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MGG2601/101/0/2013

Tutorial letter 101/0/2013


Marriage Guidance and Counselling

MGG2601
Year Module
Department of Social Work
IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This tutorial letter contains important information about your module.

CONTENTS
Page
1 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 3 PURPOSE OF AND OUTCOMES FOR THE MODULE ............................................................... 4 Purpose .......................................................................................................................................... 4 Outcomes ....................................................................................................................................... 4 LECTURER(S) AND CONTACT DETAILS .................................................................................... 7 Lecturer(s) ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Department ..................................................................................................................................... 7 University ........................................................................................................................................ 7 MODULE-RELATED RESOURCES .............................................................................................. 8 Prescribed books ............................................................................................................................ 8 Recommended books ..................................................................................................................... 8 Electronic Reserves (e-Reserves) .................................................................................................. 8 Additional information about same sex marriages within South Africa not included in your study guide8 STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES FOR THE MODULE ................................................................ 9 MODULE-SPECIFIC STUDY PLAN............................................................................................... 9 MODULE PRACTICAL WORK AND WORK-INTEGRATED LEARNING ................................... 10 ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................................................. 10 Assessment plan .......................................................................................................................... 10 General assignment numbers ....................................................................................................... 11 Unique assignment numbers ........................................................................................................ 11 Due dates for assignments ........................................................................................................... 11 Submission of assignments .......................................................................................................... 11 Assignments ................................................................................................................................. 11 OTHER ASSESSMENT METHODS............................................................................................. 19 EXAMINATION ............................................................................................................................. 19 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS .......................................................................................... 19 SOURCES CONSULTED ............................................................................................................. 20 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 21 ADDENDUM ................................................................................................................................. 23

5 6 7 8 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3 8.4 9 10 11 12 13 14

Addendum 1: Assignment 01 assessment criteria.23 Addendum 2: Evaluation of course...25

MGG2601/101

INTRODUCTION

Dear Student Welcome to the Marriage Guidance and Counselling (MGG2601) course. We trust that as the course unfolds it will help to broaden your understanding of couple relationships and the role that helpers play in strengthening families. We hope that your studies in this module will be both enjoyable and successful. Before you begin your study of the MGG2601 course, may I request that you stop and reflect on the following? Do you think that the institution of marriage is in crisis at this point in time? Should we be more active in preserving marriage as it was, or should we be striving to shape committed couple relationships into a different form? Is change needed to meet the unique demands of modern living and the changes that we experience? As you work through your study guide reflect on what we as a society should retain from couples counselling practices and what we should be adding to strengthen modern families. Consider yourself to be a couples counsellor in the making, and this module work in progress. Allow your personal perceptions of relationships to be influenced by some of the content gained from the course and at the same time make sure that your ideas influence the development of this course. In the long term we want your opinions and feedback to shape this module.

It is important for you to compare your personal views with the views projected in this course. You must realise that we expect you to participate in developing and sharing thoughts and ideas to ensure that this course evolves into a meaningful learning opportunity for future students. Relationships are dynamic, are influenced by multiple factors of living and a course such as this must be perceptive about change. This letter, Tutorial Letter 101, is meant to orientate you in terms of the requirements for this course, general administrative information, scheme of work, resources and assignments. Tutorial letters are our way of communicating with you. We urge you to read Tutorial letter 101 carefully and keep it at hand when working through the study material, preparing your assignments, and studying for the examination. This tutorial letter contains useful information on how to resolve some of the practical problems that you may encounter as an Open Distance Learner at this institution. The assignments that have been set for this module, the instructions for the preparations for these assignments, the assessment criteria used for marking assignments and submission processes are explained in detail. During the year you will receive other tutorial letters that provide you with feedback about the assignments and guidelines on how to prepare for your examination at the end of the year. Be sure to file them with this one. We emphasise that it is your responsibility to read all tutorial letters you receive immediately and carefully. They contain important information to enable you to achieve a successful outcome in this course. We urge you to commence your studies early in the year and resolve to do your best when undertaking the assignments. Be warned that this is a continuous learning module that requires your active involvement in executing several learning tasks between March and July. Careful planning and time management are critical.

