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BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

QualityTechnologyIntegrationProfessionalDevelopment: TheKeytoBuildingTeacherCapacityforIntegratingTechnology RubyJohnson NorthCarolinaStateUniversity

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

Introduction BeingdigitallyilliterateinHarnettCounty,NorthCarolinaisnolongeranoption.Eachyearthe numberoftechnologicaldevicesinourschoolscontinuestogrow.AssoeloquentlystatedbySpires, Oliver,andCorn(2012),Acomputerinthehandsofeverychildisnolongerafarfetchedidea(p. 63).Implementationoftheonetooneinitiativebeganintheelementaryschoolsacoupleofyearsago andhastrickleduptoourhighschoolsforthecomingschoolyear.Thedeliveryoftenlaptopcarts, containing32devices,willoccurthissummer.Theluckyrecipients,ofthesedevices,mustattenda twodayworkshoptointroducethemtopotentialcomputerresources.Thisapproachtoprofessional developmentisinadequate.PotterandRockinsonSzapkiw(2012)wereextremelycorrectintheir remarks,usingtechnologyforthesakeofusingtechnologyisoflittlebenefit(p.24).Tosupplement thissnapshottotechnologyintegration,indepthandongoingprofessionaldevelopmentwilloccuratthe schoollevel,beginninginthefall.Thepurposeofthisinternshipistoplanfortheimplementationof qualityprofessionaldevelopmenttoassistteachersinbuildingacapacitytouseandintegratetechnology effectivelyintheirclassrooms. Mygoalistoofferprofessionaldevelopmentopportunitiestoallstaffmembers,atTritonHigh School,whowishtobecomemoreproficientatusingandintegratingtechnologyintotheirinstructional practices.Forthecomingschoolyear,theprimaryfocuswillbetoassisttheclassroomteachers implementingtheonetoonetechnologyinitiative.Thedegreeofpersonaltechnologyproficiency,by membersofthisgroup,variesgreatly.Forthisreason,professionaldevelopmentwillfollowtheSAMR modelofsubstitution,augmentation,modification,andredefinition(TechnologyIsLearning,2013). Professionaldevelopmentsessionswillofferinstruction,guidedpractice,andtimetodesignanddevelop

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

lessonswiththeprojectedoutcomebeingtotransformlearningexperiencestohigherlevelsof achievement. ReviewoftheLiterature Areviewofliteratureisessentialindesigning,developing,anddeliveringqualityprofessional development.Thissectionwillexplorethefollowingeducationaltopics:(a)onetoonetechnology initiatives,(b)technologyintegrationprofessionaldevelopment,and(c)technologyintegrationsmodels focusingspecificallyonTPACKandSAMR. OnetoOneTechnologyInitiativeImplementation Manyschooldistrictsacrossthenationareimplementingonetoonetechnologyinitiatives. ResearchconductedinTexasshowedthatstudentswhohadaccesstoonetoonecomputerdevices experiencedgreaterlevelsofachievement,higherlevelsofengagement,betterattendanceprofiles,fewer behaviorproblemsandaremoremotivated(Godwinn,2011).Manybelievetheinfusionoftechnology intotheclassroomistheanswertohowschoolswillpreparestudentsforthe21stcentury.Itiseasyto seethatcomputersprovideeasyandconstantaccesstoinformation.Whattheydonotrealizeisthat technologyinitiativesarenotaboutwhatdigitaldevicesoffer,butareaboutpeoplewhoutilizingthem (Overbay,2011).Emphasisisshiftingfromtheoldstandardofteachingandlearningattheclassroom leveltoaNEWlearningecologywiththeintroductionof1:1computingdevices(Spiresetal.2011). Inthisnewlearningecologyteachersbecomethecontentexperts,consultants,andfacilitatorsof instruction.Studentsbecomeselfdirected,selfregulated,andcreativelearners.Curriculumbecomes intense,andrelevantwhilelearningbecomespersonalized.Forthesereasonschangesmustoccurin communication,pedagogy,andcontext.

