
:
1. (`)` = A,
2. (A + B)` = A` + B`,
3. (AB)` = B`A`.
= (ij)m,n , .
-1 n ,

-1 = -1 = .

( ) :
1. , ;
2. ,
.
, -

B = A E) ,

,
-1.
2.4. A:

1 3 4

A = 1 0 0 .
2 6 12

. (0)

1 3 4 1 0 0

B = 1 0 0 0 1 0 .
2 6 12 0 0 1

(0)
b11 = 1 , , (0)

. ,
, .
26


, 1 (-2).

(1)

1 3 4 1 0 0

= 0 3 4 1 1 0 .
0 0 4 2 0 1

(1) . (1)
(1)
b22
= 3. b22
1 , () 3. ,
-3.

(2)

1 0 0 0 1 0

= 0 1 4 / 3 1/ 3 1/ 3 0 .
0 0 4 2 0 1

(2) . ( 2)
b33
= 4. () 4
, (4/3).

(3)

1 0 0 0
0
1

= 0 1 0 1
1/ 3 1/ 3
0 0 1 1/ 2 0
1 / 4

0
1
0

A = 1
1/3 1 / 3 .
1/ 2 0
1 / 4

-1

0 1 0 0
1
1 3 4 0

1 / 3 1 / 3 = 0 1 0 = E.
AA1 = 1 0 0 1
2 6 12 1 / 2 0
1 / 4 0 0 1


A-1A = E.

2.2.
: n- ,

a 11

a
A = 21
....

a n1

a 12 ...
a 22 ...
........
an2

a 1n

a2n
,
....

a nn

27



n!1 , n
, ,
, ,
:

a11 a12 ... a1n


A=

a21 a22 ... a2n n!


= (1) I( 1 , 2 ,..., n ) a1 1 a2 2 ... an n ,
.... ........ ....
an1

an2

ann

1 , 2 ,..., n n 1, 2,...., n.
, , ,
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n- .
, :
1. - () ,
.
2. - () ,
.
3. : A = A .
4. () .
5. (), .
6. () ,
.
7. , - ()
(),
.
M ij aij n- (n-1)- , A i- j- .
Aij aij n-
, (1) i + j :

Aij = (1)i + j M ij ,
.. ,
(I + j) , , (I + j) .
2.1 (). () :

A = ai1A i1 + ai 2 A i 2 +.....+ ain A in


( i- ; I = 1, 2,, n).

n! n :

, 3!= 1 2 3 = 6.

28

n!= 1 2 3 ... (n 1) n.


2.5. A:

1 2
.
A =
3 4
.

2 =

A=

a11

a12

a21 a22

= a11a22 a12 a21.

1 2
= 1 4 2 3 = 2.
3 4

2.6. B:

1 1 1

B = 2 1 1 .
1 1 2

a11

a12

a13

3 = a21
a31

a22
a32

a23 = a11a22 a33 + a12 a 23 a31 + a21a32 a13 a31a22 a13 a12 a21a33 a32 a23 a11.
a33

1 1 1
B=2
1

1
1

1 = 1 1 2 + 2 1 1 + (1) 1 1 1 1 1 2 (1) 2 1 1 1 = 5.
2

2.7. :

2
5
A =
4
3

3
4
5
2

4
2
3
5

5
3
.
2
4

. - () . : .
:

2
A =

4 5

5 1 2 3
.
4 1 3 2
3 1 5 4

, , 12 = 1, . ,
.
29

2 1
A =

7 0 6 8
.
2 0 1 3
5 0 9 9

7
A = 1 A 12 = ( 1)

1+ 2

6 8

2 1 3 = 2 1 3 .
5

9 9

. , :

19 6 10
A = 0 1 0
23 9 18
:

A = A 22 =

19 10
23 18

= ( 2 )

19 5
23 9

= 2(19 9 23 5) = 112 .

n (),
. ().
2.2. =(ij)m,n ,

A -1 =

1
A*,
A

* , 1 ij , ..

A 11

A
A * = 12
......

A
1n

A 21 ...
A 22 ...
.........
A 2n ...

A n1

A n2
.
......

A nn

2.8. :

2 1
.
A =
1 3
. : A = 7 0 .
, , . *:

30

A11 = 3, A12 = 1, A 22 = 2, A 21 = 1,
3
3 1 -1
1 3 1 7
=

; A =
A* =
7 1 2 1
1 2

7 .
2

7

, , -1 = .

2.3.
2.3.1.
m n :

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n x n = b1;


a x + a x + ... + a x = b ;
21 2
22 2
2n n
2

............................................
am1 x1 + am 2 x2 + ... + amn xn = bm ,
aij, bi (I = 1, 2,, m;j = 1, 2,, n) , .
n
( 1 , 2 ,..., n ) , .
, . , , .
, , , .
. :

a11

a
A = 21
...

a
m1

a12
a22
...

am 2

... a1n

... a2 n
;
... ...

... amn

b1
x1


b
x2
X = ; B = 2 ,
...
...


b
x
n
n

A , , X ; B - .
A X, AX -. - . :

AX = B.

31



2.3.2.

n n
, .
:

xj =

Aj
A

; j = 1...n,

|A| , , |Aj| , |A| j- .


2.9. :
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10
1 - 2 + 3 - 4 = -2
21 - 32 + 43 + 4 = 12
31 + 42 - 33 + 94 = 38
. A:

1 2
0 2
1 1
1
1
1
0 1
0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0
=
= (1) 2+1 2 1 2 3 =
A=
2 1 2 3
2 3 4
1
7 6 12
3 7 6 12
3 4 3 9
1

= ( 2) 1 2 4 = 2(10 + 24) = 68 .
7 6 5
A 0 , ,
. |Aj|, j = 1, , 4:

10 1
1
1
12 2 1
0 0 1
2 1 1 1
A1 =
=
12 3 4
1
20 1 4
38 4 3 9
32 1 3
= ( 1)

2 +3

2
0
=
5
6

3 1 1
3 1 1
2 2 10 1 5 = ( 4 ) 7 0 4 =
16 1 6
13 0 5

= ( 4) ( 1)1+ 2

13 5

= 4(35 52) = 68.

|A2|, |A3|, |A4|: |A2| = -136, |A3| = -204,


|A4| = -272. :

x1 =

32

68
136
204
272
= 1; x2 =
= 2; x3 =
= 3; x4 =
= 4.
68
68
68
68


, , , .
n n , . : = -1 ( , ,
2.3.1.).
2.10. :
31 2 = 1
21 + 2 33 = -5
1 + 22 + 3 = 8.
. :

3 -1 0 x1 1


2 1 -3 x2 = 5 .


1 2 1 x3 8
, :

7 1 3

1
A =
5 3 9 .
26

3 7 5
-1

7 1 3 1
7 5 + 24
26 1
1
1
1
X=A B=
5 3 9 5 = 5 15 + 72 = 52 = 2 .
26
26
26
3 7 5 8
3 + 35 + 40
78 3
-1

: 1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3.
, , , .
2.3.3.
-

~
A , :

a11

~ a21
A=
...

a
m1

a12 ... a1n


a22 ... a2 n
...
...
am 2 ... amn

b1

b2
... .

bm

m
n :
n

a x
ij

= bi , i = 1...m.

j=1

33



,
.
~
A
:
1. ;
2. , ;
3. , ;
4. ().
2.11. :
) 1 + 2 + 23 = -1
21 - 2 + 23 = -4
41 + 2 + 43 = -2
: :

1 1 2 1

~ (0)
A = 2 1 2 4 .
4 1 4 2

1
( 0)
a11
= 1 . .
, (-2) (-4). :

1 1 2 1

~ (1)
A = 0 3 2 2 .
0 3 4 2

.
2
(1)
(1)
a22
= 3 . a22
1 ,
-3. (-1) 3
.

1 0 4 / 3 5 / 3

~ (2)
A = 0 1 2/ 3 2/ 3 .
0 0 2 4

3
(2)
( 2)
a33
= 2 . a33
1 ,
(-2). .
(-4/3) (-2/3) .

34

1 0 0 1

~ (3)
A = 0 1 0 2 ,
0 0 1 2

1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = -2.
, , ,
.
) 1 2 + 3 4 = 4
1 + 2 + 23 +34 = 8
21 +42 + 53 +104 = 20
21 42 + 3 64 = 4
: :

~
A (0)

1 1

1 1
=
2 4

2 4

1 1 4

2 3 8
.
5 10 20

1 6 4

, :

~
A (1)

1 1 1 1 4

0 2 1 4 4
=
,
0 6 3 12 12

0 2 1 4 4

~
A (2)

0
=
0

3
2
0
0

0
1
0
0

5 0

4 4
.
0 0

0 0

:
1 32 54 = 0
22 + 3 + 44 = 4
A(2) .
. e1, e2,, em ,
1 , 2 ,...m , , :

1e1 + 2e2 + ... + m em = 0,

0=(0, 00). ,
, i .
, ..
.

35



2.3 ( ). , ().
A(2) 2, ..
2 ( ).
2.4 (). , .
1. , .. r = n,
.
2. , .. r < n, .
4 , 2, ,
.
. r < n, r x1, x2,, xr ,
( ) . n r .
. , n r
, .
m n (m < n) , , -

n!
, r m .
r!(n r )
C42 = 6 , .. 6 .

Cnr =

:
1 = 32 +54
3 = 4 22 44
. 2 = 0, 4 = 0, 1 =0, 3 = 4. : (0, 0, 4, 0).
.
3 4. 1 2 3 4:
1 = 6 3/22 4
2 = 2 1/23 24 .
: (6, 2, 0, 0).
2.12. :
X1 + 2X2 X3 = 7
2X1 3X2 + X3 = 3
4X1 + X2 X3 = 16
.

1 2 1 7 1 2 1 7 1 2 1 7

2 3 1 3 ~ 0 7 3 11 ~ 0 7 3 11.
4 1 1 16 0 7 3 12 0 0
0 1



, , , 0 = 1, , . , , 2, 3.
36

2.4.
2.4.1. n-
. n- n
(x1, x2,, xn). x1, x2,, xn .
. n- Rn n ,
.
2.4.2.
a 0 a 1 , a 2 ,..., a k , 1 , 2 ,..., k , ,
a 0 = 1 a 1 + 2 a 2 +...+ k a k .
.
. a 1 , a 2 ,..., a k (k > 1) Rn , . .
. a 1 , a 2 ,..., a k (k > 1) Rn , 1 , 2 ,..., k , , : 1 a 1 + 2 a 2 +...+ k a k = 0 .
.
2.13. , .

2

1
a1 = ,
1

2

1

3
a2 = ,
1

3

3

1
a3 = .
1

1

. 1 a 1 + 2 a 2 + 3 a3 = 0 :

2
1
3 0



0
3
1
1

1
+ 2
+ 3 = .
1
1
1 0



2
3
1 0

21 + 2 + 33 = 0

1 + 32 3 = 0
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
21 + 32 + 3 = 0
1 , 2 , 3 .

37

~
A (0)

1
=
1

0 5 5 0
0 1 1 0
1 3 0

3 1 0 ~ (1) 1 3 1 0 ~ (2) 1 0 2 0
.
; A =
; A =
0 0 0 0
0 2 2 0
1 1 0

3 1 0
0 3 3 0
0 0 0 0

. .
: 1 = 2 3 , 2 = 3 .
1 a 1 + 2 a 2 + 3 a3 = 0 .
3 0 , : 2a1 + a2 + a3 = 0 ,

a2 = 2a1 a3

a3 = 2a1 a2 .
Rn n.
n+1 .
. n Rn
.
, Rn n e1 , e2 ,...ei ,...en ,
i- ei , .
.
2.14. e1 , e2 , e3 a1 = (1, 1, 0), a2 = (1,
-1, 1), a3 = (-3, 5, -6), b = (4, -4, 5). , a1 , a2 , a3 . b a1 , a2 , a3 e1 , e2 , e3 a1 , a2 , a3 .
. a1 , a2 , a3 , .
1 a1 + 2 a2 + 3 a3 = 0 1 , 2 , 3 :

1
1
3 0



1 1 + 2 1 + 3 5 = 0 .



0
1
6 0
, : 1 = 0, 2 = 0, 3 = 0 .
, a1 , a2 , a3 .
b :

e1 = x11 a1 + x12 a2 + x13 a3 ;

e3 = x31 a1 + x32 a2 + x33 a3 ;

e2 = x21 a1 + x22 a2 + x23 a3 ;

b = x1 a1 + x2 a2 + x3 a3 .

1 0 0 1 0 3 5

(E A B) = 0 1 0 1 1 5 4 .
0 0 1 0 1 6 5

ij, j (i,j = 1, 3) .
. :
38

e1

e1

e2

e3

a1

a2

a3

-3

-1

-4

-6

a1

-3

e2

-1

-2

-8

a1

0
1/2

0
1/2

1
0

0
1

1
0

-6
1

5
0

a2

1/2

-1/2

-4

a1

-1/2
1/4

1/2
3/4

1
1/2

0
1

0
0

-2
0

1
1/2

a2

3/2

-3/2

-2

1/4

-1/4

-1/2

-1/2

e3

e3

e3

a3

e2

, a1 , a2 , a3 , , -1. -1. b
a1 , a2 , a3 : b = 1 / 2a1 + 2a2 1 / 2a3 .
:

e1 = 1 / 4a1 + 3 / 2a2 + 1 / 4a3


e2 = 3 / 4a1 3 / 2a2 1 / 4a3 .
e3 = 1 / 2a1 2a2 1 / 2a3
:

1
1
3 1



e1 = 1 / 4a1 + 3 / 2a2 + 1 / 4a3 = 1 / 4 1 + 3 / 2 1 + 1 / 4 5 = 0
0
1
6 0



1
1
3 0



e2 = 3 / 4a1 3 / 2a2 1 / 4a3 = 3 / 4 1 3 / 2 1 1 / 4 5 = 1
0
1
6 0



e3 = 1 / 2a1

1
1
3 0



2a2 1 / 2a3 = 1 / 2 1 2 1 1 / 2 5 = 0
0
1
6 1



39

2.5. MS Excel
MS Excel ,
, . MS
Excel (, , , ..),
. Excel , , , .
, Excel :
( ).
, 1,
, 2.
( ).
.
, .
, :
/ ;

MS Excel . , , (), ,
. () MS Excel
.
2.15. = + D = 4*A, :

1 -3 2

A = 3 -4 1

2 5 3
2 5 6

B= 1 2 5

1 3 2

. (. 2.1).
:

. 2.1.

40



. , (. 2.2).

.2.2.

ENTER , , . , , . . :
, /;
/;
: Ctrl+C; Ctrl+V.
( ) ,
, 3 3 , ENTER.
(. 2.3).

. 2.3.

D = 4*A (. 2.4).

41

. 2.4.


MS Excel, :
(. 2.5).

. 2.5.

f (. 2.6).

. 2.6.

=
, 10
(. 2.7 . 2.8).

42

. 2.7

. 2.8

.
2.16. 2.15.
.
. , = * 3 3 . Excel 33 (. 2.9).

. 2.9.

43



.

(. 2.10 2.11).

. 2.10

. 2.11

2 (. 2.12).

. 2.12

.
, ,
ENTER Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
(. 2.13).
44

. 2.13

,
.
2.17. Excel 2.15.
. -1 33
. (. 2.14).

. 2.14.

( ) Ctrl+Shift+Enter
(. 2.15).

. 2.15

45




.
2.18. 2.15.
.
. , ,
. ,
(. 2.16).

. 2.16.
, , , , :
1) , ;
2) ,
, , Ctrl+Shift+Enter.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

.
.
, ?
n- .
?
Mij ?
Aij?
?
, ?
10. ?
11. .
12. ?
13. ?

46


14. , ?
15. .
16. ?
17. ?
18. AX = B.
19. ?
20. ?
21. ?
22. .
23. .
24. .
25. .
26. ?
27. - ()?
28. n- ?
29. ?
30. ?

2
:
) 3 + 4;
) ;
) (-)-1.

1 3 2

1. A = 3 4 1

2
5
3

2 5 6

B= 1 2 5

1
3
2

2 3 6

5. A = 4 6 1
5 7 2

3 2 5

B = 1 3 4
2 4 3

1 5 5
5

2. A = 3 10 0

3. A = 6
2 9 7
4
3 2 5
4

B = 4 1 3
B= 5

9
6
5

1
2

3
6
4 3 1

B = 2 6 5
1 0 4

4 5

6. A = 0 1
3 2

9 5

7 3
8

6 0

7 3

1 4 3

7. A = 2 5 2
3 6 1

4 5 2

B = 3 6 1
5 7 3

2 3 4

4. A = 3 4 5

4
5
6

1 2 3

B= 4 5 4

3
2
1

2 5 2

8. A = 0 3 6
3 1 5

1 3 7

B = 5 2 8
6
0 2

47

8 2 4

9. A = 7 3 1
1 5 0

2 3 6

B = 3 2 1
4 1 5

1 2 1
4

10. A = 3 4 3 11. A = 7
5 6 5
1

2 1 0
2

B= 1
B = 5 4 3
8 7 6
4

0 2 4
1

13. A = 7 3 1 14. A = 3
1 5 5
2

2
2 3 6

B = 3 0 1
B= 5
8
4 1 5

0 4

3 1
5 0
5 8

2 1
2 5

2 1
2 1
6 2 4
1

6 3 15. A = 7 3 1 16. A = 3 4 0
0 5 9
5 6
6 5
5

1 0
3 7
2
2 11 0

4 3
B = 3 2 1
B = 5 4 3
4 0 5
8 7 6
7 6

1 3 2

17. A = 3 0 1
4 5 3

8 5 6

B = 1 2 5
1 3
2

5
8 5 5

18. A = 3 10 0 19. A = 6
4
2 9 7

0 2 5
4

B = 4 1 3
B= 5
9 6 5
1

0 3 6

21. A = 4 6 1
5 6 2

3 2 5

B = 1 8 4
1 4 3

4 5 2
1 4

22. A = 2 11 3 23. A = 2 0
3 2 6
3 6

0 5
4 3 1

B = 2 6 5
B = 3 4
5 7
1 0 4

8 2 4

25. A = 7 0 1
1 5 5

2 3 6

B = 6 0 1
4 7 5

48

1 2 1

12. A = 3 0 3
7 6 5

1 1 0

B = 5 4 2
8 6 6

8 4

0 5
7 3
2 1

4 0
7 3

2 5 4

20. A = 3 4 5
4 0 6

1 0 3

B = 4 5 4
3 2 1

3
2 4 2

2 24. A = 0 1 6
3 7 5
1

2
1 3 7

1
B = 5 2 8
8 0 2
3

3
:
2

-5

3/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2

3 7 1 4
1.
;
5 9 2 7
6

3
-3
5
4
3 2
3.
2 5 7
5
4 3
3 -3 2
2 5
4
5.
5 5
8
4 4
5

7.