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2.1

PURPOSE OF AND OUTCOMES FOR THE MODULE


Purpose

Having worked as a marriage counsellor for many years, and having been married longer than I have been single, makes me realise that despite a persons incredible need for intimacy and closeness, the joining of two people to become a couple generates much pain alongside the pleasures. Even though there are more people who marry than those who choose to remain single, most enter into these unions ill prepared for the courage, commitment and patience needed to achieve the state of being just reasonably content. Whilst marriage remains a normal developmental task, and the average person marries once or twice in their lifetime, few couples receive adequate preparation for this life- altering status. The institution of marriage has undergone many changes in the last decade. The diversity of these unions is more widely acknowledged nowadays and peoples rights to make their own relationships choices are respected more than ever before. To illustrate what I mean consider the following shifts. Many couples choose to live together without solemnising their relationships, multi cultural unions are common, some countries are legalising same sex unions, many married people live apart for long periods of time as they are geographically separated, sometimes by continents, because of work opportunities, and divorce is more widely accepted. This course is designed to enlighten learners about the dynamic nature of couples counselling. It is meant to create an overall perspective of the many factors to be taken into consideration when dealing with couple relationships. The course will not make you an expert on couples, marriages and family life but it should deepen your understanding of the complexities of relationships. The course considers the diverse couples relationships prevalent in our society today, such as marriage, cohabitation (living together) and same sex pairing. It does not specifically focus on marital relationships and marital counselling. The term couples counselling should replace the term marital counselling or marriage counselling because professional helpers render comprehensive services to all couples who approach them about relationship issues. I sincerely hope that it provides you with an opportunity to be more analytical of your relationships, of the close, personal kind, as well as alert you to the interesting relationships between couples who surround you. In the helping professions we realise that unless a person understands the self, personal motivations, and close interpersonal relationships, the person will struggle to understand couples who present themselves to him or her for counselling. 2.2 Outcomes

Those who successfully complete this unit standard will at the outcome: be enlightened about the dynamic nature of couple relationships and be able to recognise key variables that influence them be able to identify normative changes (psychological and developmental) and their associated tasks that couples undergo through time understand the nature and scope of couples counselling appreciate core relational conditions and professional values critical to performing effective and ethical couple counselling demonstrate insight into the uniqueness of couples have a basic understanding of pertinent theoretical approaches used in this field have foundational knowledge of the stages of the counselling process and an eclectic couples counselling model

THEME 1- Understanding Couples This theme assists learners to understand couples relationships. Love is discussed in terms of: the passionate attraction between couples, mutual expectations of partners, individuals intentions in their relationships. The course considers the impact that gender, ethnicity and culture and individual differences of individuals have on couple relationships.

MGG2601/101 Specific Outcomes of Theme 1: Understanding Couples Upon completion of this theme, learners will be able to: explain the difference between love and affection list and describe the three elements of the relationship tripod: 1. physical attraction 2. mutual expectations 3. personal intentions explain a cognitive behaviourist construction of love identify and explain the characteristics of a couple system reflect on the effects that individual differences have on the couples relationship reflect on the effects of gender on couples relationship list the common characteristics of a happy couples relationship

THEME 2: Changes that couples go through: psychological tasks and family life cycle developmental stages The second theme provides an overview of several common psychological tasks that couples negotiate within their relationships and outlines the general family life cycle stages that their families tend to move through in time. A relationship requires the two parties involved are able to accommodate the new demands associated with the different developmental stages of their relationship. Couples may be severely challenged when attempting to transcend these new demands whilst simultaneously dealing with other unexpected stressors such as illness, immigration, retrenchment, and violent crime. The forces of culture and ethnicity, industrialisation and globalization influence families, and trap people between traditionalism and modernism. Specific outcomes of Theme 2: Changes that couples go through: psychological tasks and family life cycle developmental stages Upon completion of this theme learners will be able to: list the seven psychological tasks of committed relationships (Wallerstein, 1995) identify and describe the six stages of the Family Life Cycle (Carter and Mc Goldrick, 1999) and the developmental tasks associated with each stage discuss the impact of culture and socioeconomic factors on the developmental life stages of families understand the role that helpers are expected to play in facilitating families to transcend unique developmental tasks explain the significance of rituals in couple and family life