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

Communicationchanges.Communicationiskeyandenthusiasmiscrucialwhenimplementing 1:1initiatives.Technologycanbeusedtobuildtheseopenlinesofcommunications.Oneway,ofdoing this,istoinvolveteachersinallphasesoftheimplementationprocess.Teachersneedtobeaskedthese questionsandadministratorsneedtolistentotheiranswers. Whatdoyouknowabouttechnology? Whatdoyouneedtoknowabouttechnology? Whattypesoftechnologywillyoubeingwillingtoincorporateintoyourcurriculum? Whatkindsoftechnologicalinvestmentsmakethemostsensetoyou?(Overby,2011). Principalsandcountyleveladministratorsmaybethelargestinfluenceonwhetherteachersbuyintothe necessarychangestherefore,linesofcommunicationneedtobeestablished.Ifadministrators encourageteacherstotakeriskwithoutfearofconsequencesthenteachersaremorelikelytofind creativemeanstodailyimplementtechnologyuseintotheirlessonhowever,ifrestrictivemeasuresare placedonteacherwith1:1classroom,thenmanyteacherswillbedeterredfromincorporatingitinto theirinstruction.Effectiveteacheradministratorcommunicationwillbeinstrumentalthroughoutthe implementationprocess(Spiresetal.2011).Bykeepingadministratorsinformedaboutchangesin classroompracticesastechnologyisintegratedintotheclassroom,teacherswillhavebetterleveragein requestingresourcesandprofessionaldevelopment. Studentslearnquicklytouseofvarietyofcommunicationtools,suchasemail,chattools,and socialinteractivesiteswhereas,teachersoftenneedprofessionaldevelopmenttobecomeproficientin thesametools.Throughtheutilizationofthesetools,strongerstudenttostudent,studentteacher,and teacherteacherrelationshipsareforged(Spiresetal.2011).Advantagesforbuildingstronger

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

relationshipsinclude(a)theformationofcollaborativealliances,(b)greaterinteractionbetween studentsandteachersasteacherslearntorelyontheirtechsavvystudentsforsupportandassistance, (c)theremovalofbarriersthatoncekeptstudentsfromaskingtheteachersquestion,and(d) opportunitiesforteacherstoplanandcollaboratewithotherteacherswithintheschool,districtor globallytocreatequalitylessonsandlearningactivities(Tusch,2012).Byincreasingstudentonline collaboration,teachersareforcedtomakesomecarefulpedagogicalchoicesensuringproductive dialogueduringcollaborativesessions. Pedagogychanges.Itiswelldocumentthattheimplementationofonetoonecomputing devicesisnotwhatmakesthedifferenceinstudentachievement.Themainfactorthataffectsthe potentialforgreaterachievementrevolvesaroundthechangesteachersmakeintheirpedagogyand usageofavailablecognitivetools(Spiresetal.2011).Studiesshowthathowteacherschosetoutilize computingtechnologiesdependsmoreontheteacherthanonthesubjecttaught.Technologyusethat remainsteacherscenteredresultsinlittletonochangeinstudentperformancehowever,whenteachers chosetoshiftthefocusofinstructiontowardastudentcenteredapproach,gainsinstudentgrowthare experienced(Donovan&Green,2010).Forteacherstochangethewaysinwhichtheyteachtakes time,preparation,andawillingnesstoexplorenewavenues.Oftenthismeanschangingfroma behavioristorcognitiveapproachwherelearningisteachercontrolledandstudentsarepassivereceivers ofknowledge.Assessmentisfocusedonaproductratherthanprocess.Implementingonetoone technologyrequiresteacherstoapplyaconstructivistapproachinwhichtheteachersupportsand motivatesstudentsbyprovidingthemwithadviceandcontextrichopportunitiestoengageinrealworld problemsolvingactivities(Petersen,&Bunting,2012).Inthisenvironment,assessmentismoreabout

