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517.

958

. .


, . : , , , , . ,
.

1. (., , [13])
 2  2  2

+
+
= 2
,
x
y
z
v (x, y, z)

(1)

, ,
t = (x, y, z)

v(x, y, z) =

a(x, y, z)utt = (b(x, y, z)ux )x .


a(x, y, z)/b(x, y, z) -

(x, y, z) . (1)
[46].
, [7, 8], . [7]
, ,
.
( 15- [7], 46-
, [8]).
,
,
4- .
(1), . , , ( (x, y, x, ))

, ,
( N E02-1.0-46), ( 02-01-00307, 04-01-00697, 04-01-00049),
( .04.01.004) -1643.2003.1
ISSN 1818-7943. . : , , . 2006. . 6, . 4. C. 342.
c . . , 2006.


. .

. , .
-. , , .
,
.
, ,
, . , , , .
,
, .
,

. ,
.
2. .

, , , ,
( ), , . ,
,
. , , , (
(1)) .
,
. . [9, 10].
(, (1)) ,
. , , .
( ) , . . , , .
1. (1)
(x, y, z) .
. , ?
.

(1) (
(
v(x, y, z)) ,
, ) , . ,
.
,
. ,

, , .
,
.
, C 1 - ,
,
.
. IRn ,
,
, .
,
, , ,
.
,
, . , , (, ) , .
,
: ;
: ,
( ), ;

,
.
, , , -

. .

. , ,
, , , .
. , , ,
, .
( , , , )
-
( , )
.
2.
,
( ) . C 1 -
,
.
,
: . 14 , .
: , ,
.
2 .
3. (1)
.
3. . , , .
,
. , , ,
, .
(1)
.

, ,
. , -

, (
), ,
, , ,
.
,
-
, .
, . , , V (x), , (, V (1) = 1, V  (1) = 1, V  (1) = 1),
, V (x) x V .
4. (1) ( ,
IIV ,
, V ).
I. 15-
:
v(x, y, z) 1,
v(x, y, z) = x,

v(x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 ,

(I.1)

v(x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 1,

(I.2)

v(x, y, z) = x + y + z + 1

(I.3)

II. 4- ( V (x)) .


x
2
2
2
(II.1)
v(x, y, z) = V (x), v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z )V
x2 + y 2 + z 2
V ()
,



1
2
2
2
2
2
2
ln(x + y + z ) ,
v(x, y, z) = x + y + z V
2



1 (x 1)2 + y 2 + z 2
2
2
2
2
2
v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z + 1) 4x V
ln
2 (x + 1)2 + y 2 + z 2

(II.2)

V ()
,


y
,
v(x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 V arctg
x


2
2
2
2
2
v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z 1) + 4x V arctg

x
1 x2 y 2 z 2

V () .

(II.3)

. .
III. 6- -

II. , V () :
V (r) w,
V (r) =

V (r) = wr,

wekr ,

V (r) = w cos(kr + h),

V (r) = w sh(kr + h), V (r) = w ch(kr + h),

(III)

(II.1) , w = k = 1, h = 0, (II.2) w = 1, h = 0, (II.3)


w = 1.
IV. 5-
( k)
v(x, y, z) = x1+k ,

v(x, y, z) =

x1+k
.
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )k

(IV)

V. 8 ( ) .



2x

v(x, y, z) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1) exp k arctg 2


(x + y 2 + z 2 1)
 2

(V.1)
(x + y 2 + z 2 1)2 + 4x2
y
2x
V
+
2
arctg
,
,
arctg
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1)2
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1)
z
k, = 0, 1/2
V (, )
.



2x

v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z + 1) exp k arctg 2


(x + y 2 + z 2 1)
 2
(x + y 2 + z 2 1)2 + 4x2 1 2y(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1) + 4xz
V
,
,
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1)2
2
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1)2

4xy 2z(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1)
, (V.2)
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1)2
2

k
V (, , ), , .


x2
y
, arctg ln x ,
(V.3)
v(x, y, z) = x V
y2 + z2
z
k, = 0
1k

V (, )
.


y
y  2
V y + z 2 , x arctg
,
v(x, y, z) = exp k arctg
z
z

(V.4)

k V (, )

.



y
(V.5)
v(x, y, z) = exp k arctg
V (x, y 2 + z 2 ),
z
k V (x, r)
, , , (x2 r2 )x +2xrr , .

v(x, y, z) = V (x, y, z),

V (tx, ty, tz) = tk V (x, y, z)

(V.6)

v(x, y, z) = ex V (y, z),

(V.7)

V (y, z)
.

v(x, y, z) = V (y, z),

(V.8)

V (y, z)
, .
- , ,
, .
4. . , [10], : ,
( ),
(x, y, z, , v)
= x + y + z + + v ,

(2)

, , , , , x, y, z, v ( ,
v , ,
),
1 = x + y + z + + v + x + y + z

x
y
z

(3)

10

. .

(x, y, z,, v,x ,y ,z ) ( x , y , z , , )


1 F |F =0 = 0,

(4)

F ( (1)).
(4) , (2). v
: (x, y, z, , v)
v (x, y, z).
:
v = 0,

(5)

(2)
vx vy vz = 0.

