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f-

19-20

3
Sc

La

Ac

21

39

57

89

44.956

88.906

138.905

[227]

. .

3d14s2

4d15s2

5d16s2

6d17s2

R(.),

164

181

187

203

I1,

6.54

6.38

5.58

5.17

I2,

12.80

12.24

11.06

12.13

I3,

24.74

20.52

19.18

19.70

(A-R)

1.20

1.11

1.08

1.00

C.O.


Sc

La

Ac

..,

1539

1522

920

1050

..,

2831

3260

3420

3300

d, /3

3.02

4.47

6.12

10.06

E0(M3+/M0),

2.03

2.37

2.25

2.13

oC
1336
-Sc

-Y
-La

1480 oC
260 oC

-Sc, -Y, -La, Ac:


Cu

-Sc
-Y
-La

880 oC

-La
-La:
-Fe

-Sc, -Y, -La:


Mg


1.
2Sc + 6HCl = 2ScCl3 + 3H2
2Y + 3H2SO4 = Y2(SO4)3 + 3H2

E0(Sc3+/Sc0) = 2.03

2. Sc
2Sc + 6NaOH + 6H2O = 2Na3[Sc(OH)6] + 3H2
3. La, Ac
2La + 6H2O = 2La(OH)3 + 3H2
4. , , ,

2Sc + 3Cl2 = 2ScCl3

Y + P = YP

2La + N2 = 2LaN

2La + 3S = La2S3

Sc, Y, La, Ac
1. M2O3 M(OH)3
2.
3.
Sc(OH)3

Y(OH)3

La(OH)3

La(OH)3
pKb = 3.3

Ac(OH)3



4.
Sc2O3 + 6HNO3 = 2Sc(NO3)3 + 3H2O
Y(OH)3 + 3HCl = YCl3 + 3H2O

Sc, Y, La, Ac
5.

[Sc(H2O)6]Cl3 [Sc(OH)(H2O)5]Cl2 + HCl
6. +3
-

Y(NO3)3 + 3NaF = YF3+ 3NaNO3
7. , , ,
, ,
, . .
8. ..
ScCl3 + Sc = Sc2Cl3

10Sc2Cl3 + Sc = 3Sc7Cl10

Sc
1.
3
2. ,
Sc(NO3)3 + 6KOH = K3[Sc(OH)6] + 3KNO3
3.
2ScCl3 + 3Na2CO3 + H2O = 2Sc(OH)CO3 + CO2 + 6NaCl
Sc(OH)CO3 + 3Na2CO3 = Na5[Sc(CO3)4] + NaOH
4. :
Sc2(C2O4)3
Sc2(C2O4)3 + 6HCl + 6NaF = 2ScF3 + 6NaCl + 3H2C2O4
2ScF3 + 3Ca = 2Sc + 3CaF2

f-

4f-

5f-

f-
1. f- n2
2. : +3 ,
Ce+4, Eu2+
3. : La Lu
( )
4. : ,
.. +2 +7
5. , Pm
6. f-

f-

Ln
M
Ln
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Tb
Dy
Ho
Er
Tm
Yb
Lu

M0
[Xe]5d16s2
[Xe]4f15d16s2
[Xe]4f36s2
[Xe]4f46s2
[Xe]4f56s2
[Xe]4f66s2
[Xe]4f76s2
[Xe]4f75d16s2
[Xe]4f96s2
[Xe]4f106s2
[Xe]4f116s2
[Xe]4f126s2
[Xe]4f136s2
[Xe]4f146s2
[Xe]4f145d16s2

M3+
[Xe]
[Xe]4f1
[Xe]4f2
[Xe]4f3
[Xe]4f4
[Xe]4f5
[Xe]4f6
[Xe]4f7
[Xe]4f8
[Xe]4f9
[Xe]4f10
[Xe]4f11
[Xe]4f12
[Xe]4f13
[Xe]4f14

..
3
3, 4
3, 4
2, 3
3
2, 3
2, 3
3
3, 4
3
3
3
2, 3
2, 3
3

Ln
R,

200
180
Ln0

160
140
120

Ln3+

100
La

Pr Pm Eu Tb Ho Tm Lu
Ce Nd Sm Gd Dy Er Yb

Ln
T.., 0
1800
1600
1400

E(M3+/M0),

1200

-2,0

1000
800

Eu

Ln

Yb

Eu

-2,1

Yb

-2,2
-2,3
-2,4

Ln

Ln
1. LaLu
2.
2Ho + 3H2SO4 = Ho2(SO4)3 + 3H2
3.
Nd + 3H2O = Nd(OH)3 + 3H2
4.
4Gd + 3O2 = 2Gd2O3
Ce + O2 = CeO2
12Pr + 11O2 = 2Pr6O11
8Tb + 7O2 = 2Tb4O7
CeO2

