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Subsecretara de Desarrollo Rural

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Elaboracin de quesos tipo Panela y Oaxaca

14

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obtenermayoresingresosymejorarlaalimentacin.LosquesostipoPanelayOaxacatienenya unmercado =>EAHJ F H GKA IK A => H=?E FKA@A HAIK J=H KO HA@EJK=> A F=H=
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Introduccin
2=H= = A => H=?E @A ?K= GKEAH JEF FH ?A@E @A GKAI = HA?AF?E A = EIEI @A ?= E@=@ O = F=IJAKHE =?E @A = A?DA I EA J I HKJE =HE I GKA @A>A >IAHL=HIA ?KE@=@ I= A JA

Queso tipo Panela


-IJA FH @K?J AI K GKAI BHAI? A => H=@ ? A?DA =JKH= @A L=?= F=IJAKHE =@= =@= =?E@EBE?=@= O GKA FKA@A IAH A JAH= F=H?E= A JA @AI?HA

I GKAI

I BHAI?

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Anlisis de la leche recibida


= ?= E@=@ @A = A?DA FKA@A IAH A ?=I @A K = E?H A I A@E@= F H A@E @A @ELAHI=I FHKA>=I E @E?=@ I @A A?DA = @ = FH @A H=I -

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Acidez titulable
= FHKA>= @A = =?E@A >H ?= = =?E@A JEJK => A B H = F=HJA @A AN= A > IE? @A = ?= E@=@ @A = A?DA F=H= AL=H A F0 @A = AI H A JEJK => A F A= @ E@A = ?= JE@=@ @A BA BJ= A = ? ?= E E @E?=@ ?E@ A?AI=HE H

A?DA D=IJ= & " A ANFHAI=@ FHE ?EFE NE? F

CA AH= +

A JA A HAIK J=@ = JAHE

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= @A IE@=@ GKA IA HAIK J= @A @ELE@EH = =CK= = K = JA JA FAH=JKH= @A =@= ? E@A A =I= @A K = L A?DA AI K A = @A IE@=@ HA =JEL= = JA E@ F=H=?E LA ?E = AI @A?EH A L I J ? K ?EA JA GKA A ECK= @A = @A A?DA A JHA = ? A ? =I= @A K @A I E@ FAH=JKH= @=@= 5A HA =?E B KE@ K = JA F H A J= AI O ?

F=H= GKA IK ?

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A JA AIJ=> A?E@= = # + GKA J= >E IA FKA@A

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A JA JEA A K = @A IE@=@ @A  ! JHE? I 3KALA A 3 L C ! 3 +

AIJ= FHKA>= IA FKA@A

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Material, equipo y reactivos


 FH >AJ= @A # @A I AJH AJH  =?J  JAH

Procedimiento
5A =CEJ= = A?DA O IA @AF B H =?E @A AIFK HAF I = IEJ= A K = FH =?J >AJ= HAI>= = @ @A I AJH F H =I F=HA@AI ALEJ= @ FAGKA CEH =I = 5A DK @A A ?A@A = O IA A @= K ELA F @A +K= @ A EI? H = =

GKA@= A ? HHA??E

IA FH

AAH

= AI?= = =

= F=HJA = J= @A

@A = JA

FAH=JKH= A

AIJ= FHKA>= AI E 6 A

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FAH=JKH= = ? HHAIF

F=H= AIJ= @AJAH ? HHA??E @A L=

E =?E HAI

AI @A # +

FAH=JKH=I @EIJE J=I HAGKEAHA

@EA JA

= ?

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H JA

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= AH=

IE = JA

FAH=JKH= @A =

A?DA AI ?K= @

H @A # +

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H K = AI

  6

#

FAH=JKH= @A = A?DA IA=

H = # + = B

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Pasteurizacin de la leche
= F=IJAKHE =?E F=J CA AI K FH ?AI J H E? GKA IA HA= E = F=H= A E E =H I E?H E?=I @A HC= EI IJ= I

I FHAIA JAI A

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= JAH=H =I FH

FEA@=@AI B IE?=I O GK

@  I

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F=H= A E )?JK=

E =H F=J

CA

I AI A ?= A J=

EA J

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@KH= JA IACK @

A JA

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+K= @ HA?

?=FEJ=

@A

= A IEIJA

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FAH

EJA E LAHJEH A =H = @A

IEIJA

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IA

EA @= D=?AH K > JA J=

= IECKEA JA

A?AIEJ= K = IOK =

F=HHE = K JE = @A @A = K E E

= AH

@A =?AH E E

NE@=> A ?