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

theprocessthanthesolution. Havinggreateraccesstoteachingmaterialsrequirestimetolocateandevaluateresourceswhich areconstantlychanging.Tostayafloatteachersneedtocollaboratewithoneanothertodiscusswhatis workingandwhatneedstobetweaked.Technologyallowsstudentstohavegreateraccessto informationthusincreasingtheirresearchcapability.Onewayteachersarediscoveringtoshiftthefocus ofinstructionfromtheteachertothestudentistothroughthecreationofprojectbasedand problembasedunits(Spiresetal.2011).Thesemethodsengagestudentsinactive,collaborative,and creativelearningsituationsthatallowthemtofindsolutionstorealproblems.Anadditionalbenefitsto usingthesemethodsofinstructionistheyareconducivetointegratingcommoncoreobjectivesand provedstudentdirectedevaluation(Petersen,&Bunting,2012).Theavailabilityofonetoone computingdevicesandtheteacherswillingnesstochangetheirpedagogicalthinkingwillultimately determinetheeffectivenessofimplementingaonetooneinitiative. Contextchanges.AccordingtoSpires,Oliver,andCorn(2011),whenplanningaonetoone computinginitiativeseveralcontextualconsiderationsneedtobetaken.Schooldistrictsneedtobe preparedtoofferqualityprofessionaldevelopment,purchasehighqualityhardwareandsoftware,and investinthetechnicalsupportthatisessentialtokeepingthetechnologyupandrunning.Inhisarticle, ExpectSurpriseswith1to1Laptops,Tusch(2012)suggestthefollowingfactorsbeconsideredprior theactualimplementationoftheinitiative.Districtsneedto(a)providestrongwirelessnetworksecurity, (b)developadetailedacceptableusepolicy,(c)provideinstructionsonresponsiblecomputing,and(d) understandthattheschool/districtcannotcontroleverythingastudentdoeswithalaptoporanyother technologicaldevice.Beingreadyforthesurprisesthatwilloccurduringtheimplementationstageofthe

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programwillhelpmaketheoveralltransitionsmoother. TechnologyIntegrationProfessionalDevelopment Researchersarefindingthattechnologypurchasedforclassroomoftengoesunused.The primaryreasonforthelackoftechnologyintegrationstemsfromthelackofeffectiveprofessional development(Potter&RockinsonSzapkiw,2012).Traditionalapproachestoprofessional developmenthasbeendrivenbyproductsorprogramsinsteadofinstructionalneeds.Trainingon newtechnologicaltoolmustbeembeddedintheprofessionaldevelopmentnotisolatedfromit (Jones,2007,p.23).Forprofessionaldevelopmenttobeeffectiveitmustbedesigned,developed,and deliveredusingaconstructivistapproach.Learningneedstoapplicableandprovideopportunitiesfor teacherstoworkcollaboratively.Itneedstobelongtermandembeddedintothedaytodaypractices thatsupportstheschoolsgoalsandcurriculaneeds(Potter&RockinsonSzapkiw,2012).Byproviding traininginsmallincrements,withtimetopractice,teachersarelesslikelytobecomeoverwhelmedand morelikelytoimplementthetechnologyintegrationintotheirclassroominstruction. MartinandStrother(2010)emphasizethatthefocusoftheprofessionaldevelopmentneedsto becloselyalignedtocoreconceptswhichtakeintoaccountthefollowingthreeaspects:(a)technology operation,(b)technologyapplication,and(c)technologyintegration.Teachingteachershowto operatethetechnologyisimportanthowever,itshouldnotbetheprimaryfocus(Potter& RockinsonSzapkiw,2012,p.23).Timespentensuringthattheteacherknowshowtooperateapiece ofhardwareorsoftwareisessentialtotheoverallsuccessoftechnologyintegration.Iftheteacherdoes notknowhowtoturnontheequipmentthenintegrationwillnothappen.Knowinghowtousethe equipmentisonlythefirststep.Moreimportantistheapplicationoftechnology.Professional