THEME 3: Popular Theories used in Couples Counselling The third theme reviews a selection of contemporary theoretical approaches commonly used in couples counselling. The psycho dynamic approaches, cognitive behavioural approach, person centred approach, structural and strategic systemic approaches, and the Afro centric perspective are studied in terms of assumptions, basic concepts and characteristic techniques. Each approach makes valuable contributions within the field of couple counselling. The use of one approach alone is often experienced as restrictive. The merits of helpers integrating salient and compatible assumptions of different approaches into an orderly, eclectic approach based on empirically validated principles unfolds. Specific outcomes of Theme 3: Popular Theories used in Couples Counselling Upon completion of this theme learners will be able to: identify and describe theoretical overviews of different therapeutic approaches developed for working with couples

identify and explain therapeutic skills based on different theoretical approaches compare and contrast an Afro centric perspective of counselling with a Western perspective apply the information learned to case studies

THEME 4: Couples Counselling The fourth theme introduces learners to an integrative approach to working with couples. This theme describes the continuum of care available to couples at various stages in the lifespan of their relationship. Premarital counselling, marital enrichment, couples counselling, divorce counselling and divorce mediation are briefly described. Couple counselling is presented as a professional service necessitating professional values and specific professional activities. Generic counselling principles are summarised and reviewed in terms of their application within the field of couple counselling. Specific outcomes of Theme 4: Couples Counselling On completion of this theme learners will be able to: understand the continuum of counselling care available in the field of couples counselling explain the definitions, purpose, structure, format, role of the helper for the following types of counselling: 1. premarital counselling 2. marriage enrichment 3. couples counselling 4. divorce counselling 5. divorce mediation state the purpose of an integrative couples counselling model identify the therapeutic role that an integrative couples counsellor plays when working with couples identify the challenges of applying professional values of respect; confidentiality; self determination and individualisation when working with couples define and explain the characteristics of Young and Longs Integrative Approach (1998)

THEME 5: The Counselling Process The concluding theme divides the integrative helping process into several sequential stages. Each stage, from making the appointment to terminating counselling, is explained according to the model proposed by Young and Long (1998). If only helping was that organised and orderly! The specific outcomes of Theme 5: The Counselling Process On completion of this theme learners will be expected to be able to: explain the different stages and purposes of assessment; goal setting; intervention; maintenance; validation identify questions useful during couples counselling and recognise when to use them recognise assessment aids and know when to use them: genogram; structured assessment tools explain what the counsellor has to observe when assessing the couples interactional patterns recognise the characteristics of effective goal setting with couples list and describe useful techniques for facilitating change with couples

MGG2601/101

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3.1
Name:

LECTURER(S) AND CONTACT DETAILS


Lecturer(s)
Mrs A Petty

Telephone: (031) 3358124/5 (office) (031) 5637672 (home) E-mail: Fax: pettya@unisa.ac.za (031) 3322214

Office address: Room 404, Unisa Learning Centre, 221 Dr Pixley KaSeme St, Durban Postal address: The Module Leader (MGG2601) Department of Social Work UNISA KwaZulu-Natal Regional Office PO Box 47431 Greyville 4023

3.2

Department

In the event of persistent failure to reach me at the contact particulars provided above, telephone the administrative staff of the Department at (031) 3358124/6 or leave a message at (031) 3351700. You are invited to contact me with queries about the contents of this module, queries regarding preparation for your assignments and the examination. I am involved in teaching and training students and am not always stationed in the office. Always have your study material and student number at hand when you call.