?=F=?E@=@ F=H=

I @A  EJH

E = AI

@A = K = =

ANJA @E@= A

=I JEA @= AIFA?E= E =@=I = =I JE =I ANJA @E@=I ?= I >HA = F=HHE = O IA I O I >HA IJ I A = K = A > JA

>K@E AH=I A A B @

= >K@E AH= IA ? IA @AF IEJ= K

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I JHAI =@HE

"

5EIJA = @A )CH AC ?E I 2A?K=HE I

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= AH

GKA ?

JEA A = = A?DA )I IA A >=HC AI

CH= GKA A ?=

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EJ= FHE

AH A =

= =CK= O H A ?= I FAH H EJA

@AIFK I = = A?DA IE ,A AIJ= B H

A?AI=HE

=CEJ=H = A?DA F=H= @EIJHE>KEH

= IA HA= E = = F=IJAKHE =?E IJ= JA F H I JEA F = JA

A J= @A = A?DA FKAI AIJA IEIJA FAH=JKH= @A = A?DA K = LA

= JA AH ? B = =

GKA IA =F=CKA =

Enfriamiento de la leche
,AIFK I @A = F=IJAKHE =?E @A ?K= -I E F = A?DA @A>A IAH A BHE=@= D=IJ= ! = F=IJAKHE =?E H=?E O A + F=H= = =F E?=?E EA J IA =CEJA @A I=> HAI O

HJ= JA GKA @KH= JA

A BHE=

= AH= ?

IJ= JA = A?DA F=H= B=L A GKAI

HA?AH = AL=F

@A C=IAI GKA CA AH=

HAI @AI=CH=@=> AI A

Aplicacin del cuajo


- ?K=  IA =F E?= K = LA @A ?K= GKA = JA FAH=JKH= @A = A?DA IA BE = A H ?=@=  I=H EJH I @A A?DA ! ! + 5A =F E?= A JA =

BKAH =    F >EA

IA =CEJ= >HALA

A?DA F=H= @EIJHE>KEH

O IA @A = HAF

2=H= @AJAH A JEA JEF ?K?DE F

E =H A I= A J J=

A J A JA E

FJE FE

@A ?K= =@

IA E JH

@K?A K

?K?DE HJ=HIA A JHA

= ?K= =@= IE H = A JA A HAI @A

= ?K= =@= AIJ E KJ I

EIJ= F=H= ?

@A ?K= =@ O @A L

L=H = A JHA # O !# K A @A A?DA

@AFA @EA @

JH

I B=?J

@A ?K=

Corte de la cuajada
5A HA? EA @= GKA A ? HJA @A = ?K= =@= E HJA NE@=> A A H=

IA D=C= ? D HE

EH=I @A =?AH - ?

J= AI O LAHJE?= AI IEIJA ?E= @A AH A

= ?

= ?K= =@= B H = D

5A @A>A HE J= O

HA= E =H FHE KAC D= IE@ B=IA IA O A IKAH A ? B H

= LAHJE?= =

) = ?K= =@= GKA = CH= @K?J I AIJ=

HJ=@= IA A >JEA A @

I FH

A CH=

2=IJ HA 4 J=?E = 1 JA IEL

Tratamiento de la cuajada
,AIFK I @A ? IK=LA E KJ HJ=@= IA @A = HAF I=H @A # =  D=IJ= !& + I=H # E KJ A J= E KJ I 5A =CEJ= # E KJ I KO

A JA O IA E E?E= A ?= A J=

EA J

A JA I I

E@A= AI  + ?=@= #

I F=H= @=H A JANJKH= ,AIFK I IA @A = HAF

- HA @E

EA J

@A GKAI

2= A = AI =FH

NE

=@=

A JA @A #

I F

H ?=@=  EJH

I @A

A?DA JH=J=@=

Desuerado y salado
- IKAH = ? >EA IA HAJEH= ?=IE A KA A ? IK J J= E@=@ =I = I = ?K= =@= IA K J= A K ANJHA @A HA?EFEA JA GKA ?KE@= @ A @=?E GKA GKA@A FKA@A IAH

JEA A O IA @EIJHE>KE@=

IACKE@= IA =CHAC= = I= A CKIJ K = HA?

= ?= JE@=@ @A I= L=H = IAC @A A?DA FH ?AI=@=

 C @A I= F

H ?=@= EJH

Moldeado
I @A F B H = @AI FKA@A IJE? ? B H IAH ?= =IJ I K I I =O @AI JH= @A

= @A ?= =IJ I ?= =IJ @A AI

/A AH= O K = E

A JA 5E A

A@E E

H @A

I IA A

= F= A =

*EA # = 5A L K

A  JA= FAHE

I ?= =IJ E KJ I = JA

I IA @A =

AI?KHHEH @A >EA JA I=H F H

FAH=JKH= = HAF

I GKAI @ @A >

I O IA @A = ! D IJE?

