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CPE2004:Chapter1

ResistiveCircuits
Week1:Lecture1,2
SimpleResistiveCircuits
Basicconceptsandlawsfundamentaltocircuit
analysis:
linearcircuitelements Resistors,Capacitors&
Inductances
Resistance&OhmsLaw
KirchhoffsLaws(KVL,KCL)
VoltageandCurrentDivision
VariousCombinationsofResistors
CircuitsContainingDependentSources
Resistor&Resistance
OhmsLaw
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
LinearCircuitElements
Resistor
Aresistorisatwoterminalelectronic
component.
Itisalinearpassivecircuitelementthat
givesafixedresistancevalue(standard
values)
Resistorsareelementsofelectrical
networksandelectroniccircuitsandare
ubiquitousinmostelectronicequipment.
Practicalresistorscanbemadeofvarious
compoundsandfilms,aswellasresistance
wire(wiremadeofahighresistivityalloy,
suchasnickel/chrome).
ElectronicSymbol
(Europe)
(US)
LinearCircuitElements
Capacitor
Acapacitorisatwoterminalelectronic
component.
Itisalinearpassivecircuitelementthatgivesa
fixedimpedancevalue(standardvalues)
Capacitorsareelementsofelectricalnetworks
andelectroniccircuitsandareinmost
electronicequipment.
Mosttypesofcapacitorincludeadielectric
spacer,whichincreasestheircapacitance.
Thesedielectricsaremostofteninsulators.
However,lowcapacitancedevicesareavailable
withavacuumbetweentheirplates,which
allowsextremelyhighvoltageoperationand
lowlosses.
ElectronicSymbol
LinearCircuitElements
Inductor
Aninductorisatwoterminalelectronic
component.
Itisalinearpassivecircuitelementthat
givesafixedimpedancevalue(standard
values)
Inductorsareelementsofelectrical
networksandelectroniccircuitsandin
manyelectronicequipment.
ElectronicSymbol
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Resistance
SymbolR
Unit=ohm()
Conductance
InverseofResistance
Unit=siemens (S)ormho.
OhmsLawistherefore: v =IR
or i =Gv
G
R
=
1
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
IfRisconstant,thenthevi characteristicislinear:
Circuitconventionused similartothepassivesignconvention inChapter1.
(*Note:i enters the+ve voltageterminaloftheresistor.)
cct
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Thereareotherelectroniccct elements(e.g.diodes)that
exhibitanonlinearresistancecharacteristics(Risnot
constant):thevoltagecurrentrelationshipisnotastraight
line.
i(t)
v(t)
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
OhmsLaw
Ohm'sLawshowstherelationshipbetweenthevoltage(V),
current(I)andresistance(R).
Foraconductor:
v =i R whereR> 0
v isvoltage(V),i iscurrent(A),andR isresistance(ohm,O).
V(t) =i(t) R
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
PowerDissipatedbyaResistor
Poweris:P =v i
Therefore:
P Ri
v
R
= =
2
2
P Gv
i
G
= =
2
2
cct
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
VariableResistor(Potentiometer)
aresistorwithvariableresistance,
representedbyanarrowthroughresistor
symbol.
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Opencircuit(o/c)
As/ciscreatedbetweentwopointsA&Bwhentheyare
connectedbyazeroresistanceconductingpath.
i
AB
(o/c) = 0
R
AB
(s/c) =
v
AB
(s/c) = ? (depends on the cct)
cct
A
B
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Opencircuit(o/c)
V
S
R
1
(i)
R
1
R
3
R
2
V
S
V
O/C
(ii)
V
O/C
A
B
B
A
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Shortcircuit(s/c)
As/ciscreatedbetweentwopointsA&Bwhentheyare
connectedbyazeroresistanceconductingpath.
cct
v
AB
(s/c) = 0
R
AB
(s/c) = 0
i
AB
(s/c) = ? (depends on the cct)
B
A
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Shortcircuit(s/c)
V
S
R
1
(i)
R
1
R
3
R
2
V
S I
S/C
(ii)
I
S/C
A
A
B
B
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Example11
Findincircuit(a),thecurrenti andthepowerabsorbedbythe
resistor,andincircuit(b),thevoltageacrossthecurrentsourceand
thepowersuppliedbythesource.
i =12/40k=0.3mA
P
absorbed
=vxi =12(0.3m)
=3.6mW
(also=i
2
Rorv
2
/R)
(a)
i
+
_
Resistor/Resistance&OhmsLaw
Example11
Incircuit(b),thevoltageacrossthecurrentsourceandthepower
suppliedbythesource.
v
S
=0.6m(6k)=3.6V
P
supplied
=v
s
xi =3.6(0.6m)
=2.16mW
*Note:thevoltageacrossacurrentsourceisnotfixed itdependsonthesize
oftheloadconnected.