3.3

University

The universities online address is http://my.unisa.ac.za. The most important tasks and who is responsible for which tasks are indicated below. Refer to the Unisa brochure "My studies @ Unisa" for e-mail addresses and SMS numbers. Always have your student number at hand when you contact the University. SUBJECT Assignment enquiries Examination enquiries Study material Student account enquiries Graduation enquiries Assistance with myUnisa Assistance with myLife e-mail accounts Applications and registrations E-mail addresses assgn@unisa.ac.za exams@unisa.ac.za despatch@unisa.ac.za finan@unisa.ac.za gaudeamus@unisa.ac.za myUnisaHelp@unisa.ac.za myLifeHelp@unisa.ac.za mandd@unisa.ac.za SMS number 43584 43584 43579 31954 43584 43582 43582 43584

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4.1

MODULE-RELATED RESOURCES
Prescribed books

There are no prescribed textbooks for MGG2601. You do not have to buy any additional books for this course. You need to study your Study Guide, tutorial letters and find information sources on your own.

4.2

Recommended books

You are encouraged to refer to any sources that you can find that speaks to this subject. Talk to professional organisations offering counselling in your community, search the internet, look for generic books about relationships at your local book shop, consult your community library, check out information on the internet, and speak to respected elders and faith leaders. Additional sources help to broaden your understanding of this topic. The Unisa Library makes no provision for additional literature for this course. References that I found useful and refer to in your study guide are as follows: Brown, JH & Brown, CS. 2002. Marital therapy: concepts and skills for effective practice. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Carter B & McGoldrick M. 1989. The changing family life cycle. Boston, Mass: Allyn &Bacon. Carter B & McGoldrick M. 1999. The expanded family life cycle: individual, family and social perspectives. 3rd. ed. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon. Collins D, Jordan C & Coleman H. 2010. An introduction to family social work. 3rd.ed. Belmont, USA: Brooks/Cole. Sperry L & Carlson J. 1991. Marital therapy: integrating theory and technique. Denver, Colo: Love. Young, M. & Long, L. 1998. Counselling and therapy for couples. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

4.3

Electronic Reserves (e-Reserves)

No material has been reserved in the e-Reserve Section.

4.4 Additional information about same sex marriages within South Africa not included in your study guide
It has taken a long time for our country to recognize and protect the rights of all people against unfair discrimination as intended by the adoption of the Constitution. The South African Constitution, Section 9 (3) reads, The state may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth. Despite this, same sex couples have until recently, not been entitled to the same rights that heterosexual couples have enjoyed. The legal regulation of the family law rights of same -sex couples was incomprehensive and failed to affirm and protect gay and lesbian unions for years. Being unable to legalize their unions same-sex couples would not get the same socio economic benefits, right to inheritance, medical insurance coverage, adoption, access to wrongful death claims, bereavement leave, tax advantages and post divorce rights that heterosexual couples had access to. This problem went beyond a failure to acknowledge their economic and legal rights because it excluded them from the celebrations and rituals typical of the formation of couple-hood in our society. As pointed out by Judge Albie Sachs, they are obliged to live in a state of legal blankness in which their unions remain unmarked by the showering of presents and the commemoration of anniversaries so celebrated in our culture (Alexander 2006).

MGG2601/101 There have been several court battles on gay rights since the inauguration of South Africas first democratic government. The Constitutional Court struck down the offence of sodomy in the Sexual Offences Act and the Criminal Procedures Act in 1998 Foreign partners of same sex couples were allowed to become permanent South African citizens in 1999 Homosexual partners in committed relationships were entitled to the same financial status as married heterosexual couples as ruled by the Constitutional Court in 2002 Homosexual couples in committed relationships were given rights to adopt children in 2002. Children born to same-sex couples by artificial insemination were recognized as legitimate by the court in 2003

The case brought before the Constitutional Court in 2005 by Marie Fourie and Cecelia Bonthuys marked the biggest turning point. The couple were in a committed relationship together for ten years and wanted to marry. During their time together they shared a home, friends, memories and joint dreams for their future. The law, however, failed to offer them any public recognition or registration of their relationship because they were both women. Challenging the system legally through the Constitutional Court the Court ruled that the existing legal definition of marriage was in conflict with the countrys Constitution because it denied same- sex couples the rights granted to heterosexual couples. Parliament was ordered to amend the Marriage Act or introduce new legislation allowing same- sex couples to enter into legal marriages within a year. The Civil Union Bill was enacted on 30 December 2006. This was a historic moment because South Africa became the fifth country in the world and the first country in Africa to legalize marriages between same sex couples. The Civil Union Act ensures that any South African citizen can marry and be given the choice of calling the partnership a civil union or a marriage. The law addresses the points outlined earlier and allows same sex couples to make legal decisions on each others behalf and inherit in the event of a partner dying without a will. Same- sex couples now receive state regulation when things go wrong in their relationships. It must be pointed out that same- sex couples can only be married under the Civil Union Act and not the Marriage Act. Some critics believe that these different, but equal, marriage laws remain discriminatory against same sex unions.

STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES FOR THE MODULE

For information on the various student support systems and services available at Unisa (e.g. student counselling, tutorial classes, language support), please consult the publication My studies @ Unisa that you received with your study material

MODULE-SPECIFIC STUDY PLAN

Use your my Studies @ Unisa brochure for general time management and planning skills. This module is only offered as a year course. Commencement of the course is in February and the examination is written in October/November. There are two compulsory assignments for completion within the assessment timeframe: Assignment 01 due in April and Assignment 02 due in July. Each assignment requires extensive theoretical preparation and experiential learning tasks that require preparation well in advance of the due dates.

February March

Read tutorial letter and Themes 1 and 2 completing self study tasks in your portfolio Study Theme 2 paying special attention to 2.2. Reflect on theory and use theoretical preparation to prepare a questionnaire for interviewing a family on their experiences of the Family Life Cycle. Conduct an interview with a couple who appear to be happy Prepare and write first draft of Assignment 01

April May June

Finalise Assignment 01 and submit on or before 02 April 2013 Study themes 3, 4 and 5. Consolidate your understanding of the study guide: Themes 1 to 5. Read through case study for part 2 of Assignment 02. Complete the multiple choice questions

July August and September October and November

Submit on or before 2 July. Revise for the examination. Download old exam papers off myUnisa. Write the examination.

MODULE PRACTICAL WORK AND WORK-INTEGRATED LEARNING

There are no practicals for this module. The self reflection, self-study questions and two assignments provide adequate opportunities for you to apply theory to practical situations.

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8.1

ASSESSMENT
Assessment plan

The purpose of assessment is to determine your understanding of five key areas related to couples counselling: foundation of attraction between couples; the normative psychological and developmental tasks of couples and families; predominant approaches to working with couples; the continuum of counselling services available to couples; the counselling process. The following specific learning outcomes determine the assessment criteria against which students will be assessed: they must be able to demonstrate an understanding of the complexities of love, attraction and infatuation between couples and the key variables that impact on these they must be able to identify and describe the characteristics of normative psychological and developmental tasks of couples and families as they move through time they must be able to compare and contrast the central tenets of the psycho dynamic, cognitive behavioural, person centred, structural and strategic systemic, integrative approaches and Afro centric perspective of helping and be able to apply the main concepts in practically simulated situations they must be conversant with the continuum of care offered to couples by couples counsellors: pre marital counselling; marriage enrichment; couples counselling; divorce counselling; divorce mediation and describe the role of the helper, core conditions and professional values required for creating an effective professional helping relationship they must be able to demonstrate their understanding of the characteristics and functions of each of the stages of the integrative approach to helping couples and be acquainted with the aims and objectives of different tools, counselling skills and techniques consistent with this approach that are suitable for each stage of helping

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MGG2601/101 8.2 General assignment numbers

Assignments are numbered consecutively for this module, starting from 01 8.2.1 Unique assignment numbers UNIQUE NUMBER 298702 386308

ASSIGNMENT NUMBER Assignment 1 Assignment 2

8.2.2

Due dates for assignments DUE DATE 02 April 2013 02 July 2013 EXTENSION DUE DATE 09 April 2013 09 July 2013

ASSIGNMENT NUMBER Assignment 1 Assignment 2

8.3

Submission of assignments

No assignments may be forwarded directly to this department. No assignments may be e-mailed or faxed. Use the assignment envelopes provided by Unisa without any additions/changes. Assignments can also be submitted electronically. Use your My studies @ Unisa brochure for the guidelines on the electronic submission of the assignments 8.4 Assignments DUE DATE: 02 April 2013 UNIQUE NUMBER: 298702