-5

-2

3
2

1
6

4/ 3 5/ 3

1
0

4 6
;
8 7

1
1/ 6

2
4/3

0
4/3

8
14 / 3

2/5 7/5

1/ 2

12 / 5

2/3

1/ 2

9 -8

5 10

5 -8 -5 8

4/3
1
0
7/2

8
14.

3/ 2

21 / 5
4/5

15
5/2

1/ 7

2/7

2/3
1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 5

1/ 7 3/ 7

1/ 3 1/ 6 1/ 3
1/ 4 1/ 2
0
3/ 2 1/ 4
1
1/ 2 2 / 5
0

7
;

5/3 8/ 3 2/3 7/3


4/ 3 5/ 2

3/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2

2/3
3

3
21 / 5 15
12
1/ 3 5 / 2 2 / 5 3/ 2
2/3 9/2 4/5 5/2
1/ 7 2 / 7 1/ 7 3/ 7
5/ 2 2/5 3/ 2
4
0 12
8
2/3 9/2 4/5 5/2
1/ 7 2 / 7 1/ 7 3/ 7
7/3

-5

2/3 5/3

-3 -4
4 -2

1
8

5
;
5

1/ 2 1/ 4 1/ 2
1/ 2 5 / 2 1/ 4

0
1

-3

-5 3

1/ 5

-7 -2 2

-4 7
4 5
16.
;
1 -9 -3 7
2

2/5

12
9/2

-3 7 3 6
4 0 2 7
;
12.
4 -5 3 -2
7 -1 - 4 - 5

1/ 2

1/ 3

5/2

3
2/3

5/3 8/3 2/3 7/3


3/ 2 9/2 3/2
3
4/3 5/3
1
2/3
7
8
4
5

6 -5 8
4
9
7
5
2
;
10.
5
5
3 7
-4 8 -8 -3

3/ 2
0
1/ 2
3/ 2 5 / 2 1/ 2

8.

1/ 3

3
5
;
5
3

6 -5 -4 7

5/4

-8 -4 -5

3
3/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2
5/3 8/3 0 7/3
1 2/3
4/3 5/3
8
4
7
5

3 -5 -2 2
-4 7
4 4
;
6.
4 -9 -3 7
2 -6 -3 2

2 -5 4
3 -4 7
4.
4 -9 8
-3 2 -5

2/3

3/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2

4 6
;
7 5

3/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2
3
4/3 5/3
1
2/3
5/3 8/3 2/3 7/3
7
8
4
5

7
2
;
5
4

3 -5 4 5
2
15.
5

5/ 3 8/ 3 2/ 3 7/ 3

1
2
4 0 1 4
;
11.
1 9 2 7
4
6
1
2

13.

1/ 3 2 / 3
1
4/3
1/ 2
0
1/ 2
1
3 / 2 1/ 2 1/ 2
0
1/ 2
1
0
5/2

5
6
;
7
6

3
7
3
5

-3

-5 8
2
7
2.
;
4 -5 -3 -2

3/4
2
1/ 2 5
1
3/2
8
2
5 / 6 4 / 3 4 / 3 14 / 3
2 / 5 4 / 5 1 / 2 12 / 5

8
6
;
5
6

-5

6
5
4
6

7
3
9.
5
5

5/3 8/3 2/3 7/3


4/3 5/3
1
2/3

-9 -3 2

1/ 2

5/3 8/3

1/ 6

2/5
1/ 3

4/3

7/3

5/ 2 9/ 2 3/ 2
3
4/3 7/3
1
2/3
7

49

17.

-7

3
5

5
6

5/ 2 9/ 2 3/2

5/3 8/3
4/3 2/3

7/3
2/3

-2

5/4

7/2

3
2

7
3

1
1/ 6

2
5/3

0
4/3

8
14 / 3

2/5 7/5

3/2

12 / 5

7 -2
2
25.
5

1
2

6
5

4 6
;
8 7
6

1/ 3

5/3

3/2
0
3/ 2
5 / 2 5 / 2 1/ 2
1/ 2

- 6 5 10
;
-3 -5 8

-4

6 -5

7 7
20.
5 -5

5
0

2
;
7

0
1

1 8.

4 6
;
7 5

1/ 3 5/ 3
1
2/3
5/3 5/3 2/3 7/3

3 0 1 4
21.
;
1 9 2 9

23.

-5

1/ 3

3/2 7/ 2 3/2

5/3 6/3 2/3 7/3


0 3/ 2 3
3/ 2

3
;
5

3 2 7 2
19.
;
5 4 6 5
5

8/3 5/3

5/3 4/3 2/3 7/3


4/3 7/2
1
2/3
3/ 2 7/ 2 3/ 2

12

11 / 5

15

5/3
2/3

5/2
7/2

2/5
4/5

3/2
15 / 2

1/ 7

2/7

1/ 7

3/7

8/3

5/2

2/5

3/ 2

0 2 7
;
-2 3 -2

3
2/3

6
9/2

0
4/5

9
1/ 2

-1 8 - 5

1/ 7

3/ 7

-5

2/3 5/3

-3 -3
4 -1

1
8

5
;
5

3/2
1/ 2

-5 3

1/ 5

-3
5
22.
4

24.

-8 -3

1/ 7 3/ 7
1/ 6

4/3

1/ 4
7/2

1/ 2
3/4

5
1

1/ 2

2/5

4/3
2
0
7/2

4
( ):
;
.

50

1) 2X1 + 5X2 - 8X3 = 8


4X1 + 3X2 - 9X3 = 9
2X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 7

2) X1 + 8X2 - 7X3 = 12
2X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 7
6X1 + 8X2 -17X3 = 17

3) 2X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 7


5X1 +11X2 -16X3 = 21
4X1 + 3X2 - 9X3 = 9

4) 6X1 + 6X2 -14X3 = 16


2X1 + 5X2 - 8X3 = 8
4X1 + 3X2 + 9X3 = 9

5) -7X1 + 3X2 +8X3 = 75


9X1 - 4X2 = -3
X1 - 7X2 - 3X3 = 12

6) 13X1 - 6X2 = 32
8X1 +4X2 + 1X3 = 12
2X1 + 9X2 + 5X3 = -5


7) 7X1 - 4X2 = 61
8X1 +9X2 - 6X3 = 48
9X1 - 6X2 - 2X3 = 99

8) 6X1 + 3X2 + 9X3 = -111


-7X1 - 4X2 - 2X3 = 52
X1 - 7X2 + 3X3 = -47

9) -5X1 + 7X2 +11X3 = -2


2X1 + 6X2 + 3X3 = 11
3X1 - 5X2 + 4X3 = 11

10) 2X1 + X2 + 3X3 = 11


3X1 + 2X2 - 5X3 = -20
5X1 - 2X2 +3X3 = -4

11) 2X1 + 3X2 - 6X3 = 18


4X1 + 3X2 - 9X3 = 9
2X1 + 2X2 - 5X3 = 10

12) X1 + 7X2 - 5X3 = 25


X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 15
6X1 + 8X2 -17X3 = 17

13) 2X1 + 5X2 - 5X3 = 25


5X1 +11X2 -16X3 = 21
4X1 + 2X2 - X3 = 8

14) 6X1 + 2X2 -X3 = 16


2X1 + X2 - 8X3 = 36
4X1 + 3X2 + 9X3 = 90

15) -X1 + 3X2 +8X3 = 24


9X1 - 4X2 = -36
X1 - 7X2 - 3X3 = 12

16) 12X1 - 6X2 = 45


8X1 +X2 + 7X3 = 56
2X1 + 9X2 + 5X3 = -5

17) 7X1 - 4X2 = 60


8X1 +9X2 - 3X3 = 48
9X1 - 6X2 - 2X3 = 99

18) 6X1 + 2X2 + 9X3 = -81


-7X1 - 4X2 - 2X3 = 52
X1 - 5X2 + 3X3 = -45

19) -3X1 + 7X2 +5X3 = -20


2X1 + 6X2 + 2X3 = 120
3X1 - 5X2 + 4X3 = 90

20) 2X1 + 5X2 + 3X3 = 110


3X1 + 2X2 - 3X3 = -20
5X1 - 12X2 +3X3 = -4

21) 2X1 + 7X2 - 8X3 = 80


14X1 + 3X2 - 9X3 = 90
2X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 70

22) X1 + 8X2 - 3X3 = 90


2X1 + 3X2 - 5X3 = 70
X1 + 8X2 -15X3 = 120

23) 2X1 + 3X2 - X3 = 7


5X1 +5X2 -16X3 = 25
X1 + 3X2 - 9X3 = 9

24) 6X1 + 6X2 -X3 = 16


5X1 + 5X2 - 8X3 = 80
4X1 + 3X2 + 9X3 = 90

25) -7X1 + 3X2 +8X3 = 64


9X1 - 4X2 = -30
X1 - 7X2 - 2X3 = 14

5

1 1, 6, 11
2 2, 7, 12
3 3, 8, 13
4 4, 9, 14
5 5, 10, 15
51



6 1, 7, 13
7 2, 8, 14
8 3, 9, 15
9 4, 10, 11
10 5, 6, 12
11 1, 7, 12
12 2, 9, 13
13 3, 10, 11
14 4, 8, 14
15 5, 9, 12
16 1, 8, 14
17 2, 10, 12
18 3, 9, 15
19 4, 7, 11
20 5, 6, 13
21 1, 6, 15
22 2, 8, 15
23 3, 6, 14
24 4, 10, 15
25 5, 7, 11

52

1. 21 + 2 + 3 = 2
1+32 + 3 = 5
1 +2 +53 = -7
21+32 - 33 = 14

2. 21 - 2 + 33 = 3
31 + 2 - 53 = 0
41 - 2 + 3 = 3
1 + 32 -133 = -6

3. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 6
1 + 2 - 3 - 4 = 0
1 - 2 + 3 - 4 = 4
1 - 2 - 3 + 4 = 2

4. 21 - 2 + 3 - 4 = 1
21 - 2 - 34 = 2
31 - 3 + 4 = -3
21+22 -23+ 54 = -6
111 -2 - 3+ 4 = -5

5. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 0
2 + 3 +4 +5 = 0
1 +22 +33 = 2
2 + 3+34 = -2
3+24 +5 = 2

6. 1 +52 - 93 + 84 = 1
51+182 + 43 + 54 = 12
21 +72 +33 + 44 = 5
11 +32 +53 - 24 = 3

7. 21 + 32 + 93 -74 = 3
81 +122 - 93 +84 = 3
41 + 62 + 33 - 24 = 3
21+ 32 - 3 + 4 = 1

8. 91 +42 + 3 + 74 = 2
21+ 72 + 33 + 4 = 6
31 +52 +23 + 24 =4

9. 21 - 32 - 113 -154 = 1
21 - 32 + 53 + 74 = 1
41 - 62 + 23 + 34 = 2

10. 91+122 + 33 +104 = 13


31+ 42 + 3 + 24 = 3
61 + 82 +23 + 54 = 7


11. 71 - 42 + 3 + 34 = 5
31 - 52 +23 +44 = 2
51 + 72 - 43 - 64 = 3

12. 31+32 + 53 -24+35 = 1


21+22 + 43 -4 +35 = 2
1 + 2 + 33 -24+55 = 1
21+22 + 83 -34+95 = 2

13. 1 + 22 + 33 = 2
1 + 2 + 23 = 1
31 + 52 + 83 = 0
-1 + 2 + 43 = 2

14. 1 + 2 - 33 = -1
21 + 2 - 23 = 1
1 + 2 + 3 = 3
1 +22 -33 = 1

15. 21 - 2 + 3 - 34 = 4
31 - 22 +23 - 34 = 2
21 + 2 - 3 + 4 = 1
51 + 2 - 3 + 24 = 1

6
. , .
, , P .
110

3 2 1
1. 4 ; 0 ; 3
5 1 2

2

P = 5
4

9 7 0
2. 3 ; 4 ; 7
0 3 8

3 4 2
3. 9 ; 7 ; 0
5 3 10

2 1 5
4. 2 ; 3 ; 14
0 5 9

2 3 5
5. 7 ; 0 ; 3
5 8 2

1 9 2 9 2 0 0 2 3 6 2 15 7 4 0
6. 4 ; 9 ; 0 7. 8 ; 1 ; 5 8. 6 ; 7 ; 0 9. 10 ; 5 ; 4 10. - 5 ; 0 ; 8
5 8 1 2 1 9 - 7 0 5 3 1 7 0 3 4

1120

3 2 1
11. 4 ; 0 ; 3
5 1 2

1 9 2
16. 4 ; 9 ; 0
5 8 1

P = 6
13

2 3 5
3 4 2 2 1 5
9 7 0

12. 3 ; 4 ; 7
1 3. 9 ; 7 ; 0
1 4. 2 ; 3 ; 14
15. 7 ; 0 ; 3
5 8 2
5 3 10 0 5 9
0 3 8



9 2 0 0 2 3 6 2 15 7 4 0
17. 8 ; 1 ; 5 18. 6 ; 7 ; 0 1 9. 10 ; 5 ; 4 20. - 5 ; 0 ; 8
2 1 9 - 7 0 5 3 1 7 0 3 4

53

2130

3 2 1
21. 4 ; 0 ; 3

9 7 0
22. 3 ; 4 ; 7

5 1 2 0 3 8

1 9 2 9 2 0
26. 4 ; 9 ; 0 27. 8 ; 1 ; 5
5 8 1 2 1 9

54

6

P = 13
15

3 4
23. 9 ; 7

2 2 1 5 2 3 5
; 0 24. 2 ; 3 ; 14 25. 7 ; 0 ; 3
5 3 10 0 5 9 5 8 2

0 2 3 6 2 15 7 4 0
2 8. 6 ; 7 ; 0 2 9. 10 ; 5 ; 4 30. - 5 ; 0 ; 8
- 7 0 5 3 1 7 0 3 4

3.

2.
, :
, ;
, -, -, - ;
MS Excel;
,
;
, .
.

, ( ) , .. , .
- , () ; .
1 , , =, . ,
, ,
,
.

3.1.
3.1.1.
() : 1, 2,,n,

f (x1,x2,,xn) = c1x1++cnxn

(3.1)

55

a x
ij

bi ,

i = 1,, m1 (m1 m) ,

= bi ,

i = m1 + 1,, m ,

(3.2)

j=1
n

a x
ij

j=1

xj 0, j = 1,, p (p n) .

(3.3)

(3.2) (3.3)
().
j (j = 1, 2,, n) = (1, 2,, n) n.
. , , n, .
(3.1) (3.3)
.
3.1. ()
.
, ,
.
, En ,
X 1 X 2 , X 1 , X 2 P ,

X = (1 ) X 1 + X 2 , 0 1
.
= (1, 2,, n) En ,
C1X1 + C2X2 ++ CnXn = b,
En.
= (1, 2,, n) En ,
C1X1 + C2X2 ++ CnXn b ( b ),
En.
, En.
, X 0 ,
X 1 X 2 , X 1 X 2 ,

X = (1 ) X 1 + X 2 , (0,1) .
, , . .
*

. = (1*,n*)
, ,
56

f ( x * ) = max f ( x ) .
xP

. , , .
3.1.2.
, .
:
1,2,,n,
n

f ( x) =

c x
j

(3.4)

j=1

a x
ij

bi ,

, i = 1,, m ,

(3.5)

j=1

xj 0, j = 1,, n
-
f ( x ) = ( c, x ) max

(3.6)
(3.7)

(3.8)
Ax b
(3.9)
x ,
c = (1, 2,, n); b = (b1, b2,, bm); = (aij)
(3.5). (3.4) (3.6) (3.7) (3.9) .
m1 = m, p = n.
3.1.3.

, ().

1. ;
2. ;
3. .
, :
n

f ( x ) = c j x j max

(3.10)

j =1

a
j =1

ij

x j = b j , i = 1,..., m

xi 0, j = 1,..., n; bi 0; i = 1,..., m

(3.11)
(3.12)

f ( x ) = (c , x ) max

(3.13)
57

= b
x 0, b 0

(3.14)
(3.15)

m1 = 0, p = n
, :
) f ( x ) = c1x1++cnxn
: f ( x ) =-c1x1 --cnxn;
) , , 31 + 22 3 6, 31 + 22 3 + 4 = 6, 4 .
1 2 + 33 10 1 2 + 33
5 = 10, 5 ;
) k , , , X k = X k X k , X k 0 X k 0.

3.2.
, .
:

max f ( x ) = 31 + 22

(3.16)

1 + 22 6
21 + 2 8
1+0,82 5
-1 + 2 1
2 2
1 0, 2 0

()
()
()
()
()
()

(3.17)

1. (3.17) , ..
, .
()() (3.17) :
1 + 22 = 6
21 + 2= 8
1+0,82= 5
-1 + 2= 1
2= 2

()
()
()
()
()

()
. , (3.17) , , (. 3.1).

58

. 3.1

(3.17) , , .
(. . 3.1)
ABCDEF , ,
, , : A, B, C, D, E, F.
2. - C = (C1 , C2 ) f ( x ), C = (3,2) ,
f .
3. 11 + 22 = const f ( x ) , - C :
31 + 22 = const (.3.2).

. 3.2

4. f ( x ) 31 + 22 = const C , . ( ) , , (. 3.3).
59

. 3.3
*

f ( x ) , = X
() (). :
1 + 22 = 6
21 + 2 = 8.
*

*1 = 10/3; X*2 = 4/3 X = (10/3; 4/3).


*1 X*2 f ( x ) ,
*

max f ( x ) = f ( x ) = 3 . 10/3 + 2 . 4/3 = 38/3.


.
1. f ( x ) 11 + 22 = const (- C ), C .
2. C ( )
, f ( x ) ( ), .. max f ( x ) = +
( min f ( x ) = ).
3.1.
max (21 + 2)

1 - 2 2
(1)
1 + 32 3
(2)
71 - 2 2
(3)
1,2 0.
1. (. 3.4). .
2. C = (2,1) .
3. f ( x ) = 21 + 2 = const.
4. C = (2,1) ,
f ( x ) , max f ( x ) = .

