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-

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..

..

LTE

-
,

-

2011

621.396.93(075.8)
32.8473
32

:

. . .. -, . ..., . .

. . . , ..., . .

.. LTE : . /
.., .. .: - . -, 2011. 204 .
ISBN

LTE
.
. , . .
, .
, .


,

- .
- .
.., .., 2011
-
, 2011
ISBN


.
1. LTE ..
1.1. LTE .
1.2. , ,

1.3.
1.4. LTE
1.4.1. -
1.4.2. .
1.4.3. . .
1.4.4.
1.4.5.
1.5. LTE .....

2. LTE
2.1.
2.1.1. OFDM
2.1.2. OFDM .
2.1.3. SC-FDMA
2.2.
2.2.1.
2.2.2. PUCCH .
2.2.3. PUSCH .
2.2.4. .
2.2.5. .
2.2.6.
2.2.7.
2.3.

5
10
11
17
30
36
39
44
47
51
57
60
76
77
81
82
96
105
109
111
116
126
129
132
135
144
147
3

2.3.1. .
2.3.2. .
2.3.3. MIMO .
2.3.4. LTE .
..
..
1. LTE
2.
...
3.
4.
5.

148
159
169
173
185
186
187
189
192
194
196


. IMT2000-MC,
CDMA2000, IMT2000-MC,
UMTS [3, 4], GSM,
( , , .),
.

(4G), (, , ) . , , Long Term Evolution,
, , LTE-. , , ,
LTE-.
2009 . - TeliaSonera Ericsson LTE-
80 /.
( 2011 .) 20
LTE, 50
,
.
LTE, ,
, 2010 .,
5

, Yota, LTE WiMax, .


,
2,52,7 WiMAX. , ,
LTE 2011 . .
LTE.
.
, LTE, , , ,
, .

LTE.
OFDM SC-FDMA,
, , ,
.
,
, .
, LTE,
, , , , .
, LTE UMTS . , ( )

, UMTS
,
3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project)
www.3gpp.net.
- .
, LTE, 36- . , , . . , :
TS 36.211: Physical Channels and Modulation (
);
TS 36.212: Multiplexing and Channel Coding ( );
TS 36.213: Physical Layer Procedures (
);
TS 36.214: Physical Layer Measurements (, ).
, LTE
UMTS, , .

, ;

, , , . , www.itu.int.

,
, , ,
, -
- .
, .
, , ,
( , ).
,
. , .
. ,
() , ,
. .
, .
, , , ,
. .

,
, , , . ,
LTE.
. . , . ,
.

1.
LTE
LTE
. LTE
2- 3- , ( , ,
.) ; , [2, 5].
LTE .
() .
. ,
, , . , , , , .
/
.

.
,
.
.
10

1.1. LTE
LTE ,
(, seamless) ,
.
:
() (). LTE ,
LTE- ()
.
,
. , (
),
LTE , : (), B-
(Node-B, eNB) (MME, Mobility Management Entity), , ,
(GW, Gateway), . . MME/GW.
, , , (
),
, , . .
, IP-, , .
11

, , .

(), ,
, , , .
: (S-GW, Serving Gateway)
(P-GW, Packet Data Network Gateway), , ,
(). , , .
, IP-, , , , , .
, LTE : . , (domain), (stratum).

(UED, User Equipment Domain)
(ID, Infrastructure Domain). , ,
() (E-UTRAN, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network) () () (EPC, Evolved
Packet Core).
,
LTE-. 12


() , , ,
, , / .
. 1.1 LTE,
: (AS, Access Stratum) (NAS, NonAccess Stratum). . 1.1 .

EMM

Non-Access Stratum

EMM

Access Stratum
UE

(Uu)

EUTRAN

S1

EPC

. 1.1. LTE

UE UTRAN Uu-;
EPC
S1-. ,
Uu S1, : (UP, User Plane) (CP, Control Plane).
(EMM, EPC Mobility Management).

13

, .
,
.
, () , .
:
(RNL, Radio Network Layer) (TNL, Transport Network Layer).

X2- (. 1.2). , (S1-MM-)
(S1-U-) . 1.2 . ,
, S1- /.

. 1.2.

14

, LTE, , .
LTE .
: , (scheduling)
.
IP-, .


.

.
, .
PWS (Public Warning
System, ), .
.
.

.
.
1 , , .
.
, , (reachability).
1

15

.
.
.
.
, .
PWS.
:
()
(Local Mobility Anchor) .
,
, , .
.
.
.
.
.
, .
.
.
IP- .
.
, .

16

1.2. , ,

. 1.3
, ():
(PHY) ;
() MAC (Medium
Access Control);
() RLC (Radio Link Control);
() () PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) 1.
() RRC (Radio Resource
Control);
,
(NAS-).

PDCP, , . . , .
1

17

)
. 1.3. ()
()

. 1.3, MAC RLC , . RRC : , , , ,


,
.
( NAS)
; , : , .
, , 1
(L1, Layer 1) . .

.
18


.
1.

.
/ .
.

.
( MIMO, Multiple Input Multiple Output).
.
.
MAC ,
MAC- RLC- .
. 1.4 ,
2 (L2, Layer 2) ; ,
MAC-
, . MAC- .

(HARQ, Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request)


( ARQ), ,
, ( ). HARQ
.
1

19

)
. 1.4. ()
()

(SDU, Service Data Unit),


, 20

.
.
.
.
(MBMS, Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service).
.
.
RLC-
: (AM, Acknowledge Mode) (UM, Unacknowledge Mode). ,
, . .
RLC- .
.

( ).
(), .
(
).
.
(
).
.
RLC.
PDCP-.
/ ROHC (Robust Header Compression).
21

.

( ).
(
).
(
).
/ .
.
.
RRC- .
, , .
.
,
RRC- .
,
.
, ,
.
.
.
.
,
.

.
,
.

22

. 1.5. S1 ()
()

. 1.5 1.6 S1
X2 . S1-U S1
, ,
GTP-U (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) , .
, IP- .
,
S1-MM,
TCP- SCTP .
S1-AP X2-AP.

23

. 1.6. X2 () ()

QoS.
, .
LTE (, UMTS)
(end-to-end bearer) : , , , - -. , : (radio bearer),
(external bearer) . , , , (. 1.7);
LTE- EPS- (EPS bearer,
EPS Evolved Packet System, ).
24

IP-, , ,
IP- (VoIP), EPS-, , ,
. IP- ( IP-,
),
, EPS- . , -
EPS- .

. 1.7.

, ( ) ( ) .
. 1.8 , .

25

PCCH

BCCH

CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

MCCH

MTCH

MAC

PCH

BCH

DL-SCH

MCH

PHY

PDCCH

PBCH

PFICH

PDSCH

PHICH

PMCH

. 1.8. ,

,
, : , , , . :
PCCH (Paging Control Channel),
() ;
BCCH (Broadcast Control
Channel), ;
CCCH (Common Control Channel),
,
RRC- (RRC-);
DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel),
, RRC-;
MCCH (Multicast Control
Channel), ( ) .
, :
26

DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Chanel), ;


MTCH (Multicast Traffic Chanel),
.

: ,
.
PCCH PCH (Paging Channel), ( ) .
BCCH
BCH (Broadcast Channel),
DL-SCH (Downlink Shared Channel).
BCH , . DL-SCH
, , , .
MCCH MTCH MCH (Multicast Channel), DL-SCH. MCH .
CCCH, DCCH DTCH
DL-SCH.
, . , , .

27

BCH PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel),


40 , .
PCH DL-SCH PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared
Channel).
MCH
PMCH (Physical Multicast Channel).
:
PCFICH (Physical Control Format Indicator
Channel), PDCCH (Physical Downlink Control Channel) PHICH (Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator
Channel) , . .
. PDCCH PCFICH PCH
DL-SCH, .
PHICH, , .
CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

MAC

RACH

UL-SCH

PHY

PRACH

PUSCH

PUCCH

. 1.9. ,

28

,
(. 1.9), ,
, .
, CCCH
DCCH
, ,
RRC-. , DTCH,
.

UL-SCH (Uplink Shared Channel), , , , / .

RACH (Random Access Channel)
(
) , .
RACH
PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel), .
UL-SCH PU-SCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel). PU-CCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel) . , .
29

1.3.

LTE RRC-: (RRC CONNECTED) (RRC IDLE). , (. 1.10) RRC- RRC-,
; , RRC-, RRC-.

RRC
IDLE

RRC
CONNECTED

. 1.10.

RRC-, , , , , , . ,

.
.
RRC- , , , ()
, .
, , .
30

, ,
, , .
RRC-, RRC- .

. 1.11.

,
, LTE,
, (. . ). ,
VoIP. , (. . 31

) . , () ,
, , .
X2, .
, ;
( , .)
,
. , , ( , TS 36.413). ,
- ,
LTE- .
, , GSM, - , LTE , , ,
. . 1.11
, 1 2.

1,
, ,
2, , 1. , 1
X2 2,
,
HO REQUEST.

32

, ,
EPS-.
2
EPS- QoS C-RNTI (Cell Radio Network Temporary
Identifier), , , .
, C-RNTI .
, 2 ( )
1
HO RESPONSE,
1
HO COMMAND
, :
C-RNTI (, ),
.

, RACH; ,
,
. ,
, 2 ,
HO CONFIRM,
2 :
PATH SWITCH,

USER PLANE UPDATE REQUEST,
2.
2,

33

USER PLANE UPDATE RESPONSE

PATH SWITCH RESPONSE.



PATH SWITCH RESPONSE
2 1 ,
HO RELEASE RESOURSE,
.
.

1 2 :
,
. ,
.
, C-RNTI.
, , , .
, TPC (Transmit Power
Control) PUSCH PUCH

TPC-PUSCH

TPC-PUCH.
GUMMEI (Globally Unique MME Identity),
.
LTE ECGI (E-UTRAN
34

Cell Global Identifier), (. . )


CI (Cell Identity). .

. 1.12.

,
, (TA, Tracking Area)
,
(. 1.12). TAI (Tracking Area Identity).
,
, .

35

1.4. LTE
, ,
.
(QoS, Quality of Service) E.800 (
),
, .

, .
.
, -, 1997 ., Rel97/98, GSM/GPRS
.
PDP- (PDP, Packet Data Protocol),
,

. , IP- , PDP-.

36

, GSM 07.07 PDP-,


GPRS, :
[<cid>[,<PDP_type>[,<APN>[,<PDP_addr>[,<d_comp>[,<h_comp
>[,<pd1> [,[,pdN]]]]]]]]].
cid , . PDP_type ;
IP, . . Internet Protocol). APN (Access Point Name)
, .
PDP_addr ,
, IP-,
.
d_comp : 0 ( , ), 1 . h_comp :
0 ( , ), 1
. pd1pdN N , <PDP_type> ( ).
, Rel97/98, PDP- PDP-. ,
3- ,
PDP- , , PDP-
PDP-, . PDP-, PDP , , PDP-, PDP
. PDP
,
APN PDP .
37

PDP-. , , PDP-,
.
.
QoS,
, .
PDP- 1.13.

. 1.13. PDP-

, ,
, . ,
, 3- 4- , , , ;
VoIP (Voice over IP) PoC (Push-to-talk
over Cellular).

38

:
(web-browsing);
;
(MMS, Multimedia Messaging Service), , ;
(streaming);
.
. , ,
.
1.4.1.