Lu(OH)3

Ln
5.
Ce + 2F2 = CeF4
2Er + 3Cl2 = 2ErCl3
6. , , ,
, ,
Nd + 5P = NdP5
2Tb + 3Se = Tb2Se3
2Gd + 3H2 = 2GdH3
La + 2C = LaC2
Yb + H2 = YbH2
7.
2Sm + 2NH3 = 2SmN + 3H2
8.
Pr + 18NH3 () = [Pr(NH3)6]2+ + 2[e(NH3)6]

NdCl3

Ln
1. Ln2O3
Ln(OH)3
2. La(OH)3 Lu(OH)3
3. , , .
4Nd(NO3)3 = 2Nd2O3 + 12NO2 + 3O2
(t0)
La2(SO4)3 = La2O(SO4)2 + SO2 + O2 (t0)
4. , ,
Dy2(CO3)3 = Dy2O2(CO3) + 2CO2
~500 0C
Dy2O2(CO)3 = Dy2O3 + CO2
~800 0C
5.
Gd2O3 + 3C + 3H2S = Gd2S3 + 3H2 + 3CO

Ln
6.
SmCl3 + 3NaC5H5 = Sm(C5H5)3 + 3NaCl
Sm(C5H5)3 + 3FeCl2 = Fe(C5H5)2 + 2SmCl3
7. (<2) Ln

TbBr3 + 2Tb = 3TbBr
(t0)
8GdBr3 + 7Gd = 3Gd5Br8
(t0)

Gd5Br8

TbBr

(III)
:
1.
fn
2.
M-L
3.

4.
LaLu

Ce(IV)
1. CeO2
.. 2400 0,
2.
Ce + O2 = CeO2
Ce + 2F2 = CeF4
4Ce(OH)3 + O2 + 2H2O = 4Ce(OH)4

CeO2

3. Ce(OH)4 CeO2xH2O
Ce(SO4)2 + 4KOH = Ce(OH)4 + 2K2SO4
Ce(OH)4 + 2H2SO4 = Ce(SO4)2 + 4H2O
CeO2 + 2NaOH = Na2CeO3 + H2O
(t0)
4.
2Ce(OH)3 + 3H2O2 = 2Ce(OH)3(OOH) + 2H2O

Ce(IV)
5. Ce(IV)
6Ce(SO4)2 + 8H2O = Ce6O4(OH)4(SO4)6 + 6H2SO4
6. Ce(IV)
Ce(OH)4 + 4HNO3 + 2NH4NO3 = (NH4)2[Ce(NO3)6]
2CeCl3 + Cl2 + 4HCl = 2H2[CeCl6]
Ce(OH)4 + 5Na2CO3 = Na6[Ce(CO3)5] + 4NaOH
7. Ce(IV)
2Ce(SO4)2 + 2KI = Ce2(SO4)3 + K2SO4 + I2
8. E0(Ce4+/Ce3+) = 1.72
E0(Ce4+/Ce3+) = 1.61
E0(Ce4+/Ce3+) = 1.44

1M HClO4
1M HNO3
1M H2SO4

[Ce(CO3)5]6

Eu(II)
1.
Eu2(SO4)3 + Zn = 2EuSO4 + ZnSO4 -
2EuCl3 + 3H2 = 2EuCl2 + 6HCl
(t0)
2. EuO
.. 1980 0, NaCl
Eu2O3 + Eu = 3EuO
Eu2O3 + H2 = 2EuO + H2O

EuO + H2O = Eu(OH)2

(t0)
(t0)

3. : E0(Eu3+/Eu2+) = 0.35
2EuSO4 + Fe2(SO4)3 = Eu2(SO4)3 + 2FeSO4
4. Eu(II) Ca(II), Sr(II), Ba(II)

EuSO4

EuCl2

R (M2+)8,

(II)
1.3
1.2
1.1

E0 (M3+/M2+),

1.0

f7

-1
-2

f14

f6
f4

-3

f10

Sm
Nd

f13

Dy
Eu

Yb
Tm

Ln(II), Eu(II) Yb(II)



:
1. Ce(IV)
2. Eu(II)
3.

Sc, Y, Ln

Y-

Eu-

La/Ce

Nd-

SrAl2O4:Eu

YAG

Ac
Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu
Am
Cm
Bk
Cf
Es
Fm
Md
No
Lr

Z
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103

227Ac
232Th
231Pa
238U
237Np
244Pu
243Am
247Cm
247Bk
251Cf
252Es
257Fm
258Md
259No
262Lr

22
1010
30000
4.5109
2106
8107
7000
1.5107
1400
890
471
101
56
58
3


1899
1828
1917
1789
1940
1940
1944
1944
1949
1950
1954
1954
1955
1958
1961

An
0 [Rn]

M3+ ..
[Rn]

0 [Rn]

M3+
[Rn]

..