H=I

= JAI

@A

A L=I=HIA A HABHECAH=?E

I= @A F

O CK=H@=H A

HA @E =@=

EA J

@A GKAI E I F

2= A = AI =FH

NE I

A JA @A #

H ?=@=  EJH

@A A?DA JH=J=@=

5EIJA = @A )CH AC ?E I 2A?K=HE I

Queso tipo Oaxaca


= CH= =O H = @A A => H=?E AI @A GKAI =N=?= @A =N=?= IA D=?A A?DA ?HK@= ? = F=HJEH @A A?DA ?HK@= GKAI F=IJAKHE =@ =  5A?HAJ=H = @A 5= K@ =?AFJ= = J = @ A ?KA J= GKA IA A

F A= =CK= ?= EA JA F=H= A BK @E@

@A AIJA GKAI

- FH ?

?AI

F=H= A => J= >E

H=H AIJA JEF =I ?

@A GKAI AI ?AI

FHA @A

IE@AH=?E FH

@AI?HEJ=I F=H= A @A HA?AF?E EI = O

GKAI A@E?E

F= A =

@A = ?= E@=@ AI A ?E= ? H=@E?= IA A IJH=H = =

@EBAHA

= KB=?JKH= @A GKAI ? JE K=?E

Acidificacin de la leche
= =?E@EBE?=?E @A = A?DA FKA@A HA= E =HIA @A @ IB H =I

Acidificacin natural
K HA?EFEA JA @A =?AH EA J = = CK E NE@=> A @A = K @KH= JA & = E E H=I @A F EA J IJE? = A?DA @A>A HAF @ = B A I=H IE HA?E>EH JH=J= =JKH= =?E@A FH @A " D AIJA FAHE FH L H= >=?JAHE= = =K A J A =

A?DA E E?E= IK =?JELE@=@ @A ?HA?E @A = DK =

?= @ = JA

KC=HAI @ AI =O H @A

A@=@ HA =JEL= AI = J= O A?DA @A = H@A = @A =

FAH=JKH= =

>EA JA =H =

A@E

 +

= = = FKA@A = ?= ?AI=H = F

=?E@A

A?AI=HE= !

!# , = JAI @A & D

H=I O AIJ=H EIJ= F=H= FH

H = J=H@A

5E = A?DA @A =H A HAGKAHE@= E F HAF

D= = ?= I

=@ F

= =?E@A ?=I +

A?AI=HE=  @A GKA >=IA A AH @ = A ?AI=H HAF =

, F=H= A FH

?AI

IA @A>A = =?E@A J @ AI

I JEA

A?DA D=O= I = JAHE I

>HAF=I=@

IA =@E?E

= A?DA BHAI?=

H IE IA IECKA AIJA

HJ= JA @A =H J I @ I JEF IB

@= = A?DA @A FHE I @A A?DA F=H= FH ?E @A CH=H

@A AIJ=

= AH= A IECKEA JA @ = H@A = @A @ = O =

JA @HA

?E@= O BHAI?= @A =

A ? = IAH

Acidificacin con cido actico glacial


-IJA J @ @A =?E@EBE?=?E EJ= ? IEIJA A =H =CHAC=H I! ?KAIJE ?E@ =? JE? F I C =?E= = = A?DA A ?= JE@=@AI J= AI GKA FAH B H = IA = ?= = = =?E@A = ?= !# , -I E @A E KJ HJ= JA @AIJ=?=H GKA @A AIJ=

A?AI=HE= A

2=IJ HA 4 J=?E = 1 JA IEL

ANEIJA K = ?= JE@=@ AIJ=> A?E@= @A A?DA O @A = BKAH = @A  EJH ! @A ?E@ F ?E@ > IE?=

?E@

GKA IA @A>= =CHAC=H = = A?DA ?JE? I IA HA?

@AFA @A @A = A F =H ? H ?=@=

A JA 2=H= BE AI FH A?AI=HE

EA @= ? @A ?E@

H ?=@= EJH

@A A?DA O @A IAH HHAIF

=CHAC=H  D=IJ=

@A A?DA !# ,

HA= E = @

=I ?