-
IP-, HTTP (Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol). , .
- -, , ,
, , (URL, Universe Resource Location)
: , . .
-
150 .
. 1.14 , -,
.

39

DNS -

WEB -

PDP-

TCP-
HTTP- ()
HTTP- ()
HTTP- ()
HTTP- ()
TCP-

. 1.14. -

PDP-, .
(DNS-,
Domain Name Server), IP-
.
TCP- (Transmission Control Protocol)
. , HTTP- -,
TCP-.
() -.
() -.
-.
() -.
TCP-.
40

, ,
; ,
(, ) (, ) .
, WAP- (Wireless Application Protocol).
, WWW (World Wide
Web) , ,
.
WAP- 1998 ., -
Ericsson, Motorola Nokia WAP, , .
WAP v.1.0 1998 ., ,
, ,
WAP v.1.1.
WAP,
(. . )
(end-to-end) 2000 . OMA (Open Mobile
Alliance), WAP,
, MWIF (Mobile Wireless Internet Forum), MMSIOP (Multimedia Messaging Interoperability Process) .
WAP ,
:
WAP;
41


WAP-

WAP-;
WAP-;
WAP PUSH
,
.
WAP- , WAP WTA- (Wireless Telephone Application) .
, -,
- :
, . ,
, WAP WWW-,
WAP- , HTML Java,
-. , WAP 2.0
XHTML MP (eXtensible Hyper Text Markup Language Mobile Profile) , WML (Wireless
Markup Language) XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
WAP 1.x.
WAP- ,
.
WTA-
(deck of cards) WAP-, .
WAP- -,
IP-
WAP-, IP-
WAP-. , WAP- 42

.
WAP-
WAP-, -, .
. 1.15 -
WAP 1.x, WSP (Wireless Session
Protocol) ,
WTP (Wireless Transport Protocol),
WTLS (Wireless Transport Layer Security)
WDP (Wireless Datagram Protocol)
,
1 UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

HTML/WML-

WAP-

PDP-
WSP
WTP- ()
WTP- ()
HTTP
WTP- ()
WTP- ()

. 1.15.
WAP-

, .
1

43

- PDP-
, WSP- WAP-. , WTP
() WAP-, HTML/WML ,
IP-
WAP-. , WTP-
. : ,
.
1.4.2.

(e-mail) -, .
,
, , ., , .
,
, , . ( ), , , ,
.
, ,
,
() .
IP- : SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) ; POP 2 (Post Office Protocol Version 2)
; POP 3 (Post Office Protocol Version 3)
IMAP (Interactive Mail Access Protocol)
.
44


SMTP; .
SMTP
:
(sender-SMTP) (receiver-SMTP), , - .
SMTP- , , , . (. 1.16):
1. Mail?

SMTP

2. RCTP?
3. DATA?

OK
OK

SMTP

OK

. 1.16
SMTP

SMTP- MAIL, , , . ,
.
RCPT, , , .
, , , .
, , 45

, .
SMTP. , .
-, , ( ). -,
:
@ .

( ASCII-),
:
, ;
, .
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) .
MIME
Mime-Version:, MIME
, : Mime-Version: 1.0.
Content-Type: .
1.
text
,
"charset" (US-ASCII, ISO-8859-1, KOI8-r, Windows-1251 .), ,
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="ISO-8859-l".
2.
multipart ,
,
. boundary, - . :
46

Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="this is a separator".


3.
application, image, audio, video ,
, :
Content-Type: application/msword; name="file.doc"

Content-Type: image/gif; name="S-LINK:pic.gif".


4.
message . ,
Content-Type: message/RFC-822
, , , RFC-822.
Content-Transfer-Encoding:
, : base64,
quoted-printable, 7bit, 8bit, binary .
7bit, 8bit, binary , , ,
: 7bit ASCII-;
8bit binary ,
ASCII-. 8bit binary : 8bit 1000 ( SMTP-), binary
.

1.4.3.
(SMS, Short Message Service),
. ( , ,
) , .
47

TS 22.140 TS 23.140.
LTE .

(MMS-)

MMS-
2G

(MMS-)
MMS-

3G

. 1.17. LTE

. 1.17 , .
(MMS-, MMSE,
Multimedia Messaging Service Environment)
,
. MMS-, MMS-.
MMS- ,
MMS-.
48

MMS-, . ,
MMS-
(CDR, Charging Data Record).
, .
MMS- , ,
(, , ) .

MMS-

MMS- ()

MM1

MM1

MM3
(TCP/UDP)

MM3
(TCP/UDP)

. 1.18. MMS-

MMS- , , .
. 1.18 ,
.
( MMS-)
MMS- MM1. - MMS- -, MM3. MM2 ( . 1.18
), MMS-
, . , 49

(MM4, , MM11),
.
MMS

MMS

MMS-

PDP

M-SEND.REQ

UEST

FIRMATION

M-SEND.CON

M-NOTIFICATIO

N.IND
PDP

NSE.IND
M-NOTIFYRESPO
UEST
WSP GET.REQ
M-RETRIEVE.C
ONF
GE.IND

M-ACKNOWLED
D

M-DELIVERY.IN

. 1.19.


,
(. 1.19).
, (SEND button
pressed).

MMS-
M-SEND.REQUEST,
PDP-,

50

M-SEND.CONFIRMATION
, MMS-.

:
M-NOTIFICATION.INDICATION,
PDP- ,
MMS-
M-NOTIFYRESPONSE.INDICATION,

WSP GET.REQUEST
WSP-,
MMS- .

,
M-RETRIEVE.CONFIRMATION,

M-ACKNOWLEDGE.INDICATION,
MMS- ,

M-DELIVERY.INDICATION.
, , IP-.
(always on).
1.4.4.

(PTP, point-to-point)
(PTM, point-tomultipoint) , , 51

. ,
() , , , ,
, .
, , ,
, , DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcast Handheld)
DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcast),
( )
.
(BA, Broadcast Area), . .
,
. () , .

. 1.20.

52

LTE TS 23.246,

TS 26.346.
. 1.20 . ((e)BM-SC, Evolved
Broadcast Multicast Service Center), ((e)MBMS Gateway,
MBMS-) , . , , , . MCCH (
, , .) MTCH, .
: (broadcast mode)
(multicast mode). , , . . , (, , ,
) ,
, .
, , .
( ),
, . -
53

,
.
(CBS, Cell, Broadcast Service), ,
, .
, () -, , .
,

.

MBMS-,
, . . 1.1
MBMS-.
1.1
MBMS-

IP- ,
IP multicast address
,
, IP-
APN

IP-
SGW adress
, TMGI

PDP-
Linked NSAPI

54

IMSI
TI
MBMS_NSAPI
Additional MBMS
Trace Info
Trace Reference
Trace Type
Trigger Id

. 1.1


,


,


MBMS- (. 1.21) SGmb- 1 (
) SGi-mb- ( ).
MBMS- Sm-;
MBMS- Sn-.

. 1.21. LTE

mb
.
1

55


.
(streaming service),
, .
.
(carousel) ,
( ) .
, .

:
;
;
;
;
;
, ;
.
LTE, 3- 4- , ( ), ( ) .
DL-SCH, MTCH MCCH,
.
ARQ HARQ ,
56

HARQ ( ) RNTI
(Radio Network Temporary Identifier),
MTCH.
.
MTCH MCCH MCH, . MBSFN (Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network).
1.4.5.

, ,
, , , . : , (. .
), , ,
. , 1 .
3- 4-
IETF 1 :
RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol), RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol), SDP (Session Description Protocol). -

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) .


1

57


TS 26.234.
RTSP - , TCP. ,
, , . RTSP (, . .), ,
RTP,
UDP.
SDP
,
1, ,
RTSP-, ,
.
. 1.22
.
PDP-, , , (always on). PDP-
RTSP .

, -, , ,
, ,
.
1

58

GGSN

RTSP-

PDP-
[RTSP] DESCRIBE
[RTSP] 200 OK (SDP)
[RTSP] SETUP
[RTSP] 200 OK
PDP-
[RTSP] PLAY
[RTSP] 200 OK
(RTP)

. 1.22.


DESCRIBE,
, ( , .).
200 ,
SDP-.

SETUP,
, . ,

200 OK.
59

PDP-,
QoS, . QoS-
(RTCP, Real-time Transport Control Protocol).
PDP- ,
.
PLAY,


(RTP, Real-time Transport Protocol).
.
,
, , . , , ,
.

1.5. LTE
QoS UMTS 3-
TS 23.107,
LTE 4- .

.
,
.
60

QoS
,
.
.
,
, QoS.
QoS (peer
to peer) , - .

, , QoS,
, .
QoS , ,
, , .
, , , , , .
QoS .
,
QoS .
, , , , 61

(), , ,
(. 1.23).
UMTS
TE

MT

RAN

CN
EDGE
NODE

CN
Gateway

TE

End-to-End Service
TE/MT Local
Bearer Service

UMTS Local Bearer Service


Radio Access Bearer
Service
Radio
Bearer
Service

RAN Access
Bearer
Service

Physical
Radio
Bearer
Service

Physical
Bearer
Service

External
Bearer Service

CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service

. 1.23.
(. 1.7) (end-to-end service) , ,
:
(Terminal Equipment / Mobile Terminal
local Bearer Service), LTE (LTE Bearer Service), (External Bearer Service). ,
.
62

LTE ,
, (Radio Access
Bearer Service),
,
(Core Network Bearer Service), ..
: (Radio Bearer Service) (Access
Bearer Service). , , . , (Physical Radio Bearer Service)
. (Physical Bearer Service)
.
, (Backbone Network Bearer Service) 1 2
.
LTE, .
, QoS.
(MF, Mapping Function) QoS.
(CF, Classification Function) QoS, , ,
.
63

(RMF, Resource Manager Function)



QoS.
() (TCF, Traffic Conditioner Function) .
, QoS,
.
. 1.24 .
TE

MT

RAN

(Gateway)

CN EDGE

CF

CF

TCF

TCF
TCF

MF

MF
MF


RMF

RMF

RAN phys. BS

RMF

RMF

RAN Access
network service

RMF

RMF

BB network service

. 1.24.

, ,
, ( )
LTE QoS. , ,
( ) ( )
QoS. ,
64


QoS-, ,
, .
, , ,
.
(SMF, Service Manager Function)
, ,
.
(TF, Translation Function)
LTE , LTE QoS .
(A/CCF, Admission / Capability Control Function) , ( ) , . , ..
.
(SCF, Subscription Control
Function) QoS.

. 1.25.
, ,
, ,
, .

65

TE

MT

TF

RAN

A/CCF

A/CCF

UMTS BS
Manager

Local BS
Manager

RAB
Manager

CN EDGE

A/CCF

SCF

UMTS BS
Manager

(Gateway)
A/CCF

TF

UMTS BS
Manager

Radio BS
Manager

Radio BS
Manager

RA BS
Manager

RA BS
Manager

CN BS
Manager

CN BS
Manager

RAN
phys. BS
Manager

RAN
phys. BS
Manager

RA NS
Manager

RA NS
Manager

RA NS
Manager

BB NS
Manager

Ext. BS
Manager

. 1.25.

, , (. . ), ,
, ,
,
.

,
:
();
;
;
.
: , . 66

. -: -,
, . ,
. .