60

(3)
X2
(1)

4
C

X1

3
0

4
(2)

. 3.4

3.2. .

max f ( x ) = 1 + 32

21 + 32 6
1 + 22 5
1 4
0 2 3

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

(3)
X2
4
3
2
0

X1
(2)
. 3.5

. 3.5 , (= ).
.
61

3.3. ()

, ( ) . . . .
3.3.

: 1 2.
:

1
2

(. .)

6
4
1
2
5
4


24
6


2 ,
.
:

.
:
Z(x) = 5X1 + 4X2

61 + 42 24
1 + 22 6
2 2
X2 X1 1
1 0
2 0
,
3.2, (. 3.6).

62

. 3.6.

: 1 = 3;2 = 1,5.
Z = 21 . .
. :
1) ;
2) -.
1. . :
Z(x) = 1 X1 + C2 X2
1 2
Z. , :
. , , 1
2, .
. ,
1 /2 (, , 2 /1);
1 /2 , .
. 3.6 , Z(x) = 5X1 + 4X2
. Z(x) = 1 X1 + C2 X2
, Z
,
. 61 + 42 24 ( 1) 1 + 22 6 ( 2). :
4 C2 2

,
C1 0
6 C1 1

1 C1 6

,
C2 0 .
2 C2 4
63



C1 0 , , , . , .
. 3.7 , ( ) , . , ,
.

. 3.7.

, 1 2 , - . , Z(x) = 1 X1 + C2 X2 1 + 22 6, CD. , , , 61 + 42 = 24, .


, .

- , , . , 2 ( 2 = 4),
1 C
6
1 1 2 = 4. 2 C2 4
1: 2 1 6.
,
2 . . 6 . .
, , () .

64


, 1 ( 1 = 5),
4 C2 2

2:

6 C1 1
10
C 2 10 .
3
2. -.
.
.
.
, .
, ; ( ) .
1 2 . .
,
, 1 2.
1 ( , 24 ) DG (. 3.8).

. 3.8

1,
, . , D = (2,2) G = (6,0) DG 1. 1, D = (2,2), 61 + 42 = 20 . , ,
G = (6,0), 36 . , 1 20 1 36. 1 1 = 24 + D1, D1
1 24 ,
20 24 + D1 36 -4 D1 12. , 1
4 12 . .
65



1.
1 20 36 , Z DG. y1 1, :

y1 =

Z . D G
.
1 . D G

D = (2,2), Z = 5 2 + 4 2 = 18 (. .),
G = (6,0), Z = 56 + 40 = 30 (. .). ,
y1 =

30 18 3
= (. . 1).
36 20 4

, 1
750 .
2. . 3.9 , 2 , = (4,0) = (8/3,2).

. 3.9

D . , 2, , 1 + 22 = 4 + 2 0 = 4, 20/3 . Z = 5 4 + 4 0 = 20 . ., : Z = 5
8/3 + 4 2 = 64/3 . . , 2
4 20/3 , 2, y2,
64 / 3 20 1
y2 =
= ( 2).
20 / 3 4 2

66

3.4. -
():

() (

f x = C , x max
Ax = b

(3.18)

x 0 , b 0.
, Ax = b m, m < n.
:

max(c, x)
n

a
j =1

(3.19)

x j = b,

(3.20)

x 0 , b 0,

(3.21)

a j j- .
. () ,
Ax = b .
, r(A) = m ,
(
A x = b ) m
m A x = b .
. m

A x = b , ,
.
, ;
n-m . ,
Cnm .
m.
. -
n

a jx j = b , j=1

n ( n+1 )- .
- C m
n . -
.
3.2 ( ). P .
.
X = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,

x j1 , x j2 ,..., x jk , n-k .
67



a j1 , a j2 ,..., a jk
.
, X P, X ' = ( x1 ' , x 2 ' ,..., x n ' ) P ' , X " = ( x1 " , x 2 " ,..., x n " ) P ' , X ' X " (0,1)
,

X = (1 ) X '+X " .

(3.22)

X ' X " . , -,
X ' X " (3.22) k x j1 ' , x j2 ' ,..., x jk '

X ' k x j1 " , x j2 " ,..., x jk " X " . n-k X ' X " .


-, X ' X " (3.20) . , :
k

jr

x jr ' = b,

jr

x jr " = b.

r =1
k

a
r =1

,
k

(x
r =1

jr

' x jr " )a jr = 0 .

(3.23)

a j1 , a j2 ,..., a jk , (3.23) ,

x jr ' x jr " = 0, r = 1,2,..., k x jr ' = x jr " , r = 1,2,..., k . , X ' = X " .


, , X P.
, X = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) P,
x j1 , x j2 ,..., x jk .

X , (3.20)
,
k

jr

r =1

x jr = b.

(3.24)

, X .
a j1 , a j2 ,..., a jk , , d 1 , d 2 ,..., d k , ,
k

jr

r =1

d r = 0.

(3.25)

> 0. (3.25)
, (-). (3.24),
k

jr

( x jr + d r ) = b,

(3.26)

jr

( x jr d r ) = b,

(3.27)

r =1
k
r =1

68


,
x jr + d r 0 ,

(3.28)

x jr d r 0, r = 1,2,..., k .

X ' X " ,
k

x j1 + d 1 , x j2 + d 2 ,..., x jk + d k

x j1 d 1 , x j2 d 2 ,..., x jk d k
, n-k .
(3.26) (3.28) X ' X " .

1
1
X '+ X " , X , 2
2
X ' X " P.
, X P. , , X .
X =

.
1. P m .
2. P C nm .
3. P , .
3.3 ( ). f ( x )(c 0 ) P, ,
x * P ' , f ( x * ) = max f ( x ) .
xP '

3.4. P , ( ).
.
, , bi (i = 1, 2,, m)
n

a
j =1

x j = b , , m,

X = (0, 0,..., 0) . , bi .
X = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) , k . , , k X ,

k

a
j =1

xj =b .

(3.29)

X ,
a1 , a 2 ,..., a k ,

j , ,
69

a
j

j =1

=0.

= max
1 j k

j
xj

(3.30)

(3.31)

(3.30) , .
(3.30) (

(3.29),
k

a jxj
j =1

a
j =1

=b

x j > 0( j = 1,2,..., k ),

[( x

j =1

(3.32)

j
xj

) x j ]a j = b .

(3.32)

0, j = 1, 2,..., k

(3.33)

j, (3.33) .
,

k
xk

= 0.

, , j-

[(

j
xj

) x j ], j = 1, 2,..., k 1 , n k + 1

.
a1 , a 2 ,..., a k 1 , , , , k 2
,
l (l k) ,
a j .
bi , l 0.
l = m
, l < m .
.
3.5. .

X * = i X i ,

70

i =1

(3.34)

i =1

= 1, i f 0, i = 1, 2,..., N ,

(3.35)

X 1 , X 2 ,..., X N .
.
X i = ( xi1 , xi 2 ,.., xin ), i = 1, 2,..., N

,

f ( X 1 ) = f ( X 2 ) = ... = f ( X N ) = max f ( X ).
X P '

j =1

j =1

i =1

i =1

j =1

j =1

i =1

f ( X * ) = C j x *j = C j i xij = i C j xij = (max C j x j ) i = max f ( X ) ,


X P '

X P '

X , (3.34) (3.35), .
, X * =

i =1

i =1

i X i , X i P' , i = 1, i f 0, i = 1, 2,..., N , -

.
, X1 , X 2 ,..., X N

X l (1 l N ) , ,
:

f ( X l ) < f ( X * ).

(3.36)

, (3.35),
N

i =1

i =1

f ( X * ) = i f ( X i ) < i f ( X * ) = f ( X * ) .
, , X1 , X 2 ,..., X N .
.

, , .
*

3.6. X = ( x1* , x2* ,..., xn* )

f (x) .
.
, P ,
3.4 .
2 :
*

1. , X . , , X -

71


,
k

X * = i X i ,
i =1

i =1

= 1, i 0, i = 1, 2,..., k ,

(3.37)

X 1 , X 2 ,..., X k - .
X 1 , X 2 ,..., X k , (3.37) i = 0.
X N +1 , X N + 2 ,..., X k .

X * = i X i ,
i =1

i =1

= 1, i 0, i = 1, 2,..., N ,

.. 3.5 , ,

f ( X * ) = f ( X 1 ) = ... = f ( X N ) ,
.
*

2. , X
.
,
n

x
i =1

*
i

<M.

(3.38)

x
i =1

*
i

(3.39)

max(c , X )

(3.40)

ij

j =1
n

x
j =1

x j = bi , i = 1,2,..., m,
M,

(3.41 3.42)

x1 , x2 ,..., xn 0.
. ,
*

X (3.41 3.42) P" P ' , X . , 1


X i = ( xi1 , xi 2 ,..., xin ), i = 1, 2,..., N , ,

max (c , X ) = (c , X * ) = (c , X 1 ) = ... = (c , X N ) ,
X P '

X * = i X i ,
i =1

72

i =1

= 1, i > 0, i = 1, 2,..., N .

(3.43)

X i (I = 1, 2,, N)
n

x
i =1

*
i

=M,

(3.44)

.
X i (I = 1, 2,, N) (3.44),

n

x
j =1

ij

= M , i = 1,2,..., N .

(3.43)
n

x = x = x
j =1

*
j

j =1 i =1

i ij

i =1

j =1

ij

= M,

(3.38) > 0.
.
3.7. ( 3.5)
,
.
(3.18). (3.18)

A x = b , (3.18) :

1) (-) ;
2) , , ;
3) , ;
4) .
- -

K (S )

(S )

a11( S )
(S )
a
= 21
...
a(S )
m1

a12( S ) ... a1(nS )


(S )
a22
... a2( Sn )

...

...

...

(S )
am( S2) ... amn

b1( S )

b2( S )
.
...
bm( S )

(3.45)

= ( N 1( S ) ,..., N m( S ) ) ()

K (S ) , X N ( S ) = (b1( S ) ,..., bm( S ) ) ,

, K (S ) ,
. (n-m) ,
(S )

K (S ) , . , N X N ( S ) ,
K (S ) . ,

73

K
(S )

N = (3, 1, 6); X N ( S ) = b
K (S ) ,

(S )

(S )

0 3 1 4 2 0 1

= 1 4 0 3 3 0 2 ,
0 5 0 1 8 1 4

= (1, 2, 4) , , ,

X = (2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 4).
, - (3.45)
X N ( S ) = (b1( S ) , b2( S ) ,..., bm( S ) )

(S )

= ( N 1( S ) , N 2( S ) ,..., N m( S ) ) .

(3.46)

(S )

K (S ) a K , ,
.. k N i(S ) , i = 1, m , , .
(S )
alK
> 0 . alK(S ) ,

K (S ) .
a11( S +1) ... a1(nS +1) b1( S +1)

K ( S +1) = ...
...
...
... ,
a ( S +1) ... a ( S +1) b ( S +1)
mn
m
m1

(3.47)

(S )

a K , -,
bi( S +1) .
(S )

a lK , - K ( S +1) , ..
X N ( S ) X N ( S +1) , , :
(S )

3.8 K- - K ( S ) - a K -

( k N i( S ) , i = 1, m ).
- K ( S +1) ,

bl( s )
bi( s )
= min
= (s) .
(s)
(S )
(S )
a iK > 0 a
alK
iK

(3.48)

i =1, m

.
(S )

( jS ) = (C N ( S ) , a j ) C j ,

(3.49)

C N ( S ) ,
(S )

f ( x) = (c, x) ( N ) ,
K (S ) , j- - K (S ) .
(S )

a j

K (S ) , (Sj ) =0.

X N ( S ) X N ( S +1) , K (S ) K ( S +1)
. ,
74

f ( X N ( S +1) ) = (C N ( S +1) , X N ( S +1) ); f ( X N ( S 1) ) = (C N ( S ) , X N ( S ) );


b (S )
f ( X N ( S +1) ) = f ( X N ( S ) ) ( S ) (KS ) = f ( X N ( S ) ) l( S ) (KS ) ,
alK

(3.50)
(3.51)

(S )

a K , K ( S +1) K (S ) .
(s ) (3.48).
(S )

3.9. K (S ) (KS ) < 0 a K ( k N i(S ) , i = 1, m )

. K (S )
K ( S +1) ,

f ( X N ( S +1) ) f( X N ( S ) ).

(3.52)

.
(S )

a K K (S ) , 3.1 K (S ) K ( S +1) ,
(3.48).
(3.52) (3.51), (KS ) < 0 , (s ) 0.
.
3.10. ( ). (S )
(S )
K . X N ,
K (S ) , .
.

( jS ) = (C N( S ) , a j( s ) ) C j 0 ,

(C N( S ) , a j( s ) ) C j , j = 1,2,.., n .

(3.52)

X = ( x1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) .
(3.52) xi , xi

(C N( S ) , a j( s ) ) x j C j x j , j = 1, 2,.., n .

(3.53)

(3.53)
n

j =1

j =1

f ( X ) = C j x j (C N( S ) , a j( S ) ) x j = C N( Si ) a ij( S ) x j = C N( Si ) bi( S ) = f ( X N( S ) )
j =1 i =1

i =1

f ( X N( S ) ) f ( X ) ,
.
(S )

3.11. K (S ) (KS ) < 0 a K ( k N i(S ) , i = 1, m )


. (3.18) .
.
k- - K (S )
(3.54)
( jS ) = (C N( S ) , a k( s ) ) C k 0 ,

aik

(S )

0, i 1, 2,.., m.

(3.55)
75

K (S )
(S )

X N( S ) = (b1 , b2
N

(S )

(S )

= ( N1 , N 2

(S )

,..., bm

(S )

(S )

,.., N m

(S )

x1 '

x2 '
X '=
,

x '
n

X N' ( S ) = b1

(S )

X N' ( S ) = b2

a1k

(S )

(S )

a2 k

xk ,

(S )

xk ,

X N'

(S )

= bm

(S )

xk ' = x k , k N i

amk

(S )

(S )

xk ,

, i = 1, 2,..., m,

xk .
n m + 1 X ' .
(3.55) X ' .
, X ' , .. X ' xk .
:
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
(S)
f(x ' ) = C N
(b1 a
x ) + C N2 (b2 a
x ) + ... + C Nm (bm a
x )+C x =
1k
k
2k
k
mk
k
k k
1
(S)

(S)

(S)

= (C N1 b1 + C N2 b2

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

+ ... + C Nm bm ) x k (C N1 a1k

(S)

(S)

+ C N2 a2k

(S)

(S)

+ ... + C N m amk

(S)

Ck )

f ( X ') = f ( X N

(S )

) xk k

(S )

(3.56)

(S )
K < 0 , (3.56) , M > 0

X' ,

f ( X ') > M ,
.. f ( X ) P ' .
.
-

, - (0) ,
76

XN

( 0)

( 0)

(0)

(0)

= (b1 , b2 ,..., bm ),
(0)

( 0)

(0)

N ( 0 ) = ( N1 , N 2 ,..., N m ).
-
K ( 0) , K (1) ,..., K ( S ) ,... ,
,
. S- . S- - K ( S 1) ,

XN

( S 1)

( S 1)

, b2

( S 1)

, N2

= (b1

N ( S 1) = ( N1

1. a j

( S 1)

,..., bm

( S 1)

( S 1)

( S 1)

,..., N m

),

( S 1)

).

K ( S 1)

( j N(

s1)

, i = 1, m -

( s-1) k ( s-1) = min( s-1) , 1 j n .


k
j
s-1)
(
2.
0 ,

- j

XN
N

( S 1)

( S 1)

= (b1

= ( N1

( S 1)

( S 1)

, b2

( S 1)

,..., bm

( S 1)

, N2

( S 1)

,..., N m

) = (C N

( S 1)

,XN

),

( S 1)

f (X N

( S 1)

( S 1)

f ( X ) , 3.

( s-1)

3. a ik
l

0 , i = 1, m , , -

( S 1)

( S 1)

( S 1)

b
b
= max i ( S 1) = l ( S 1) .
1i m
a
alk
a ( S 1) > 0 ik
ik

S- alk

( s)

( s)

( s-1)

( S 1)

( s)

4. N : N i = N i , i l , N l = k.
5.

alk

( S 1)

. S S+1 1.
3.3. - :

( )

max f X = 3X1 + 2 X 2

(3.57)

1 + 22 6
21 + 2 8
-1 + 2 1
2 2
(3.58)
1 0 2 0.
(3.58) ,
Si , i = 1,4. :
1 + 22 + S1 = 6
77

21 + 2 + S2 = 8
-1 + 2 + S3 = 1
2 + S4 = 2

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

Si 0,

i =1,4.

(3.59)

( )

F X = 3X1 + 2X2 + 0 S1 + 0 S2 + 0 S3 + 0 S4

( 0) 2
K =
1

2 1 0 0 0 6

1 0 1 0 0 8
1 0 0 1 0 1

1 0 0 0 1 2

(3.59) - (0) , :

X N ( 0 ) = ( 6 8 1 2) , N

( 0)

= (3 4 5 6) , C N ( 0) = (0 0 0 0) .

-
.

3.1
S

i
1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

1
2
3
4
5

( s)

3
4
5
6
j

0
0
0
0

0
3
0
0

(1)

2
1
5
6
j

( s)

( 0)

3
1
5
6

(2)

(s)

CN(s) XN =b

2
3
0
0

3
( s)

6
8
1
2

a1
1
2
-1
0

f =0

2
a2

( s)

a3

a4

( s)

0
( s)

a5

a6

( s)

2
1
1
1

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

-3

-2

2
4
5
2

0
1
0
0

3/2
1/2
3/2
1

1
0
0
0

-1/2
1/2
1/2
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

f = 12

-1/2

3/2

4/3
10/3
3
2/3

0
1
0
0

1
0
0
0

2/3 -1/3
-1/3 2/3
1
-1
-2/3 1/3

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

f = 38 / 3

1/3

( 2)

S = 2, j 0

4
X N( 2 ) =
3

10
2
3

3
3

4/3

(s)
6
4
K=1
L=2
4/3
8
10/3
2
K=2
l=1

j = 1,6 , ,

N
*

( 2)

= (2 1 5 6) ,
10
3

- (2), , X =

:
78

( s)

4
2
0 0 3
.
3
3


( 2)

f ( X ) = f ( X N ( z ) ) = (C N ( 2 ) , b ) = C N ( 2 ) b1( 2) + C N ( 2 ) b2( 2 ) + C N ( 2 ) b3( 2 ) + C N ( 2 ) =


1

4
10
2
2
= 2 + 3
+ 0 3 + 0 = 12 .
3
3
3
3
3.4. - :
max (2X1+X2)
X1-X2 10
X1 40
X1,2 0

max (2X1+X2+0 S1+0S2)
X1-X2+ S1=10
X1+ S2=40

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

Si 0,

(3.60)
(3.61)

(3.62)

i =1,2.