KirchhoffsVoltage
andCurrentLaws
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
KirchhoffsLaws
DefinitionofTerms
Node apointofconnectionof
twoormorecircuitelements.
Loop anyclosedpaththrough
thecircuitinwhichnonodeis
encounteredmorethanonce.
Mesh aloopthathasno
branchesacrossit.
Branch portionofacircuit
containingonlyasingleelement
andthenodesateachendof
thecircuitelement.
KirchhoffsLaws
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
Threewaystoputit(allthesame):
algebraicsumofcurrentsenteringanynodeorsurfaceiszero.
i.e. i
in
=0(consideralli enternode)
algebraicsumofcurrentsleavinganynodeorsurfaceiszero.
i.e. I
OUT
=0(consideralli leavenode)
sumofcurrentsenteringanodeorsurfaceisequaltothesumofcurrents
leavingthenodeorsurface.
i.e. i
in
= i
out
i
2
i
1
i
3
KirchhoffsLaws
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
Threewaystoputit(allthesame):
i
in
=0
I
OUT
=0
i
in
= i
out
i
2
i
1
i
3
i
1
=i
2
+i
3
(i
1)
+i
2
+i
3
=0
i
1
+(i
2
)+(i
3
)=0
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
ApplyingKCLtoCircuitNodes:
TheKCLequationforeachnodeis:
Node1: i
1
(t)=i
2
(t)+i
3
(t) (1)
Node2: i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)=i
4
(t) (2)
Node3: i
2
(t)+i
5
(t) i
4
(t) i
7
(t)=0 (3)
Node4: i
5
(t) i
3
(t) i
8
(t)=0 (4)
Node5:i
7
(t)+i
6
(t)=i
8
(t) (5)
NODE1
i
1
(t) i
2
(t) i
3
(t)=0 i
in
=0
i
2
(t)+i
3
(t) i
1
(t)=0 I
OUT
=0
i
1
(t)=i
2
(t)+i
3
(t) i
in
= i
out
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
*Note:
Youshouldgetthesameresultusinganyofthethree
interpretationsofKCL.
Manipulatingthefirst4equationswillgivethe5th
eqn the5equationsarenotlinearlyindependent.
Check:
Substituteeqns (1),(4)&(2)intoeqn (3)gives:
[i
1
(t) i
3
(t)]+[i
3
(t)+i
8
(t)] [i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)] i
7
(t)=0
i
8
(t) i
6
(t) i
7
(t)=0
i
8
(t)=i
6
(t)+i
7
(t) Thisiseqn (5) !
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
ApplyingKCLtoSurfaces:
Sometimes,agroupofinterconnectedcircuitelementscanbe
completelycontainedwithinaclosedsurface.
since the circuit elements do not store
any net charge, the sum of currents
entering a surface is equal to the sum
of those leaving that surface.
e.g. Applying this to surface S:
i
in
= i
out
i
2
(t)+i
5
(t)=i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)+i
7
(t)
S
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
ApplyingKCLtoSurfaces:
Sometimes,agroupofinterconnectedcircuitelementscanbe
completelycontainedwithinaclosedsurface.
since the circuit elements do not store
any net charge, the sum of currents
entering a surface is equal to the sum
of those leaving that surface.
e.g. Applying this to surface S:
i
in
= i
out
i
2
(t)+i
5
(t)=i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)+i
7
(t)
S
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
*Note:ThesameresultcanbeobtainedbyapplyingKCLto
nodes2&3:
Node2:i
4
(t)=i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)
Node3: i
2
(t)+i
5
(t)=i
4
(t)+i
7
(t)
Addingthetwoeqns gives:
i
2
(t)+i
5
(t)=i
1
(t)+i
6
(t)+i
7
(t)
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw(KCL)
Example12
Findtheunknowncurrentsinthecircuits. (AsimpleexampleonapplyingKCL)
KCL atnodeA:
i
in
= i
out
12mA=I
1
+4mA
I
1
=8mA
KCLatnodeB:
i
in
= i
out
I
1
=I
2
+3mA
8mA=I
2
+3mA I
2
=5mA
A B
KirchhoffsLaws
KirchhoffsVoltageLaw(KVL)
Twowaystoputit(allthesame):
algebraicsumofvoltagesaroundanyloop(clockwiseoranti
clockwise)iszero.
i.e. v=0
sumofvoltagesinasegmentofaloop=sumofvoltagesin
theremainingsegmentoftheloop.
e.g. V
AB
+V
BC
+V
CD
+V
DA
=0
or V
AB
+V
BC
=V
AD
+V
DC
B
C
A
D
V
A
+
_
B
v(t)
C
KirchhoffsVoltageLaw(KVL)
analogous
Electricfield Gravitationalfield
i.e. i.e.