, , , , GSM,
, , , (VoIP, Voice over IP), , .
( ). . QoS
, ,
,
. ,
400 .
,
3- AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) ; , , ,
LTE.
AMR : 122 (GSM-EFR); 102; 740 (IS-641);
670 (PDS-EFR); 590; 515 475 /. .

67

,
. AMR
122 / EFR GSM,
74 / US-TDMA,
67 / PDS. AMR 20 , 160 8 . AMR :
.

(ACELP, Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction). ACELP MR-ACELP.
20 CELP ( ,

). , ,
, . : A, B C.
, .
, , . UMTS , ITU H324M. : ITUI Rec. H.323 IETF SIP.
68

, , .

, -
. , ()
,
.
, .

(, - ),
,
, . ,
, , , ,
. ,
, .

, . -, , , . , ()
. , .
69


. , ,
. . ,
, ,
.
, : , , . .
, , ,
, . .
. ,
.
,
,
. , ,
.
, ,
. QoS, .
1. (, , , ).
2. ( /).
,
LTE ( LTE) .
3. ( /) , .

70

4. ( / ). , , . PDP-.
5. ( ) ,
(SDU, Service Data Unit). MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit), IP-.
6. ( ) ,
, RLC- .
7. ,
.
( / )
.
8. , ,
.
( / ) .
9.
, ( /).
.
10.
( ) 95% .
11.

.
, .

71

12.
/ . ,

.
13.
( / ).
. , , , ( ) .
14.
( / ), ,
( ) .
,
1 . .
15.
/ / , , .
. 1.2
QoS .
1.2
QoS
QoS

256 000
256 000
256 00
(/)

72

256 000

. 1.2
256 000

(/)
/

1 500
( 1 502
)

5102, 102,
5103, 103,

104, 105,

106
- 100 .
()

/
1, 2, 3

/
-

256 000

1 500
1 502

1 500
1 502

1 500
1 502

5102, 102,
5103, 103,
104, 105,
106
300 .

4103, 105,
6108

4103, 105,
6108

1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3

1, 2, 3

/
/

73

. 1.2

/
:
;

;

115

115

115

115

, QoS ,
, , . ., , . ,
150 3%.
,
1%,
(
) ,
.

, ( + )
AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) MPEG-4 , 3- 4- .
AMR :
4,7512,2 /;
74

20 ;
100 ;
102104.
103;
MPEG-4 :
24,0128,0 /;
150400 ( ),
200 ;
103 (
), 104 ( ), 105 (
), 106 ( ).

75


1. ,
LTE. ?
2. ?
3. .
4. LTE?
5. (), LTE.
6. ()
?
7. , MAC-().
8. RLC-?
9. LTE.
?
10. PCFICH,
PDCCH PHICH. ?
11. GUMMEI?
?
12. PDP-. ?
13. -.
, ?
14. MBMS-? ?
15. LTE?
, .
16. .
?
17. AMR.

76

2. LTE
LTE. , , ,

. (MIMO).
LTE . . .1 . 1,4 20 , . , , fc:
f min= f c + BWch / 2 ;

f max= f c BWch / 2 .
100 , ; , () 100 .

,
=
Ts 1 (15000 2048 ) .
(radio frames)
=
T f 307200 =
Ts 10 ,
, ,
. :
77

1, FDD 2,
TDD .
1 (. 2.1), (), FDD-,
20 , 19-,
=
Tslot 15360
=
Ts 0,5 .
,
; i- 2i
2i + 1.
, Tf = 307200Ts = 10
Tslot = 15360Ts = 0,5

19

3
...

. 2.1. 1

: 10 10 . , FDD-, .
- , .
2 .
(. 2.2) (
78

), (hf halfframe)
=
Thf 153600
=
Ts 5 ,

(sf sub-frame)
=
Tsf 30720
=
Ts 1 .
, Tf = 307200Ts = 10
, Tf = 153600Ts = 5

Tslot
0

...

Tsf = 30720Ts
DwPTS

GP

UpPTS

. 2.2. 2

. 2.1 , . D , , U .
,
, , . 2.1
S.
DwPTS (Downlink Pilot Time Slot) UpPTS (Uplink Pilot Time slot),

79

,
GP (Guard Period).
2.1


PTS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
5
D S U U U D S U U U
1
5
D S U U D D S U U D
2
5
D S U D D D S U D D
3
10
D S U U U D D D D D
4
10
D S U U D D D D D D
5
10
D S U D D D D D D D
6
5
D S U U U D S U U D

. 2.2 2.3 DwPTS UpPTS , (). (DwPTS, GP, UpPTS)


30720Ts = 1 .
2.2


UpPTS


DwPTS



0
6592Ts
1
19760Ts
2
21952Ts
2192Ts
2560Ts
3
24144Ts
4
26336Ts

80

. 2.2
5
6
7
8

6592Ts
19760Ts
21952Ts
24144Ts

4384Ts

5120 Ts

. 2.1 , 5 10 .
5 , 10 .
2.3


UpPTS


DwPTS



0
7680Ts
1
20480Ts
2
23040Ts
2192Ts
2560Ts
3
25600Ts
4
7680Ts
5
20480Ts
4384Ts
5120 Ts
6
23040Ts

2.1.

. ,
, ,
81

LTE:
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) SC-FDMA (Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access).
2.1.1. OFDM
OFDM ,
.
. () 1
40 , ,
-2 Ts = 1/40106 c = 25 . , , (, . .). (. 2.3)
,
,
, , ,
. ().
, ,
cTs= 3108 /c 1/40106 c = 7,5 ,
(, ) , , , . ; .
1

82

. 2.3.

,
, , . . ,
(, ) .

102103 , . , .
, , , ,
,
. .
, , , 0 = 2f0

83

, ,
, ,
, .
, , Ts, R ( )
log 2 M
,
(2.1)
R=
Ts
M , , . . Ts.
Ts ,
Ts >> s,
s .
(, ),
. : s Ts (2.1) R.
, ,
. .
B ,
G(f) , 1/Ts.
84

B=

1+
,
Ts

(2.2)

,
. ,
= 0.
() < 0.
, B K (. 2.4,
K = 8), B/K, .

G(f)

B/K

. 2.4.

, , KTs,

B/K.
,
85


.
, ,
( . 2.4), -
, .
, 1 , , ,
, (. 2.5). .

S(f)

B/K

. 2.5.

,
,
.
, , . . , .
1

86

[1] , sk (t ), sl (t )
sk(t) sl(t) :
T

=
sk (t ), sl (t )

s (t ) s (t )dt
=
k

0 , k l,

(2.3)

T .
(, , ) s1(t), , sK(t)

Ak, k :
=
sk (t ) Ak cos ( 2f k t + k ) , 0 t Ts. k = 0, , K 1.
(2.4)
(2.3)
Ts

sk (=
t ), sl (t )

+ ) dt
A cos ( 2f t + ) A cos ( 2f t=
k

Ak Al sin ( 2( f k + f l )Ts + k + l ) sin ( k + l )


+
2
2 ( f k + f l )
+

sin ( 2( f k f l )Ts + k l ) sin ( k l )


,
2 ( f k f l )


1/Ts, sk(t) sl(t)
. fk = k/Ts
=
sk (t ) Ak cos ( 2kt / Ts + k ) , 0 t Ts. k = 0, , K 1.
(2.5)
,
OFDM-.

87

S(f)

fTs
. 2.6.

. 2.6 S(f) OFDM


s (t ) =

K 1

s (t ) , 0 t Ts,
k

(2.6)

k =0

, . , fk = k/Ts k- ,

. , f = 1/Ts

.

,
, , .
88

.
,
, . 2.7.
cos2f1

cos2f2

s(t)

cos2fK

. 2.7.
OFDM-


, ,
, ( ), f1, , fK, , , , s(t).
. 2.7 OFDM- , K
, K .
, ,
89

(, DFT Discrete
Fourier Transform).
(2.6) . k = Ak exp(jk). OFDM-,
, :

K 1

ssym (t ) =Re k exp [ j 2kt / Ts ] , 0 t Ts,


k =0

, OFDM-,

(2.7)

K 1

sym (t ) = k exp [ j 2kt / Ts ] , 0 t Ts.

(2.8)

k =0

, OFDM-
[0; Ts] T0, tn = nT0 OFDM-
() (, IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform) K-
k:
n sym (tn =
)

j 2knT0 K 1
j 2kn
k exp
k exp
=
,
KT
K

k 0
0=

K 1

k
=

(2.9)

( )
().
, , K (,
,
),
. , K .

90

, , , .
, , , ,
. Ts OFDM Tu . ,
, , , Tu (,
),
, .
,
.
, f = 1/Ts, Ts Tu f = 1/Tu, , , [ ; Ts ]
.
,
, , OFDM- . . OFDM-, ( . 2.8 , OFDM-,
). Tu,
OFDM-
( ), OFDM-,
.

91

s(t)

Tu

t
Ts

Ts

. 2.8.

,
. , , 0 , (2.3) :
Tu

s=
k (t ), sl (t )

Ak cos ( 2f k t + k ) Al cos ( 2=
f l t + l ) dt

Ak Al sin ( 2( f k + f l ) (Tu ) + k + l ) sin ( k + l ) ( )


+

2
2( f k + f l )
sin ( 2( f k f l ) (Tu ) + k l ) sin ( k l ) ( )
,
2( f k f l )

[; Tu ]
fk fl = 1/Tu, .
,
, , OFDM-, G ,
+

ng (g guard, )


g
n

g
sym

(tn=
)

K 1

k =0

92

j 2kn
exp
, (n = 0, , K + G 1). (2.10)

. 2.9
OFDM (
) .

X (0)
X (1)

P/S

X ( N 1)

. 2.9.
OFDM-
N k ( ), G () ,
, ,
ng (n = 0, , N 1), . Ts
G { ng }, .
, . ,
( . 2.9 ) .

.

93

F K K ,
:
1
1
1
j 2 / K
e

F =

j 2 ( K 2)/ K
1 e
1 e j 2 ( K 1)/ K

j 2 ( K 1)/ K
e

e j 2 ( K 1)( K 2)/ K
e j 2 ( K 1)( K 1)/ K

1
e j 4 / K

e j 4 ( K 2)/ K
e j 4 ( K 1)/ K


f kn= exp ( j 2kn / K ) , k, n = 0, , N 1.
F , . .
H
H
FF
=
F=
F I,

I ,
H .
, AH ( , Charles
Hermite) A, - :

(A )
H

= Aji .
*

ij


, . . AH A.
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, .

F
F1, () F. ,
H
f kn1 f kn=
exp ( j 2kn / K ) , k, n = 0, , N 1.

94

n ( ) :

n = F H k , k, n = 0, , N 1.
CP
(K +1) K
I
0
CP( K +G )K = G( K G ) G ,
IK

IG IK
G K K K, 0G ( K G) .
{ ng }, , :

0
g = CPn= G( K G )
IK

=
( K G K 1

0
I G 1
=

K 1

0 K 1 ) .
T

{ ng }, ,

. , ,
, H() , , h(t) [6, 7].
L
h0, h1, , hL.

h = ( h0 , h1 ,..., hL ) .
T

zk
:

95

zk=

h
i

g
k 1

+ nk , k = 0, , N 1,

(2.11)

i =0

nk , ,
, , . .
, , .
(2.11)

h0 0 0 0 0 0
h h 0 0 0 0
0
1

h2 h1 h0 0 0 0

H = h2 h1 h0 0 0 0
hL h2 h1 h0 0 0


0 0 h h h h
2
1
0

L
(K + L) (K + L) :

z= H g + n= HCPF + n ,

= ( 0 1 K 1 )

.
2.1.2.
OFDM
, ,
, .
OFDM.
,
,
, 96

, ,
( ,
.). , ,
, , , . , , ( , ,
.), , , .
, , .