MGG2601 ASSIGNMENT 01

8.4.1

The Assignment

Identify a couple in your community whom you consider to have a good relationship. Interview them to explore the dynamics of families pertaining to the Family Life Cycle. Explore their perceptions about the stages that families go through in time. The interview should last for about an hour. You are required to provide a typed/written report of their responses to the following themes: Provide an explanatory introduction to the Family Life Cycle briefly describing all the stages. Describe the couple you interviewed, their ages, the number of children in their family, their occupations, any relevant information about them such as language, ethnic group, urban or rural geographic location, religion. Identify and discuss the stage of the family life cycle that they are in? Discuss any major or minor adjustments that they have had to make during this life cycle phase? Refer to Carter and Mc Goldrick (1989) to identify any changes typical of this stage that they failed to mention. Try to explain why they have not mentioned these changes.

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How did the family experience the previous life cycle phase? What were the biggest challenges that they faced during that stage? What resources did they access to help them to cope with those challenges? The resources may be things such as support from the extended family, professional counselling, a family discussion, lessons they learned from their past. What vertical stressors have impacted on this family? What are some of the more obvious horizontal stressors that the couple has had to deal with during their marriage? Discuss any system level stressors that the couple has to manage. List the couples relationship strengths according to their own frame of reference? What advice would they like to give other couples who are in the same life cycle phase as themselves? Sequential instructions/guidelines on how to complete this assignment

8.4.2

Theoretical preparation Study theory from theme 2, Changes that couples go through, psychological tasks and family life cycle developmental stages, theme 4.6, The counselling relationship, theme 5.2.1.2 b Structured assessment tools. Summarise the theory on the family life cycle in a table that highlights the key principles of each stage and the second order changes identified by Carter and Mc Goldrick (1989). Develop an interview schedule or questionnaire Look at the questions you have to discuss in Task 1. Develop a short questionnaire/ interview schedule that will help you to keep your interview with a couple focused. You must ensure that you obtain the relevant information for the task. Recruit a couple to interview Identify a suitable couple to interview. It is impossible to determine at face value if a couple have a good relationship or not and so one should explain the purpose of the task very clearly so that they can decline if they believe that their relationship is not a happy one. You may wish to approach a couple that you know from your religious group, community group, mothers group, sports club, etc. Do not interview family members or close friends. Make sure that you get permission to proceed from both partners. Reassure them that this is a voluntary activity and that their identities will be protected. Tell them that you have chosen them because you consider them to be good role models for couples. Emphasize that you are not a counsellor and will not be able to help them with any problems. Instead, their role is to help you to understand the developmental stages of families. Set a suitable time, day and place to conduct the interview. Preparation for the interview Look up the names and contact numbers of service providers in your area who offer couple counselling just in case the couple you interview need to be referred for professional assistance. Revise the Theme 4.6 The counselling relationship. Make sure that you understand how one demonstrates the core conditions of helping when working with couples. Pay special attention to the values that a couple counsellor needs to embrace when working with couples. Decide how you will record the interview. You may wish to use a tape recorder, a dictaphone or make notes. Test your interview schedule out on someone you know to make sure that the meanings of the questions you plan to ask are clear and jargon free. Conduct the interview At the interview you will need to spend time establishing a relaxed atmosphere before you can administer your interview schedule. This may involve telling the couple about yourself and your studies and making general conversation.