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developmenttrainersneedtostructurethetrainingtomodeleffectivepractices.Insteadoftheone sessionfitsallapproach,sessionsshouldbedesignedwithspecificcontentinmind.Professional developmentactivitiesshouldhelpteachersidentifyhowthetechnologycanbeeffectivelyintegratedinto theircurriculum.Typesoftechnologyintegrationinclude: Online/distancelearning Blendedclassroomlearningthatcombinesonlinewithfacetofaceinstruction Projectbasedandproblembasedlearningmodules Gamebasedlearningsimulations InteractiveWhiteBoardsandstudentresponsesystems WebbasedprojectssuchasWebquest,research,andvirtualfieldtrips. Studentcreatedmediasuchaspodcast,videos,andslideshows Collaborativeassignments(Shaffner,2007). Trainingneedstoprovidequalityopportunitiesforteacherstoexploreandtopracticebecoming proficientatutilizingtheapplicationforthechosenmethods.Thefinalaspectistheactualintegrationof technologyintoclassroominstruction.Technologyintegrationwillprovideactiveengagement,encourage groupparticipationinvolvingfrequentinteractionsbetweenstudenttostudentorstudenttoteacher, anddeliverimmediatefeedback(Shaffner).Asintegrationbecomesmorethenorm,notablechangesin therolesoftheteacherandstudentwilloccur.Theroleoftheteacherwillbethatofafacilitatorandthe roleofthestudentwillbetoexplore,inquireanddrawconclusions(Potter&RockinsonSzapkiw).The shifttoastudentcenteredpedagogywillgraduallytakeplaceandobserverswillwitnessstudents utilizingtechnologydailytoaccessavarietyoftoolstocompleteassignedtaskinordertogainadeeper

BUILDINGTEACHERCAPACITYFORINTEGRATINGTECHNOLOGY

understandingofcoursecontent. Personalexperiencewithtechnologyoutsidetheclassroomwasthenumberonepredictorfor successfultechnologyintegration.Attituderanaclosesecond.AccordingtoPotter& RockinsonSzapkiw(2012),effectiveprofessionaldevelopmentcanchangeboth.Fortheprofessional developmenttobesuccessful,itneedstobeofferedinsmallincrementswithplentyofopportunitiesfor teacherstopracticeusingthetechnologyandprovidetimeforcollaborationwithotherteachersto developstudentcenteredunitsofinstruction.Ateachersattitudes,beliefs,andexperienceaffectthe useoftechnologytherefore,thefinalingredientforintegratingtechnologyintotheclassroomisthe teacher. TechnologyIntegrationModels Thereareavarietyoftechnologyintegrationmodelsavailableforprofessionaldevelopment trainersandteacherstousewhenimplementingaonetoonetechnologyinitiative.Twoofthemost widelyusedaretheSAMRmodelandtheTPACKmodel.TheTPACKmodelhasamultitudeof academicliteraturetobackitsinstructionalvaluehowever,atthetimeofthispaper,theSAMRmodel waslackingtheacademicsupportgenerallyrecognizedinaliteraturereview.Evenwithoutthepreferred referencesmaterials,thesetwomodelswillbethethefocusofthisassignment. SAMRmodel.TheSAMRmodeldesignistohelpteachersevaluatewheretheyareintheir personalutilizationoftechnology(Loader,2012)andseehowcomputertechnologymightimpact teachingandlearning("SAMRModelTechnologyIsLearning",n.d.).ItwasdevelopedbyDr.Ruben Puentedura(2008)asameanstoanswerthequestiontheWhattypesoftechnologyusewouldhave greaterorlessereffectsuponstudentlearning?(p.1).Thenamewasderivedfromthefourlevelsof

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technologyintegrationdescribedbyPuentedura(2008)asshowninFigure1.

Figure1.The4StagesofSAMR.CopiedfromaPowerPointcreatedbyEdcanvasandlocatedat http://www.edcanvas.com/lessons/XuTjEAjIsa6QEA/teachingwithtechnologyandiscopyrigtedbythe HippasusCompany. EnhancementlevelsTheseaddintriguetoassignmentsbutofferlittletonochangesinastudents performance. SubstitutionTheuseofcomputertechnologythattakestheplaceofeithera nontechnologyoraprevioustechnologywithoutanychangetotheassignment. [Example]Studentsuseawordprocessortowriteareportinsteadofpaperandpencil ortheyanswertheirbellringerinGoogleForms. AugmentationTheuseofcomputertechnologythatprovidessomefunctional improvementsbutisstilladirecttoolsubstitution.[Example]Whileusingaword