,

.
, , .
, G()
( ) [1]:
1
2
(2.12)
G () lim E S () ,
=


S() ,
[0; ] s(t), E , . . .

97

, G(), (2.12),
, . G() G*(), ( ) . ,
G() G*() 1.
.
, , ( ) A(t) .
N- OFDM- 2
[0; NTs]:
N 1

N 1
(n)
s=
ssym t =
nTs
Re
N (t )
=
n 0=
n 0

{exp j0 ( t nTs )

exp
j
2
l
t
nT
/
T

(
)
ln
s
u A(t nTs ) , 0 t NTs .

l =0
Ts ,
= NTs
N ( , ).
( )
:

K max 1

S (=
) S N ()

NTs

s N (t ) exp=
( jt ) dt

, , G() G*()
, [1].
, , .
2
OFDM- ,
.
1

98

NTs N 1

(n)
dt
n=0 ssym ( t nTs ) exp ( jt )=

S N + () + S N () ,

1 N 1 K max 1
=
S N + ()
ln exp { j ( 0 ) nTs } exp { j 2l ( nTs + ) / Tu }
2=n 0=l 0

NTs

A ( t nTs ) exp [ j 2lt / Tu ] exp j ( 0 ) t dt ,


0

1 N 1 K max 1 *
=
S N ()
ln exp { j ( + 0 ) nTs } exp { j 2l ( nTs + ) / Tu }
2=n 0=l 0

NTs

A ( t nTs ) exp [ j 2lt / Tu ] exp j ( + 0 ) t dt .


0

* .

=
FA ()

Ts

A ( t ) exp ( jt ) dt
0

A(t), ,

1 N 1 K max 1
=
S N + ()
ln exp { j ( 0 ) nTs } exp { j 2l ( nTs + ) / Tu }
2=n 0=l 0

FA ( 0 2lt / Tu )

1 N 1 K max 1 *
S N ()
=
ln exp { j ( + 0 ) nTs } exp { j 2l ( nTs + ) / Tu }
2=n 0=l 0

FA ( + 0 + 2lt / Tu ) .
, SN()
sN(t), , SN+() SN() 99

0 0 (. 2.10). ,
S N + () + S N () =
2

= S N + () + S N + () S N* () + S N* + () S N () + S N ()
2

,
S N + () + S N () S N + () + S N () .
2

|SN()|

|SN()|

|SN+()|

. 2.10.


.
, :
2
2
E S N + () 2 + E S N ()=

E S N ()=

1 N 1 N 1 K max 1 K max 1
E ln *l n exp { j ( 0 ) ( n n ) Ts }

4=n 0=
n 0 =l 0 =
l 0

FA ( 0 2lt / Tu ) FA* ( 0 2l kt / Tu )
exp { j 2 ( l l ) ( nTs + ) / Tu } +
1 N 1 N 1 K max 1 K max 1
+ E ln *l n exp { j ( + 0 ) ( n n ) Ts }
4=n 0=
n 0 =l 0 =
l 0

FA ( + 0 + 2lt / Tu ) FA* ( + 0 + 2l t / Tu )
100

exp { j 2 ( l l ) ( nTs + ) / Tu } .

(2.13)

, n = n l = l, (
l- ). kn *k n ,
, , ( ), :
E 2 , n =
n, l =
l ,

=
2

E [ ] , l l .

(-2, -4, -16, -64 .)
E[l] ( ).
E ln *l n

2
, N 2 K max
,

(2.13), N , n = n
l = l:
=
E S N ()

NE 2 K max 1
4

E 2 K max 1
4

l =0

l =0

FA ( 0 2lt / Tu ) +
2

FA ( + 0 + 2lt / Tu ) .
2

(2.14)

, N :
1
2
(2.15)
G (=
) lim
E S N () = G+ () + G () ,

N NT
s

=
G+ ()

E 2 K max 1

4Ts

l =0

FA ( 0 2lt / Tu ) ,
2

(2.16)

101

=
G ()

E 2 K max 1

4Ts

l =0

FA ( + 0 + 2lt / Tu ) .
2

,
, 0 0. , , , ( )
,
() P, ,

1
=
P
G ()d .
2

(2.17)

( (2.17) G()
.)
E[2] , ,
E[2] = 1,
, .

OFDM,

A0 , t [0; Tu ],
A(t ) =
.
t

T
0,
[0;
].
u

FA()
sin ( fTs )
,
FA ( f ) = A0Ts
fTs


sin 2 ( f l / Tu ) Ts
=
, l 0, ..., K max 1,
Gl ( f ) =
2
( f l / Tu ) Ts
0 = 2f 0 .

102

(2.18)

:
l = l K max / 2 ,
f0 .
. 2.11 OFDM Kmax = 128
() .
. 2.11, ( 4 ) |fT| 13
.
, . OFDM , , ,
.

. 2.11. OFDM N = 128

103

OFDM ,
,
.
. 2.12 . 2.4
.
G(f)

(f f0)T,
. 2.12.

,
( |fT| 4)
, . 2.11: 80... 110 40... 50 .
2.4



f f0,
G(f),
12,0
120,0

104

6,0
4,2
3,8
+ 3,8
+ 4,2
+ 6,0
+ 12,0

. 2.4
95,0
83,0
32,8
32,8
83,0
95,0
120,0


, - .
2.1.3. SC-FDMA
LTE SC-FDMA.
, TDD , FDD .
-2 ,
, GSM.
,
. 2.12, (-2), , .
.
OFDM, ,

105

.
SC-FDMA .

FFT

...

IFFT

IFFT

FFT

. 2.12. SC-FDMA

, , . 2.12.
,
1 . , - , , , , .
, (. 2.13).

106

SC-FDMA-

SC-FDMA-
,

(1 )

. 2.13. SC-FDMA

, 180 , 15 12 , 0,5 (1 ).

7 SC-FDMA-, 6 SC-FDMA-.

,
20 , , . , LTE 10
9 , 50 .
,
,
, , .
- (), (. 2.14, 107

). ,
.
SC-FDMA- .

12N

(0,5 )

...

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(SC-FDMA )

. 2.14. SC-FDMA


180 , 108

1 ,
. ,
. ,
(. 2.15).
1

IFFT

FFT

FFT
IFFT

. 2.15.

SC-FDMA- . ,
, - , , OFDM,
.

2.2.
.

109

, :
N scRB ;
UL

N RB

;
UL
SC-FDMA- N symb

;
(k, l) (
- ), k-
l- SC-FDMA-;
ak ,l ,
(k, l).
() (PRB, Physical Resource
UL
Blok) N scRB N symb

SC-FDMA-. . 2.5.
2.5

N scRB

UL
N symb

12
12

7
6


LTE UL
N RB
.
UL
6 N RB
110 .

, , LTE ,
1,1 , 20 .
nPRB .
nVRB .
110

,
.
PUSCH,
UL-SCH.
PRACH,
RACH.
PUCCH,

.
RACH

UL-SCH
MAC

L1 ( PHY)
PUCCH

PRACH

PUSCH

. 2.16.


. 2.16 ( . 1.9).
2.2.1.

( , , )
:
, ( ) ;

(-2) () 111

, (-16, -64)
;
: , SC-FDMA;
. , 34 ;
SC-FDMA .

PUSCH . 2.17.

.

SC-FDMA

. 2.17.
PUSCH

PUSCH
b(0), b(1), ..., b( M bit 1) ,
M bit , PUSCH
.

b (0), b (1), ..., b ( M 1)
bit

, ,
.
i = 0;
112

(i < Mbit)
( b(i ) = x ) % i-

b (i ) = 1 ;
b(i ) = y % i-
b (=
i ) b (i 1)
% ( )
(i ) ( b(i ) + c(i ) ) mod 2 ;
b=

i = i + 1;

c(n), n = 0, 1, , MPN 1 ( , MPN = Mbit) 2 m- x1 x2:


(2.19)
c(n) = ( x1 (n + 1600) + x2 (n + 1600) ) mod 2 ,

.
x1
x1 =
(0) 1, x1 (=
n) 0,=
n 1, 2, ..., 30 ;
:
x1 (n + 31)
= ( x1 (n + 3) + x1 (n) ) mod 2 , n = 0, 1, , MPN 32.

(2.20)

, x1(31) x1(61), ,
:
1000000000000000000000000000100
x2
cinit:
30

cinit = x2 (i )2i ,
i =0


113

x2 (n + 31) =

( x2 (n + 3) + x2 (n + 2) + x2 (n + 1) + x2 (n) ) mod 2 .

(2.20)

cinit -

; .
PUSCH
cell
,
cinit =nRNTI 214 + ns / 2 29 + N ID

(2.21)

cell
, nRNTI N ID

, ns (ns = 0, 1,
, 19).


b (0), b (1), ..., b ( M 1)
bit

. PUSCH : , -16, -64.


.
,

d (0), d (1), ..., d ( M symb 1) .


PUSCH
M symb / M SC
-

, SC-FDMA, Msymb PUSCH


, M SC
-

, PUSCH.
z (0), z (1), ..., z ( M symb 1) ,
:
114

PUSCH
=
+ k)
z (lM SC

PUSCH
1
M SC

1
PUSCH
M SC

d ( lM
i =0

PUSCH
SC

2ik
+ i ) exp j PUSCH ,
M SC

PUSCH
PUSCH
=
k =
0, 1, ..., M SC
1 ; l 0, 1, ..., M symb / M SC
1.

(2.22)

PUSCH
M SC
,

PUSCH, :
PUSCH
PUSCH
RB
M SC
= M RB
NSC
,

(2.23)

RB
NSC
(
PUSCH
12), M RB
,
PUSCH
PUSCH. M RB

:
PUSCH
RB
,
=
M RB
22 33 55 N UL

2, 3, 5 .

z PUSCH
PPUSCH. ,
PPUSCH, TS 36.213 :
, , , .

z (0), z (1), ..., z ( M symb 1)
(k, l) ,
k ( ), l (
SC-FDMA-). ,
PUSCH
,
SC-FDMA-, . . ,

115

,
.
: .
nPRB nVRB
, TS 36.213 RIV (Resource Indication Value).
. , , ; TS 36.211 TS 36.213.
2.2.2.
PUCCH

.

, . PUSCH,

PUCCH.
PUCCH PUSCH . PUCCH
, . 2.6.
1 (),
- ;
PUCCH. d(0).
116

1a 1b ( -2) ( ) .
2, 2a 2b
2022 . 2a 2b,
,
-2 /
(Acknowledge / Negative
Acknowledge, A / N).
2.6
PUCCH

PUCCH
1
1a
1b
2
2a
2b

, M bit

-2

-2, (A/N)
-2 , (A/N)

1
2
20
21
22

PUCCH , . . 12 , .
, ,
LTE. , . .
. PUCCH , . 2.18.
PUCCH, , (, . 2.18
PUCCH ), , 117

...