(6)

, (4), ,
(x, y, z, , v, vx , vy , vz , v ).
(x, y, z, , x , y , z ),
( (1) (5)) v.
.
, .
, v = v(x, y, z),
( ). ,
v = v(x, y, z) (4), v.
, ,
.
5. 1. (4) (1)
2x x + 2y y + 2z z + 2

v 3 (x, y, z)

= 0,


x = x + x + v vx x (x + x + v vx )
y (x + x + v vx ) z (x + x + v vx ),
y = y + y + v vy x (y + y + v vy )
y (y + y + v vy ) z (y + y + v vy ),
z

= z + z + v vz x (z + z + v vz )
y (z + z + v vz ) z (z + z + v vz ),

11


1
1
( x + y + z ) 2 + x (x + v vx ) + y (y + v vy ) + z (z + v vz )
v2
v
x2 (x + v vx ) x y (x + v vx ) x z (x + v vx ) x y (y + v vy ) y2 (y + v vy )

y z (y + v vy ) x z (z + v vz ) y z (z + v vz ) z2 (z + v vz ) + 3 = 0,
v

, (1).
x , y , z , (1)
x , y , z ,
,

,
v
z + v vz + y + v vy = 0,

x + v vx = y + v vy = z + v vz = +
x + v vx + y + v vy = 0,

x + v vx + z + v vz = 0,

x + v vx = /v 2 ,

y + v vy = /v 2 ,

z + v vz = /v 2 ,

(7)
(8)
(9)

(6).

vx , vy , vz . (7) , v =
= v = v = 0, (9) v = 0, . . ( ) v .
(9), v, x = y = z = = =
= = 0, . . , , x, y, z. (7)(8)
(x, y, z).
,
= a(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2bxy + 2cxz + dx + gy f z + h,
= b(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2axy + 2cyz gx + dy + ez + i,
=

c(z 2

x2

y2)

(10)

+ 2axz + 2byz + f x ey + dz + j.

= = = 0 , (6), = 0,
(7) : = v(x ), , , ,
= 0. , :

= m + l,

(11)

= v(2ax + 2by + 2cz + d m).

(12)

, v x, y, z , v,
, .
,
(x, y, z) . .
6. 2 : ( t)

12

. .

- . , .
1. X IRn Fi (X) : IRn IRn (i = 1, . . . , m) . m ai ( ) : IR IR
X(0) = X0
X = a1 ( )F1 (X) + a2 ( )F2 (X) + + am ( )Fm (X)

(13)

[0, T ] X0 . ,
ai ( ), . . K  > 0 ,
- K , > 0,
- bi ( ) , |ai ( ) bi ( )| < [0, T ] (13)
X(0) = X0
X = b1 ( )F1 (X) + b2 ( )F2 (X) + + bm ( )Fm (X),

(14)

(13)
(14) ,  [0, T ] X0 K.
X k (14)

[b1 (s)F1 (X(s)) + b2 (s)F2 (X(s)) + + bm (s)Fm (X(s))] ds
X( ) = X0 +

(15)

(Y )

Y ( ) = I +
0

[b1 (s)F1 (X(s)) + b2 (s)F2 (X(s)) + + bm (s)Fm (X(s))]Y (s) ds. (15 )

)
X 0 ( ) X(
(13)

[a1 (s)F1 (X(s)) + a2 (s)F2 (X(s)) + + am (s)Fm (X(s))] ds,
X( ) = X0 +

(16)

[0, T ] ,
(15 )

[a1 (s)F1 (X(s)) + a2 (s)F2 (X(s)) + + am (s)Fm (X(s))]Y (s) ds. (16 )
Y ( ) = I +
0

K,T -
(13) K, M = M (K, , T ) Fi (x) K,T , L = L(K, , T )
( Fi ), A
ai ( ) [0, T ].

13


|bi ( ) ai ( )| < [0, T ] (15)(16)

)| M m| | + mAL
|X k+1 ( ) X(

|X k (s) X(s)|
|ds|,


)| M m[| | + 1 ALm| |2 + 1 A2 L2 m2 | |3 + +
|X k ( ) X(
2
6
1
M ALM T
+ (ALm)k1 | |k ] < <
,
e
k!
AL
, , ,
K,T , , ,
)
X k ( ), X( ), (15) (14), X(
, .
X0 ,
)| < 
K, , |X( ) X(
[0, T ] X0 K.
(15 ). .
1. i = 1, . . . , m aji ( )

[0, T ] ai ( ),

X = aj1 ( )F1 (X) + aj2 ( )F2 (X) + + ajm ( )Fm (X)

(13).
2. G ,
L, T ( ), T (0) = I [0, T ] dT /d
L, T ( ) G.
, L 1 , 2 , . . . , m , ,
dT ( )
= a1 ( )1 + + am ( )m .
d
, 1,
T ( ), , bi ( ). - ,

L. , T ( ) G ( ).

14

. .
2 . T ( )

U0 U , T (0) = I.
U0 ,
U ,
, U .
T ( ) X IRn
dT ( )X
= (T ( )X),
d
, (, , T ( )X).

(Y ) = (Y ) + (Y ),

T ( )
( ) , .
, , (Y )
(Y ) = [T (, T 1 ( )Y )]0 (T 1 ( )Y ),
0 () . , dT /d
dT ( )X
= [T (, X)]0 (X) + (T ( )X).
d
S( )
dS( )X
= 0 (SX).
d
(13), S( ) ( Fi
). 2 1 S( ) U0 .
E( ) = T ( )S( ).
dT ( )
dS( )X
dE( )X
=
S( )X + [T (, S( )X)]
=
d
d
d
= [T (, S( )X)]0 (S( )X) + (T ( )S( )X) [T (, S( )X)]0 (S( )X) =
= (T ( )S( )X) = (E( )X),
. . E( ) (13), Fi . , 2, E( ) , T ( ) =
E( )S 1 ( ) . S( ) U0 , U U0 E( ), . 3 .
. , T ( ) = E( )S 1 ( ) ,

15

, .

G G
T ( )
,

dT
+ T [].

d
7. (1). 3 , 1.
[7], (1) ,
.
, , ,
,
, .
5 [7]. I. 15- , v(x, y, z)
v(x, y, z) const,

(17)

(P 2 + Q2 + R2 > 0),

v(x, y, z) = P x + Qy + Rz

(18)


v(x, y, z) = k (x2 + y 2 + z 2 2 )

( > 0),

(19)

v(x, y, z) = k (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2 )

( > 0),

(20)

v(x, y, z) = k (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ).