V
BA
+V
CB
+V
AC
=0 mg(h
1
+h
2
)+mgh
2
+mgh
1
=0
A
h
1
h
2
B
C
0
) (
=


done work
A C B A
0
) (
=


done work
A C B A
KirchhoffsVoltageLaw(KVL)
Alternatively:
V
CA
+V
BC
+V
AB
=0
(ii)
i.e.V
AC
=V
BC
+V
AB
=V
AB
+V
BC
0
) (
=


done work
A B C A


=
) ( ) (

A B C A C
done work done work
KirchhoffsVoltageLaw(KVL)
Example23(AsimpleexampleonapplyingKVL)
IfV
BD
=1.5V,useKVL todeterminethevoltagesV
BC
andV
AC
in
thegivencircuit.
(i) Loop BCDB, KVL
V
BC
+ V
CD
+ V
DB
= 0
V
BC
+ (-6) + (-V
BD
) = 0
V
BC
- 6 -1.5 = 0
V
BC
= 7.5 V
(ii) LoopACDA, KVL
V
AC
+ V
CD
+ V
DA
= 0
V
AC
+ (-6) + (-12) = 0
V
AC
= 18V
A
B
C
D
+
+
+
VoltageandCurrent
Division
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
SingleLoopCircuits(SeriesCircuits)
Anexampleofasingleloopcircuitis:
i isthesame
v =v
R1
+v
R2
iR
S
=iR
1
+iR
2
R
S
=R
1
+R
2
Alltheelementscarrythesamecurrentandaresaidtobeinseries.
SingleLoopCircuits(SeriesCircuits)
VoltageDivision
UsingthecircuitaboveandKVL,
v
R1
+v
R2
v(t)=0
FromOhmsLaw,
v
R1
=R
1
i(t),v
R2
=R
2
i(t)
Therefore
v(t)=R
1
i(t)+R
2
i(t)
and
i t
v t
R R
( )
( )
=
+
1 2
SingleLoopCircuits(SeriesCircuits)
Wecanget
Thesourcevoltagev(t)isdividedbetweentheresistorsR
1
andR
2
indirectproportiontotheirresistances. thisisknownasthe
voltagedivision rule(orvoltagedivider).
ForNresistorsconnectedinseries,thevoltageofthei
th
resistor
isgivenby:
v
Ri
=v(t)xR
i
/(R
1
+R
2
++R
N
)
) (
) (
2 1
2
2 2
2 1
1
1 1
t v
R R
R
iR v
t v
R R
R
iR v
R
R
+
= =
+
= =
NOTE:
ThereisNOneedto
calculatethecurrentin
thisseriescct.
EquivalentCircuitwithMultipleSources
v(t)=v
1
(t) v
2
(t)+v
3
(t) v
4
(t) v
5
(t)
EquivalentvoltageofN voltagesourcesinseries=sumoftheindividual
voltagesources.
MultipleSource/ResistorNetworks
(ElementsinSeries)
EquivalentCircuitwithMultipleResistors
R
S
=R
1
+R
2
+R
3
++R
N
EquivalentresistanceofN resistorsinseries=sumoftheindividualresistances.
MultipleSource/ResistorNetworks
(ElementsinSeries)
A
B
SingleNodePairCircuits(//Circuits)
Anexampleofasinglenodecircuitis:
sharethesamevoltage
i =i
1
+i
2
G
p
=G
1
+G
2
Alltheelementssharethesamevoltageacrossthemandaresaidto
beinparallel.