PUCCH

. 2.18. PUCCH


:

(Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation
Codes, CAZAC-)
;
.
, ,
(Channel Quality Indicator, CQI), CAZAC-.
PUCCH CAZAC-
12 ( ), ( 118

2 CQI ) -2 (1
).
CAZAC-. PUCCH ; ,
CQI
.
PUCCH . 2.19.

. 2.19. PUCCH

PUCCH
A / N. ,
A / N 12 ,
, SF = 4 ,
,
. 2.20.

119

. 2.20. A/N

1, 1a 1b PUCCH (
PUCCH 1/1a/1b
PUCCH 2/2a/2b) CAZAC- ,
2/2a/2b CAZAC-. , PUCCH 1/1a/1b
(1 2 , ) , PUCCH 2/2a/2b
5 (20 +
A / N ).
PUCCH 1 (. . PUCCH 1) (Scheduling Request Indicator, SRI).
RRC_CONNECTED . 2.21.

120

(SRI)

SRI +
. 2.21. SRI

SRI ,
- .
,
, A / N , . , A/N SRI
.
LTE PUCCH. , TS 36.211,
HO
, PUCCH, N RB
. -


PCFICH, . , (2)
CQI, N RB
.

, , PUCCH, , PUCCH 1/1a/1b, ,


PUCCH 2/2a/2b. , ,
, 1,4 .

121


PUCCH.
() .
PUCCH
0

PUCCH
2/2a/2b


(CS)
0
1
11
0

1
11
0
1

11
0
1

11
0
1
11
0
1


PUCCH
1/1a/1b

HO
NRB
1

11
0
1
11

PUCCH 1/1a/1b
PUCCH 2/2a/2b

. 2.22.
PUCCH


(1)
,
N CS

CAZAC-, PUCCH 1/1a/1b


122

, PUCCH 2/2a/2b, (2)


nPUCCH
. -

PUCCH . 2.22.
PUCCH
1, 1a 1b.
, PUCCH
CAZAC- ,

(. 2.19), , . 2.20. ,
PUCCH 1/1a/1b,
:
PUCCH
12 N RS
RB
,
(2.24)
N PUCCH Format1 =
Delta_shift
Delta_shift , A / N ,
PUCCH
N RS
PUCCH 1/1a/1b
PUCCH
= 3 , ( N RS
PUCCH
= 2 ).
N RS

Delta_shift 1, 2 3,
36, 18 12
PUCCH 1/1a/1b . 18 PUCCH 1/1a/1b ( )
. 2.7.

123

2.7
PUCCH 1/1a/1b
, Delta_shift = 2

0
1
2
0
0
12
1
6
2
1
13
3
7
4
2
14
5
8
6
3
15
7
9
8
4
16
9
10
10
5
17
11
11

PUCCH 1/1a/1b
. 2.23.
PUCCH 1/1a/1b ,
(1)
.
N PUCCH

SRI, A / N, PDSCH,
. A / N, SRI
.

124


PUCCH 1/1a/1b

PUCCH

.
(CS)

,

A/N, SRI

,

A/N

. 2.23. PUCCH 1/1a/1b

PUCCH 1/1a/1b
PUCCH A / N,
PDSCH, .
A / N, PDSCH,

A / N CCE (Control Channel Element) PDCCH. CCE
OFDM- , , PCFICH: 1, 2 3 OFDM-
1,4 ; 2, 3, 4 OFDM125

1,4 . , A / N, CCE PDCCH. , 20 , 3 OFDM, CCE 80.


, PUCCH
, LTE (. 2.18). PUCCH 2/2a/2b ,
PUCCH 1/1a/1b.
2.2.3.
PUSCH
PUSCH L1/L2 .
- .
A / N, CQI, RI
(Rank Indicator),
PMI (Pre-coding Matrix Indicator)
,
,
SC-FDMA- (. 2.24).

.
,
. A / N
SC-FDMA-, .
126

A/N

. 2.24. PUSCH

SC-FDMA A / N.
RI, A / N. PMI CQI
SC-FDMA- (. 2.25).
CQI, PMI
, . A / N, RI
,
, SC-FDMA. , - ,
A / N, , , PUSCH. -16, -64, , ,
A / N RI.

127

SC-FDMA-


RI

A/N
CQI

. 2.25.

PUSCH
:
( A / N);
(2- A / N, RI);
(32, N)- ( CQI / PMI
11 );
128

1/3 ( CQI/PMI 11 ).
2.2.4.


PUSCH. PUSCH , 10 . -
, , , 180 , 1 , .

; SC-FDMA-.
- (scheduler) (. 2.26).
1

. 2.26. -

129

, .
PRACH,
.

.
(-4, -16, -64), , , , .
, 700 / 86 /.
PUSCH
.
CRC.

:
gCRC24A(D) = [D24 + D23 + D18 + D17 + D14 + D11 + D10 + D7 + D6 +
+ D5 + D4 + D3 + D + 1];
gCRC24B(D) = [D24 + D23 + D6 + D5 + D + 1];
gCRC16(D) = [D16 + D12 + D5 + 1];
gCRC8(D) = [D8 + D7 + D4 + D3 + D + 1].
. ,
.
, 24 .
6 144 . , .
.
(UL-PUSCH, DL-PDSCH) 130

1/3. .
. , , , , , , , , . , d k(0) , d k(1) , d k(2) .
,
,
(. 2.27).
d k(0)

d k(1)

d k( 2)

. 2.27.

, .
.
, .
, ,
. 131

,
, PUSCH
(. 2.28).

CRC


,
CRC

. 2.28. PUSCH

2.2.5.
, . TS 36.212 ,
. 1/3. 1/3, -

132


BCH. .

(. 2.29).

xk
1

ck

zk

ck

z k

xk
. 2.29. 1/3

.
:
d k(0) = xk ,
d k(1) = zk ,

'k , k 0, 1, 2, ..., K 1 .
=
d k(2) z=
x1 , x2 , ..., xK , , z1 , z2 , ..., z K 133

, z '1 , z '2 , ..., z 'K . x1 , x2 , ..., xK ,


, .
, , . . K, . , ,
. , ,
, :
(0)
(0)
(0)
=
d K(0) x=
z K +=
x '=
z 'K +1 ,
1 , d K +2
K , d K +1
K , d K +3
(1)
(1)
(1)
d K(1) z=
xK +=
z '=
x 'K + 2 ,
=
2 , d K +2
K , d K +1
K , d K +3
(2)
(2)
(2)
=
d K(2) x=
z K=
x '=
z 'K + 2 .
+2 , d K +2
K +1 , d K +1
K +1 , d K +3


. c0 , c1 , ..., cK 1 ,
c 'i ==
c(i ) , i 0,1,..., K 1 .
(i ) , ,
(=
i)

( f i + f i ) mod K .
2

f1, f2
K , TS 36.212.
. 2.30.

134

ck

d k(0)

G0 = 133 (octal

d k(1)

G1 = 171 (octal

d k( 2) G2 = 165 (octal

. 2.30. 1/3


6 ck.
d 0(0) , d 0(1) , d 0(2) , d1(0) , d1(1) , d1(2) . .
2.2.6.

. UMTS

PDCCH. LTE PUCCH
PUSCH
(Demodulation Reference Signals, DMRS), (Sounding Reference Signals, SRS).
, , :
;

,
, ;

135

, ,
.

(CAZAC-); (Zadoff Chu sequences) .

,
. , LTE 12 (,
12 ), .
,
, :
, ;

, ;
, , , ;
, . . -;
, ,
1 / N ZC , N ZC .
,
136

(, 12 24 ), .
-4.
ru ,v (n) :
RS
,
ru ,v (n=
) exp [ j(n) / 4] , n = 0, 1, ..., M SC

(2.25)

(n) u RS
, M SC
(12

24 ). (n) . .2
.3 .
:
RS
)
ru(=
ru ,v (n) exp ( j=
n ) , n 0, 1, ..., M SC
,
,v ( n )

(2.26)

ncs (cs cyclic


shift, ):

= 2ncs / 12 .

(2.27)

,
, ,
RS
N ZC
,
RS
M SC
:

RS
RS
, m 0,1,..., N ZC
=
xq exp j qm(m + 1) /=
N ZC
1,

(2.28)

RS
q = q + 1/ 2 + v(1) =
, q N ZC
(u + 1) / 31,
u
(u = 0, 1, , 29), v . 3 :
(v = 0),
(v = 0, 1).
2q

137


:
RS
RS
=
ru ,v (n) x=
0,1, ..., M SC
.
q ( n mod N ZC ), n

(2.29)

(2.26).
RRS(n)

. 2.31.

, SC-FDMA-, . . .
,
,
CAZAC- , ,
, . ,
RRS(n) - (. 2.31).
138

exp(jn) RS
ncs M SC
/ 12

.
. 2.32
RS
R k ,l (n) ( M SC
= 36 ),
, . . , .

R0,0(n)
R0,1(n)
R0,2(n)
R0,3(n)
R0,4(n)
R0,5(n)
R0,6(n)
R0,7(n)
R0,8(n)
R0,9(n)
R0,10(n)
R0,11(n)
. 2.32.

k, l ncs .
. 2.32, (ncs1 ncs2),

, . . .
139


,
, , , .
LTE 12 (ncs = 0, 1,
, 11) 8 (ncs = 0, 1, , 7) .
, , ,
. , . PUSCH , PUCCH 2 3
PUCCH. PUSCH DMRS 4 SC-FDMA , .
:
u ( , );
v (
);
,
DMRS ( 12 , );
, .
140

R0,1(n)

R1,17(n)

. 2.33.

, ,
, , ,

. , , 141

. ,
Ru1, u 2 (n)
(. 2. 33).
, , , .
, , LTE
.

PUSCH. ,
PUCCH ,

. ,
PUCCH SC-FDMA-.

.
, .
, (
), . , .
( SRS)
, PUSCH
. SRS,

142

. SRS SC-FDMA- , . 2.34

. 2.34.

SRS
, SC-FDMA . , .
SRS- 24, , SRS .
SRS LTE .

. SRS 8 .
, SRS .
. 2.35 - SRS- . SRS-
143

0,72 (4 )
10 ( 5 ). 20 ( 3,6 ) 5 .

. 2.35. -
SRS,

2.2.7.
PRACH
, .

. ,
, PRACH
, PRACH.
LTE, FDD
1, PRACH , 144

. ,
,
. 20 .
. . 2.36.
903

103

1,08
(6 )

800
1484

684

800
1803

203

800

800
2284

684

800

800

. 2.36. PRACH ( FDD)

1, 3,
, , , ( LTE 100 , 333 ). 145


.
64 , .
PRACH 1,08 ,
.
839 ,
. PRACH
.
64
. , , , , . , ,

(. 2.37).

. 2.37.
PRACH
146

,
.
.

2.3.
. 2.1.1 ,
LTE , ( ) .
, . , OFDM- , , , .
OFDM- .
(Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access, OFDMA).
OFDMA-, , ,
OFDM- , ,
, . . .
,
, 180 ,
15
12 , 0,5 (). -
1 (). 7
OFDMA-,
6 OFDMA-.
147

2.3.1.

PDSCH. CQI, ,
. , , . , ,
(. 2.38).
CQI
1

2
2

CQI

. 2.38.