(21)

II. v(x, y, z) (V () ) :

P 2 + Q2 + R2 = 1,

v(x, y, z) = V (P x + Qy + Rz)

v(x, y, z) = V (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ),

v(x, y, z) = (Rx + P z) V

Ry Qz
Rx + P z


v(x, y, z) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 2 ) V


,

(R = 0, P 2 + Q2 + R2 = 1),

P x + Qy + Rz
x2 + y 2 + z 2 2


,

(P 2 + Q2 + R2 = 1)

( 2 + 2 , 2 ).
III. (, ,
) , (1) . , , (1)
.

16

. .
IV. 11 v(x, y, z), -

, (1) .
V. (1) (
).
,
.
8. 5 ( . [7]) (., , [910]):
1 = x + y + z + + x x + y y + z z
= x + y + z + , , , , x, y, z , x , y , z
x = x + x x (x + x ) y (x + x ) z (x + x ),
y = y + y x (y + y ) y (y + y ) z (y + y ),
z = z + z x (z + z ) y (z + z ) z (z + z ),
1 F |F =0 = 0 (F (1))

1
x = y = z = + (vx + vy + vz ),
v
x + z = 0,
z + y = 0,
x + y = 0,
x = /v 2 ,

y = /v 2 ,

z = /v 2 .

(22)
(23)
(24)

(22) (23) , ,
(x, y, z) ( ,
(x, y, z)):
= A()(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2B()xy + 2C()xz + D()x + G()y F ()z + H(),
= B()(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2A()xy + 2C()yz G()x + D()y + E()z + I(),
=

C()(z 2

x2

y2)

(25)

+ 2A()xz + 2B()yz + F ()x E()y + D()z + J().

(24) ,

x y =

x y ,

x + z = x + z ,
y z =

(26)

y z ,

(x, y, z) = ln v 2 (x, y, z). ,


(x y ) + (x + z ) + (y z ) = 0,
(25)
A E  + B  F  + C  G = 0,


2B  J  + 2C  I  = D G ,

2A J  2C  H  = D F  ,

17

2A I  + 2B  H  = D E  ,

E  H  + F  I  + G J  = 0
( ).
, II: ,
A2 + B 2 + C 2 , E 2 + F 2 + G2 , D , H 2 + I 2 + J 2 ,
, (26) v(x, y, z),
(24) . v(x, y, z) ,
(25).

( S(r) = dr/V 2 (r)).
v(x, y, z) = V (P x + Qy + Rz):
(x, y, z, ) =

A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + Dx + Gy F z + ()P + H,

(x, y, z, ) = B(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz Gx + Dy + Ez + ()Q + I,


(x, y, z, ) = C(z 2 x2 y 2 ) + 2Axz + 2Byz + F x Ey + Dz + ()R + J,

(x, y, z, ) =  ()S(P x + Qy + Rz) + (),

(27)

P H + QI + RJ = 0.
v(x, y, z) = V (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ):
(x, y, z, ) =

A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + D()x + Gy F z + H,

(x, y, z, ) = B(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz Gx + D()y + Ez + I,


(x, y, z, ) = C(z 2 x2 y 2 ) + 2Axz + 2Byz + F x Ey + D()z + J,

(x, y, z, ) = 12 D ()S(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + ().




Ry Qz
:
v(x, y, z) = (Rx + P z)V
Rx + P z
(x, y, z, ) =

A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + Dx + ()[Ry Qz] +

(x, y, z, ) =

B(y 2

(28)

+ Gy F z + H,

x2

z2)

+ 2Axy + 2Cyz + Dy + ()[Rx + P z]


Gx + Ez + I,

(29)

(x, y, z, ) = C(z 2 x2 y 2 ) + 2Axz + 2Byz + Dz + ()[Qx P y] +


(x, y, z, ) =

1 
G ()S(r)

+ F x Ey + J,

+ (),

P E + QF + RG = 0.
2

v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z )V
(x, y, z, ) =


P x + Qy + Rz
:
x2 + y 2 + z 2 2

()[P (x2 y 2 z 2 2 ) + 2Qxy + 2Rxz] +


+A(x2 y 2 z 2 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + Dx + Gy F z + H,

(x, y, z, ) = ()[Q(y 2 x2 z 2 2 ) + 2P xy + 2Ryz] +


+B(y 2 x2 z 2 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz Gx + Dy + Ez + I,
(x, y, z, ) =
(x, y, z, ) =

()[R(z 2

+C(z 2

y2

 ()S(r)

P A + QB + RC = 0.

y2

x2

x2

+ (),

2)

2)

+ 2Qyz + 2P xz] +

+ 2Byz + 2Axz + F x Ey + Dz + J,

(30)

18

. .
v(x, y, z) , , (25) -

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J,

: (x, y, z, ) = ().
(22)
- , III
5, ,
IV.
9. II III. II
, III, .
v(x, y, z) = V (P x + Qy + Rz) (27) = 0,
( (27)
);
= const, V (r) = rk ,
;
V  (r)/V (r) = S(r) + ,

(31)

 () + () = 0.

 () + () = 0,

(32)

(31) ,
III, (32) .
v(x, y, z) = V (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) (28) D 0,
,

V  (0 )
0 2 = S + ,
V (0 )
1
 () = D(),
D () = D(),
2

(33)

(34)

III,
.


Ry Qz
v(x, y, z) = (Rx+P z)V
Rx + P z
() = 0 (29), ,





P (Q + P r)
1
(Q + P r)2
V  (r) 2
r
= (S(r) + ),
r +1+
2
2
V (r)
R
R
R


() + R() = 0,
() = ().
2

, v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z )V
0 (30),

P x + Qy + Rz
2
x + y2 + z2 2

V  (r)
(1 4r2 2 ) 4r 2 = S(r) + ,
V (r)
 () + () = 0,

 () = (),

(35)
(36)


(37)
(38)

19

.
, = 0, , (
) V (r) = rk , = const.
III ,
, (31), (33), (35), (37) :





V  (r) 1
dr
1
1
= S(r) +
S(r) =

.
(39)
V (r)  (r) 2  (r)
V 2 (r)
 (r) = 1, (r) = r,  (r) = 1/(4r),
(r) = 1/4 ln r,  (r) = R1 [r2 + 1 + (Q + P r)2 /R2 ]1 , (r) = arctg([r(R2 +
+P 2 )+P Q]/R), , ,  (r) = 1/(14r2 2 ), ,
2 (r) =
(r) = r.