SingleNodePairCircuits(//Circuits)
CurrentDivision
UsingthecircuitaboveandKCL,
i(t) =i
1
(t)+i
2
(t)
FromOhmsLaw,
where R
p
istheequivalentresistanceofthe2resistorsinparallel:
p
R
t v
R R
t v
R
t v
R
t v
t i
) (
1 1
) (
) ( ) (
) (
2 1 2 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + =
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1 1 1
R R
R R
R
R R
R R
R R R
p
p
+
=
+
== + =
) (
) ( ) (
2 1
2 1
t i
R R
R R
t i R t v
p
+
=
=
) (
) (
) (
2 1
2
1
1
t i
R R
R
R
t v
t i
+
=
=
) (
) (
) (
2 1
1
2
2
t i
R R
R
R
t v
t i
+
=
=
=
+
G
G G
i t
1
1 2
( ) =
+
G
G G
i t
2
1 2
( )
*Note: R
p
is always less than either R
1
or R
2
.
The currents in the branches are divided as:
This is known as the current-division rule (or current divider).
NOTE:
ThereisNOneedto
calculatethevoltagein
thisparallet cct.
For N resistors connected in parallel, the current of the i
th
resistor is given by:
i
i
= i(t) x G
i
/ ( G
1
+ G
2
+ +G
N
)
SingleNodePairCircuits(//Circuits)
Example14 Giventhenetwork,findI
1
,I
2
andV
0
.
Usingcurrentdivider:
I
1
={(40k+80k)/[(40k+80k)+60k]}0.9mA
=0.6mA
I
2
={60k/(60k+40k+80k)}0.9mA
=0.3mA
V
0
=I
2
x80k
=0.3mAx80k
=24V
MultipleSource/ResistorNetworks
(Elementsin//)
EquivalentCircuitwithMultipleSources
i
0
(t)=i
1
(t) i
3
(t)+i
4
(t) i
6
(t)
EquivalentofN currentsourcesinparallel=sumofthe
individualcurrentsources.
MultipleSource/ResistorNetworks
(Elementsin//)
EquivalentCircuitwithMultipleResistors
TheequivalentconductanceofN resistorsinparallelis:
1 1 1 1
1 2
R R R R
p N
= + + +
G G G G
p N
= + + +
1 2

VariousCombinations
ofResistors
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
SeriesParallelResistorCombinations
Example25
(a)DeterminetheresistanceR
AB
betweenterminalsAB.
(b)R
AB
=?ifas/cisconnectedacrossnodesCD?
D
C
E
F
SeriesParallelResistorCombinations
R
AB
=({[(1+2)//6+10]//6+2}//6+9)//4+2
=({[2+10]//6+2}//6+9)//4+2
=({4+2}//6+9)//4+2
=(3+9)//4+2
=3+2=5k
R
AB
=2+4//9
=2+9x4/(9+4)
=2+36/13
=2+2.77=4.77k
9k+3k=12k
9k
12V
+
_
A
B
E
6k
3k
4k
C
CircuitswithSeries//
CombinationsofResistors
Example17
Findallthecurrentsandvoltageslabeledintheladdernetwork.
D
A
B
C
E
I
2
= V
BE
/6k = 3/6k = 0.5 mA
I
3
= I
1
I
2
= 1- 0.5m = 0.5mA
V
CE
= I
3
x 3k = 0.5m x 3k
=1.5V = V
b
I
1
= 12/(9k + 3k) = 1 mA
V
BE
= I
1
x 3k = 3V = V
a
6k
9k
4k||12k=3k
12V
+
_
A
B
C
E
3k
9k
12V
+
_
A
B
E
6k||6k=3k
I
1
Working backwards
9k+3k=12k
9k
12V
+
_
A
B
E
6k
3k
4k
C
CircuitswithSeries//
CombinationsofResistors
Example17
Findallthecurrentsandvoltageslabeledintheladdernetwork.
D
A
B
C
E
V
DE
= I
5
x 3k
= 0.125mx3k
= 0.375 V = V
C
I
5
= V
CE
/12k = 1.5/12k
= 0.125mA
I
4
= V
CE
/4k =1.5/4k
= 0.375mA
CircuitswithSeries//
CombinationsofResistors
Example18
IfI
4
=0.5mA,findthesourcevoltageV
0
.
V
b
= I
4
x 6k = 0.5m x 6k =3V
I
3
= V
b
/(3k)= 3/(3k) = 1mA
I
2
= I
3
+ I
4
= 1m + 0.5m = 1.5mA
V
a
= I
2
x 2k = 1.5m x 2k = 3V
I
5
= (V
a
+ V
b
)/(3k + 1k) =
(3 + 3)/(4K) = 1.5 mA
I
1
= I
2
+ I
5
= 1.5m + 1.5m = 3mA
V
o
= I
1
x 6k + V
a
+ V
b
+ I
1
x 4k = 18 + 3 + 3 + 12 = 36V
Recap/Summary
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
Recap/Summary
Ohms Law:v =iR
Resistor is a linear cct element.