, ,
PDCCH. PDSCH
OFDMA- PDSCH
148

( ).
PDCCH , PDSCH.
, . 2.39, PDCCH 3 OFDMA-,
OFDMA-.
, 1,4 , PDCCH
OFDMA-.
(10 )
(1 )

1 (0,5 )

2 (0,5 )

. 2.39.

PDCCH PDSCH
PBCH.
, , ( OFDMA-).

. 2.40.

149

PDCCH
PDSCH

OFDMA-

. 2.40.

1/3,
(. 2.2.5). ,
, 6144 .
. 2.41. , PDSCH ,
OFDMA-.

150


PDSCH

, CRC
,
CRC





OFDMA-

. 2.41. PDSCH

. 2.41, , , ( ).
(Multiple In Multiple Out, MIMO),
.
MIMO .

PDSCH.
b(0), b(1), ..., b( M bit 1) ,
M bit . 2 c(i ) :
(i ) ( b(i ) + c(i ) ) mod 2 .
b=

c(i ) 151

(2.19) (2.20) cinit, :


cell
cinit
= nRNTI 214 + q 213 + ns / 2 29 + N ID
,
(2.30)
ns , q -

(0 1), nRNTI ,

cell
N ID

(1)
N ID
= 0, 1, ..., 167 , ,
(2)
= 0, 1, 2 :
N ID
cell
(1)
(2)
N
=
3 N ID
+ N ID
.
ID

(2.31)


b (0), b (1), ..., b ( M 1)
bit

, : , -16, -64.
(q )
d ( q ) (0),..., d ( q ) ( M symb
1) ,

.
,
,
.
layer
M symb

( 1)
layer
x(i ) = x (0) (i ) ... x=
(i ) , i 0,1, ..., M symb
1.

, . .

x (0) (i )=
= d (0) (i ) , i 0,1, ..., M symb 1 .
: (Spatial Multip-

152

lexing, SM) - (Transmit Diversity, TD).


, , , P , . ,
.
, , 2 4
2 4 MIMO ( 2 2 , 4 4 ).
. 2.8.
2.8
SM


1


layer
=
i 0,1,..., M symb
1

x (0) (i ) = d (0) (i )
x (0) (i ) = d (0) (i )

x (1) (i ) = d (1) (i )
x (0) (i ) = d (0) (2i )

=
x (1) (i ) d (0) (2i + 1)
x (0) (i ) = d (0) (i )

x (1) (i ) = d (1) (2i )


(2)
x=
(i ) d (1) (2i + 1)

layer
(0)
M symb
= M symb

layer
(0)
(1)
M
=
M
=
M symb
symb
symb

layer
(0)
M symb
= M symb
2

layer
(0)
M
=
M
=
symb
symb
(1)
= M symb
2

153

. 2.8
x (0) (i ) = d (0) (2i )

=
x (1) (i ) d (0) (2i + 1)

x (2) (i ) = d (1) (2i )

layer
(0)
=
M symb
M
=
symb 2
(1)
= M symb
2

(3)
x=
(i ) d (1) (2i + 1)

, TD,
,
, . . .
. 2.9.
2.9

TD
- -
layer
=
i 0,1,..., M symb
1

x (0) (i ) = d (0) (2i )


=
x (i ) d (2i + 1)
(1)

(0)

layer
(0)
M symb
= M symb
2
(0)
M symb
mod 4 = 0

layer
(0)
M symb
= M symb
4

x (0) (i ) = d (0) (4i )


=
x (i ) d (4i + 1)
(1)

(0)

(2)
x=
(i ) d (0) (4i + 2)
(3)
x=
(i ) d (0) (4i + 3)

layer
=
M symb

(M

(0)
symb

+ 2) 4

(0)
mod 4 0 M symb

layer
x(i ) = x (0) (i ) ... =
x ( 1) (i ) , i 0, 1, ..., M symb
1

154

.
T

ap
y (i ) = ... y ( p )=
(i ) ... , i 0,1, ..., M symb
1,

p- y (i )
p ( ap
, antenna port).
, ,
, . .
ap
ap
layer
1, M symb
= M symb
.
y ( p ) (i ) =
= x (0) (i ) , i 0,1,..., M symb

, ,
:
.


W(i) P, ( SM
2 4 ), , :
y (0) (i )
x (0) (i )

=
W
(
i
)

,
y ( P 1) (i )
x ( 1) (i )

ap
layer
ap
= M symb
.
=
i 0, 1, ..., M symb
1 , M symb

(2.32)


:
y (0) (i )
x (0) (i )

= W (i )D(i )U ,
y ( P 1) (i )
x ( 1) (i )

(2.33)

155

W(i) , D(i)
, U . 2.10.
2.10
U D(i)

D(i)

1
1 1
1 e j 2 2
2

0
1
0 e j 2 i 2

1
1
1
1
1 e j 2 3 e j 4 3

3
j4 3
j8 3
1 e

e
1
1
1
1

j2 4
e j 4 4 e j6 4
1 1 e

2 1 e j 4 4 e j8 4 e j12 4

j6 4
e j12 4 e j18 4
1 e

1
0

0
0
1
0 e j 2 i 3
0

j 4 i 3
0

e
0
0
0
0
e j 2 i 4
0
0

e j 4 i 4
0
0

e j 6 i 4
0
0


. 2.11,
.
,
, .

Wn = I 2u n u nH u nH u n ,

(2.34)

I 4 4,
u . .4 3.
156


Wn, , s
W(s) . .4.
2.11




1
2
0

1 1

2 1

1 1 0

2 0 1

1 1

2 1

1 1 1
2 1 1

1 1

2 j

1 1 1
2 j j

1 1

2 j

SM 4 , x(i) .
:
i

k mod 4 + 12 {12, 13, 14, 15} .


=

(2.35)

, - , .

ap
y (i ) = y (0) (i ) =
y (1) (i ) , i 0,1,..., M symb
1,

157

:
y (2i )
1
(1)

0
(2
)
y
i
1

y (0) (2i + 1)
2 0
(1)

1
y (2i + 1)
(0)

Re ( x (0) (i ) )
0
j 0

(1)

1 0 j Re ( x (i ) )

,
1 0 j Im ( x (0) (i ) )

0 j 0
(1)

Im ( x (i ) )

layer
=
i 0, 1, ..., M symb
1,

(2.36)

ap
layer
= 2M symb
M symb
.

y (i ) = y (0) (i )

y (1) (i )

ap
y (2) (i ) =
y (3) (i ) , i 0, 1, ..., M symb
1,

y (0) (4i )
1 0
(1)

0 0
y (4i )

(2)
y (4i )
0 1
(3)

y (4i )
0 0
y (0) (4i + 1)
0 1
(1)

y (4i + 1)
0 0
y (2) (4i + 1)
1 0
(3)

y (4i + 1) 1 0 0
y (0) (4i + 2) = 2 0 0

(1)
y (4i + 2)
0 0
(2)

0 0
y (4i + 2)

(3)
y (4i + 2)
0 0
(0)

(4
3)
y
i
+

0 0
y (1) (4i + 3)
0 0
(2)

(4
3)
y
i
+

0 0
y (3) (4i + 3)
0 0

158

0 0
j
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 j
0 0 0
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
1 0 0

0 0
0 0
j 0
0 0
j 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 j
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 j

0
0

(0)
0 Re ( x (i ) )

0 Re ( x (1) (i ) )

0
Re ( x (2) (i ) )
0

(3)
0 Re ( x (i ) )

(0)
0 Im ( x (i ) )

0
(1)
Im ( x (i ) )

(2)

j Im ( x (i ) )

0 Im ( x (3) (i ) )

0
0

layer
=
i 0, 1, ..., M symb
1,

(2.37)

ap
symb

layer
(0)
4 M symb , M symb mod 4 = 0;
=
layer
(0)
( 4 M symb ) 2, M symb mod 4 0.

2.3.2.


.
.
(Control Format Indicator,
CFI) ,
. CFI
PCFICH.
HARQ (HARQ Indicator, HI) , .
HARQ- PHICH.
(Downlink Control Information, DCI), ,
.
PDCCH.
PCFICH ,
OFDMA- PDCCH. , PDCCH
OFDMA- .

, .

159

PCFICH
.
,
OFDMA- OFDMA- .
DCI PDCCH - , . DCI PDCCH, . 2.12.
2.12

0
1
2
3

PDCCH

1
9
2
18
4
36
8
72


DCI
72
144
288
576

, ,
(Control Channel Element, CCE),
9 , . . 36 . PDCCH .
DCI
:
PUSCH ( 0);
PDSCH
( 1);
PDSCH ( 2);
( 3).
160

DCI PDSCH
.
, . , ,
.
DCI 1 2 . , , DCI .
. DCI 5
, PDSCH .
, , .
,
HI. , , .

8.
, , .
.
, ,
.
PUCCH. DCI 2 , , -

161

PUCCH
.
DCI PUSCH .
, PUSCH.
,
DCI .
.
.
PUSCH,
- .
, .
CQI CQI.
, PDCCH, . 1 2 .
PDCCH
. 2.42. ,
PDCCH, ,
.

162

CRC

CRC

(R=1/3)

. 2.42. PDCCH

, gCRC16(D) (. . 2.2.4). bk
(k = 0, 1, , A + 15), 0, 1, , A 1 , A,
A + 1, , A + 15 .
2
:

c=
k

(b

+ xRNTI,k A ) mod 2 , k = A, A + 1, A + 2, ..., A + 15,

xRNTI,0 ,
xRNTI,15 .

.
PDCCH .
163

,
,
PBCH,
LTE. , PBCH RACH, . 6
, 1,08
72 . PBCH ,
cell
cinit = N ID
, -

. PBCH
, (. 2.43),
.
(10 )

PBCH

1,08

. 2.43. PBCH

164

.
1,
FDD,
OFDMA- 0, 10.
d(n), 62
, (k, l) ,
, :
ak ,l = d (n) , n = 0,...,61 ,
DL
N RB
N scRB
,
k =n 31 +
2

(2.38)

DL
N RB
, -

, N scRB , , k , l OFDMA-.

cell
(1)
(2)
,
N
=
3 N ID
+ N ID
ID

(1)
(2)
N ID
= 0, 1, ..., 162 N ID
= 0, 1, 2 .