1
4

ln[(1 + 2r)/(1 2r)], (r) =

1
2

arctg 2r,

(39) V (r):
1
V (r) = w 
,
 (r)
V (r) = w

exp(k(r))
V (r) = w 
,
 (r)

sh(k(r) + h)

,
 (r)

V (r) = w

V (r) = w

ch(k(r) + h)

,
 (r)

cos(k(r) + h)

,
 (r)

(r) + h
V (r) = w 
 (r)

( k, w , ).
10. IV , , , .
(24) , , , ,
= M + L,
vx + vy + vz = (x M )v,

(40)

= A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + Dx + Gy F z + H,


= B(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz Gx + Dy + Ez + I,
=

C(z 2

x2

y2)

(41)

+ 2Axz + 2Byz + F x Ey + Dz + J

. :
A2 + B 2 + C 2 = 0 ( (40) ) A = B =
= C = 0 ( ).
, , (40) ,
(x2 y 2 z 2 + )vx + (2xy + z + )vy + (2xz y)vz = (2x M )v.

(42)

(42) , , , , ,

( + 2 )( + 4) = 42 .

(43)

2 2 > 0, 2 2 = 0 ( 2 + 2 = 0),
= = 0 ( , ,

20

. .

) 2 2 < 0 ( ,
2 + (2 + 4) ).
2 2 > 0 (43) .

2 4 (2 4)2 + 162
=
,
2
2 (
, =

), (42) ( k = M/2+ )
v(x, y, z) =

2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + x + + 2 /2) + 2(z y)]k+1/2


[(2 + +
+
+
+

2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 x + + 2 /2) + 2(z + y)]k1/2


[(2 + +
+
+
+

2 + 2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 2(z + )]2 2 [2y ( 2 + 2 )x]2


[(+
+
+
,
[(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + ) + 2z]2


2 )y
2x (4
1
arctg
2 /2) + (4 2 )z

2(x2 + y 2 + z 2 +

 2
2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + x + + 2 /2) + 2(z y) 
( + +
1
+
+
+
.

ln
2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 x + + 2 /2) + 2(z + y)
2+
(2 + +
+
+
+

(44)

2 2 2 > 0
2, 4
2 > 0,
2 ++

2 2 > 0 .

2 2 = 0 ( + = + = 0, = (2 + 4)) = 2
( = ), , = = 0, (42)
( k = M/)


x 2y

v(x, y, z) = [x + y + (z + ) ] exp k 2
x + y 2 + (z + )2

[2(x2 + y 2 + z 2 2 ) 2 (z + )]2 + (2 + 4 2 )[y + 2x]2
V
,
[x2 + y 2 + (z + )2 ]2


2x + y

arctg
2 + 4 2

2
2
2(x + y + z 2 2 ) 2 (z + )
2 2 + 4 2

x 2y
.
2
x + y 2 + (z + )2
2

= = 0, ,


k
2

(x + )2 + y 2 + z 2
x + y2 + z2 2
y
2
2

V
, arctg
v(x, y, z) = y + z
(x )2 + y 2 + z 2
z
y2 + z2
= 2 ( k = M/4);


v(x, y, z) = y 2 + z 2 exp 2k arctg



2
x + y2 + z2 + 2
y
2x

V
, arctg
x2 + y 2 + z 2 2
z
y2 + z2

= + 2 ( k = M/4),



2
2
v(x, y, z) = y + z exp

= 0 ( k = M/4).

2kx
2
x + y2 + z2


V

x2 + y 2 + z 2
y

, arctg
z
y2 + z2

(45)

(46)

(47)


(48)

21

2 2 < 0 = 0, 2 4 = 0, (43)
.



1 2
2
2
2
,
+ 4 (4 ) 1 + 16 2
=
2
( 4)2
, 2 4 = 0 ( 2 = 2 , 2 = 4),
= 0:
+
2

= 4 2

2 = 4. (42) ( k=M/+ )


V

v(x, y, z) = [(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + ) + 2z]





2 2 )x + 2y
(+

exp k arctg + 2
2 /2) 2z
(+ 2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + +
2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 2(z + )]2 + 2 [2y + ( 2 2 )x]2
[(2 +
+
+
,
[(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + ) + 2z]2


2 )y
2x (4
1
arctg
2 /2) + (4 2 )z

2(x2 + y 2 + z 2 +



2 2 )x + 2y
(+
1
.
arctg + 2

2 /2) 2z
+
(+ 2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + +

(49)

2 = 2 2 = 4 2 = 0,
= 0 4
+

2 2 < 0, 2 + (2 4)2 = 0 .

, = 0, 2 = 4 > 0 ( = = = 0 ),
(43) : 2 = 2 . = 2 (
= 2), (42) ( k = M/2)


2x
2
2
2
2

v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z + ) exp k arctg 2


(x + y 2 + z 2 2 )
 2

(x + y 2 + z 2 2 )2 + 4 2 x2
2x
y
V
.
, arctg + arctg 2
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2 )2
z
x + y2 + z2 2

(50)

(A2 + B 2 + C 2 = 0) .
(A = B = C = 0) , .
D = 0 E 2 + F 2 + G2 = 0, (40) ,
xvx + (y + z)vy + (z y)vz = (1 k)v,

v(x, y, z) = x

1k


V


y
x2
, arctg ln x .
y2 + z2
z

(51)

D = 0, E 2 + F 2 + G2 = 0, (40)
vx + zvy yvz = kv,

y
y  2
V y + z 2 , x arctg
.
v(x, y, z) = exp k arctg
z
z

(52)

22

. .
D = 0, E = F = G = 0, (40)

xvx + yvy + zvz = (1 k)v,


(x, y, z) 1 k:
V (tx, ty, tz) = t1k V (x, y, z).

v(x, y, z) = V (x, y, z),

(53)

D = E = F = G = 0, H 2 + I 2 + J 2 = 0, (40)
vx = kv,
v(x, y, z) = ekx V (y, z),

(54)

V , , .
, , = = 0, (40) M = 0,
v(x, y, z) ,
.
, (44)(54) ( ,
[7], , , , , ,
, , , ) , , .
, , ,
(40), .
11. 3. , 1,
(6)(9).
, , , , v = v(x, y, z). , ,

,
. (6)(9)

vx vy vz = 0,

x = y = z = + ,
v

x + y = 0,
x + z = 0,
z + y = 0,
x = /v 2 ,

y = /v 2 ,

z = /v 2 .