Ac

6d17s2

5f0

Th

6d27s2

5f1

(2),3,4

Bk

5f97s2

5f8

(2),3,4

Pa

5f26d17s2

5f2

3,4,5

Cf

5f107s2

5f9

2,3,(4)

5f36d17s2

5f3

3,4,(5),6

Es

5f117s2

5f10

2,3

Np

5f46d17s2

5f4

(3),4,5,6,7

Fm

5f127s2

5f11

2,3

Pu

5f67s2

5f5

3,4,5,6,7

Md

5f137s2

5f12

2,3

Am

5f77s2

5f6

2,3,4,5,6,(7)

No

5f147s2

5f13

2,3

Cm

5f76d17s2

5f7

(2),3,4,(5)

Lr

5f146d17s2

5f14

An
R,

200
180
160
140
120
100
80

An0

An3+

Ac Pa Np Am Bk Es Md Lr
Th U Pu Cm Cf Fm No


..,
1800

, /3

1600
1400

22

1200

20

1000

18

800

16

600

14
Ac

Pa
Th

Np
U

Am
Bk
12
Pu
Cm
Cf
10
Ac

Pa
Th

Np
U

Am
Pu

Bk
Cm

Cf


1. f- 5-
2. 5f 6d

3.

4. Th Cm

5.
+3


1.
2. 4f- , 5f
3. d-
:
..

Sc

Ti

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

La

Hf

Ta

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Ac

Th

Pa

Np

Pu

Am (Cm)


1. Cm.
Lr .
2. Th U
3. , .
4.
.
5.
.
6. .


7. .

2Ac + 6H2O = 2Ac(OH)3 + 3H2
8. Pa ,

4Pa + 5O2 = 2Pa2O5

(to)

PaV

2Pa + 5Br2 = 2PaBr5

(to)

PaV

2Pa + 3H2 = 2PaH3

(to)

PaIII

PaBr5

9. .. Np (+7)
3K3[NpVIIO4](OH)2] + K3[Cr(OH)6] = 3K2NpVIO4 + K2CrO4 +
4KOH + 4H2O


1. Th U
2.

:
238

92U

+ 10n = 23993Np + e-

1912-1999

-:
253

99Es

+ 42He = 256101Md + 10n

:
238

12 C = 246 Cf + 41 n
U
+
92
6
98
0

1913-1990


Th , (0.0001 .%)
:
(Ln,Th)PO4, Th(SiO4)2

H2SO4, H2O

(Ln,Th)PO4

Th(SO4)2 + Ln2(SO4)3
NH3H2O

Th(OH)2SO4
1) H2C2O4

Th

Ca

ThCl4

HCl

Th(OH)4

2) NaOH


U 2 , Th

K2O2UO3V2O53H2O
U3O8
2U3O8

Na2CO3 + O2

Na4[UO2(CO3)3]
(NH4)2U2O7

to

Na4[UO2(CO3)3]

1) H2SO4

UO2

UF4 + 2Mg = 2MgF2 + U

2) NH3
HF

(NH4)2U2O7

UF4

(to)
U3O8


1.
Th + 4HCl = ThCl4 + 2H2
Th + HNO3 ()
2.
Th + O2 = ThO2

ThIV

Th + 2Cl2 = ThCl4

ThIV

Th + 2I2 = ThI4

ThIV

Th + H2 = ThH2

ThII

ThO2
ThH2

ThCl4

ThBr4


1.
Th(OH)4 = ThO2 + 2H2O

.. = 3220

2. ThIV
ThCl4 + 4NH3H2O = Th(OH)4 + 4NH4Cl

= 1042

Th(OH)4 + 4HNO3 = Th(NO3)4 + 4H2O


Th(OH)4 + 2H2SO4 = Th(SO4)2 + 4H2O
3. ThIV ,
Th(NO3)4 + 8H2O [Th(H2O)8]4+ + 4NO3
Th(OH)4 + CO2 = ThOCO3 + 2H2O

4.
4Th(NO3)4 + 6H2O2 + 2H2O = Th4O14 + 16HNO3


ThF4

ThCl4

ThBr4

ThI4

..,

1070

770

678

566

..,

1680

920

880

837

fH0298,
/
..