(2)
N ID
:

un(n + 1)
n=
0, 1, ..., 30,
exp j
,
63

(2.39)
d u ( n) =
exp j u (n + 1)(n + 2) , n =
31, 32, ..., 61,

63

u . 2.13.
165

2.13
u

(2)
u
N ID
0
1
2

25
29
34


0, 10 , (2.38),
OFDMA- :
DL
=
l N symb
2 ( 1).


d (0), ..., d (61) :
s0( m0 ) (n)c0 ( n ) (subframe 0),
d (2n) = ( m1 )
s1 (n)c0 ( n ) (subframe 5),
(m )
(m )
s1 1 (n)c1 ( n ) z1 0 ( n ) (subframe 0),
d (2n + 1) =
( m0 )
(m )
s0 (n)c1 ( n ) z1 1 ( n ) (subframe 5),
0 n 30 .
(2.40)
m0, m1 s0(n), s1(n).
(1)
N ID
:

m0 = m mod 31 ,

m1 =
( m0 + m 31 + 1) mod 31,

m = N

166

(1)
ID

(1)
N ID
+ q(q + 1) 2
(1)
, q = N ID
30 .
+ q (q + 1) 2 , q =

30

(2.41)

s0(n), s1(n)
m- s (n) m0 m1 :
(n) s ((n + m0 ) mod 31) ,
s0( m0 ) =
s1( m1 ) =
(n) s ((n + m1 ) mod 31) ,

n = 0, 1, ..., 30 .
(2.42)
m- s (n)
x(i):
s (i ) =
1 2 x(i ), i =
0, 1, ..., 30 ,

(2.43)

x(i) :

x( i + 5)=

( x( i + 2) + x( i ) ) mod 2, 0 i

25

(2.44)


x(0) = 0 , x(1) = 0 , x(2) = 0 , x(3) = 0 , x(4) = 1 .
0(n) c1(n)
c (n) :
(2)
c0 =
(n) c ((n + N ID
) mod 31) ,
(2)
c1 (n) = c ((n + N ID
+ 3) mod 31) ;

(2.45)

c (n) :

c (i ) = 1 2 x(i ) , i = 0, 1, ..., 30 ,

x( i + 5)=

( x( i + 3) + x( i ) ) mod 2 , i

= 0, 1, ..., 25 ,

(2.46)

x(i)
x(0) = 0 , x(1) = 0 , x(2) = 0 , x(3) = 0 , x(4) = 1 .
z1( m0 ) (n) , z1( m1 ) (n) m- z (n) :
z1( m0 )=
(n) z ((n + (m0 mod8)) mod 31) ,
z1( m1 )=
(n) z ((n + (m1 mod8)) mod 31) ,

(2.47)

(1)
m0, m1 N ID

. .5 .
167

, m- z (n)
:

z (i ) =
1 2 x(i ), i =
0, 1, ..., 30 ,

x( i + 5)=

( x( i + 4) + x( i + 2) + x( i + 1) + x( i ) ) mod 2, i=

0, 1, ..., 25 ,
(2.48)

x(i)
x(0) = 0 , x(1) = 0 , x(2) = 0 , x(3) = 0 , x(4) = 1 .
.
OFDMA-
. . ,
(2)
N ID

.
, , (
).

(2)
N ID
.

. , , OFDMA-, , .
, OFDMA, ,
. 164

168

(1)
N ID
.
(1)
, N ID
,
cell
.
N ID


, , , PBCH.
2.3.3. MIMO
, LTE .
:
- .
, .
.
,
2 4 .
, ,

. , , , OFDMA-, (x1) (x2) , . . ,
OFDMA-. , , , ,
169

x1 x2,
x2* x1*.
:
r1 = h1x1 h2x2*;
(2.49)
r2 = h1x2 + h2 x1*,
h1 h2 ,

.
h1 h2 :

x1 =

r1h1 + r2 h2
2

h1 + h2

, x2 =

r2 h1 r1 h2
2

h1 + h2

(2.50)

MIMO, TD , - .

x1, x2, x3 x4, , . 2.44.

x1

x2

x3

x4

x2

x1

x4 x3

t
. 2.44. ,
TD

170

. 2.45 MIMO-
. ,
,
2 .

,
OFDMA-

,
OFDMA-

h11

MIMO

h21
h12

h22

. 2.45. MIMO

, -

x1, x2. , (2.49)


=
r1 h11 x1 + h21 x2 ,

=
r2 h12 x1 + h22 x2 .

(2.51)

, x1 x2
, .

171

, MIMO,
TD SM, . , , ,
OFDMA-,
,
. MIMO
TS 36.211.
. 2.46.

( 1)

()

( 2)

OFDMA-

. 2.46.

172

2.3.4. LTE

LTE,
.
,
LTE.
SIM- (
) MCC (Mobile Country Code) MNC (Mobile Network Code)
, . ,
(
). , LTE .
, OFDM-
, , ,
().
LTE. ,
Fd = 1/Ts = 30,72 ,

f = 15 ,

NFT = Fd / f = 2048.
,
,
(. 2.14).

173

2.14
LTE
-
6
15
25
50
-
72
180
300
600
,
1,08
2,7
4,5
9,0

75
900

100
1200

13,5

18,0

. 2.14 , Fd = 30,72 . ,
, , .
,
.
,
30,72 , , . ,
, . . = 3, . ,
Fd = 30,72 . ,
,
( ) , , .
, ,
, , . , , -,
,
, -, OFDM- . ,
174


, .
. 2.15 , ,

.
2.15

Fd,

16
8
4
2
1
,
1,92 3,84 7,68 15,36 30,72

128 256 512 1024 2048



10
20
40
80
160
OFDM-

OFDM-
9
18
36
72
144



32
64
128 256 512
f = 15


64
128 256 512 1024
f = 7,5
,
. 2.15 3,84 , . . UMTS. ,
,
.
. 2.15
(. 2.14).
,
175

,
.
. 2.16
.
2.15

,

-
72
180
300
600
900 1200

128
256
512 1024 1024 2048

16
8
4
2
2
1
, LTE , ,
. . 72- ,

16 .
. 2.47 LTE.

. 2.47.
LTE

176

x(t)
( . 2.47 ;
),

xc(t) xs(t). -
. ik qk .
,
.

BCH,
PBCH. . .

:
1.
.
2. 0- 10- ,
(2)

N ID

.
3. ,
(1)
N ID

.
4. ()
, .
5. , .
177

. ,
z[k] = (i16k + j q16k), k = 1, 2, , 16-
.
,
(1,08/2) .
, OFDM, LTE . OFDM-
, (. . ) OFDM- . ,
Fd = 1,92 10 9
OFDM- . , 7 OFDM . ,
MAX, , -, / MAX 1,
-, 0,9 MAX.
.
10 , , , ,
,
.
:
9

2 z[960n + k + r ]z *[960n + k + r + 128]

959

CorCP [k ] =
=
n 0=
k 0

r =0

z[960n + k + r ] + z[960n + k + r + 128]


2

,
2

=r 0=r 0

(2.51)

178

n = 0, , 9 , k = 0, , 959
, r = 0, , 9 , * .
. 2.48
, (2.51).
1
|CorCP[k]|
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

200

800

600

400

. 2.48.
:
. Slot_Offset, z
,

Slot_Offset= 10 + arg max CorCP [k ] .


k

(2.52)

CorCP , . .

(15 ). , ,
:
=
z[k ] z0 [k ]exp( j 2f tk ) ,
(2.53)
179

z0
, f
, t ,
. . , Fd. (2.53) ,
z[k] z[n]
= 2f t (k n) ,
. . k n. ,
(2.51)
, CorCP f:
1 Fd
angle CorCP [arg(max CorCP [k ] )]) ,
f =
(2.54)
k
128 2
angle ,
|angle| < . , (2.54) ,
OFDM-
, . . ,
f 7,5 .
(2.55)

(2.54) Fd = 1,92 (2.55), :


f = f z + f q =

} )

15n f + 7,5angle CorCP [arg(max CorCP [k ] )]) / , [],


=
k

(2.56)

nf = 0, 1, 2, , fz = 15nf , fq .
,

.

, SP:

180

SP[n, mod(
=
k + N FT / 2, N FT )]

N FT 1

z[Symb_Offset[n] + r ]
r =0

(2.57)

2
2
exp j
kr j
f q r .
N
F
FT
d

(2.57) n = 0, 1, () SP;
k = 0, 1, , 128 , k-
f = (1,92/2 + 0,015k) [];
NFT , Fd = 1,92 NFT = 128; Symb_Offset
,
z ,
(2.57)
Symb_Offset[n] = Slot_Offset + n / 7 960 + mod( n,7)137 ,
x , x; 960 , 137 = 128 + 9
OFDM- .
SP NFT/2,
, .
,
OFDM- .
(2)
, N ID
= 0, 1, 2 . -

, CorPSS (2)
N ID
( PSS Primary

Synchronization Signal):
30

SP[n, r + 129 + p]PSS [k , r + 31]


*

CorPSS [n, k , p] =

r =31
30

SP[n, r + 129 + p]

30

PSS*[ k , r + 31]

31
31
r=
r=

(2.58)
181

n = 0, 1, SP; k = 0, 1, 2 ; p = N/2, N/2 + 1, , N/2 ,


; N/2 p; PSS[k,r]
(),
.
(2.58)
SN , (2)
:
N ID
(2)
[SN, N ID
, n f ] = arg

{ max (Cor

PSS

n =0,...,9,k , p

[n, k , p ]) .

(2.59)

. 2.49 (2.59) k, : CorPSS[0, 0, N/2],


CorPSS[0, 0, N/2], , CorPSS[0, 1, N/2], .
1
CorPSS[k]
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

20

40

60

80

. 2.49.
N = 2

(1)
. ,
N ID

(. . ) OFDM-
,
182

(1)
N ID

, , .
( SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal):
30

CorSSS [n, k ] =

SP[SN + 10n, r + 129 + n

r =31
30

SP[SN + 10n, r + 129 + n

] +

]SSS*[ n, k , r + 31]
30

SSS [n, k , r + 31]


*

f
r=
r=
31
31

(2.60)
n = 0, 1 10 ; k = 0,
1, , 167 .
(2.60) (1)
.
N ID

SN + 10n1 , N (1)
k1.
(2.60)
[n1 , k1 ] = arg max ( CorSSS [n, k ]) , SN =
ID =
n ,k

. 2.50 (2.60) k,
: CorSSS[0, 0], ,
CorPSS[0, 167], CorPSS[1, 0], .
1
Cor [k]
SSS
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

. 2.50.

183

, ,
, PBCH, OFDM .
,
. . PBCH,
, /

.
, ,
, (1, 2 4),
,
.

184


1. 1 2?
2. OFDM ?
LTE?
3.
LTE? ?
4. , ?
5.
.
6.
?
7.
PUCCH?
8. PUSCH. ?

9.
? LTE?
10. PRACH.
11. , . ?
12.
LTE? ?
13. . ?

185


1. . . :
. / . . , . . . . :
, 2010. 336 .
2. . . :
GSM : . . . /
. . , . . , . . , . . . . : , 2006. 256 .
3. . . UMTS. /
. . , . . , . . . . : ,
2008. 224 .
4. . UMTS. , , /
. , . , . , . , . . . : , 2007. 464 .
5. . . GPRS
GSM : . / . . . . : - . -,
2008. 182 .
6. . . . / . . , . . , . . , . . .
. : , 2005. 768 .
7.
. .

/
. . . . : , 2011. 768 .