(6 )
(7 )
(8 )
(9 )

(7 )(9 ) ( (7 )) (22)(24),


, , ,
(27)(30) (
. 89, ,
II) (41) (
IV).
(7 ),
(6 ) ,
.
, , , , IIII 5, ,
(41) . , (9 ),

23


, ,
(11)(12). ,
.
,
, , .
, IIIII 5. , III,
, ,
. , III (31)(38),
, 2 .
II (6 )(8 ) ( , ,
,

(6 )) ,
(27)(30), .
, , , , ,
.

v = V (P x + Qy + Rz) (. (27)) = P (),

= Q(), = R(), =  ()S(P x + Qy + Rz) + ().

= V (P x + Qy + Rz)[ ()S(P x + Qy + Rz) +  ()],


(9 )
V (r)[ ()S(r) +  ()] + V  (r) () = 0
(r = P x + Qy + Rz).  () = 0,  () = 0, ,
V  (r)/V (r) = S(r) + ,
 () +  () = 0,

 () +  () = 0.

(55)
(56)

(55) (31), . , ,
(56) (32) (
) = const = M ,
. , v(x, y, z) = V (P x + Qy + Rz)
.
, D () = 0,
, (33) V S,
, D() (),

24

. .

, . II III
5.
3
(17)(21). , , , (x, y, z)
( )
(17) v(x, y, z) 1, (18)
v(x, y, z) = x, (19)(21)
v(x, y, z) = x2 +y 2 +z 2 1, v(x, y, z) = x2 +y 2 +z 2 +1 v(x, y, z) = x2 +y 2 +z 2
. v(x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2
(
x, y, z) = (x, y, z)/(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )

(57)

v(x, y, z) 1, v(x, y, z) = x2 +y 2 +z 2 1
(
x, y + 1, z) = 2

x2

(x, y + 1, z)
+ (y + 1)2 + z 2

(58)

v(x, y, z) = x.
v = 1, c v = x v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1
(, , ).
, [7]:
, , ( (x, y, z)),
ds2 = dt2 dl2 , dl2
( v = 1),
( v = x) ( v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1) .
, 15- , ,
. 15- ,
,
. , , , ,
, , .
3 .
12. 4 .
15- 3 ,
.
(17) (21), v 1,

25

v = x2 +y 2 +z 2 . (18) (19), ,
v = x v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 1. ,
(20),
v = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1.
4- , , ( ) v(x, y, z)
v(x, y, z) = V (x),

(59)


1
2
2
2
v(x, y, z) =
ln(x + y + z ) ,
+ +
2


y
2
2
,
v(x, y, z) = y + z V arctg
z



1 (x 1)2 + y 2 + z 2
v(x, y, z) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 1)2 4x2 V
,
ln
2 (x + 1)2 + y 2 + z 2



x
2
2
2
2
2
,
v(x, y, z) = (x + y + z 1) + 4x V arctg
1 x2 y 2 z 2


x
.
v(x, y, z) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )V
x2 + y 2 + z 2


x2

y2

z2V

(60)
(61)
(62)
(63)
(64)

(59) (64), (60) (62), (61) (63) ( v(x, y, z) ).


(57) ,

x
+1=

2(x + 1)
,
(x + 1)2 + y 2 + z 2

y =

(x +

2y
,
+ y2 + z2

1)2

z =

(x +

2z
+ y2 + z2

1)2

(58) . ,
- .
, (59)(61) ( [7]) . (59)

E[zy yz ] + Iy + Jz + L .
() . (60)

(Gy F z)x + (Gx + Ez)y + (F x Ey)z + L ,
. , (61)

26

. .

A[(x2 y 2 z 2 )x + 2xyy + 2xzz ] + D[xx + yy + zz ] + Hx + L ,


( + + ), .
(59)(61) ,
, ,
.
(59) , , ,
, : vy = vz = 0 , x + y + z + vx v ,
xy v y vx = xz v z vx = 0, , , (41)
A = B = C = E = F = G = 0. ,
, .
(60) , , , ,
, V ()
. (61) , , V ().
(59)(61), , , , : V ()
: V (r) w, V (r) = kr + h, V (r) = wekr ,
V (r) = w ch(kr + h), V (r) = w sh(kr + h), V (r) = w cos(kr + h), w, k, h . ,
, ,
.
(59) w, k, h,
( V (r) = const V (r) = kr + h (17) (18)
15- ), v = ex , v = ch x,
v = sh x v = cos x.
(60)
k, , (60)
V (r) 1, V (r) = r, V (r) = ekr , V (r) = ch(kr), V (r) = sh(kr), V (r) = cos(kr) (
k = 1: k
(17) (19)(21), 15- ).
(61)
k h, ,
(61) V (r) = 1, V (r) = r + h, V (r) = ekr , V (r) = ch(kr + h),
V (r) = sh(kr + h), V (r) = cos(kr + h) ( k = 1, k = 1
(18)).

27

(59), , v = w(x + h)k ,


v = xk ( k = 0, 1).
13. . , ,
, .
.
P (x, y, z)vx + Q(x, y, z)vy + R(x, y, z)vz = S(x, y, z)v

(65)

, (44)(54). . , , P, Q, R, S.

, P, Q, R, S
. , , ,
. (. . , ),
,
. ,
,
.