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processortowriteareport,studentsperformspellcheck,insertimages,orusethe copy/cut/pastetoolstocompletetheirassignment. TransformationlevelsThesecreatenewlearningexperiencesallowingstudentstodothings thatwerepreviouslyimpossible. ModificationTheuseofcomputertechnologythatallowsportionsofthetasktobe redesignedbyintegratingmultipletools.[Example]Studentsarestillrequiredtowrite thereportbutnowtheymustmakeanaudiorecordingofthereportthatcanbeplayed toanauthenticaudiencesuchasaschoolsopenhouse. RedefinitionTheuseofcomputertechnologythatallowsforthecreationofnewtask thatwerepreviouslyinconceivable.[Example]Studentsarestillrequiredtowritethe reportbutthistimethereporthasmanycontributors.Theycollaborateand communicatewiththeirteacherandotherstudentsusingWeb2.0toolssuchasGoogle Docs(Loader,2012Puentedura,2008"SAMRModelTechnologyIsLearning", n.d.). Thegraphicinfigure1.2wascreatedbyprofessionaldevelopmenttrainerSilviaRosenthal Tolisanotoprovideteacherswithaconcretevisualillustratingthetypesoftaskthatareconsideredin thesubstitution/augmentation/modification/redefinitionstagesoftheSAMRmodel.Inaddition,the illustrationemphasizestheprogressionoftechnologyintegrationandshowswhattransformational teachingandlearninglookslike(RosenthalTolisano,2011,para.2).Thisgraphicwillbeavaluedtool toassistteachersinmakingthetransitionfromthelowerlevelsofenhancementtothehigherorder thinkingandlearninglevelsoftransformation.

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Figure1.2SAMRActivities.CreatedbySilviaRosenthalTolisanoforuseinherWebBlog Langwitches.org. Justrecentlyteachersandprofessionaldevelopmenttrainershavebeenprovidedwithagiftfrom AllanCarrington.HehasdevelopedanewversionoftheBloomsTaxonomyWheel(Figure1.3) allowingteacherstoviewcognitivedomaincategories,actionverbsthatarehelpfulinwritinglearning outcomesinlessonplans,activitiesdesignedtoachievethedesiredoutcomes,linkstocomputer applicationsthatwillbeusefulinincorporatingtheactivitiesintoinstruction,andtheSAMRmodel showingtheleveloftechnologyintegrationintothecurriculum(Carrington,2013).Carrington(2013) states,themotivationbehindthenewPedagogicalWheeladdressesthequestionHowdoweshow teachersthatthepedagogyshoulddrivethetechnologyandnottheotherwayaround?(para.1)In

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essencethenewwheelisabouttransformationandintegration.

Figure1.3ThePedagogyWheelbyAllanCarringtonislicensedunderaCreativeCommons Attribution3.0UnportedLicense.Basedonaworkathttp://tinyurl.com/bloomsblog.

TPACKmodelTPACKstandsforTechnologicalPedagogicalContentKnowledgeandcanbe describedasmodelthatcanbeusedtosuccessfullyaddtechnologytotraditionalapproachesof teaching.Itencouragesteacherstomakewiseandpurposefuldecisionsaboutwhyandwhentouse technologyandwithinwhatcontext(Linton,2012).TPACK,developedbyMishraandKoehler