ConceptonS/C&O/C
v
AB
(s/c)=0 i
AB
(o/c)=0
R
AB
(s/c)=0 R
AB
(o/c)=
i
AB
(s/c)=? v
AB
(o/c)=?
[dependsonthe [dependsonthe
restofthecct] restofthecct]
B
A
i
AB
(s/c)
A
B
V
AB
(o/c)
KirchhoffsLaws
Somedefinitions node,loop,mesh,branch
KirchhoffsCurrentLaw:Atacct node,
i
in
=0
or i
out
=0
or i
in
= i
out
KirchhoffsVoltageLaw:Aroundaloop, v=0
orvinaloopsegment=vintheremainingloopsegment
i.e.V
AB
+V
BC
+V
CD
+V
DA
=0
or V
AB
+V
BC
=V
AD
+V
DC
i
2
i
1
i
3
B
C
A
D
V
+
+
+
Seriescct (singleloopcct)
Seriescct (singleloopcct) Cct elementscarrythesame
current.
VoltageDivider:
Formorethan2resistorsinseries:
v
Ri
=v(t)xR
i
/(R
1
+R
2
++R
N
)
V
T
=V
R1
+V
R2
R
S
=R
1
+R
2
) (
) (
2 1
2
2
2 1
1
1
t v
R R
R
v
t v
R R
R
v
R
R
+
=
+
=
MultipleSource/ResistorNetworks
Equivalentvoltagev=v
1
v
2
+v
3
v
4
EquivalentresistanceR
S
=R
1
+R
2
+R
3
V
1
R
2
R
1
V
2
R
3
V
3
R
S
V
4
V
i = i
1
+ i
2
G
p
= G
1
+ G
2
[or R
p
= R
1
||R
2
= R
1
R
2
/(R
1
+R
2
)]
) (
) (
) (
2 1
2
1
1
t i
R R
R
R
t v
t i
+
=
=
=
+
G
G G
i t
1
1 2
( )
) (
) (
) (
2 1
1
2
2
t i
R R
R
R
t v
t i
+
=
=
=
+
G
G G
i t
2
1 2
( )
Current Divider:
Parallel Ccts (Single-Node-Pair Ccts) same voltage across
i
R
2
R
1
i
2
i
1
For more than 2 resistors in //: i
i
= i(t) x G
i
/(G
1
+ G
2
+ +G
N
)
Multiple Source/Resistor Networks
Equivalent current i = i
1
i
2
i
3
Equivalent conductance G
p
= G
1
+ G
2
+ G
3
Series-// Resistor Combinations
R
1
R
2
i
3
i
1
i
2 R
3
R
p
i
R
AB
R
AB
A
A
B B
Ladder Networks
To find v &i of cct branches:
1. Reduce the cct to the simplest form
2. Work backward to find all v &i
e.g.
V
S
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
6
V
S
R
4
R
5
R
6
) ( ||
2 1 3
R R R +
R
6
V
S
)] ( || [ ||
2 1 3 4 5
R R R R R + +
)] ( || [ ||
2 1 3 4 5 6
R R R R R R + + +
V
S
Extras
Chapter1:SimpleResistiveCircuits
ExtraExamples
E2-1 Find V
x
in the given circuit using:
1.KVL
2.Voltage divider rule
[Ans: 5V]
E2-2 Determine V
o
in the given circuit.
[Ans: 2V]
E2-3 Find V
o
in the given circuit.
[Ans: 4V]
E2-4 Find V
o
in the given circuit.
[Ans: 12V]
E2-5 Find V
o
in the given circuit.
[Ans: 2V]
E2-6 Find the power absorbed by the 10-kO resistor in the given
circuit.
[Ans: 10 mW]
X
X
E2-7 The load circuit shown below
has four externally accessible
terminals P, Q, R and S.
1. Taking two terminals at a time,
what are the possible sets of
resistance value that can be
obtained from this load circuit?
Determine all these resistance
values.
2. If a 2-V voltage source is to be
connected across any two
terminals of the load circuit, what
is the maximum load current?
Determine also all the resistor
currents when this happens.
Q
R
P
4O
8O
4O
6O
1O
1O
X
Y
S
Resistortypes
Film resistors
Fixed composition resistors
5.3k,10%, 20M, 5%
Resistor preferred values
1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.2, 2.7, 3.3, 3.9, 4.7, 5.6, 6.8, 8.2
Resistorcolorcode
Conductivity of various conductors
With earth connection
Without earth connection s/c fault