@EA JAI FHKA>=I @A =?E@A

CH=H =

A?AI=HE=

= @EBAHA ?E= A JHA A > IE?= I = ?= E?H = A JA GKA A HC= EI = @AI=HH

FHE

AH O IACK @ AH J @

HAIFA?J = I=>

FH

@K?J

GKA IA

>JEA A

AI

A FHE

IA @AI=HH A A I

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= = ?=KI= @A = =?JELE@=@ @A AIJ=I ?=H=?JAH IJE?=I A JA ?KE@=@ >KA J @ GKAIAH I A ? IA =

I GKA IA A ?KA JH= =H J J= @A A JA 5E

= A?DA O A >=HC =I E F I?

A IACK @

IA @A>A JA AH AIFA?E= HJ= JAI @A FH ?AI I@ 7 I

=?E@EBE?=?E

FKAI AI K

I FK J

?EAHJ= ANFAHEA ?E= FKA@A

CH=H >KA

I GKAI

?K= GKEAH= @A

Calentamiento de la leche
7 = LA =?E@EBE?=@= = A?DA IA @A>A ?= A J=H D=IJ= AC=H = K = JA K A L A AC=H = ! ! + ? A BE @A F @AH

=F E?=H A ?K= ? IE@AH=H A L

2=H= ?= A J=H = A?DA O K A = ?= A J=H 5E A L EA J A ?= >E I ? K?E A IAH A J IE

FAH=JKH= HA =JEL=

A JA >= = IA @A>A JA A I A A B I ? H=?E K @ I @A =I

@A A?DA AI CH= @A O

HA?EFEA JA A ?= A J= HA?EFEA JA HA?E>A J FH JA =I IKBH= @K?J K A @ ?=

>=HC

= A?DA GKA IA A ?KA JH= A I ? EA J AI F A JAI I I A E@

H O FKA@A FH

?=H GKA = CK ?=IE H ANEIJA  AI F ? ? A @ O

IE@AH=> AI O =H = JAHE

HA @E I F?E

I >=

= A =>

BE = @A FH

2=H= I

5E A L ?

@A A?DA 

I @A 

= A => A

IA @A>A =CEJ=H @A H IA @EIJHE>KO= @A

= AH= = AH=

IJ= JA = A?DA ID C A=

EA JH=I IA ?= EA J=

A BE

@A GKA A ?=

5E A L >=

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AI HA?

A @=> A KI=H K

IEIJA

= @A

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Aplicacin del cuajo y corte de la cuajada


-IJ I @ I F=I I I IE E =HAI GKA I O= @AI?HEJ I F=H= A GKAI JEF F= A =

Trabajo del grano y reposo


JH=>= @A CH= @A JH NE =@= ? IEIJA A @A A JA ? EI ? AIJ I =CEJ=H IKAH A BE LE @A = AH= IK=LA E KJ ?KAHF A CH= I =FH O ? @KH= JA # @A EA J @=H A I IA

IEIJA ?E=

&

5EIJA = @A )CH AC ?E I 2A?K=HE I

A E

E = F=HJA @A A

= DK

A@=@ GKA ? IECKA @AI=HH

JEA A A = @

CH= I=>

,KH= JA H O =H =

= =CEJ=?E F HJ= JA

=I >=?JAHE=I = JA AH =

FHAIA JAI A JA

CH= +

-I E

FAH=JKH= = !

Desuerado
,KH= JA A A E ? E =?E HAF @A I = A =O CH= IA =IEA J= A IKAH A B @ @A -I HA?EFEA JA A?AI=HE - CH= GKA B=?E EJ= = = =

H F=HJA @A I CH=

! " F=HJAI EH A

JA AH =

K =

=@AH= F=H= @AJA AH NE =@=

I GKA FKA@=

A IKAH

= BE = GKA@= ?

=FH

A JA  " @A J

J= @A IKAH

Prueba de estirado
7 BH=C A J =I=H J @A = ?K= =@= IA >=JA ? =CK= = % & + 5E IA AIJEH= O= IA A FHE AH AC J @ = FK J 

F=H= =

@= = ?K= =@= -IJ= FHKA>= IA @A>A HA= E =H A F=H= LAHEBE?=H GKA =I >=?JAHE=I IA @A = HAF I=H K =JKH= AI D=O= JEA F =O

@AIFK I A =

@A @AIKAH=@ ?K= =@=

= JA E@

= =?E@A

5E A B= J= A CH= AIJA ?=I

H D=IJ= GKA = ?= ?A A FK J FAHE ?E@ ?E@ @ @A JEA F  AIJ= =

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Bibliografa
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Responsable de la Ficha
Ing. Andrs Apango Ortiz
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