-.
3.2
S
0

( s)

CN(s)

(s)

XN(s) =b

( s)
1

1
( s)

0
( s)

0
0

10
40
f =0

1
1
-2

-1
0
-1

a3
1
0
0

1
4
(1)
j

2
0

10
30

1
0
0

-1
1
-3

1
2

2
1

40
30

1
0
0

0
1
0

1
2
3

3
4
j

1
2
3
1
2
3

( 0)

(2)

f = 20

f = 110

a2

0
a4

( s)

(s)

0
1
0

10
40

1
-1
2

0
1
0

30

0
-1
-1

1
1
3

- S = 2 , 3 -

( 2)

, .. - 3 -

( 2)

a 3 , .
, max f ( X ) = .
P

3.5. - (-)
3.5. :

min(21 + 42 )
3 1 + 2 3
4 1 + 3 2 6

(3.63)

1 + 2 2 3
1,2 0
79


max (-2 1 -4 2 )
3 1 + 2 - S1 = 3
4 1 + 3 2 - S2 = 6
1 + 2 2 - S3 = 3

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

S j 0,

j =1,3.

max (-2 1 -4 2 )
- 3 1 - 2 + S1 = - 3
- 4 1 - 3 2 + S 2 = - 6

(3.64)

1 + 2 2+ S3 = 3

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

S i 0,

i = 1,3.

(3.64):

P ( 0)

3 1 1 0 0 3

= 4 3 0 1 0 6 .
1
2 0 0 1 3

P ( 0 ) 3 , ,

X N ( 0 ) = (-3; -6; 3); N

(0)

= (3; 4; 5)

, C N ( 0 ) = (0, 0, 0). (n + 1 = 6)- P ( 0 ) , - .


- P ( 0 ) :
(0)

( 0j ) = (C N ( 0 ) , a j ) C j = C j 0 , j = 1,5 .
- P ( 0 ) ,
X N ( 0 ) = (-3; -6; 3), ,
, .
- , .
. , -,
, . .

80

. - (3.18)
, (3.63),
m n , .
, -
(3.63) (. 3.5).
. (3.63), -, .
-

- P ( S ) (3.18),

X N (S ) = b

(S )

, N

(S )

P ( S ) P ( S +1)
3.12.
3.12. bl(S ) < 0 l- P ( S )

.
- P ( S +1) ,

(S )

( jS )
(kS )
=
= min
.
alk( S ) 1a j<0n alj( S )

(3.65)

ij ,

1.

P (S ) bl( S ) < 0, -

.
3.13. bl(S ) < 0 l- P ( S )

. (3.18) .
2. P ( S ) P ( S +1)

f( X N ( S +1) ) = f ( X N ( S ) ) + ( S ) blS = f ( X N ( S ) ) +

(kS) (S)
bl ,
a (lkS)

(3.66)

,
bl( S ) < 0 a (lkS)

f ( X N ( S +1) ) f ( X N ( S ) ),
(3.67)
< 0 . (3.67) , -

f ( x) .
-

, - P ( 0 ) ,

81

X N ( 0 ) = (b1( 0) , b2( 0 ) ,..., bm( 0) ) ,

(0)

= ( N 1( 0) , N 2( 0) ,..., N m( 0) ) .

-
(1)

( 2)

, P ,, P , , -
, .

(S )

S- .
S- - P ( S 1) ,

( S 1)

X N ( S 1) = b l

, N

( S 1)

1. l

bl( S 1) = min bi( S 1) .


1 i m

( S 1)
l

2. b

0,


( S 1)

X N ( S 1) = b l

, N

( S 1)

f ( X N ( S 1) ) = ( C N

( S 1)

, X N ( S 1) )

f ( x) , 3.
3.

alj( S 1) 0 , j = 1, n ,
( ),
4.
( S 1)

4. a j

P ( S 1) ( j N i( S 1) , i = 1, 2, ,m) -

( jS 1) k

( jS 1)
(kS 1)
=
min
, alj( S 1) < 0 .

( S 1)
(
1
)

S
1 j n a
alk

lj
( S 1)
S- a lK
.

( S 1) =

5. N

(S )

N i( S ) = N i( S 1) , i = 1, m , i l , N (l S) = k .
6. a (lkS1) .
- P ( S ) . S S+1 1.

82

3.5. .
3.3
-2
-4
0
0
0
(S )
(S )
(S )
(S )
(S )
s)
s)
(
(
S I
( s)
C
X
a
a
a
a
a

1
2
3
4
5

S
1

I
1
2
3
4

3
4
5

0
0
0

-3
-6
3
f=0

-3
-4
1
2

-1
-3
2
4

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

2/4

4/3

-2

-4

(S )
3

(S )
4

1
0
0
0

3/4
-1/4
1/4
1/2

( 0)
j

( 0)
N

( s)

CN

3
1
5

( s)

0
-2
0

(1)
j

XN

( s)

(S )
1

0
1
0
0

5/4
3/4
5/4
5/2

3/2
3/2
3/2
f = -3

(S )
2

(S )

a5

0
0
1
0

5
X N (1) =( 3/2, 3/2, 3/2) , X N (1) (3.63). ,
*

X =( 3/2, 0, 3/2, 0, 3/2) min f ( x) =3.


3.6. :

max f ( x) = - 1 + 22
-2 1 + 2 2
1 + 2 2 4
1 + 4 2 4
1,2 0

(3.68)

max f ( x) = (- 1 + 2 2 )
- 2 1 + 2 - S1 = 2
1 + 2 2 + S2 = 4
1 + 4 2 - S3 = 4

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

S i 0,

i = 1,3.

max f ( x) = (- 1 + 2 2 ) :
2 1 - 2 + S1 = - 2
1 + 2 2 + S2 = 4
- 1 - 4 2 + S3 = - 4

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

S i 0,

(3.69)

i = 1,3.

83

2 1 1 0 0 2

~ ( 0)
4
A = 1 2 0 1 0
1 4 0 0 1 4

(3.69) - ,

2

=(0, 0, 0) 1 + 1 = 1 > 0 , (20) =(0, 0, 0)
1

(0)
1

1

2 - 2 = -2 < 0.
4

, (3.68) -.
3.7.

f ( x) = (6 1 + 32)
-3 1 + 2 1
2 1 - 3 2 2
1,2 0

(3.70)

f ( x) = (- 6 1 - 3 2 ) max
3 1 - 2 + S1 = - 1
- 2 1 + 3 2 + S 2 = - 2

X j 0,

j = 1,2 ,

S j 0,

j =1,2.

3 1 1 0 1

P ( 0) =
2 3 0 1 2
- ( (10 ) = 6 > 0;

(20) = 3 > 0), -.


.

3.4
0

3
4

0
0

-1
-2

( 0)
j

f ( x) = 0

3
-2
6

-1
3
3

1
0
0

0
1
0

( 0)

1
2
3

3
1

0
-6

-4
1

(j1)

f ( x) = -6

0
1
0

7/2
-3/2
12

1
0
0

3/2
-1/2
3

(1)

1
2
3

84

-3

X N ( s)

-6

C N ( s)

( s)

(S )
1

(S )
2

(S )
3

(S )

a4

bl(1) = b1(1) = 4 < 0, a1(1j) 0, (3.70)


.

3.6. -
3.14.

( )

min f X = 0,4X1+ 0,3X2 + 0,1X3 + 0,1X5 + 0,2X6

(3.71)

2X2 + 2X3 + 4X4 + X5 = 150


X1 + X2 + 2X5 = 200
X1 + X3 + 2X6 = 300
X j 0 ; j = 1,...,6

(3.72)
(3.73)

(3.72) ,

( ( ))

f ( x) max f X = 0,4X1 0,3X2


0,1X3 0,1X5 0,2X6 (3.74) (3.72)(3.73).
(3.72)

0 2 2 4 1 0 150

~
A = 1 1 0 0 2 0 200
1 0 1 0 0 2 300

3, - , , (3.71)(3.73)
-.
(-)-
c .

(3.18) (3.63)
-. :

X M = ( X 1 ,..., X n ,U 1 ,...,U m ) En + m ,

(X ) = U
m

i =1

(3.74)

a
j =1

ij

x j + U i = bi , i = 1, m ,

(3.75)

x j 0 , j = 1, n , U i 0 , bi 0 , i = 1, m .

(3.76)

U 1 , U 2 ,...,U m
() (3.743.76). PM . ,

PM 0, X M = (0,..., 0, b1 ,..., bm ) PM ,

(X ) 0
M

85

, , (3.743.76) , .. X M PM
, max
PM

(X ) = ( X
M

*
M

) = d.

(3.75)

a11

~
a
AM = 21
...

a
m1

... a1n
... a2 n
...

...

... amn

b1

b2
,
... ... ... ... ...

0 0 ... 1 bm
1
0

0 ... 0
1 ... 0

(3.77)

- (3.743.76), .. -.
, -, S-

(X

X M = ( X 1* ,..., X n* ,U 1* ,...,U m* ) ,

*
M

) = d,

(3.78)

b1( S )

... .
b ( Sm)

(3.79)

- .

K M( S )

a11( S )

= ...
a (S )
m1

... a1(nS )

a1(nS+)1

... a1(nS+) m

... ...
(S )
... a mn

...
... ...
(S )
(S )
a mn +1 ... a mn
+m

~
A( S )

a11( S ) ... a1(nS ) b1( S )

= ...
... ...
...
a ( S ) ... a ( S ) b ( S )
mn
m
m1

(3.80)

, (3.63).

( X *M ) = d = 0 , X * =( X 1* ,, X n* )
*
(3.18) , ( X M ) = d < 0, (3.18) .
3.14.

3.14 , (3.743.76) -
:
1. S-

, ( N i( S ) n + i , i = 1, m ), .. A ( S ) = K ( S ) (3.61) *

- (3.18), X =( X 1 , , X n )
(3.18), -.
2. S- , ,
U 1 ,U 2 ,...,U p , p m,
..

N1( S ) = n + 1, N 2( S ) = n + 1, , N p( S ) = n + p,

bi( S ) = U i(*) = 0, i = 1, p .
*

X M -

, A ( S ) (3.61) p < m
- .
86

A ( S ) -
, .

r- A ( S )
( r = 1, p ).
aij( S ) ( j = 1, n ) ,
, m.

A ( S ) .
U r
X 1, , X 2 ,..., X n , (n + 1) .

A ( S )
- ,

*

X = ( X 1* , , X n* ).
, .
3. S- U 1 , U 2 ,...,U p , p m , U i(*) .
(3.18) .

1 2,
.

max f ( x)
(S )

A( S ) x = b
x 0,

(3.81)
(3.82)

(3.83)
(3.82) -.

. (3.51)(3.53) :

( X M ) = -(U1+U2+U3) max
2X1 + 2X3 + 4X4 + X5 + U1 = 150
X1 + X2 + 2X5 + U2 = 200
X1 + X3 + 2X6 + U3 = 300
Xj 0; Ui 0; j = 1,6 ; I = 1,3 .
. 3.5.

(3.84)
(3.85)
(3.86)

87

3.5
S i
1
0 2
3
4
1
1 2
3
4
1
2 2
3
4
1
3 2
3
4

C N ( s) X

( s)

( s) a1 a 2 a 3 a 4
N

-1

-1

a5

a6
0
0
2
-2

a7

a8 a 9

-1
-1
-1

2
0
1
-3

4
0
0
-4

4
8
9

0 37,5 0 0,5 0,5


-1 200 1 1 0
-1 300 1 0 1
-500 -2 -1 -1

1
0
0
0

0,25 0 0,25
2
0
0
0
2
0
-2 -2
1

4
1
9

0 37,5
0 200
-1 100
-100

0
1
0
0

0,5 0,5
1 0
-1 1
1 -1

1
0
0
0

0,25 0 0,25 0
2
0
0
1
-2
2
0
-1
2
-2
1
2

4
1
6

0
0
0

0 0,5 0,5
1 1 0
0 -0,5 0,5
0 0 0

1
0
0
0

0,25
2
-1
0

(1)
j

( 2)
j

( 3)
j

37,5
200
50
0

2
1
0
-3

7
8
9

( 0)
j

150 0
200 1
300 1
-650 -2

0
1
2
0
-3

0
0
1
0

1
0
0
0

-1

(s)

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

37,5
-

0
1
0
0

0
- 150 0 200 100 1 300 - 150
0
0
0
1
0

50

0,25 0 0
0
1 0
0 -0,5 0,5
1
1 1

: X M = (200; 0; 0; 37.5; 0; 50; 0; 0; 0),

, , X = (200; 0; 0; 37.5; 0; 50)


, -.

0 0.5 0.5 1 0.25 0 150

~ ( 3)
0 0 2 0 200
A
= 1 1
0 0.5 0.5 0 1 1 300


max (0,4X10,3X20,1X30,1X50,2X6)

( 3)
3
A( ) x = b
x 0.

. 3.6.

( s) X ( s)
( s)
N
N CN

1 4
0
2 1
-0,4
3 6
-0,2
4
( 0)

88

3.6

37,5
200
50
-90

-0.4

a1
0
1
0
0

-0.3

a2
0,5
1
-0,5
0

-0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2

a3 a4 a5
0,5
0
0,5
0

1
0
0
0

0,25
2
-1
-0,5

a6
0
0
1
0

(s)
150
100
-


. 3.6

1 4
0
2 5
-0,1
3 6
-0,2
4
(1)

12,5
100
150
-40

-0,125
0,5
1
0,25

0,375
0,5
0
0,25

0,5
0
1
0

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

1 3
-0,1
2 5
-0,1
3 6
-0,2
4
( 2)

25
100
137,5
-100

-0,25
0,5
0,625
0,25

0,75
1
-0,375
0,25

1
0
0
0

2
0
-1
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

25
300

(. 3.6)

1=

(0; 0; 12.5; 100; 150) f X1 = 40.


(31) = 0, a 3 , ,
(3.28) , ..

X 2 = (0; 0,25; 0; 100; 137,5) f X 2 = 40.

X = X1 + (1 ) X 2 ; 0 1.

(3.87)

3.15. :

max (2X1 X2 X4)


X1 2X2 + X3 = 10
2X1 X2 2X4 18
3X1 + 2X2 + X4 36
X j 0; j = 1,4
(3.88)
max (2X1 X2 X4)
X1 2X2 + X3 = 10
-2X1 X2 2X4 S1 =18
3X1 + 2X2 + X4-S2 = 36

(3.88)

(3.89)

0 ; j = 1,4

S j 0 ; j = 1,2
(3.89)
1 2 1 0
0 0 10

~
A = 2 1 0 2 1 0 18
3 2
0 1 0 1 36

- (3.89) , .. .
~
(3.89). .. A
a 3 = (1; 0; 0), U1; U2 (3.89).
89

( X M ) = -(U1+U2) max
X1 2X2 + X3 = 10
-2X1 X2 2X4 X5 + U1 = 18
3X1 + 2X2 + X4 X6 + U2 = 36

(3.90)

X j 0; j = 1,6 ; U1 ,U2 0
. 3.7.

S i
1
0 2
3
4
1
1 2
3
4

( s) C N ( s)
N

3.7

X N ( s)

a1

a2

a3 a 4 a5 a 6 a 7 a8

3
7
8

0
-1
-1

10
18
36
-54

-1
-2
3
-1

-2
-1
2
-1

1
0
0
0

3
7
2

0
-1
0

46
36
18
-36

2
-0,5
1,5
0,5

0
0
1
0

1 1 0 -1
0 -1,5 -1 -0,5
0 0,5 0 -0,5
0 1,5 1 0,5

( 0)
j

(1)
j

0
-2
1
1

0 0
-1 0
0 -1
1 1

-1 -1

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

(s)
18

0 1
1 0,5
0 0,5
0 0,5

X *M = (0; 18; 46; 0; 0; 36; 0).


.. U1 = 36,
(3.88) (3.89).


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
90

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
?
.
.
.
, , ?
.
(x) = 1x1 + c2x2.

16. ?
17.
?
18. ?
19. .
20. - .
21. .
22. - .
23. -.
24. ?
25. ?
26. .
27. .
28. -.
29. -.
30. -.
31. ,
.
32. - ?
33. - .
34. .
35. -.
36. ?
37. -?
38. MS Excel?
39. MS Excel?
40. MS Excel?

7
1. 1 1.

8
2. .
. 1 %
, 1 % 2- , 1 % 3- ; : 2 % 1-, 2 %
2-, 2 % 3- . 1- 305 .., 200 .. .
1- , b 2-
3- , ?

91

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

80
70
70
60
60
60
60
60
70
70
50
60
50
50
40
45
45
50
50
60
45
40
40
50
60

10
20
10
20
10
30
40
30
10
20
10
15
20
30
25
15
20
30
40
10
10

10
10
20
20
30
10
40
30
40
20
40
35
40
25
30
50
35
20
55
30
20
40
30

20
20
30
30
30
30
10
20
10
20
10
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
10
15
20
25
30
35

30
40
40
20
50
30
80
10
60
60
20
40
45
35
30
45
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

50
40
30
50
20
40
10
70
30
20
70
40
30
35
35
5
45
35
45
70
60
50
40
30
20

16
28
26
24
39
27
18
24
14
28
14
16
18
22
24
26
28
30
36
38
40
42
44
46
48

13
32
18
10
20
15
48
14
45
42
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20

21
30
16
16
21
8
14
42
21
20
21
18
27
24
21
27
30
33
21
27
18
15
21
27
30

9
, 15.
(A, B) . , .
1. .
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
4. , .
5. ,
, , .

92

1.

2400

II

1800

III

2000

( c )

7,5

2.

4500

II

1200

III

2300

( c )

7,5

3.

4,5

2400

II

820

III

10

2000

( c )

10,5

4.

2600

II

1,5

2200

III

1000

( c )

5.

2700

II

3200

III

1500

( c )

13

93

6.

2000

II

1400
2000

III

( c )

7.

2500

II

1500

III

2000

( c )

8.

2400

II

800

III

10

2000

( c )

10

9.

2400

II

2100

III

1200

( c )

10.

94

2700

II

3200

III

1500

( c )

11

11.

2400

II

1800

III

2000

( c )

12.

1500

II

1200

III

2400

( c )

13.

2400

II

600

III

2100

( c )

12

14.