2. , , , x, y, z, v
= x + y + z + + v ,

(65) ,

.

+ (x, y, z, v)U,
U = [U, ]

+ U + S(vv ) + (x, y, z, v)S,


S = S

v
U = P x + Qy + Rz .

(66)
(67)

. (66)(67)
+ (xi , u, ui , v),
= [, ]

(66 )

(1) ]F + (xi , u, ui , v)(1) F,


((1) F ) = [(1) ,

(67 )

F (xi , u, ui ) = v(xi ) v(xi ).


v = (1) F,

28

. .

,
,

(66 )(67 ).
( 2).

(1) ](P vx + Qvy + Rvz Sv) = 0,


+
[

, (65). ,
P, Q, R ( ,

), P, Q, R (
(1)

),
+ ]P
+ vy [
+ ]Q
+ vz [
+ ]R
+P
(1) vx + Q
(1) vy + R
(1) vz = v[
+ ]S
+ S v.

vx [

(1) vx = x + v vx vx x vy x vz x ,

(1) vy = y + v vy vx y vy y vz y ,

(1) vz = z + v vz vx z vy z vz z ,

=
v

+ ]P
+ vy [
+ ]Q
+ vz [
+ ]R
+ U + P v vx + Qv vy + Rv vz
vx [
+ ]S
+ S,
vx U vy U vz U = v[
, (65). ,

+ P v U
+ Qv U
+ ]Q
+ ]P
[
[
=
=
P
Q
+ Rv U
+ S U
+ ]R
+ ]S
[
v[
=
=
.
R
Sv
v (x, y, z, v),
+ U + (x, y, z, v)P,
P = P

+ U + (x, y, z, v)Q,
Q = Q

+ U + (x, y, z, v)R,
R = R

+ U + S(vv ) + (x, y, z, v)S.


S = S

v
(67), , x , y ,
z ,
Qy +
Rz = U (x + y + z ) (P
x + Qy + Rz ) + (P x + Qy + Rz ),
P x +

(66). .

29

(66)(67) , (x, y, z, v), (65) , (65) ,


. ,
(. . ), , (65)
. : ,

.
(66)(67) , ,
, (x, y, z, v) ,
.
3. v = v = v = 0,
x = y = z ,

y + x = z + x = z + y = 0,

Px = Qy = Rz ,

= v(x ),

Py + Qx = Pz + Rx = Qz + Ry = 0,

= m,

(68)

S = Px M,

(69)

(67)
M = M.

(70)

, , , v

P, Q, R, , , v . , = vv (. (68)) (67)
,
+ U v + (x, y, z)S.
S = S

(71)


+ U + P
P = P

x,
x + Px x + Qx y + Rx z + U x + x P + Px ,
Px = x Px x Py x Pz P

(68)(69)
x + U x + x P + Px ,
Px = P

(71) S = Px M , = v(x )
+ U + M + x P = M + x P
M = M

(72)

U
(M
= U = 0, M = m ,
x, y, z).
M = M + y Q,

M = M + z R.

(73)

30

. .
, (71)(73) . -

, P , Q, R ,
(72)(73) :
x =

M M

,
P

y =

M M

,
Q

z =

M M

.
R

M M  0)
(
Py
Qx
= 2,
2
P
Q

Ry
Qz
= 2,
2
R
Q

Pz
Rx
= 2,
2
P
R

(66) Py = Qx = Rx = Pz = Qz = Ry = 0, . . P x, Q
y, R z. (69) ,
P = Dx + H, Q = Dy + I, R = Dz + J ,
S = Px M , (71) ,
.

M M , D = 0, (72)(73) ,

( = const) ,
P = Dx + H, Q = Dy + I, R = Dz + J, . D = 0, P , (72) ,
.
,  const . ,
x, y, z, (72) (70). .
3
( 1).
:
(A, B, C) = [A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz]x +
+ [B(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz]y + [C(z 2 x2 y 2 ) + 2Axz + 2Byz]z ,
(E, F, G) = (Gy F z)x + (Gx + Ez)y + (F x Ey)z ,
= xx + yy + zz ,

(H, I, J) = Hx + Iy + Jz .

(10)
(a, b, c) + d + (e, f, g) + (h, i, j),
.
14. . , v(x, y, z) ( )
,
:
P (x, y, z)vx + Q(x, y, z)vy + R(x, y, z)vz = (Px (x, y, z) M )v.

(74)

31

1. ( , ,
)

[ ,

(a, b, c)

(h, i, j)

Ci Bj
A
Bg Cf

2 Aj Ch
B Ce Ag
Bh Ai
C
Af Be
2(Ah + Bi + Cj)


A

B
C


E

F
G

H

I

(a, b, c)

Gb F c

Ec Ga
F a Eb

cI bJ

2 aJ cH +

0
0

bH aI
+2(aH + bI + cJ)


H

I
J

(e, f, g)

F g Gf

Ge Eg
Ef F e

gI f J

eJ gH

(h, i, j)

F j Gi

Gh Eh
Ei F h
0

f H eI

(74) P x +Qy +Rz , ,


U . P, Q, R
(, )
P (x, y, z) = A(x2 y 2 z 2 ) + 2Bxy + 2Cxz + Dx + Gy F z + H,
Q(x, y, z) = B(y 2 x2 z 2 ) + 2Axy + 2Cyz Gx + Dy + Ez + I,
R(x, y, z) =

C(z 2

x2

y2)

(75)

+ 2Axz + 2Byz + F x Ey + Dz + J

( ) . ,

, ,
( (10)).
IV 5, . 10 :
A2 + B 2 + C 2 = 0 ( )
A = B = C = 0 ( ).
, , , , (74)
(42), , (42).
U = (1, 0, 0) + (, 0, 0) + (, , 0),

(76)

, -

32

. .