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(Koehler,2012),iscomposedofthreeprimaryformsofknowledge:Content(CK),Pedagogy(PK), andTechnology(TK).TPACKemphasizesthenewknowledgethatformswheretheprimarytypes ofknowledgeintersect.ThesenewdomainsarePedagogicalContentKnowledge(PCK), TechnologicalContentKnowledge(TCK),TEchnologicalPedagogicalKnowledge(TPK),and TPACK(Koehler).Developinganunderstandingofthecomplexrelationshipsbetweentechnology, content,andpedagogyresultsinqualityteaching(Linton,2012).AsHervey(2011)pointoutinher doctoraldissertation,Teachersgenerallyhaveadeepknowledgeoftheircontentaswellasa knowledgeofhowtoteachit(p.4).Theproblemariseswhentechnologyenterstheequation.By buildinganunderstandingoftheTPACKframeworkteacherswillhaveabetterchanceofsuccessfully integratingtechnologyintotheircurriculum. Professionaldevelopmentactivitiesofferteachershelpinlearningmoreabouttheircontent areas,effectiveteachingpractices,andusefultechnologytools.Mostoftenthesearetaughtinisolation. Schoolmediacoordinatorsandinstructionaltechnologyfacilitatorsarebeginningtostepupandprovide theprofessionaldevelopmentneededthatwillhavethegreatestimpactonstudentachievementby providinginstructiononeachcomponentoftheTPACKmodel(Linton,2012).Byreceivingtrainingon howtoaccessandorganizeinformation,utilizeresearchstrategies,understandingcopyrightissues,and implementingtechnologytoolsforeffectiveteachingandlearning,teacherswillbebetterpreparedto successfullyintegratetechnologyeffectivelyintotheirclassrooms.

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Figure1.4Reproducedbypermissionofthepublisher,2012bytpack.org

Intervention Aspreviouslymentionedintheintroduction,thegoalistoofferprofessionaldevelopment opportunitiestoallstaffmembers,atTritonHighSchool,whowishtobecomemoreproficientatusing andintegratingtechnologyintotheirinstructionalpracticeswiththetargetedgroupbeingtheteachers whowillbeginimplementingaonetoonecomputinginitiativeinthecomingschoolyear.Researchon successfultechnologyinitiativesindicatethatlongtermandsustainabletechnologyprofessional developmentisvitaltotheprogramssuccess(Potter&RockinsonSzapkiw,2012).Forthisreason,I ampresentingthefollowingtwoyearinterventionplandesign,basedontheFrameworkfor21st centurylearning,toassistteacherinmakingthetransformationtoatotallytechnologyintegrated

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classroom.Theinstructionwillcenteronthelearningandinnovationskills,the4Cscommunication, collaboration,creativityandinnovation,andcriticalthinkingandproblemsolving(ThePartnershipfor 21stCenturySkills,n.d.),thatarenecessarytoprepareourstudentsforthe21stcenturyworkforce. TheSAMRmodelforintegratingtechnologyintotheclassroomwillbeusedindesigning,developing anddeliveringtheinstructionfortheprofessionaldevelopment. YearOneFallSemesterCommunication AccordingtoSpires,Oliver,andCorn(2012),Professionaldevelopmentoncommunication strategiessupportedinonetooneprograms,aswellastoolavailabletoenablethestrategies,willhelp introduceteacherstonewpossibilitiesandrequirementstocarrythemout(p.69).Thisrevelationisa majorfactoraffectingtheselectionofcommunicationasthefirstyearsfocus.Topreventteachersfrom beingoverwhelmedtrainingwillbebrokenupinto3to4onehoursessionsinthefallofthefirstyear. Eachsessionwillincludemodeledinstructionusingtechnologyintegration,timetopracticenew technologies,andtimeforcollaborationwithotherteachersonhowtheyplantoincorporatewhatthey arelearningintotheirdailypractices. Table1.1CommunicationProfessionalDevelopment Topic SessionsOffered DifferentiationalongSMAR Model SCommunicationtools AStudenttoStudent MTeacherstoTeacher StudenttoTeacher RDigitalFootprint TPACKAddressed