2200

II

2500

III

1200

( c )

15.

2400

II

3000

III

1500

( c )

10

95

16.

2400

II

1500

III

1800

( c )

7,5

3,5

17.

4500

II

1200

III

2400

( c )

18.

4,5

2400

II

720

III

10

2000

( c )

10

19.

2000

II

1,5

1200

III

600

( c )

20.

96

1700

II

3000

III

1500

( c )

21.

2400

II

1500

III

2100

( c )

22.

2200

II

1200

III

2100

( c )

23.

4,5

2400

II

1000

III

2700

( c )

10

24.

2600

II

1,5

2200

III

1400

( c )

25.

2700

II

3200
1500

III

( c )

12

97

10
3 : 1, 2, 3, : 1 2. i- j- ij , bi (i = 1, 2), , j-
j (j = 1, 2, 3).
,
1) ;
2) ?
: : = (ij),
bi (i = 1, 2) j (j = 1, 2, 3).

1 2 2 1100
1 .
3 4 2 1500
2 1

4 1 3 1500
5 .
4 2 1 2000
2 1

2 2 1 1300
9 .
3 2 2 900
3 3

1 3 2 1200
11 .
3 4 2 1700
2 4

4 1 3 1500
15 .
2 2 1 2000
2 5

2 3 4 1200
2 .
3 1 2 1600
2 1 3
2 1 1 800
6 .
2 3 2 1200
3 3 3

98

1 3

3 1 2 900
7 .
1 2 3 1000
3

2 1 4 1600
4 .
2 1 3 1800
2

1 3

3 1 1 1800
8 .
2 3 1 2400

3 2

3 3 2

2 1 2 2100
10 .
2 2 1 1200
3 3

2 4 4 1600
12 .
3 1 2 1600
2 1 5
4 1 1 800
16 .
2 3 2 1400
3 4 3

2 2 1 1600
2 1 2 2100
19 .
20 .
3 2 2 1200
4 2 1 1200
3 4

1 2 1 1000
3 .
3 5 2 1500

3 5

1 5 1 1000
13 .
1 5 2 1500
2

1 4

3 1 2 900
17 .
1 4 3 1000
5

3 2

2 2 4 1600
14 .
6 1 3 1800
2

1 5

3 6 1 1800
18 .
2 8 1 2400
3 5 2

3 7 2 2100
21 .
3 4 2 1600
5 4

5 1 3 1500
25 .
2 4 1 2000
2 7

2 4 3 1800
22 .
3 1 2 1600

1 3 1 1200
23 .
1 5 2 1500

2 1 4
4 1 2 800
26 .
2 3 2 1500

1 5

4 1 2 1200
27 .
1 3 3 1000

2 4 1

2 3 4 1600
24 .
5 1 3 1800

3 2

1 7

3 6 1 1800
28 .
2 5 1 2500
6 5 2

2 2 1 1400
2 2 2 2100
29 .
30 .
3 1 2 1200
4 2 1 1200
3 3

3 5

3) :
1 2 0,1 0,3 .
4) , .
.
1. (100, 100, 300)

11. (100, 100, 300)

21. (100, 100, 300)

2. (200, 100, 50)

12. (200, 100, 50)

22. (200, 100, 50)

3. (100, 100, 200)

13. (100, 100, 200)

23. (100, 100, 200)

4. (200, 100, 250)

14. (200, 100, 250)

24. (200, 100, 250)

5. (100, 100, 200)

15. (100, 100, 200)

25. (100, 100, 200)

6. (200, 100, 100)

16. (200, 100, 100)

26. (200, 100, 100)

7. (100, 300, 100)

17. (100, 300, 100)

27. (100, 300, 100)

8. (100, 200, 500)

18. (100, 200, 500)

28. (100, 200, 500)

9. (100, 100, 200)

19. (100, 100, 200)

29. (100, 100, 200)

10. (200, 100, 600)

20. (200, 100, 600)

30. (200, 100, 600)

11
, : 1 500
, 2 300 , 3 450 .
. , , ? .
.
-.

2 6 9 3000

3 5 10 4000

1.

2 3 3 1500

5 4 1 1000

2.

2 8 8 3800

1 4 10 1500

3.

99

3 5 2 2000

4 4 3 1700

5.

3 2,5 2 1500

1 4 3 800

8.

4.

7.

1 4 2,5 1200

10.
1 2 3 2000

2 2,5 3 950

4 2 1 1100

2
3
1
11.
3

2 4 7 2800

3 5 10 4000

14.

4 6 9 3600

3 2 7 2800

17.

1 6 9 2700

3 6 8 4800
2 7 9 5000

4 5 7 4000

13.

16.

19.

22.

1 2 1000

3 1 1000
6 9 3000

2 8 4000

3 6 2 1700

5 4 1 1500

6.

2
3
2
12.
3

9.

3 2,5 2000

2 2 1200
5 9 4500

5 10 4000

2 6 9 3000

3 6 10 3600

15.

3 1 9 3000

4 5 10 4000

2 6 5 3000

1 5 6 6000

18.

20.

2 6 7 2100

3 8 10 4000

21.

2 6 9 3000

23.
3 5 1 2000

2 6 8 2400

24.
3 6 3 3000

2 6 3 4000

4 5 9 4200

2 6 10 4000

3 4 7 2800

2 5 1 3000

3 5 8 4000

25.

12
1 500 ,
2 300 , 3 450 .
. ,
, ?
.
-.

2 6 9 3000

1.
3 5 10 4000

2 3 3 1500

2.
5 4 1 1000

2 8 8 3800

3.
1 4 10 1500

3 5 2 2000

4.
4 4 3 1700

2 2,5 3 950

5.
4 2 1 1100

3 6 2 1700

6.
5 4 1 1500

3 2,5 2 1500

7.
1 4 3 800

2 1 2 1000

8.
3 3 1 1000

2 3 2,5 2000

9.
3 2 2 1200

100

1 4 2,5 1200

10.
1 2 3 2000

1 6 9 3000

11.
3 2 8 4000

2 5 9 4500

12.
3 5 10 4000

2 4 7 2800

13.
3 5 10 4000

2 6 9 3000

14.
3 6 10 3600

3 1 9 3000

15.
4 5 10 4000

4 6 9 3600

16.
3 2 7 2800

2 6 5 3000

17.
1 5 6 6000

2 6 3 4000

18.
4 5 9 4200

1 6 9 2700

19.
3 6 8 4800

2 6 7 2100

20.
3 8 10 4000

2 6 10 4000

21.
3 4 7 2800

2 7 9 5000

22.
4 5 7 4000

2 6 9 3000

23.
3 5 1 2000

2 6 8 2400

24.
3 6 3 3000

2 5 1 3000

25.
3 5 8 4000

101

102

4.

,
3.
, :
;
;
MS EXCEL;
, MS Excel, .

.

.
(), () . , .
,
. , . , . ,
() ,
.

4.1.
:
n

max(min) f ( x ) = c j x j ;

(4.1)

j =1

a x
ij

= bi , i = 1 K m ;

x j 0 , j = 1K n .

(4.2)
(4.3)

, (4.1)(4.3), :
103

min(max)g ( y ) = yi bi ;

(4.4)

i =1

ya

()c j , j = 1K n ;

(4.5)

yi , i = 1 m.

(4.6)

i =1

1)

2)
3)
4)

5)

ij

:

, .. ( y 1 , ... , y m ) .
, ..
.

.
C , b .
, , , .

max f ( x ) = ( C, x )

min g ( y ) = ( y ,b)

Ax = b
P=

x0

yA
Q=

min f ( x ) = (C , x )

P=

y
max g( y ) = ( y, b )

yA

Ax = b

x0

(4.7)

Q=

(4.8)

4.1. :
max ( , x );

A x b;

(4.9)

x 0.
(4.9) :
max [( C , x ) + ( 0, S )];

A x + S = b;
x 0, S 0 .

(4.10)

() :
min( y, b );

yA ;

y 0.
104

(4.11)



4.2.
:

max(5x 1 + 12 x 2 + 4x 3 );
x 1 + 2x 2 + x 3 10;
2x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 = 8;
x 1, 2,3 0.
:
max(5x 1 + 12 x 2 + 4x 3 + 0S1 );

x 1 + 2 x 2 + x 3 + S1 = 10;
2x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 = 8;
x 1, 2,3 0.
S1 0
:

min(10 y1 + 8y 2 );
y1 + 2 y 2 5;
2 y1 y 2 12;
y1 + 3y 2 4;
y 1 + 0 y 2 0.
y1,2 .

y1 + 0 y2 0 , .. y1 0 , , 1 , :
min(10 y1 + 8y 2 );

y1 + 2 y 2 5;
2 y1 y 2 12;
y1 + 3y 2 4;
y 1 0.
2 .
4.3. :

min(5X1 2X2);
X1 + X2 3;
2X1 + 3X2 5;
X1,2 0.
:
min(5X1 2X2 + 0S1 + 0S2);
X1 + X2 S1 = 3;
2X1 + 3X2 + S2 = 5;

X j 0, j = 1,2, S j 0, j = 1,2.

105

:
max(31 + 52);
1 + 22 5;
1 + 32 2;
1 + 02 0;
01 + 2 0.
1,2 .
, :
max(31 + 52);
1 + 22 5;
1 + 32 2;
1 0, 2 0.
4.4. :

max(5X1 + 6X2);
X1 + 2X2 = 5;
X1 + 5X2 3;
4X1 + 7X2 8.
X1 , X2 0.
:
max(5 X 1' 5 X 1'' + 6X2 + 0S1 + 0S2);

X 1' X 1'' + 2X2 = 5;


X 1' + X 1'' + 5X2 S1 = 3;
4 X 1' 4X 1'' + 7X2 + S2 = 8;
X 1' , X 1'' 0, X 2 0, S j 0, j = 1,2.
:
min(51 + 32 + 83);
1 2 + 43 5;
1 + 2 43 5;
21 + 52 + 73 6;
01 2 + 03 0;
01 + 02 + 3 0.
1,2,3 .
,
, 2 3 . :
min(51 + 32 + 83);
1 2 + 43 = 5;
21 + 52 + 73 6;
1 ;
2 0, 3 0.
, , , .

106

4.2.

max f ( x ) = ( C, x )


min g ( y) = ( y ,b)

Ax = b
x0

yA

4.1. x , y , -

f ( x) g( y) .
*

(4.12)

4.2. x , y
*

f ( x ) = g ( y ) , x , y .
4.3. () , () ,

max f ( x ) = min g ( y ) .

(4.13)
() , ()
.
*

4.4. x , y
,
*

x ( y A C) = 0 .

(4.14)

(4.14) .
1.
:
*

y ( A x b) = 0
*

x ( y A C) = 0

(4.15)

2. ,
:
m

j* > 0,

ij

yi* = C j ,

i =1

a
j =1

ij

x *j < bi , yi* = 0,
n

yi* > 0,

a
j =1

a y

ij i

ij

(4.16)

x *j = bi ,

> C j , j* = 0.

i =1

4.4.

107



4.5. :
min(2x 1 + 4x 2 );

3x 1 + x 2 3;
4 x 1 + 3x 2 6;

(4.17)

x 1 + 2 x 2 3;
x 1, 2 0.
*

x = (3 / 2; 0), minf ( x ) = 3 . ,
(4.17), 4.4. (4.17) :
max(3y1 + 6 y 2 + 3y 3 );

3y1 + 4 y 2 + y 3 2;

(4.18)

y1 + 3y 2 + 2 y 3 4;
y1, 2 0, y 3 0.

(4.16). 1* = 3/2 > 0, 31* + 42* + 3* = 2. ,


31* + 2* = 9/2 + 0 > 3, 1* = 0, 1* + 22* = 3/2 + 0 < 3, 3* = 0. :
31* + 42* + 3* = 2, 1* = 3* = 0,
*

.. y = (0; 1/ 2; 0) (4.18) 4.4.


*

g ( y ) = 6 1 / 2 = 3 = f ( x ) , 4.3.
4.6. .


=
5
+
12
+
4
max f (x )
1
2
3
min g( y ) = 10Y1 + 8Y2
1 +22 +3 10
Y1 +2Y2 = 5
21 2 + 33 = 8
2Y1 Y2 12
2,3 0
Y1 + 3Y2 4
Y1 0
1
2

()
()
()
()

, ..
(. 4.1).
2
4

3
2
1

()
b
()

0
1

-1

-3

()

-2

. 4.1

108

6
A

7
B

. 4.1,
Q , Y1 + 2Y2 = 5, . 10Y1 + 8Y2 = const
, b = (10; 8), , g ( y ) . , :
Y1 + 2 Y2 = 5,
2 Y1 Y2 = 12,

Y1 = 29/5; Y2 = -2/5 g (Y ) = 54

4
.
5

4.4, . Y1 > 0 Y 2 < 0,


:
1 + 22 + 33 = 10;
21 2 + 33 = 8.
(4.19)
(29/5 6/5 = 24/5 > 4), X 3 = 0. (4.19),

X 1 = 26/5; X 2 = 12/5; X 3 = 0; f( X ) = 54,8.


-

:
max f ( x ) = ( C, x );

A x b;
x 0, b 0 .

(4.20)

:
min g( y) = ( y, b );

yA ;
y 0.

(4.21)

, (4.20) . :

X N ( s ) = BS1 b ; y = C N ( S ) BS1 ,

BS1

a 1(Sn)+1 ... a 1(Sn)+ m

(S )
(S )
= ...
... ...
= ( a n +1 , , a n + m )
a (S )

(S )
mn +1 ... a mn + m

, BS . BS1 K ( S )
K ( 0 ) .
, ,
109

(nS+)i = y i , i = 1, m ,

(4.22)

, i- y i (n + i)-
- K ( S ) , , j-
- K ( S ) ( j = 1, n )
:
n

( jS ) = ( y , a j ) C j = aij y i C j , j = 1, n .

(4.23)

j =1

4.7. :

max (41 + 2 + 23 + 34);


1 +22 + 33 5 + 7 = 50;
32 +3 + 4 +25 + 47 = 10;
42 + 5 + 6 1/2 7 = 24;
X j 0,
j = 1,7 .

(4.24)

, (4.24).

(0)

2 3 0 1 0
1 50
1

= 0 3 1 1
2 0
4 10
0
4 0 0
1 1 1 / 2 24

(4.24) -, (4.24)
-. :

( s)

C N (s )

1
4
6

4
3
0

i ( 0 )

1
4
2

4
3
1

j (1)

X N (S )

a1

( s)

a2

( s)

(s )
3

a4

( s)

a5

( s)

a6

( s)

a7( 5 )

50
10
24
( x ) = 230
38
28
6

1
0
0
0
1
0
0

2
3
4
2
0
0
1

3
1
0
13
3
1
0

0
1
0
0
0
1
0

1
2
1
2
3/2
11/4
1/4

0
0
1
0
1/2
3/4
1/4

1
4
1/2
16
5/4
29/8
1/8

f ( x ) = 242

13

5/2

1/2

63/4

(4.24).

(1)

= (1, 4, 2); X N (1) = (38, 28, 6),

X = (38, 6, 0, 28, 0, 0, 0); f( X ) = 242.

110

( s)
25

, (4.24):
min(50Y1 + 10Y2 +24Y3);
Y1 4;
2Y1 3Y2 + 4Y3 1;
3Y1 + Y2 + 2.
Y2 3;
Y1 +2Y2 + Y3 0;
Y3 0;
Y1 + 4Y2 1/2 Y3 0.
Y 13 .

(4.25)

(4.26)

(4.27)

(4.27) , , .
(4.25)

y =C N
(4.22):

(1 )

1
1 =

1 0 1 / 2

(4, 3, 1) 0 1
3 / 4 = (4, 3, 1/2)
0 0 1/ 4

1
y = (11) + C 1 , (41) + C 4 , (61) + C 6 = (0 + 4, 0 + 3, 1 + 0) = (4, 3, );
2
2
1

g ( y ) = 504 + 103 + 24 = 242.


2

4.3. Ms Excel
MS Excel , :

. 4.2

111

Excel, ,
, (. 4.3).

. 4.3

.
, , , , :
max f ( X )=7,5X1+3X2+6X3+12X4 ( )

2X1 + X2 + 0,53 + 44 2400


X1 + 5X2 + 33 1200
3X1 + 6X3 + 4 2000
X1,2,3,4 0

Excel, . 4.4.

112

. 4.4.

(. 4.5).

. 4.5.

( ) ,
.
113

4 F4 Excel (
), .., ,
. , ,
( ).
.
. , 7,5X1 + 3X2 + 6X3 + 12X4 (7, 5, 3, 6, 12) (1, 2, X3, X4).
Excel ,
. H5 ,
,
( , 5:F5), ,
1, 2, X3, X4 ( 4:F4) (. 4.6).

. 4.6.

: . , 2X1 + X2 + 0,53 + 44 ( 2X1 + X2 + 0,53 + 44 2400) (2, 1, 0,5, 4)


(1, 2, X3, X4).
, (G9), . 9:F9 C4:F4 (. 4.7).

114

. 4.7

,
.
. 4.8.

. 4.8

115



.
. :
)
H5;
) , ..
;
)
4:F4;
) , , , (. 4.9);

. 4.9

)
G9, ( ,
<=), I9 (. 4.10);

. 4.10

) ,
.
, (. 4.11).

116

. 4.11

,
,
, 6) (. 4.12).

. 4.12.

, ,
(. 4.13).

117

. 4.13.

,
,
. , . (. 4.14).

. 4.14.


(. 4.15), , ( , , / ..).

. 4.15.

118

. 4.16

, :

. 4.17

119

. 4.18

Ms Excel :

. 4.19

. 4.20

,
:
120

. 4.21

, :

. 4.22

,
, .

121

. 4.23

Excel.
, .
:
1.

. 4.24

122

2.

. 4.25

3.

. 4.26

, , .
) , :
max f ( X ) = 7,5X1 + 3X2 + 6X3 + 12X4 ( )

2X1 + X2 + 0,53 + 44 2400


X1+5X2+33 1200
3X1+6X3+4 2000
X1, 2, 3, 4 0
123


. 4.27

. 4.28

124

) , :
max f ( X ) = 7,5X1 + 3X2 + 6X3 + 12X4 ( )

2X1 + X2 + 0,53 + 44 2400


X1 + 5X2 + 33 1200
3X1 + 6X3 + 4 = 2000
X1, 2, 3, 4 0
:

. 4.29

. 4.30

125

4.4. MS EXCEL
(, , , D) . , .
.
MS EXCEL :
1. .
:
max g ( X ) = 2400Y1 + 1200Y2 + 2000Y3

2Y1 + Y2 + 3Y3 7,5


Y1 + 5Y2 3
0,5Y1 + 3Y2 + 6Y3 6
4Y1 + Y3 12
Y1,2,3,4 0

( ):

. 4.31

126



( ):

. 4.32

2. , .
( ):

. 4.33

127



():

. 4.34

, , . , .
, , ,
Y1 = 2,813 ( ).
Excel .
, .
, . , ().
, .
3. ,
,
, .