(42), 23
+ U.
U = [U, ]

(76)
= (a, b, c) + d + (e, f, g) + (h, i, j),

, 1,
(1, 0, 0) +
(0, 1, 0) =
(1, 0, 0) +

= d (1, 0, 0) + (0, g, f ) 2h 2 (0, j, i)


(0, c, b) + (0, g, f ) + (0, j, i)+
+2(a + b) + 2 (c, c, b a) + d (, , 0) + (g, g, f e)+
+ (1, 0, 0) + (1, 0, 0) + (1, 0, 0) + (0, 1, 0),
, ,
= d,

g + c = 0,

f + b = 0;

a + b h = 0;
= 2c + ,

= d + g + ,

2j + g + 2c = 0,

(77)
(78)

2i + f + 2b 2a = 0;

= j + d g + ,

i + f e = 0,

(79)
(80)

(70).
, (42), ,
(77)(80) . -: (79) (80)
,
,
(
), .
, (, (42)) , , ,
.
, , (42),
,
, , , .
,
, ( , ),
, , ,
, .

33

4. (42)
.
.
(77)(80) , , . (77)(80), , , ,
d, . , (42)
. (77)(80)
= 2d,

= d,

= 2d,

, (x, y, z) . , (42) ,
(x, y, z) t
t, t2 . .
(42),
. - , , (77)(80) (
, ).
, = 0 = 0.
= 0 a, b c
= a[ (1, 0, 0) + (1, 0, 0) + (, , 0)]+

+b[ (0, 1, 0) + (

(2 4)
1
, , 0) + (, ( 2 ), 0)]+
2
2

1
+c[ (0, 0, 1) (0, 0, 1) + ( 2 ) (0, 0, 1)] + d ,
2

= d + 2c,

= 2d c,

= 2d 1 (2 4)c.

(81)

a b, ,
( a, b (81)). , d,
. , c,
, . ,
.
c = 0, d = 0, (81) 4/2 /2 ( , , = 0). , , d = 0, c = 0,
: 2 2 2 + 4. , c = 0, d = 0, (81)

2 2
,
(2 + 4)2

34

. .

. ,
, (42),

.
, (42) ,
, . , , . , = 0
= 0.
5.
= 2,

= ,

1
= (2 4)
2

(82)

= 0.
. , (82) 2 + 4,
2 +4 = 2C,

(, ), (82).
= 2,

= (2 C),


1
1
2 = 4 + C 2 + C1 .
4
2
(, ) C 0 C > 0
. 1 .

. 1. (, ) C 0 ()
C > 0 ()

, C (. . ) (82) (, ) (, = = 0),

35

= 0. ,
(82), = 0. .
5 , , , , (82) ( ,
) ,

1
z = z 2 x2 y 2 + y + 2
2
, , , ,
x = 2xz,

y = 2yz z,

= 0, , (42)
(42) . , . 16,
.
, = 0, , , . , , ,
: = 1, ; = 0, = 1 = = 0.
= 0 (
, ):
= 0 = const
= d,

g + c = 0,

2j + g + 2c = 0,
j + g = 0,

f + b = 0,

a h = 0,

2i + f + 2b = 0,

d + = 0,
= .

i + f = 0,

= 1, ,
= d,

g + c = 0,

2j + g + 2c = 0,
j + g = 0,

f + b = 0,

a h = 0,

2i + f + 2b = 0,

d + = 0,

i + f = 0,

= ,

d = = 0, = const, g = c, f = b, h = a, i = (2 /2 1)b,
2j = (2 /2 1)c
(2 4)b = 0,

(2 4)c = 0,

.
(2 4) = 0, b = c = 0,

= a{ (1, 0, 0) + (1, 0, 0)} + e (1, 0, 0).

(83)

36

. .
= 0 = 2, , -

, :


1 2

= a{ (1, 0, 0) + (1, 0, 0)} + b (0, 1, 0) (0, 1, 0) + (0, 1, 0) +


4


1 2
+ e (1, 0, 0) + c (0, 0, 1) (0, 0, 1) + (0, 0, 1) . (84)
4
= 0, = 1, b = c = d = f = g = h = i = j = 0, , ,
:
= a (1, 0, 0) + e (1, 0, 0).

(85)

= = = 0 , (70): = d = 0
M = 0, . . M ,

. = = = 0
, = d , , = d ,

, , : M (42),
. , : M = 0 M = 0.
M = 0, , ,
M = 1, , (M = 1), d = = 0,
f = g = h = i = j = 0, ,
,
= (a, b, c) + e (1, 0, 0).

(86)

M = 0, ,
, :
= (a, b, c) + d + e (1, 0, 0).

(87)

15. .
U =
A = B = C = 0. ,
+ U
= [U, ]

U = D + (E, F, G) + (H, I, J),


( 1),
{D + (E, F, G) + (H, I, J)} = {D + (E, F, G) + (H, I, J)}+

+[D + (E, F, G) + (H, I, J), (a, b, c) + d + (e, f, g) + (h, i, j)] =


= (Da, Db, Dc) (Dh, Di, Dj) (Gb F c, Ec Ga, F a Eb)+

37

+ (F g Gf, Ge Eg, Ef F e) + (F j Gi, Gh Ej, Ei F h)+


+2(aH + bI + cJ) + 2 (cI bJ, aJ cH, bH aI) + (H, I, J)+
+ (gI f J, eJ gH, f H eI) + {D + (E, F, G) + (H, I, J)}.
, :
Da + Gb F c = 0,

Db + Ec Ga = 0,

D = 2(aH + bI + cJ) + D;

F = Ge Eg + 2aJ 2cH + F,

H = dH Dh + F j Gi + gI f J + H,

Dc + F a Eb = 0;

E = F g Gf + 2cI 2bJ + E,

G = Ef F e + 2bH 2aI + G;

I = dI Di + Gh Ej + eJ gH + I,

J = dJ Dj + Ei F h + f H eI + J.