186


1.
LTE
. .1 LTE:
,
.
.1

LTE

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20


,
,

19201980
21102170
FDD
18501910
19301990
FDD
17101785
18051880
FDD
17101755
21102155
FDD
824849
869894
FDD
830840
875885
FDD
25002570
26202690
FDD
880915
925960
FDD
1749,91784,9
1844,91879,9
FDD
17101770
21102170
FDD
1427,91447,9
1475,91495,9
FDD
698716
728746
FDD
777787
746756
FDD
788798
758768
FDD

FDD

FDD
704716
734746
FDD
815830
860875
FDD
830845
875890
FDD
832862
791821
FDD

187

. .1
1495,91510,9
FDD

21

1447,91462,9

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

19001920
19001920
20102025
20102025
18501910
18501910
19301990
19301990
19101930
19101930
25702620
25702620
18801920
18801920
23002400
23002400
: 6

188

TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD
TDD

2.
RS
. .2 3 (n) M SC
= 12
RS
M SC
= 24 .

.2
RS
(n) , M SC
= 12

u
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
3

1
1
1
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
1

3
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
1

(0), (1),, (11)


3 3 3 1 1 3
3 3 1 1 3 3
3 3 1 3 3 1
1 1 1 3 3 1
1 1 1 3 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 3 3 1 1 3
1 1 3 3 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
3 3 1 3 1 1
1 1 3 3 1 3
1 3 3 3 1 3
1 3 1 1 1 3
3 3 1 1 3 1
3 1 3 1 3 3

u
1 3 3 15
1 3 3 16
3 1 1 17
3 3 1 18
1 1 3 19
3 3 1 20
3 3 1 21
3 3 1 22
3 1 1 23
1 1 1 24
3 3 1 25
1 3 3 26
3 3 1 27
3 3 3 28
3 1 1 29

3
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3

1
3
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
3
3
3
3
3

(0), (1),, (11)


3 1 1 1 1
1 1 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3
1 3 1 3 3
3 1 1 1 3
1 1 1 3 1
1 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 1 3
3 1 3 1 1
1 3 3 1 1
3 1 3 3 1
3 3 3 1 1
1 3 3 1 1
3 1 3 3 3
1 1 3 1 3

3
1
3
1
3
1
3
3
1
1
3
1
1
3
3

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
3
3

1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
1
1

3
1
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
3
3
3
1
1

189

.3
(n) , M

u
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

1
3
3
1
1
3
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3

190

3
3
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
3

1
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
3
1

3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
1

3
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
3
3
3
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
3
1

1
1
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
1
3
3
1

1
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
1

3
3
3
1
1
1
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
1

(0), (1),, (23)


3 1 3 3 3
1 1 1 1 3
3 3 1 1 3
1 1 1 3 1
3 1 3 1 1
1 3 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
3 1 3 1 1
3 1 1 1 1
3 3 3 3 1
3 3 3 1 3
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 1 1 1
1 1 1 3 3
3 1 1 3 3
3 1 3 1 3
3 3 1 3 3
3 3 3 3 1
1 1 3 3 1
3 3 3 1 1
1 3 3 1 3
3 1 3 1 1

1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
1

1
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
3
1

RS
SC

= 24

1
3
1
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1

3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
3

3
1
1
1
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
3
1
3

3
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
3
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
1
3
3
1
3
3

3
1
1
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
3
1

1
1
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1
3
1
1

3
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
3
3
1
3

. .3

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
3
3
1

3
1
3
1
1
3
1
1

3 1 1 3 1
1 3 3 3 1
3 1 3 3 3
1 3 1 3 1
3 1 1 3 1
3 1 1 3 1
1 1 3 1 1
1 3 1 3 1

3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3

3
3
1
1
3
1
1
1

3
3
3
1
3
1
3
1

3
1
1
3
3
1
1
3

3
3
3
1
3
3
1
1

3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1

1 1 3 1
3 1 3 3
1 1 1 1
3 1 3 3
3 3 3 1
3 3 1 3
1 3 3 3
3
1 3 3

3
3
1
1
1
3
1
3

1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
3
3
3
1
1

3
1
3
3
1
1
3
1

1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1

3
3
3
1
1
1
1
3

191

3.

. .4 u W
.
.4

u 0 = [1 1 1 1]

W0{1}

W0{14}

W0{124}

W0{1234} 2

=
u1 [1 j 1

j]

W1{1}

W1{12}

W1{123}

W1{1234} 2

=
u 2 [1 1 1 1]

W2{1}

W2{12}

W2{123}

W2{3214} 2

W3{1}

W3{12}

W3{123}

W3{3214} 2

W4{1}

W4{14}

W4{124}

W4{1234} 2

W5{1}

W5{14}

W5{124}

W5{1234} 2

3
4
5

192

u
T

=
u3 [1

j 1 j]

1 (1 j )
u=
4

=
u5 1 (1 j )

2
2

j (1 j )
j (1 j )

2
2

. .4
6

=
u 6 1 (1 + j )

j (1 + j )

1 (1 + j )
u=
7

=
u8 [1 1 1 1]

u9 = [1 j 1 j ]

10
11

j (1 + j )

2
T

=
u10 [1 1 1 1]

=
u11 [1

j]

j 1

2
2

W6{1}

W6{13}

W6{134}

W6{1324} 2

W7{1}

W7{13}

W7{134}

W7{1324} 2

W8{1}

W8{12}

W8{124}

W8{1234} 2

W9{1}

W9{14}

W9{134}

W9{1234} 2

W10{1}

W10{13}

W10{123}

W10{1324} 2

W11{1}

W11{13}

W11{134}

W11{1324} 2

12

u12 = [1 1 1 1]

W12{1}

W12{12}

W12{123}

W12{1234} 2

13

u13 =
[1 1 1 1]

W13{1}

W13{13}

W13{123}

W13{1324} 2

14

u=
[1 1 1 1]
14

W14{1}

W14{13}

W14{123}

W14{3214} 2

15

u15 = [1 1 1 1]

W15{1}

W15{12}

W15{123}

W15{1234} 2

193

4.

. .5 m0, m1 z1( m ) ( n) , z1( m ) ( n)
0

(1)
.
N ID

.5
(1)
m0, m1 N ID
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
m0 m1 N ID
m0 m1 N ID
m0 m1 N ID
m0 m1 N ID
m0 m1
N ID

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

194

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
0
1
2
3
4

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
4
5
6
7
8

102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159

22
23
24
25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

27
28
29
30
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

24
25
26
27
28
29
0
1
2
3

25
26
27
28
29
30
2
3
4
5

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

28 30 92 5
0 3 93 6
1 4 94 7
2 5 95 8
3 6 96 9
4 7 97 10
5 8 98 11
6 9 99 12
7 10 100 13
8 11 101 14

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

. .5
126 12 17 160 20 26
127 13 18 161 21 27
128 14 19 162 22 28
129 15 20 163 23 29
130 16 21 164 24 30
131 17 22 165 0 7
132 18 23 166 1 8
133 19 24 167 2 9
134 20 25

135 21 26

195

5.

AM Acknowledge Mode, .
( UM) RLC-.
AS, Access Stratum, . ( NAS)
LTE.
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel, , .
BCH Broadcast Channel, .
BM-SC Evolved Broadcast Multicast Service Center, .
CAZAC Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation Code, ,
PUCCH.
C-RNTI Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier, .
CCCH Common Control Channel,
,
, RRC-.
CCE Control Channel Element,
PDCCH.
CDR Charging Data Record, .
CFI Control Format Indicator, , PCFICH.
CP Control Plane, . Uu S1, .
CSG Closed Subscriber Group, .
CQI Channel Quality Indicator. .

196

DCCH Dedicated Control Channel, ,


, RRC-.
DCI Downlink Control Information, , PDCCH.
DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel, .
DMRS Demodulation Reference Signals,
.
DNS Domain Name Server, ,
IP- .
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Chanel, , .
DwPTS Downlink pilot time slot, ( ) .
ECGI E-UTRAN Cell Global Identifier,
.
EMM EPS Mobility Management, .
EPC Evolved Packet Core, ().
EPS Evolved Packet System, . ,
,
.
E-UTRAN Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network,
() . , .
FDD Frequency Division Duplex,

GP Guard Period, .
GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol, .

197

GUMMEI Globally Unique MME Identity, .


GW Gateway, .
Gmb- .
HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request, .
.
HI HARQ Indicator,
, PHICH.
HTTP Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol, .
ID Infrastructure Domain, . , ,
LTE .
IMAP Interactive Mail Access Protocol, ,
.
IP Internet Protocol. , .
LMA Local Mobility Anchor, () .
LTE Long-Term Evolution
MAC Medium Access Control, ()
.
MBMS Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service, .
MBMS Gateway, .
MBSFN Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Network, .

198

MCCH Multicast Control Channel, ,


.
MCH Multicast Channel, .
MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, .
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output,
.
MM1- MMS- MMS-.
MM2-
MMS-.
MM3- MMS- -.
MME Mobility Management Entity,
MMS Multimedia Messaging Service, .
MMSE Multimedia Messaging Service Environment, . , .
MTCH Multicast Traffic Chanel,
, .
NAS, Non-Access Stratum, .
( AS) LTE.
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, .
OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access, .
OMA Open Mobile Alliance,
.

199

P-GW Packet Data Network Gateway, .


PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel, .
PCCH Paging Control Channel,
, .
PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel,
.
PCH Paging Channel, , .
PD-SCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel, .
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel, .
PDCP Packet Data Convergence Protocol, ()
() .
PDP Packet Data Protocol, .
PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel,
.
PHY (Layer 1) , 1.
PMCH Physical Multicast Channel,
.
PMI Preceding Matrix Indicator, .
POP 2 Post Office Protocol Version 2,
, .
POP 3 Post Office Protocol Version 2,
, .
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel, .
PRB Physical Resource Blok, () .

200

PTM point-to-multipoint, . , .
PTP point-to-point, .
.
PU-CCH Physical Uplink Control Channel,
.
PU-SCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel,
.
PWS Public Warning System, .
PoC Push-to-talk over Cellular, .
QoS Quality of Service, , .
RACH Random Access Channel,
.
RI Rank Indicator, ,
PUSCH.
RLC Radio Link Control, () .
RNL Radio Network Layer, . ( )
.
RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identifier, .
ROHC Robust Header Compression, RLC-.
RRC Radio Resource Control, () .
RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol,
.
RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol,
.

201

S1-
.
S1-U- , .
S1-MM-
, .
SC-FDMA Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access,
.
S-GW Serving Gateway, .
SDP Session Description Protocol, .
SDU Service Data Unit, , ,
- .
SM Spatial Multiplexing, .
SMS Short Message Service, .
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, , .
SRI Scheduling Request Indicator,

SRS Sounding Reference Signal,
TA Tracking Area, .
TAI Tracking Area Identity, .
TCP Transmission Control Protocol, .
TD Transmit Diversity, - .
TDD Time Division Duplex,
TNL Transport Network Layer, .
( )
.

202

TPC Transmit Power Control, .


UDP User Datagram Protocol,
, IP-.
UE User Equipment, .

,
LTE.
UED User Equipment Domain, . , , LTE .
UL-SCH Uplink Shared Channel, .
UM Unacknowledge Mode, .
( AM) RLC-.
UP User Plane, . Uu S1,
.
UpPTS Uplink pilot time slot, ( )
.
URL Universe Resource Location -.
Uu-
.
VoIP Voice over IP, IP-.
VRB Virtual Resource Blok, .
WAP Wireless Application Protocol,
.
WTA Wireless Telephone Application,
-.

203

WWW World Wide Web, .


X2- ,
.
WDP Wireless Datagram Protocol, , WAP 1.x.
WML Wireless Markup Language, ,
WAP 1.x.
WSP Wireless Session Protocol,
, WAP 1.x.
WTLS Wireless Transport Layer Security,
, WAP 1.x.
WTP Wireless Transport Protocol, , WAP 1.x.
XHTML MP eXtensible Hyper Text Markup Language Mobile Profile,
, WAP 2.0.
XML eXtensible Markup Language, ,
WAP 1.x.
MMS- ,
, , .

204

LTE

020593 07.08.97

005-93, . 2; 953005

. . . 12,75

6084/16. .
. .-. .
. .

-, ,

.
195251, -, ., 29.
.: (812) 550-40-14.
./: (812) 297-57-76.