128

. 4.35

:
2400 2193,33 b1 2400 + 5840
1200 485,106 b2 1200 + 10966,66
2000 1460 b3 2000 + 950
206,67 b1 8240
714,894 b2 12166,66
540 b3 2950
4. (), . ?

129



( . ):

. 4.36

Y1 = 2,813, Y2 = 0,037 Y3 = 0,747 ( )


: 2 2,813 + 1 0,037 + 3 0,747 = 7,904564315352,
(7,5) 0,404564315352,
( ). .
,
; >0, .
5. ?
(. ):

. 4.37

130

( )
, ,
.
. , ,
0,404564315352.
6. ,
?
():

. 4.38

( ).
, , . , .
, , ,
Y1 = 2,813.
. , . , ().
, .
7. Z .
)
:
g ( y1 * ) = 2400 y1 * + (1200 + 100) y2 * + 2000 y3 * =g ( y * ) + 100 y2 * =

= g ( y * ) + 0,037344 100 = 8290,456 + 3,7344 = 8294,19087.


)
131

:
- ():

0,248963 0,04979

X1* = B -1 b = 0,024896 0,195021


0,04149 0,008299

0,004149 2400 541,0788382



0,09959 1300 = 114,1078838 ;


0,165975 2000 243,153527

Ms Excel :

. 4.41

. 4.42

132

. 4.43

8. , .
) , b
:
206,67 b1 8240
714,894 b2 12166,66
540 b3 2950

f = b1 y1 * + b2 y * + b3 y *
, = (2000, 1500, 2000) ,
f = (2000 2400) y1 * +(1500 1200) y2 * +(2000 2000) y3 * = 400 y1 + 300 y2 + 0 y3 *
) , . . , = (2000, 600, 2000) , ,
, :

133

. 4.42

. 4.43

134

. 4.44

9. , .
:

. 4.45

0 1 0,405
0,191 2 7,5
0,956 3 67,8
0,878 4 0,75
,
( - ),
7,905, .

135

10. ,
?
() .
:
2Y1 + Y2 + 3Y3 7,5.
:

. 4.46

, 7,5 7,905.
, ,
, .
:
2Y1 + Y2 + 3Y3 7,5.
:
(2 1)2,813 + (1 2) 0,037 + (3 3) 0,747 = 7,5.
.
, 2 =3 =0, :
2 1 =7,5/2,813
1 = 0,6661 , ..
2 2 0,6661 = 1,339,
.
11. ,
20%?

136

. 4.47

( ) ,
:

f = b1 y1 + b2 y + b3 y ,
8290,456*0,2= b1 y1 + b2 y + b3 y .
.
b1 = b2 = b3 = 1658,091 /( y1 + y2 + y3 )

b1 = b2 = b3 = 1658,091 /(2,813 + 0,037 + 0,747) = 460,965


b1 = 2400 + 460,965 = 2860,965
b2 = 1200 + 460,965 = 1660,965
b3 = 2000 + 460,965 = 2460,965


1. ,
, .
2. .
3. - ?
4. 4 ( )?

137

13
MS Excel ( 15, 610).
15. (A, B, C, D)
. , .

.
, .
,
,
, .
, . ?

?
,
?

Z .
,
-.
, .
,
?
, 20%?
1.


A
B
C
D
I
2
1
0,5
4
2400
II
1
5
3
0
1800
III
3
6
3
2000
7,5
3
6
12
( c )
Z = 500,

= (2000, 1500, 2000)

2.

I
II
III
( c )

A
1
2
3
7,5


B
C
1
0,5
3
3
5
3
4
Z = 300, = (1500, 2000, 2000)

138

D
4
0
1
12


4500
1200
2300

3.

I
II
III
( c )

A
4,5
1
10,5


B
C
1
0,5
5
3
10
6
3
6

D
4
2,6
1
12


2400
820
2000

Z = 700, = (2000, 2880, 1500)


4.

I
II
III
( c )

A
2
1,5
3
9


B
C
1
3,5
5
3
2
6
3
5,6

D
4
7
1
12


2600
2200
1000

Z = 450, = (2000, 1500, 700)


5.

I
II
III
( c )

A
2
1
3
13


B
C
1
0,5
5
3
6
3
11

D
4
0
1
8,5


2700
3200
1500

Z = 500, = (1000, 2500, 500)


610. ,
1 . , 2 . 3 . . , 1 , . 1 .
, .
, ,
.
. .

?
, .

Z .?
, .
, .

139

1 ?
, 10%?
6.

A
B
C
1 ()

,
1
1
2
3
4
10
5
7
4
10
13
20
7
12
5
9
11
12
10

r
B = (400, 180, 200); Z = 70

7.

A
B
C
1 ()

,
1
1
2
3
4
12
5
8
3
4
13
22
7
17
4,5
11
9
12
10

r
B = (400, 180, 200); Z = 30

8.

A
B
C
1 ()

,
1
1
2
3
4
10
7
4,5
20
14
15
6
7
12
5
9
11
12
17

r
B = (400, 180, 200); Z = 110

9.

A
B
C
1 ()

140

,
1
1
2
3
4
10,5
5
7
4
10
13
20
12
5
16
15
12
20

r
B = (400, 180, 200); Z = 60

10.

A
B
C
1 ()

,
1
1
2
3
4
10
5
7
6
7
8
9
20
7
12
9
11
12
10

r
B = (400, 180, 200); Z = 30

141

142

5.


-.
, :
;
;

, .
,
.
, ; , . , , , .
, , , . , ,
, .
, .
, (, ,
), , (
) .
()
(1) (2) .
, ,
, . , , ,
. , () ,
.

143

. ,
, ( ) ,
.

5.1.
()
5.1:

F( X ) = 3x1 + 2x2 max

x1 + x2 3,5;
x1 2;
x2 2;
x1, 2 0, .

,
1 2.
-1. . 5.1 -1.

x2

x1* = (2;1,5)
1

x1

. 5.1. -1

-1 : 1 = 2, 2 = 1,5, *

F( X 1 ) = 9. 2 ,
.
*

F( X 1 ) , 2 F( X ) .
2, 1,5. -1
x2 1, 2 2. , -1 (-2 -3):

144

-2

-3

F( X ) = 3x1 + 2x2 max


F( X ) = 3x1 + 2x2 max


x1 + x2 3,5
x1 + x2 3,5
x1 2
x1 2
x2 2
x2 2
2 2
x2 1
x1, 2 0.
x1, 2 0.
. 5.2 5.3 -2 -3 .
(, -3 ).

x2* = (2;1)

. 5.2. -2

x2
x 3* = (1,5;2)

. 5.3. -3

X1
*

-2 (. 5.2) 1 = 2, 2 = 1, F( X 2 ) = 8.
, () .
. Z0 = 8. -2
, 8. , Z0 = 8 F ( X ) . , 9,
, -2 . , -3.
*

-3 (. 5.3): 1 = 1,5; 2 = 2; F( X 3 ) = 8,5. , 1 145

. F( X 3 ) = 8,5 -3

Z0

= 8,

-3 , F ( X ) > 8.
-4 -5, -3
1 1 1 2 .
-4
-5
F( X ) = 3x1 + 2x2 max

F( X ) = 3x1 + 2x2 max


x1 + x2 3,5
x1 2
x2 2
2 2
x1 1
x1, 2 0.

x1 + x2 3,5
x1 2
x2 2
2 2
1 2
x1, 2 0.

-4 , . 5.4;
-5 .
x2
x * = (1;2)

X1
. 5.4. -4
*

-4 : 1 = 1, 2 = 2; F( X 4 ) = 7, , -3 *

7. F( X 4 ) ,

Z0

= 8 . , 1 = 2, 2 = 1 ( -2)

;
Z 0 = 8.
,
, , . 5.5
.

146

-1
x2 1

X 2* = (2; 1)

x2 2

-2

-3

X 3* = (1,5; 2)
*

F( X 2 ) = 8 = Z 0

F( X 3 ) = 8,5 > Z 0
x1 1

X 4* = (1; 2)

X 1* = (2; 1,5) F( X 1* ) = 9

-4

x1 2

-5

P=

F( X 4 ) = 7 < Z 0
. 5.5

, . 1 . 5.5 -1, . 1,
2 2 1, 2
(-2). -2 , 2. ,
. 1 2 2 -3 (*

3). -3 F( X 3 ) >

Z 0 , -

3 1. , 4 5. ,
-4 , -5 .

.

:
F( X )= ( C , X ) max ;
AX =b , b 0 ;
X 0;
xj j I,
I .
, .
-1,
F( X 1* ). -1 ; 147

-1. F( X 1* ) .
, -1. , .
xj,
-1 x *j . ,
-2 -3.

x j [ x *j ] x j [ x *j ] + 1 . -2 -3 :
-2
F( X )= ( C , X ) max

-3
F( X )= ( C , X ) max

AX =b , b 0

AX = b , b 0

x j [ x *j ]

x j [ x *j ] + 1

X 0

X 0

, -2 -3
.
-2 -3
, . ( ) , .. ,
.

, , .
. Z0 .
( ),
F( X * ) . ,
,
, , , ,
( ) (
) , .
1. , , .
2. , ,
.
3. F( X * ) Z0.
,
F( X * ) > Z0.
148

Z0, (.. Z0).



,
. Z0 .
:
, .

5.2.
n , 1, 2,..., n.
(i, j) (, ) C(i,j) 0 .
C(i, j) C(j, i). , - ,
. , .

n . C(i, j) i j. , .
: x ij = 1, i- j-; x ij = 0 . x ij , :
n

c
i =1 j =1

ij

xij min

(5.1)

ij

= 1, i = 1, K m ( j);

(5.2)

ij

= 1,

(5.3)

i =1
n

j =1

j = 1, K n ( i);

u i u j + n xij n 1 (i j);

(5.4)

xij = {0,1}, u i 0 , , i = 1, ..., m, j = 1, ..., n.

(5.5)

(5.4) , .

= {(i1 , i 2 ), (i 2 , i 3 ), , (i n -1 , i n ), (i n , i1 )} .

149

,
.
(i, j) . F()
C(i, j). , X (n-1)! .
C = (C ij ) nn .
(i,i), C(i, i) = + (i = 1,, n).
Pi = min C ij , j = (1, K n), Q j = min C ij Pi , i = (1, K n );

{ }

C ij = C ij Pi Q j .
C = (C ij ) nn .
d(X) =

i =1

j =1

Pi + Q j .

x = {(i1 i2 ), (i2 i3 ), K , (in 1 in ), (in i1 )} X

F() = C (i1 , i2 ) + C (i2 , i3 ) + ... + C (in , i1 ) =


= C (i1 , i2 ) + C (i2 , i3 ) + ... + C (in , i1 ) + d(X) d(X)

(5.6)

(5.6) , d(X) .
, d(X) , , , , .

,
, .
(. 5.6).

. 5.6.

1
. X 11 X 21 .
150

X 11 1,
(r, s), X 21 1, (r,s).
, 1 X 11 , (r, s), , 1 X 21 , ( r, s ) .
1 , 1. (r, s). d ( X 11 ) ,
d ( X 21 ) ,
X 11 . d ( X 11 )
(,),

1 (,) = 0,

(5.7)

X 11 (,).

d ( X 21 ) , (5.7), ,

( , ) = min C 1 ( , ) + min 1 ( , )
:

, ..

( r , s ) =

max

{( , )}.

, :C 1 ( , ) = 0

, ( , ) 1, (,), ( , ) ,
, (,).

21 11
:

C 1 (i, j ), (i, j ) (r , s ),
21 (i, j ) =
(i, j ) = (r , s ).
+
21 21
.
(r , s) ,

d ( X 21 ) = d(1) + (r , s)
F(x) X 21 .
X 11 . (r,s). ,
151

1 (r,s). m t ( , m = r t = s, ). , m, 11 (t,m) = +.
11 1 ,
, r, , s,
11 , X 11 (r,s).
11 X 11 11 . F(x)
X 11

d ( X 11 ) = d(1) + ,
.


d ( X i1 ) (i = 1,2) ,
X i1 .
i1 , +, X i1 , d ( X i1 ) .
( F(x))
Z0 d ( X i1 ) , ..

Z0 = min {Z0, d ( X i1 ) }.
X i1 d ( X i1 )

Z0, X i1 . , Z0.
5.2.

10 25 25 10

1 10 15 2

C = 8 9 20 10

14 10 24 15

10 8 25 27

x0 = {(1,2), (2,3), (3,4), (4,5), (5,1)}.


F(x0) = 10 + 10 + 20 + 15 + 10 = 65 Z0 (
).
.
152

0 0 6 3 0


1 0 0 2 1
2 0 1 0 2=


5 4 0 5 5

2 0 8 7

10 25 25 10 10 0 15 15

1 10 15 2 1 0 9 14
C = 8 9 20 10 8 0 1 12

14 10 24 15 10 4 0 14
10 8 25 27 8 2 0 17 19

9 12 0

d(x) = 10 + 1 + 8 + 10 + 8 + 9 + 12 = 58.
. ,

. , ,
58. ,
, 58 F(x*) 65.
(r,s) (,).

(1,2) = 0, (2,1) = 0, (3,1) = 0, (4,2) = 4, (1,5) = 1, (2,3) = 5, (3,4) = 2, (5,2) = 2.


, (r,s) = (2,3). (). X2 , (2,3).
C2 (2,3) = +.

C2

0 6 3 0 0

0 2 1 0
= 0 1 0 20

4 0 5 5 0

2 0 8 7 0

0 6 3 0

0 2 1
0 1 0 2

4 0 5 5

2 0 8 7

0 1 3 0

0 2 1
0 1 0 2 = C2 .

4 0 0 5

2 0 3 7

0 0 5 0 0
X2 :
d(X2) = d(X) + (2,3) = 58 + 5 = 63 < Z0.

X1 ,
(2,3), C1 . . C1 (3,2) = +, {(2,3),(3,2)}.
1

1 0 3 0

3 0 0 2
C1 =
= 1 .
4 4 0 5

5 2 0 7
:
d(X1) = d(X) + = 58 + 0 = 58 < Z0,
1
153

X1 X2. d(X1) < d(X2),


X1. (r,s)
(,) .

(1,2) = 0, (1,5) = 2, (3,1) = 2, (3,4) = 3, (4,2) = 4, (5,2) = 2.


, (r,s) = 4, (r,s) = (4,2).
:

1 0 3 0 0 1 0 3 0

3 0 0 2 0 3 0 0 2
C4 =

= 4 .
4 4 5 4 4 0 1

5 2 0 7 0 5 2 0 7
0 0 0 0
:

d(X4) = d(X1) + (4,2) = 58 + 4 = 62 < Z0.


. X3 ,
(4,2), C3
. . C3 (3,4) = +, {(4,2),(2,3),(3,4)}.

1 3 0 0 3 0 1 0 0

C3 = 3 0 2 0 0 2 3 0 2 = 3 .
5 2 7 2 0 5 5 0 2
0 3 0
d(X3) = d(X1) + = 58 + 5 = 63 < Z0.
X3, X4, X2.
X4, , X4.
(r,s) (,) 4 .

(1,2) = 0, (1,5) = 1, (3,1) = 0, (3,4) = 3, (4,1) = 1, (5,2) = 2.


, (r,s) = 3, (r,s) = (3,4).
154

1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0

3 0 2 3 0 2
C6 =

= 6 .
4 0 1 4 0 1

5 2 0 7 5 2 0 4
:

d(X6) = d(X4) + (3,4) = 62 + 3 = 65 = Z0.


, X6 .
. X5 ,
(3,4), C5
. . C5 (4,2) = +, {(2,3), (3,4), (4,2)},
.

1 0 0

C5 = 4 0 1 = 5 .
5 2 0
:

d(X5) = d(X4) + = 62 + 0 = 62 < Z0.


X3, X5, X2.
X5, , X5. (r,s)
(,) 5 .

(1,2) = 0, (1,5) = 1, (4,1) = 3, (5,2) = 2.


, (r,s) = 3, (r,s) = (4,1).
:

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

C8 = 4 1 1 0 4 0 = 8 .
5 2 0 0 2 0 5 0 0
2 0 0
:

d (X8) = d(X5) + (4,1) = 62 + 3 = 65 = Z0.


155

, X8 .
. X7 ,
(4,1), C7
. . C7 (1,2) = +, {(2,3), (3,4), (4,1), (1,2)}.

2 5
1 0
= 7 .
5 0

C7 =

d(X7) = d(X5) + = 62 + 0 = 62 < Z0.


X3, X7, X2. X7
, .
X1 = {(1,5)(5,2)(2,3), (3,4), (4,1)} = X*;

Z0= F(x*) = 10 + 8 + 10 + 20 + 14 = 62.


(. . 5.7).

. 5.7.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
156

.
.
.

?
.
?
.
?

9. .
10. .