(a, b, c)
D(D2 + E 2 + F 2 + G2 ). D  0, a = b = c = 0,
,
D = D,

(E 2 + F 2 + G2 ) = 2(E 2 + F 2 + G2 ),

(EH + F I + GJ) = (d + 2)(EH + F I + GJ) D(Eh + F i + Gj),

. 10 ,
D E 2 + F 2 + G2 , D = 0
EH + F I + GJ, . ,
(. 10) , , , ,
,
, . 10.
D = 0, E 2 + F 2 + G2 = 0
xvx + (y + z)vy + (z y)vz = (1 M )v.
D = 1, E = (= 0), F = G = H = I = J = 0,
= 0,
M = 0, d
= 0, a = b = c = f = g = h = i = j = 0,
e . , M ,

= d + e (1, 0, 0)

(88)

.
D = 0, E 2 +F 2 +G2 = 0, EH +F I +GJ = 0,

vx + zvy yvz = M v,

38

. .

E = 1, H = 1, D = F = G = I = J = 0, = 0,
a = b = c = d = f = g = i = j = 0, M .
, ,
:
= e (1, 0, 0) + h (1, 0, 0).

(89)

, - D = 0, E 2 + F 2 + G2 = 0, EH + F I + GJ = 0,

zvy yvz = M v,
E = 1, D = F = G = I = J = H = 0 = 0, b = c = f = g =
= i = j = 0, a d, M ,
,
:
= a (1, 0, 0) + d + e (1, 0, 0) + h (1, 0, 0).

(90)

E = F = G = 0, D = 0,

xvx + yvy + zvz = (1 M )v,
D = 1, E = F = G = H = I = J = 0
= 0, a = b = c = h = i = j = 0,
= d + (e, f, g).

(91)

, D = E = F = G = 0, H 2 + I 2 + J 2 = 0,
vx = M v,
(H = 1, )
M = M ,
a = b = c = f = g = 0, d = .

= d ,

M .
, M = 0 M = 0,
vx = v,
:
= e (1, 0, 0) + (h, i, j),

(92)

vx = 0 (
):
= d + e (1, 0, 0) + (h, i, j).

(93)

39

16.
. . 14
, (
), . . 15
. ,
.
, (42)
(x2 y 2 z 2 + )vx + (2xy + z + )vy + (2xz y)vz = (2x M )v

)v, (94)
(Dx + Gy F z + H)vx + (Gx + Dy + Ez + I)vy + (F x Ey + Dz + J)vz = (D M
, . . (x, y, z) . x, y, z , ,

x2 y 2 z 2 + = 2xy + z + = 2xz y = 0,

x0 =

,
2

y0 =

,
+ 2

z0 =

,
+ 2


( 2 + 4)( 2 + 2 ) = 42

(95)

( = = 0 0, x0 = 0, y0 = , z0 = 0; = = 0

< 0 x0 = , y0 = z0 = 0).
(95) (43)
(42) ( 2 ). , 2 2 0.
(x0 , y0 , z0 )
(42)
(x2 y 2 z 2 + 2x0 x 2y0 y 2z0 z)vx + (2xy + 2x0 y + 2y0 x + z)vy +
+(2xz + 2x0 z + 2z0 x y)vz = (2x + 2x0 M )v
( -: (x, y, z)),

x
=

x2

x
,
+ y2 + z2

y =

v(x, y, z)

2
2
2
v(
x, y, z) = (
x + y + z )v

x2

y
,
+ y2 + z2

z =

x2

z
+ y2 + z2

y
z
x

, 2
, 2
x
2 + y2 + z2 x
+ y2 + z2 x
+ y2 + z2


,

40

. .

, ,
(2x0 x + 2y0 y + 2z0 z + 1)vx + (2x0 y 2y0 x z)vy + (2x0 z 2z0 x + y)vz = (2x0 + M )v (96)
( x
, y, z x, y, z).
(96)
(42) (94).
, (96) (94) D = 2x0 = , E = , F = 2z0 =
= 2/( 2 + 2 ), G = 2y0 = 2/( 2 + 2 ), H = 1, I = J = 0. , ,
, D = E 2 +F 2 +G2 = 2 +42 /( 2 +2 ) =
= 2 + 2 + 4. = 0, , 2 2 > 0,
D = 0, E 2 + F 2 + G2 = 0. ,

2 4 + (2 + 4)2 + 16(2 2 )
2
=
,
2

+ + 4 =

2 + 4 +

(2 + 4)2 + 16(2 2 )
> 0.
2

= 0, = 0 D = 0, E 2 +F 2 +G2 = 0,
(H, I, J) = (1, 0, 0) (E, F, G) = (, 2z0 , 2y0 ). ,
vx + zvy yvz = M v.
= = 0 ( = 0), > 0, , x0 = 0, y0 =

= , z0 = 0, , , D = 0, E 2 +F 2 +G2 = 0,
(H, I, J) (E, F, G),
zvy yvz = M v.

= = 0, < 0 x0 = , y0 = z0 = 0
D = 0, E = F = G = 0, = = = 0, x0 = y0 = z0 = 0, (42)
vx = M v.
. -, , ,
. -,
, , , :
, .
, , = 0
= 0: , = 0 ( + ),
( + ), , = 0 ( + + ).
- , ,
.

41

17. 4: . . 1416,
, ,
, 4.
, ,
, ,
(83)(93) .
(44)(50), 2 2 < 0, (49) (50),
= 0,
, 4. ,
(83) V (, ) , ( )

.

= 1/2, V
arctg

2xz + y(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1)
,
2xy z(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1)

, , (V.2),
V .

, . 10. (54) : = 0, = 1, = 0.
V ,
, ( (88)(93)) V (, ).
4.

1. . . .: , 1964.
2. . . // . . -.
1930. . 6. . 157.
3. . . // .
. - . . . . 1935. . 9. C. 107166.
4. . ., . . . .: , 1972.
5. . ., . . . .: ,
1980.
6. . ., . . . .: , 1989.

42

. .

7. . .
// . . 2004. . 195, 4. . 2364.
8. . . // . . ., .
9. . . . .: , 1978.
10. . . . // . 1994.
. 58, . 4. . 3055.
25.11.2004


, 119922, .


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