Communication&Web2.0 Tools

TK TPK TPK TCK

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YearOneSpringSemesterCollaboration Collaborationistheabilitytoworkeffectivelyandrespectfullywithadiversecommunityof learners.Participantsmustbewillingtoexerciseflexibilityandbewillingtocompromiseasneededto achieveacommongoal.Inaddition,participantsmustbewillingtovaluetocontributionsmadeeach individualteammemberandsharetheresponsibilityfortheendresult(ThePartnershipfor21stCentury Skills,n.d.).Collaborationisaboutsearchingforsolutionstorealworldproblems.Toassistteachersin gainingabetterunderstandingofcollaboration,instructionwillbespreadoutover4onehoursessions andwillbemodeledusingtechnologyintegration.Participantswillbegiventimetopracticenew technologiesaswellastimeforcollaborationwithotherteachers.Followupwillbeprovidedas needed.. Table1.2CollaborationProfessionalDevelopment Topic SessionsOffered DifferentiationalongSMAR Model SCollaborationtools ACollaborativelycreate multimedia presentationswith PLTmembers MEstablishClassroom Blogstoengage studentsinrealworld collaboration RFosterstudentteacher collaborationby involvingstudentsin creatingSmartBoard resourcesand lessons TPACKAddressed

Collaboration&Web2.0 Tools

TK TPK

TPK

TPCK

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YearTwoFallSemesterCreativityandInnovation Creativityandinnovationisgenerallyaffected,eitherpositivelyornegatively,byeithertheworks ofothersorenvironmentalinfluences.Itisnotlimitedtotheconstraintsofdiscipline,timeorculturebut oftenintegratescommoncorevaluesandobjectives(Robinson,2013).Thedynamicsofcreativityand innovationhaveprofoundimplicationsforintegratingtechnologytotransformationallevelinthe technologyintegratedclassroom. Table1.3CreativityandInnovationProfessionalDevelopment Topic SessionsOffered DifferentiationalongSMAR Model TPACKAddressed

CreativityandInnovation& SCreativitytools Web2.0Tools AStudentgeneratedVoki orXtranormalclips MUtilizeDigital Storytellingfor studentassessment RImplementingtheuseof screencastasan instructionalaid, studentproduced productandclass assessmenttool.

TK TPK TPK

TPCK

YearTwoSpringSemesterCriticalThinkingandProblemSolving CriticalthinkingisdefinedbytheAmericanDentalEducationAssociation(2013)asthe intellectuallyengaged,skillful,andresponsiblethinkingthatfacilitatesgoodjudgmentbecauseitrequires theapplicationofassumptions,knowledge,competence,andtheabilitytochallengeone'sownthinking (para.2).Theskillsofcriticalthinkingandproblemsolvingrequirelearnerstobeselfdirectedandself

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motivated.Whenimplementingcriticalthinkingandproblemsolvingunitsoftechnologyintegration, studentsneedtobe(a)engaginginproblembasedlearning,(b)analyzingcasebasedscenarios,or (c)engagingindebates,roleplay,argumentmapping,thinkingaloud,andsimulation(AmericanDental EducationAssociation,2013).Whenteachersandstudentsbecomeproficientinthesemethodsthey willhavereachedthehighestleveloftechnologytransformation. Table1.4CriticalThinkingandProblemSolvingProfessionalDevelopment Topic SessionsOffered DifferentiationalongSMAR Model SProblemSolvingtools ACooperativeLearning utilizingintegrated technology MGuidedDesignutilizing integrated technology RProblemBasedLearning utilizingintegrated technology TPACKAddressed

CriticalThinkingand ProblemSolving &Web2.0Tools

TK TPK

TPK

TCK

Sincetechnologychangessorapidly,itmustbenotedthattheprofessionaldevelopmenttraining willfocusonthe4Cs,butthetoolsusedforthetrainingwillchangeasthetechnologychanges. Assessment Themostimportantgoalonimplementingtechnologyprofessionaldevelopmentistopromote theuseoftechnologytoimprovestudentachievement.Effectivetechnologyintegrationprofessional developmentshouldutilizebothformativeandsummativeassessmentmethodstoensurethatthetraining