14
.
1. max(3x1 + 4x2)
4x1 + 5x2 20
x1 + 6x2 12
0 x1 5
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

2. max(3x1 + 4x2)
x1 + 7x2 21
x1 + x2 4
0 x1 4
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

3. max(x1 + x2)
3x1 + 4x2 12
3x1 + 2x2 9
0 x1 4
0 x2 2
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

4. max(4x1 + x2)
2x1 - 3x2 6
4x1 + 9x2 18
0 x1 2
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

5. max(3x1 + x2)
4x1 + 3x2 18
x1 + 2x2 6
0 x1 5
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

6. max(x1 + 2x2)
x1 + x2 5
3x1 + 8x2 24
0 x1 5
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

7. max(2x1 + x2)
5x1 + 2x2 30
3x1 + 8x2 48
0 x1 6
0 x2 6
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

8. max(3x1 - 2x2)
2x1 + 3x2 6
x1 - x2 2
0 x1 3
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

9. max(3x1 + 2x2)
2x1 + x2 7
4x1 + 3x2 18
0 x1 3
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

10. max(x1 + 2x2)


5x1 + 9x2 45
x1 + 3x2 12
0 x1 9
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .
157

158

11. max(2x1 + 5x2)


4x1 + 5x2 20
x1 + 6x2 12
0 x1 6
0 x2 5
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

12. max(4x1 + 6x2)


3x1 + 7x2 21
x1 + x2 4
0 x1 5
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

13. max(2x1 + 3x2)


3x1 + 4x2 12
3x1 + 2x2 9
0 x1 6
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

14. max(5x1 + 2x2)


2x1 - 3x2 6
4x1 + 9x2 18
0 x1 3
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

15. max(4x1 + 2x2)


4x1 + 3x2 18
x1 + 2x2 6
0 x1 6
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

16. max(2x1 + 5x2)


x1 + x2 5
3x1 + 8x2 24
0 x1 4
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

17. max(3x1 + 2x2)


5x1 + 2x2 30
3x1 + 8x2 48
0 x1 7
0 x2 6
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

18. max(5x1 - 3x2)


2x1 + 3x2 6
x1 - x2 2
0 x1 3
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

19. max(4x1 + 3x2)


2x1 + x2 7
4x1 + 3x2 18
0 x1 4
0 x2 4
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

20. max(x1 + 3x2)


5x1 + 9x2 45
x1 + 3x2 12
0 x1 8
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

21. max(4x1 + 4x2)


4x1 + 5x2 20
x1 + 6x2 12
0 x1 6
0 x2 5
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

22. max(3x1 + 3x2)


3x1 + 7x2 21
x1 + x2 4
0 x1 4
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

23. max(2x1 + 3x2)


3x1 + 4x2 12
3x1 + 2x2 9
0 x1 4
0 x2 2
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

24. max(5x1 + x2)


2x1 - 3x2 6
4x1 + 9x2 18
0 x1 2
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

25. max(4x1 + x2)


4x1 + 3x2 18
x1 + 2x2 6
0 x1 5
0 x2 3
x1 , x2 0
x1 , x2 .

15
:

19
25
1.
5
24

34

31

43
50
24
26

15 19 8 55

22 31 7 35
53 57 16

49 39 9
33 5 14
6 3 36

37
10
2.
38
27

33

19

50
39
9
48

25
26

24
32
60

11 2 55

58 21 43
39 22 3

38 45
9 2
53 1

19
57
3.
5
33

19

16

51
40
41
54

13
29

32
28
24

35
31
44

3
10

41
26
51
14

41

52

18
7

16
53

30
54
4.
19
29

16

39

16
36
8
47

45
20

25
8
31

2
33
55

12
14

51
40
22
18

33

35
56

43
25

42
36
5.
46
48

26

41

5
24
58
50

27
11

59
11
35

54
32
33

44
19

46
58
22
49

27

21
33

59
47

58
22
6.
25
47

44

21

12
47
43
49

40
11

51
18
50

28
39
23

42
29

60
22
14
20

52

52

56
19

54
52

159

34
29
7.
26
38

60

31
34
35
25

56
46

12
40
59

35
46
32

13
36

4 39 22 10

58 56 18 4
34 29 17 57
9.
52 4 22 15
41 44 25 11

11 6 19 2 58

9
25
11.
5
14

34

160

21

43
50
24
26

29

26
42

7
47

48
55
13
17

31

47

35
18

37
32

15 19 8 55

12 31 7 35
43 47 16

49 29 9
33 5 14
6 3 26

34
45
8.
39
35

22

33
7
56
20

26
12

16
40
36

56
51
44

58
31

38
37
47
57

18

60

27
37

8
27

48
57
10.
30
18

14

85
50
42
38

40
34

44
24
31

33
4
24

31
19

16
11
38
9

32

17
10
12.
28
27

43

10

50
29
9
48

15
16

24
32
40

11
18
39

9
43

2 55

21 13
22 3

28 25
2
21

51

24
52

31
30

19
57
13.
5
33

19

16

51
40
41
54

13
29

32
28
24

35
31
44

3
10

41
26
51
14

41

52

18
7

16
53

30
24
14.
19
19

16

49

26
36
18
47

45
20

25
18
31

42
33
25

12
14

41
40
22
18

43

35
26

43
25

42
36
15.
46
28

26

31

5
24
28
50

37
11

59
21
35

34
32
33

24
19

36
58
22
49

27

35

21
33

59
27

48
22
16.
15
47

34

41

22
17
43
39

40
41

11
18
30

48
49
23

42
39

40
42
24
10

32

42

46
19

14
52

34
29
17.
26
38

40

16

31
34
35
45

16
46

12
40
49

15
46
32

13
46

18
55
13
17

41

19

26
42

7
47

34
45
18.
39
35

29

22

33
37
56
20

26
12

36
40
36

26
51
44

58
31

28
37
47
37

18

30

27
37

38
27

58
34
19.
52
41

11

24

29
54
44
26

29
56

52
25
29

22
18
17

11
22

20
4
57
55

28

27

35
18

37
32

38
57
20.
30
18

21

14

85
40
42
38

40
34

44
24
31

33
34
24

31
19

16
31
38
49

32

51

34
52

41
30

19
25
21.
35
24

34

31

43
50
24
26

15
22

49
33
36

19
31
53

35
33

8
37
57
39

36

55

35
16

9
14

9 5 11

37 26 58
10 50 39
22.
8 9 14
27 9 32 9

33 48 60 53

2 5

21 43
22 3

18 15
2
21

19
57
23.
25
33

19

36

51
20
41
54

33
29

22
28
24

35
31
44

23
10

41
26
51
24

41

32

18
7

26
53

30
54
24.
19
29

16

11
40
22
18

18

42
36
25.
46
48

26

51

35
24
58
20

57
11

59
11
35

54
32
33

44
29

46
58
32
49

27

55

21
33

59
47

19

16
36
28
17

15
20

25
28
11

12
33
55

22
14

13

35
56

43
25

161

162

6.
,

,
3 4.
, :
;
,
.

.
.
(, ) (, ). , , , , ,
. , , .
, -, .
.
( )
. ,
.
.

6.1.

, m i i(i = 1, ..., m) , n j bj(j = 1,..., n) . ij i- j- .
, , .
ij , i-
j- . i- j- ij , ijxij.

163

:
m

Z = c ij xij .
i=1 j=1

:
) , ..
n

= a i , i = 1... m ,

ij

j=1

) , ..
m

= b j , j = 1..n .

ij

i=1

, :

m

Z = c ij xij ;

(6.1)

i=1 j=1

ij

= ai ,

ij

= b j , j = 1.... n

(6.3)

xij 0, i = 1,, m; j = 1,, n.

(6.4)

i = 1.... m;

(6.2)

j=1
m

x
i=1

, , ..
m

i=1

j=1

ai = b j .

(6.5)

, , ..
(6.5), ; . :
)
m

i=1

j=1

ai > b j ;
)
m

a < b
i

i=1

j=1

,
.
:
m

Z = c ij xij .
i=1 j=1


164

,

n

ij

ai ,

i = 1..m

j=1

( )

ij

= b j , j = 1..n , x ij 0

i=1
n

ij

= ai ,

i = 1..m

j=1

( )

ij

b j , j = 1..n , x ij 0

i=1

.
, , n + 1, :
m

i=1

j=1

b n+1 = a i b j .
, , m + 1, :
n

j=1

i=1

a m+1 = b j a i .
, ,
.
n + m mn .
= (ij)m,n, (6.2) (6.4), (ij-).
*, (6.1) ,
.
6.1. ,
:
m

i=1

j=1

ai = b j .
,
Pij (i = 1... m, j = 1 n), Pij ij (i = 1 m, j = 1 n) (6.2) (6.4).
6.2. , m + n 1 -

, Pij , (ij > 0), .

165

, m + n 1 . (m + n 1) ,
. .
, .


-
.
:
1)
11 = min (a1, b1).
:
) a1 < b1, 11 = 1 , , ;
) a1 > b1, 11 = b1,
;
) a1 = b1, 11 = 1 = b1,
.
2) k , ( k ) - .
.
x ( + = k + ) .
(k)
(k)
x = min(a , b ),

-1

-1

a = a x j b = b x i .
(k)

j=1

(k)

i=1

(k)
(k)
a < b , - ( + 1) - .

- .

- ,
= (ij)m,n. -

.
: , , 0.
ij0.
ij0 = min(ai, bj).
:
) min(ai, bj) = ai, i- ;
) min(ai, bj) = bj, j- ;
) i = bj, .
.
(k)
k- x .
166

,

(k)
(k)
(k)
x = min(a , b ) ,

-1

(g)
a (k)
g = 1..k - 1
= a x j
j=1

(u)
b (k)
u = 1..k - 1 .
= b x i
i=1

:
(k)
(k)
) a < b ,

(k)
= a (k)
x

(k)
(k)
( k)
(k)
) a > b , x = b ;
(k)
(k)
) a = b , .


(), ,
.
:
m n

min C ij X ij ;

(6.6)

i=1 j=1

X ij = a i

i = 1, m ;

(6.7)

X ij = b j

j = 1, n ;

(6.8)

j=1
m

i=1

X ij 0 , i = 1, m ,

j = 1, n .

(6.9)

(6.7)
Ui (i = 1,..., m) (6.8) Vj (j = 1,..., n),
n
m

max a i U i + b j Vj ;
i=1

j=1
U i + V j C ij , i = 1, m , j = 1, n .

(6.10)
(6.11)

, o, Ui Vj .
6.3. X = (Xij)m*n
() V1, V2,..., Vn U1, U2,..., Um, , :
U i + V j C j i = 1,..., m, j = 1,..., n;

U i + V j = C j , Xij > 0.
: ,
:
) ( )
167

U i + Vj = C j ;

(6.12)

) (Xij = 0)

(6.13)
U i + V j C ij .
, .
U i + V j = C j , Xij > 0.

. m + n 1 ,
m + n 1 - (6.12) Ui Vj.
, ,
( Ui) .
.


(6.13), .. ,
. Ui + Vj Cij, (6.3)
. Ui + Vj > Cij,
. , , (Ui + Vj) Cij > 0.

,
,
max((Ui + Vj) Cij).


, , + , . ,
. m + n,
, , +,
, . , , +, +.
0 = min Xij, Xij , ,
. 0 , . 0 , +. , 0 , ,
, , , +. 0 ,
168

,
m + n 1.




. ,
, . ,
(6.13).
6.1. :

5
1
2
150

4
10
3
150

6
2
3
250

3 200
1 300
1 100
50
600
600

. , .
: X .
6.1
200
100

100
300

150

150
100
50
150

50
150

250

50

6 :
r = m + n 1 = 3 + 4 1 = 6.

1. (xij > 0).


, , U1 = 0 ( U1 = 0 . 6.2).
6.2
Vj

V1 = 5

Ui

V2 = 4

V3 = 6

V4 = 2

U1 = 0

100+

100

200

U2 = 4

150

10

150+

300

U3 = 1

4 1

50

50

100

150

150

250

50
169

, (1,2) (1,3), V2 = 4 0 = 4, V3 = 6 0 = 6
( ). (2,3) U2 = 2 6 = 4,
V1 = 1 (4) = 5; U3 = 3 4 = 1; V4 = 2.
. (3,1) (3,3) :
U3 + V1 = 4 > 2,
U3 + V3 = 5 > 3,
.

31 = U3 + V1 Cij = 2 = 33,
, , (3,1), 1 .
3- , 1 , (3,2), X12 = 100, X13, X23
X21, .. :
(3,1) (3,2) (1,2) (1,3) (2,3) (2,1) (3,1).

+ .
, ,
, 1 . 1 -

: 1 = 50. 1 , , , .
. 6.3
6.3
Vj

Ui

150

50-

100-

10

200+

50+

50-

4 2

2. X(1) .
( ).
( ).
U1 + V4 = 4 > 3,
X(1) . 2 (1,4) :
(1,4) (3,4) (3,1) (2,1) (2,3) (1,3) (1,4).
2 = 50, (1,3) (3,4) . , (2) . . , .. (3,4).
. 6.4.
170

6.4
Vj
U

V1=4

U1 = 0

V2=4

U2 = -3
50

U3 = -2

100

V3=5
4

150
1

4
10

V4=3

6
2

250
3

3
50
0

3
1

3. 6.
. :
Ui +Vj Cij Xij = 0; i = 1, m; j = 1, n,
:

... 150 ... 50

X = 50 ... 250 ... f (x*) = 1500.


100 ...
... ...

6.2. :
80
60
60

7 3 4
5 7 8
3 8 2
30 70 60

. : 80 + 60 + 60 = 200 30 + 70 +
+ 60 = 160 40 ., , . () b4 = 40
c14 = c24 = c34 = 0. .
. x ( 0 ) (. 6.5).
6.5
Vj

Ui

3
7

4
3

2
4

0
10
5

70
1

20+
2

0
40

2
60

0
0

171

, 0
cij, , ().
c14 = c34 = 0, (1,4) , :
(1,4) (2,4) (2,1) (1,1) (1,4).
0 (3,4).

1. x ( 0 ) . u 1 = 0 , (. . 6.5). (
).

u1 + v 4 = 2 > 0 ;
u 3 + v1 = 5 > 3 ,
x 0 . (1,4) (3,1) : 14 = 2 0 = 2 31 = 5 3 = 2 , , , (1,4). 1 , + ; 1 = 10 .
. 6.6.

6.6
Vj

Ui
0

2
3

0
4

70
5

10
7

30
5

0
0
30+

2
60

0
0

2. (. . 6.6). . (3,1):

31 = 5 3 = 2 > 0 .
2 ,

2 = 0 . x ( 2 ) 6.7.
3. , x ( 2 )
(. 6.7).

172

6.7
Vj

Ui
0

3
7

4
3

0
4

70
5

10
7

30

30
3

-2

60

480 x * = (0, 70, 0, 30, 0, 0, 0, 0, 60) .


, 10 . ,
30 . .
6.3. :

6
6
1
4 80
12

6
5 320
150
5
4
3
250 100 150 50
A2 B2, A3 B4 , .
:
80 + 320 + 150 = 550 = 250 + 100 + 150 + 50.
, > 0. - , .
-
, ( ). .
.
x 0 (. 6.8).

1. (.
. 6.8).

173

6.8
Vj

10 M

Ui
10-M

2
6

1
6

7M
1

7-M

80
8

M2

250
12-M

M-1

4
80+

(2,3)

20
5

6
50
3

9-M

70

u2 + v3 = M 2 + 1 > 6 ,

.. x ( 0) . 1 . 1 = 20 . x 1 . 6.9.

2. x 1 .
u i + v j c ij ,
x 1
.
6.9
Vj

v1 = 3

Ui
u1 = 0

v3 = 1
6

v4 = 0
1

80
8

u2 = 5
u3 = 2

v2 = 2

250
5

20
5

4
100

50
3

50

3000.

,

1. Ai
Bj .
, Ai Bj
.
.
2.
. , , Ai
174

Bj ij .
, Ai Bj,
ij . ,
.
3. , Ai Bj ij. , Ai Bj ij .
,
.
: ai (i = 1,..., m) bj (j = 1,..., n), , .

6.2. ,

, .


m n . i- j- pij;
i = 1,, m; j = 1,, n. j- bj, j = 1,, n.
i- ai, i = 1,, m. , .
, . , .
xij i- , j- , i = 1,, m; j = 1,, n. :
m

P=

p
i =1 j =1

ij

xij max;

x
j =1

ij

= ai, i = 1,, m;

ij

= bj, j = 1,, n;

x
i =1

i =1

j =1

ai = b j ;
xij 0, i = 1,,m; j = 1,, n.
. , , 6.1.
175

, .
, .

, .
.


. n
bj , j = 1,, n.
, m
i , i = 1,, m. i- ij j- , i = 1,, m;
j = 1,, n. ( , cij = 0, .. , cij = , .. ). , .
, . ( , 6.1).
. , . .
:
m

p
i =1 j =1

ij

xij min;

x
j =1

ij

= ai, i = 1,, m;

ij

= bj, j = 1,, n;

x
i =1

i =1

j =1

ai = b j ;
xij 0, i = 1,, m; j = 1,, n.


N . , . ,
, , . , , .
N ,
.
176

. , N. .
i; i = 1,2,. . ., N:
ci ;
di
(di > ci);
hi , i i + 1;
pi , i,
i + 1;
ar i ( ) ;
ati ( )
;
bi ( ).



.
.

.
. 6.10:
6.10
j
2
C1 + h1
d1 + h1
C2
d2

1
C1
d1

R1
T1
R2
T2
...
RN
TN

b1

b2

3
C1 + h1 + h2
d1 + h1+ h2
C2 + h2
d2 + h2

b3

...

...

N
C1 + h1 + + hN1
0
d1 + h1+ + hN1
0
C2 + h2 + + hN1
0
d2 + h2+ + hN1
0
CN
dN
bN

0
0
S

aR1
aT1
aR2
aT2
...
aRN
aTN

,
.. S =

a b
i

. , ,
, .
, , ,
.
, k , , , ..

177

b
(a Ri + a )
j =1
Ti

, k = 1, 2,..., N.

i =1

i ,
i + 1, i + 2,..., N, ,
.
1. ai,
. 2, . , N.
6.6.
( )
aTi
aRi
50
100
80
150
100
100
50
200
550
280

I
1
2
3
4

bi
( )
120
200
250
200
770

, .. ci = 2 di = 3 i.
hi = 0,1 i. :

R1
T1

1
2
100
3
20

R2
T2

2
2,1

3,1

2
150
3
50

R3
T3

3
2,2

3,2
20
2,1

3,1
30
2
100
3
100

R4
T4
120
20

178

200
50

250
150
50
20

4
2,3

3,3

2,2

3,2

2,1

3,1

2
200
3

200

0
10
0

0
50
60
10

100
50; 30; 10
150
80; 30
100
100
200
50

, . , .
:
) :
1 (120 );
1 2 ();
1 3 (20 );

1 (100 40 );
, 1 3 (20 );
, 2 3 (50 );
, 3 4 ();
) , 4 55 ,
, (50
4 5 1).


,
. ,
N- . . 6.10 ,
, .
, , pi ( )
, i, i + 1,
, (RN,1) (TN,1), : {cN + p1 + p2 + + pN1} {dN +
+p1 + p2 + + pN1} .
, .
6.5. ,
. :

1
2
3

15
15
20

10
0
15

5
10 . 1 2 . 20, 35 15 . . 2
, .