482

285

227

160

= 1025

ThF4 () + NH4F (-) = (NH4)3[ThF7]


ThF4 () + NH4F (-) = (NH4)4[ThF8]
ThCl4 + 2KCl = K2[ThCl6]

Zr
Hf



.. = 7
Th(NO3)4 + 3KNO3 = K3[Th(NO3)7]
.. = 8

[Th2(PO4)3]

Th(NO3)4 + 4(NH4)2C2O4 = (NH4)4[Th(C2O4)4] + 4NH4NO3


.. = 9
2Th(OH)4 + 2H3PO4 + NaH2PO4 = Na[Th2(PO4)3] + 8H2O
.. = 10
ThOCO3 + 4Na2CO3 + H2O = Na6[Th(CO3)5] + 2NaOH
Th(OH)4 + 5Na2CO3 = Na6[Th(CO3)5] 4NaOH
.. = 20
ThCl4 + 4Na(cp) = Th(cp)4 + 4NaCl

(IV)
1.
3ThI4 + Th = 4ThI3

, 700

15ThBr4 + 9Th = 4Th6Br15

, 850

15ThBr4 + 9Th + 4Fe = 4Th6(Fe)Br15


2.
2Th + 3S = Th2S3
3. ThIV
2Th(SO4)2 + 2HN3 = Th2(SO4)3 + 3N2 + H2SO4

Th6(Fe)Br15

ThIII


1.
3U + 4O2 = U3O8

..

U + 2H2O = UO2 + 2H2 200


2U + 3H2 = 2UH3

(to)

UO2(NO3)2

2.
U + F2 = UF6

UVI

U + 5/2Cl2 = UCl5 UV
U + 2Br2 = UBr4

UIV

U + 3/2I2 = UI3

UIII


UO2Br

3.
U + 4HCl = UCl4 + 2H2

UIV

U + 4HNO3 = UO2(NO3)2 + 2NO + 2H2O

UVI

(VI)
1. UF6
UF6 + H2O = UOF4 + 2HF
2. UVI
3U3O8 + 20HNO3 () = 9UO2(NO3)2 + 2NO + 10H2O
3U3O8 + 18HCl + 2HNO3 = 9UO2Cl2 + 2NO + 10H2O
3. UVI
UO2(NO3)2 + 2H2O2 = UO2(O2)H2O + 2HNO3

d(UO) = 188 , d(UO) = 223


[UO2(H2O)6]2+

(VI)
4. UVI
UO2(NO3)2 + 2NaOH = UO2(OH)2 + 2NaNO3

= 1022

UO2(OH)2 = UO3 + H2O 420

U2O72- Rb2U2O7

UO3 + H2O = UO2(OH)2 , ..


2UO2(NO3)2 + 6KOH = K2U2O7 + 4KNO3 + 3H2O

K2U2O7 + 4HCl = 2UO2Cl2 + 2NH4Cl + H2O

(VI)
UVI d-
Rb2U2O7 + 6Rb2CO3 + 3H2O = 2Rb4[UO2(CO3)3] + 6RbOH
UO2(CH3COO)2 + Zn(CH3COO)2 = Zn[UO2(CH3COO)3]2
,
3Zn[UO2(CH3COO)3]2 + 2NaCl + 6H2O =
2NaZn[UO2(CH3COO)3]36H2O + ZnCl2

K2U2O7 + 10KNCS + 3H2O = 2K3[UO2(NCS)5] + 6KOH

[UO2(NCS)5]3
[UO2(CO3)3]4

..
1.
U3O8 + 2CO = 3UO2 + 2CO2

U3O8 + 2H2 = 3UO2 + 2H2O

UO2 -, .. = 2775
2. UIV
UO2 + 4HF = UF4 + 2H2O , = 61022, ..=1309
UO2SO4 + Zn + 2H2SO4 = U(SO4)2 + ZnSO4 + 2H2O
U(SO4)2 + 4KOH = U(OH)4 + 2K2SO4

= 1052

U(OH)4
3. UIV
5U(SO4)2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O = 5UO2SO4 + K2SO4 + 2MnSO4
+ 2H2SO4
a

2U(SO4)2 + H2O U2(SO4)3 + O2 + H2SO4

Red/Ox
1. = 0
UO22+

+0.33

2.
= 0

U4+

0.61

1.80

U3+

2 nE
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
0

U0
Cr
Mo
W


1. Pu -,

2Pu + 6HCl = 2PuCl3 + 3H2
Pu3+
2. Pu ..

PuCl3

Pu + 3K2S2O8 + 4H2O = K2PuO4 + 2K2SO4 + 4H2SO4

PuVI

Pu + O2 = PuO2

(to)

PuIV

2Pu + 3Cl2 = 2PuCl3

(to)

PuIII

Pu + H2 = PuH2

(to)

PuII

3. +3 +4

An

(2011)

(1986)