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ismeetingtheneedsofallparticipantsandisprovidingthemwithnewlearningexperiences. Byconductingformativeassessments,trainersreceiveimmediatefeedback,whichwillassist theminindeterminingwhattypesofchanges,ifany,needtobemadeduringanactivityofbeforethe nexttrainingsession(Gurkey,1998).Formativeassessmentsdonotrequirestructuredsurveysor forms.Itcanbeimplementedbeforeduringorattheendofatrainingsession.Oneexampleofformative assessmentattheendofatrainingsessionistousetheticketoutthedoorstrategyallowingteachers topoststickynotestoaPadletboardaskingquestionsorexpressingwhattheyfeltwasthemostuseful andleastusefulmaterialsfromthatdaystraining, Summativeassessmentsneedtobeconductasafollowupattheconclusionofaprofession developmentactivity.Itallowsparticipantsanopportunitytoevaluatetheoverallworthoftheactivity, Informationgatheredfromthesummativeassessmentscanthenbeusedtoplanforfuturetechnology professionaldevelopmentactivities.AccordingtoGurkey(1998),agoodtechnologysummative assessmentcontainsfiveareasofevaluation.Theyare,(1)theparticipantsreaction,(2)theparticipants learningexperience(3)theorganizationofthetraining,(4)newknowledgeandskillsacquired,and(5) studentlearningoutcomes.Themostefficientandeffectivemeanstocollectinformationinareas13is toaskparticipantstocompleteananonymousonlinesurvey.Interviews,directobservation,andsmall focusgroupsessionswillbehelpfulforgatheringinformationaboutanybenefitsthenewknowledgeand skillsacquiredfromtheprofessionaltraininghasprovidedinredefiningclassroominstructionthroughthe integrationofonetoonetechnology.Evaluationofstudentlearningoutcomescanbedeterminedby analyzingEOC,MSL,andElementsdata. DriversandAnticipatedBarriers Thestaffthatwillmostbenefitfromthistrainingconsistofsixscienceteachers,2mathteachers, anenglishteacher,andasocialstudiesteacher.Eachofthesewereselected,toreceiveaonetoone classroomsetoflaptops,basedoneitherthepersonsleadershipintheirchosenfieldortheireagerness

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toembracetheuseoftechnologyintheclassroom.Fourofthescienceteachers,oneofthemath teachers,thesocialstudiesteacherandtheenglishteacherareexcitedtohavetheopportunityto integratetechnologyintotheirlessonsandarewillingtoputthetimeandeffortneededtorestructure theirteachingtoincorporatethetechnologyinameaningfulway.Thetworemainingscienceteachers andtheothermathteacherareexcitedtohavethetechnologyintheirclassroom,buttheyonlywantto useitasaresourcetotheirtextorasatoolforstandardresearch.Thereislittletonodesireto restructuretheirteachingpracticestomaketheuseoftechnologymoremeaningfultothestudents. Thesethreewillbethebiggestchallengesinceitwillinvolvethemhavingtochangetheirpedagogicaland technologicalknowledge. Itwouldbewonderfultobelievethatteacherswillenthusiasticallyandenergeticallyembracethe opportunitytobecomemoreproficientatusingandintegratingtechnologyintotheirinstructional practiceshowever,havinglimitedexperienceasatechnologyprofessionaldevelopmenttrainerand plentyexperienceasatechnologyprofessionaldevelopmentparticipatethiswillmostlikelynotbethe case.Someoftheanticipatebarriersassociatedwithbuildingtheclassroomteacherscapacityfor integratingtechnologyintotheirinstructionallessonsareasfollows: Manyveteranteachersarereluctanttochange.Fortheonetoonetechnologyinitiativetobe successful,teacherswillneedtobewillingtomakechangesintheirpedagogy,context,and communicationpractices. Lackofknowledgeaboutnewandavailabletechnologicaltoolsthatwillbeneededto implementtechnologyintegrationseamlesslyintothecurriculum Timeconstraintsthatlimitthepreparationofnewlessonsthatintegratetechnologyeffectively.

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Lackofadequatetechnologicalsupporttofixhardwareandsoftwareissueswhentheyoccur. Theestablishmentofclassroommanagementprocedurestoensurethatstudentsareengagingin appropriatetechnologyuse. Overcomingthesebarrierswilltaketimeandpatience.Qualityprofessionaldevelopmentthatis longterm,offeredinsmallincrements,andprovidefollowupopportunitieswillbethekeytobuilding teachercapacityforintegratingtechnology.

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