179

2
5

R1

15

T1

R2

R3

T3

3
6

10

11

12

10

20

14

12

10

10
20

35

15

0
5
0

0
5
5

15
10
15
20
15

,
. :
15 5 + 5 7 + 5 11 + 10 5 + 20 7 + 15 10 = 505 ( ).
, , .
:

U1 = 6

R1

U2 = 11

T1

U3 = 5

R2

U4 = 7

R3

U5 = 12

T3

1
V1 = 1
5
15
10
5
7

14

20

2
V2 = 0
6

11
5
5
15
7
5
12
10
35

3
V3 = 2
7

12

5
15
10

15

V4 = 12
0

0
5
0

0
5
5

15
10
15
20
15

15 5 + 5 10 + 5 11 + 15 5 + 5 7 + 10 12 + 15 5 = 485 ( ).

6.6. .
, . 100, 200, 180 300 .
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) .

180

4 . , ,
0,5 . . , , , 2 . .
. 50, 180, 280
270 .
,
.
. .

1. i
2. j
3. i
4. j
5. i j


1. i
2. j
3 j
4. j
5.
i j

6.11 . i j :

cij =

i- , i = j;
i- + i j, i < j;
i- + , i > j.

cij , i
i (i = j) . i , (i < j), , . 1-
{i>j} .
,
c11 = 4 .,
24 = 4 + (0,5 + 0,5) = 5 .,
41 = 4 + (2 + 2 + 2) = 10 .

6.11

1
2
3
4

1
4
6
8
10
100

2
4,5
4
6
8
200

3
5
4,5
4
6
180

4
5,5
5
4,5
4
300

50
180
280
270

181

6.3.
, m ( )
n . i (i = 1, ..., m), j (j = 1, ..., n),
cij. (
), .
.
, . 1, .. ai = 1 i.
1, .. bj = 1 j. ()
i j cij. -
, cij .
C :

1 c11

2 c 21
... ...

m c m1

c12
c 22
...
c m2

bj 1

...

ai

... c1n 1

... c 2 n 1
... ... ...

... c mn 1
... 1

, ,
.
m = n.
xij = 0, j- i- ,
xij = 1, j- i- .
,
X = (xij). . X = (xij)
. n n! .
:
n

F ( X ) = cij xij min ;


i =1 j =1

x
j =1

ij

= 1, i = 1,..., n ;

ij

= 1,

x
i =1

j = 1,..., n ;

xij {0,1}.

, . ,
.

182

1
2
3

1
5
14
15

2
7
10
13

3
9
12
16

.
. ,
.
, C
, :

2
5 7 95
(0) 2
0 2 4

0 (0) = C .
= 14 10 12 10 4 0 2 4

2 0 3
15 13 16 13

2 (0) 1
0

:
*
*
*
x11
= 1, x 23
= 1, x32
= 1, xij* = 0 ,

F ( X * ) = 5 + 12 + 13 = 30.
, .


1. .

. , . .
2. .
) , .
, . , ,
. .
) , .
, . , ,

183

. .
) ) ) ,
. , .
,
.
, , .. 3.
3. .
:
) ;
) ;
) ) ) , ;
) , .
2.

1) , , ,
(), .
2) ,
(1) ,
.
.
6.7. :

2 10 9 7

15 4 14 8
.
C = (cij ) =
13 14 16 11

4 15 13 19

1.
1. .
1, 2, 3 4 2, 4, 11 4 . , :

11
2

184

0 10 4
.
3 5 0

11 9 15
8

1, 2, 3 4 0, 0, 5 0 . ,
:

0 8

11 0
C =
2 3

0 11

2 5

5 4
.
0 0

4 15

2. ,
.
) 1, 2 4 .
, , (1,1), (4,1). ,
(2,2). 4 , (4,1) .
) 3 4 .
, , (3,3). 4 ,
, (3,3).
:

2 5
(0) 8

11 (0) 5 4

.
2
3 (0) 0

0 11 4 15

, , .
3. .

0 8

11 0
C =
2 3

0 11

5 4
.
0 0

4 15
2

) 1, 2, 3 4 1, 1, 2 1 .
2, 1, 1 1.
) , , 3 1.
3 .
) 1, 2 4 1, 1 1 .
2, 1, 0, 0. 1 . -

185

(2,2). 2, 2.
2 , :

11
2

8
0
3
11

2 5

5 4
.
0 0

4 15

) 2.
, , :

13
4

6
0
3
9

0 3

5 4
.
0 0

2 13

2.
2.
, :

6 (0) 3
0

13 (0) 5
4

.
4
3
0 ( 0)

(0) 9
2 13

:
*
*
*
*
x13
= 1, x 22
= 1, x34
= 1, x 41
= 1, xij* = 0 ,

F ( X * ) = 9 + 4 + 11 + 4 = 28.
6.8. .
. , . .

1. (.):

1
2
3

186

1
20
8
5

2
23
29
8

3
38
6
3

4
15
35
4

5
5
5
7

2. (.):

1
2
3

1
20
7
5

2
50
90
5

3
20
8
4

4
10
35
15

5
13
60
6

,
, :

1
2
3

35000
160000
54000

(.)
55
50
30


. , :

1
2
3

1
15
35
20

2
18
69
17

3
4
3
30
36
20
23
11

5
7
45
17

, , ,
, -. ( . .) :

1
2
3

1
525
5600
1080

2
3
4
630
105
1050
11040 5760
3200
918
1242
594

5
245
7200
918

, . ,
5760 (4 5), . :

1
2
3

1
525
5600
1080

2
3
4
630
105
1050
11040 5760
3200
918
1242
594

5
245
7200
918

187

1
2
3
4
5

1
5235
160
4680
0
0

5235
160
4680
0
0

2
6390
16800
4842
0
0

3
4
5865
4710
0
8960
4518
5166
0
0
0
0

6390
16800
4842
0
0

1.
1.

0
805
525 1680 1155

160 16800
0
8960 12960

C = 162 324
0
648
324

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
2.

805
525 1680 1155 (0)

160 16800 (0) 8960 12960


162 324
0
648
324

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3.

0
805
525 1680 1155

0
8960 12960
160 16800
162 324
0
648
324

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

188

5865
0
4518
0
0

4710
8960
5166
0
0

5
5515
12960
4842
0
0
5515
12960
4842
0
0

2.
2. 1. :
645
365 1520 1155 (0)

(0) 16640
0
8960 12800

2
164
( 0)
648
164

0
( 0)
160 160
0

0
160 160
(0)
0
:
4, 1,
3, 2, 5. , 2 . ,
, 1050 + 5600 + 1242 = 7892 (. ).


, , n .
n , , j , j = 1, , n. . ij i- j- , i = 1, , n.
, .
.
rij = pijaj, j-
i- .
1, i- j- ;

xij =
0, .
:
n

F = rij x ij max ;
i =1 j=1

x
j =1

ij

= 1, i = 1,...n;

ij

= 1,

x
i =1

j = 1,...n;

xij {0;1}, i = 1,, n; j = 1,, n.


F . . ,
.

189

F = rij x ij
i =1 j=1

rij .


n , bj . ., j = 1,, n.
n , . ; i-
i, i = 1,, n.
, ?
.
, .
ij = ai bj, , i- j- .
xij, i = 1,, n; j = 1,, n
1, i- j- ;

xij =
0, .
:
n

F = c ij x ij max ;
i =1 j=1

ij

= 1, i = 1,...n;

ij

= 1,

j =1
n

x
i =1

j = 1,...n;

xij {0;1}, i = 1,, n; j = 1,, n.


,
. F . . , , .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
190

.
, .
- .
.
.

16
. . .

ai , b j .

1.

6 5 4
C = 8 8 2 6

9
7
6

a1 = 500; a2 = 300; a3 = 100;

b1 = 400; b2 = 200; b3 = 150; b4 = 250.

2.

5 1 2 4
C = 2 5 3

2 2 5

a1 = 92; a2 = 45; a3 = 63;

b1 = 60; b2 = 40; b3 = 36; b4 = 14.

3.

5 4 2
C = 2 5 3

3 2 5

a1 = 30; a2 = 50; a3 = 120;

b1 = 40; b2 = 30; b3 = 20; b4 = 10.

4.

5 6 1 4

C = 8 6 5 a1 = 80; a2 = 320; a3 = 100;

5 4 3

b1 = 250; b2 = 100; b3 = 150; b4 = 50.

5.

3 6

C = 5 2 3 1 a1 = 140; a2 = 160; a3 = 150;


1 1 2 4

b1 = 50; b2 = 70; b3 = 130; b4 = 150.


6.

4 7 1 1

C = 5 3 4 a1 = 100; a2 = 50; a3 = 70;


3 2 8

b1 = 10; b2 = 80; b3 = 90; b4 = 20.

7.

3 2 1

C = 2 3 4 a1 = 200; a2 = 70; a3 = 80;

5 8 7 3

b1 = 20; b2 = 40; b3 = 80; b4 = 60.

191

8.

4 3 2

C = 10 10 4 7 a1 = 400; a2 = 200; a3 = 100;


12 11 5

b1 = 300; b2 = 150; b3 = 100; b4 = 200.

9.

4 1 2 3

C = 3 6 4 a1 = 100; a2 = 200; a3 = 150;


2 3 5

b1 = 40; b2 = 60; b3 = 100; b4 = 50.

5 1 2 4

10. C = 2 5 3 a1 = 92; a2 = 45; a3 = 63;

2 2 5

b1 = 60; b2 = 40; b3 = 36; b4 = 14.

11.

10 10 3 7
C = 7 4 5

10 8 7

a1 = 1500; a2 = 1100; a3 = 1000;

b1 = 800; b2 = 300; b3 = 1500; b4 = 400.


12.

2 7 4 3
C = 8 10 15

7 6 10

a1 = 30; a2 = 40; a3 = 50;

b1 = 10; b2 = 20; b3 = 80; b4 = 40.

13.

4 7 1 5
C = 4 10 15

8 3 5

a1 = 30; a2 = 320; a3 = 100;

b1 = 150; b2 = 40; b3 = 80; b4 = 60.

8 6 5

14. C = 5 4 3 a1 = 3200; a2 = 1000; a3 = 800;


6 6 1 4

b1 = 2500; b2 = 1000; b3 = 1500; b4 = 500.

15.

2 3 4 2
C = 3 2 6

6 8 4

a1 = 30; a2 = 50; a3 = 140;

b1 = 40; b2 = 30; b3 = 20; b4 = 50.

192

16.

13 12 14 10
C = 16 13 15

8 17 17

a1 = 10; a2 = 30; a3 = 40;

b1 = 50; b2 = 10; b3 = 20; b4 = 30.

17.

15 13 14 10
C = 8 7 3

10 18 12

a1 = 100; a2 = 200; a3 = 150;

b1 = 100; b2 = 100; b3 = 200; b4 = 100.

14 18 15 13

18. C = 7 6 a1 = 400; a2 = 500; a3 = 300;

8 10 4 12

b1 = 200; b2 = 400; b3 = 150; b4 = 600.

19.

15 13 2 10
C = 10 18 13

3 5 8 7

a1 = 100; a2 = 300; a3 = 150;

b1 = 200; b2 = 50; b3 = 50; b4 = 200.

15 13 10

20. C = 18 17 14 a1 = 100; a2 = 510; a3 = 300;

11 13 8

b1 = 100; b2 = 50; b3 = 50; b4 = 400.

21.

18 15 5 7
C = 20 14

30 15 18 3

a1 = 50; a2 = 50; a3 = 60;

b1 = 100; b2 = 10; b3 = 20; b4 = 40.

18 20

22. C = 30 25 14 10 a1 = 100; a2 = 200; a3 = 300;

8 7 6 5

b1 = 30; b2 = 40; b3 = 100; b4 = 50.

23.

14 15 20 6
C = 10 8 7 5

13
2

a1 = 100; a2 = 50; a3 = 150;

b1 = 40; b2 = 60; b3 = 100; b4 = 150.


193

13 18 20 25

24. C = 14 8
a1 = 100; a2 = 300; a3 = 200;

13 15 18 10

b1 = 100; b2 = 400; b3 = 100; b4 = 100.

25.

15 13 10
C = 18 17 14

11 13 8

a1 = 100; a2 = 510; a3 = 300;

b1 = 100; b2 = 50; b3 = 50; b4 = 400.

26.

5 4 6
C = 6 8 2 8

6 7 9

a1 = 500; a2 = 300; a3 = 100;

b1 = 250; b2 = 200; b3 = 150; b4 = 400.

1 2 3

27. C = 4 3 2 a1 = 200; a2 = 70; a3 = 80;

3 8 7 5

b1 = 60; b2 = 40; b3 = 80; b4 = 20.

28.

4 1 2 5
C = 3 5 2

5 2 2

a1 = 92; a2 = 45; a3 = 63;

b1 = 14; b2 = 40; b3 = 36; b4 = 60.

2 5 4

29. C = 3 5 2 a1 = 30; a2 = 50; a3 = 120;

5 2 3

b1 = 10; b2 = 30; b3 = 20; b4 = 40.

30.

6 3
C = 1 2 3 5

4
1
2
1

a1 = 140; a2 = 160; a3 = 150;

b1 = 150; b2 = 70; b3 = 130; b4 = 50.

194

17
1. , 60, 30, 45, 25 , 20, 40, 25, 45, 30
7

4
C=
5

5
0
6
4

2
8
0
5

0
6
9
7

3
8

.
2. 500 , 700 600 ,
9 , 8 2 . 350 , 200, 450 100.
i- j- :

3 4 6 1

= 5 1 2 3
4 5 8 1

.
3.
46, 34 40 . 1, 2 3 . ; , 40, 35, 30,
45 . :
4 3 2 5

= 1 1 6 4
3 5 9 4

- 30 . : ) 1 - ,
3 . 1 .; ) 2 - 2 . / .
.
4. 10, 8 5 ., 8000, 6000, 15000 10000 . 0,6; 0,8; 0,4 0,5 , ( . )
i- :
24 16 32 25

= 8 24 24 20
30 24 16 20

.
195

5. 700,
500, 450 550 500, 700, 650 600 .
: 350, 350, 300, 300 200 .
1- 2- .

40

10
C ijj =
70

50

20
80
30
10

60
30
30
40

10
40
50
50

20

30
10

40

j- i- . .
, .
6. ,
, : 1 2 3 5
, 2 4 60 .

1
2
3

1
1
6
8
120


3
4
3
1
4
5
1
9
160
90

2
2
3
2
80

5
4
2
3
50

180
220
100
500

7. ,
, : 2 4 3 1
, 1 2 40 .

1
2
3

1
1
6
8
120

2
2
3
2
80


3
4
3
1
4
5
1
9
140
90

5
4
2
3
50

160
220
100

8. ,
, : 3 2 3 5
, 1 3 35 .

1
2
3

196

1
1
6
8
120

2
2
3
2
80


3
4
3
1
4
5
1
9
160
90

5
4
2
3
50

160
220
100

9. ,
, : 1 2 2 5
, 2 4 45 .

1
2
3

1
1
6
8
120

2
2
3
2
80


3
4
3
1
4
5
1
9
160
90

5
4
2
3
50

180
230
100

10. ,
., : 1 1 2 5
, 2 1 60 .

1
2
3


1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 1 4
6 3 4 5 2
8 2 1 9 3
120 80 160 90 50

180
220
100
500

11. ,
50, 40, 45, 35 , 30, 30, 45, 25, 30
3

4
=
6

5
0
6
4

9
7
0
5

0
6
5
9

3
8

.
12. 600 , 700 500 ,
8 , 6 3 . 450 , 300, 150 100. i- j- :
2 5 6 4

= 5 7 2 3
4 5 8 1

.
13.
36, 44 50 . 1 , 2 3 . ;
, 60, 35,
20, 25 . :
197

5 2 2 7

= 1 2 6 4
3 5 8 4

:
) 1 - , 2 .
1 .; ) 2 - 1 . / .
.
14. 10 , 9 6 ., 6000, 5000, 13000 11000 . 0,5; 0,8; 0,7 0,5 , ( . )
i - :
14 26 32 25

= 8 34 24 20
20 24 16 20

.
15. 800,
600, 350 450 600, 700, 650 500 .
: 350, 450, 100, 400 200 .
1- 2- .

50

10
C ijj =
70

50

20
70
30
10

60
30
30
20

10
40
50
50

20

10
10

40

j- i- . .
, .
16. ,
, : 1 2 3 5
, 2 4 50 .

1
2
3

198

1
1
7
8
100

2
3
3
2
90


3
4
3
1
5
5
1
7
170
90

5
4
2
3
50

180
210
110
500

17. ,
, : 2 4 3 1
, 1 3 40 .

1
2
3

1
1
7
8
120

2
3
3
2
90


3
4
3
3
5
5
1
9
130
90

5
4
2
3
50

150
220
110

18. ,
, : 3 2 3 5
, 1 3 45 .

1
2
3

1
1
6
7
120

2
4
3
2
80


3
4
3
2
4
6
1
9
150
90

5
5
2
1
60

150
220
110

19. ,
, : 1 2 2 5
, 2 4 40 .

1
2
3

1
1
6
7
110

2
4
3
2
90


3
4
3
1
5
5
1
9
160
90

5
4
3
3
50

170
240
100

20. ,
., : 1 1 2 5
, 2 1 50 .

1
2
3


1 2 3 4 5
2 3 3 1 4
6 3 4 5 2
8 2 1 9 4
110 80 160 90 60

180
200
120
500

21. ,
360, 40, 45, 35 , 20, 40, 35, 35, 30
199

4
=
3

7
0
6
4

2
6
0
5

0
6
7
7

3
8

.
22. 600 , 500 600 ,
11 , 7 4 . 450 , 100, 450 100. i- j- :
2 5 6 1

= 7 1 2 3
4 4 8 1

.
23.
47, 35 50 . 1, 2 3 . ;
, 50, 25,
30, 45 . :
7 4 2 5

= 1 2 5 4
3 5 9 4

:
) 1 - , 3 .
1 .; ) 2 - 2 . / .
.
24. 11 , 9 5 ., 9000, 5000, 10000 12000 . 0,5; 0,8; 0,3 0,5 , ( . )
i - :
20 16 30 25

= 15 25 24 30
30 20 16 20

.
25.
600, 500, 350 550 300, 600, 650 500
. : 450, 350, 200, 300 200
.
200

1- 2- .

30

10
C ijj =
50

50

10
70
30
20

50
30
20
40

10
40
50
50

20

30
10

40

j- i- . .
, .

201

1.

Aij aij n- ,
( 1) i + j .

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

, .

7.

8.

- , n

a jx j = b , n j=1

(n+1)- .
9.

, ( )
, ..
, .

10. A=(aij) mn , m
n .
11.

M ij

aij

n-

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