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MGG2601/101 Explain to them what the purpose of the interview is. Reassure them that their opinions are very important and it doesnt matter if they differ from other families or even if they see things differently from one another. There is no right or wrong response to these questions. Remember to request permission to use your recording device when you begin the interview. Remind the couple that you will not include any of their identifying details in the assignment and that the records you make will be destroyed as soon as you have captured the information. Ask the questions you have prepared from your interview schedule. Make sure that the couple understands all the questions. Before you leave the interview look over your interview schedule/questionnaire again to make sure that you have asked all the necessary questions. Thank them for participating in the exercise and indicate that their involvement has been most helpful to you. Consolidate the information needed for the questions and set your answers out under the following sub-headings: Introduction to the family. Write a brief introduction about the family you interviewed. Discuss their demographic details such as age, gender, family constellation, ethnic group, duration of their union, occupations and status in the community. ( page) Outline of the Family Life Cycle Model. Provide a broad overview of the Family Life Cycle and the different stages and developmental tasks of families according to model proposed by Carter and McGoldrick (1989). (1 page) Identify the stage of the family life cycle that best resembles the stage of family life that the couple is experiencing. Identify what stage of the family life cycle the couple you interviewed is in and explain why you decided to place it in that stage. List the typical characteristics of that life phase that you recognized when interviewing your couple. ( page) Key principles and Second Order Changes the family are experiencing Discuss any changes (major or minor adjustments) that the family is dealing with that are typical of their family life cycle phase. ( page) The extent to which the couples family life cycle adheres to Carter and McGoldricks Model(1989) Compare the experiences of change mentioned by your couple to those specified in Carter and McGoldricks model (1989) and try to provide explanations for any differences that you identified. ( page) The couples experiences pertaining to the preceding developmental stage of the family life cycle. Discuss the couples experience of the previous life cycle stage. ( page) Mention the most obvious challenges that they were faced with in that phase. ( page) Identify and discuss any resources (internal, relationship strengths, previous life experiences and support systems such as extended family, counselling, faith) that enabled them to transcend that developmental stage. (1/4 page) Vertical Stressors Discuss some of the vertical stressors that your couple has had to manage. Remember that vertical stressors are those that are handed down from one generation to another. The different upbringing that each party was exposed to whilst growing up may make these issues stressors as each entered the relationship with different expectations. Vertical stressors may include family myths regarding racism, sexism, poverty, gender, or generational patterns such as alcoholism, gambling, occupational expectations, or genetic makeup such as abilities and disabilities, or emotional or interaction patterns such as family matters are private, children should be seen and not heard. ( page)

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Horizontal Stressors Discuss the most significant horizontal stressors that the couple has dealt with in their union. These may be predictable life cycle transitions such as coping with children leaving home, managing an acting out teenager. The stressors may also be events such as relocations, unpredictable events such as illnesses, accidents, or even natural disasters, economic recession. ( page) System-level Stressors Mention significant factors that impact on the couples relationship such as socio cultural, political, economic, community issues, and extended family. (1/2 page) The couples relationship strengths Discuss what the couple identified as their strengths and then add your own observations. You may wish to refer to the Marital Happiness Rating Scale on page 192-194 of the MGG201W study guide and the section on identifying strengths on page 208 to help you identify positive aspects of the couples relationship that they failed to mention. ( page) Guidelines for other couples Capture any advice the couple would like to offer to other couples who are entering the life stage that they are in. ( page) Critique of the Family Life Cycle Model Reflect on the Family Life Cycle model and comment on whether the model is useful or not useful for work with couples in your community. ( to 1 page)

Attend to technical aspects of the task MGG2601 ASSIGNMENT 2 Write up a table of contents that reflects the themes listed in this table with the corresponding page numbers. Compile a bibliography. Check references within the body of your report. Attach the outline of your interview schedule as Addendum 1. Check the numbering of your themes and make sure that the pages are in sequence. DUE DATE: 02 July 2013 UNIQUE NUMBER: 386308

Case Study Multiple Choice Questions Carefully read the case study presented and answer the twenty questions that follow that are based on the case. Select the most appropriate answers from the options provided. CASE STUDY 1. Raven and Reshma have been married for three years. They complain that they spend little time together and Raven blames Reshma. He states that when he tries to take Reshma out she does not enjoy it because she hates spending the money. Raven believes that Reshma does not want to have fun with him and so he goes out with his friends, upsetting her further. Reshma chooses not to be alone when he goes out and so spends her leisure time with her parents. This upsets Raven because he believes that she is overly influenced by her parents and fails to base her decisions on what is right for them as a couple. Reshma on the other hand describes Raven as very selfish for not taking her families needs and wishes into consideration. 2. The couples conflicts are escalating. They make making personal attacks on each other during their fights. Reshma accuses Raven, All you think about is yourself, to which he replies, Well at least I am

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MGG2601/101 my own person. You are just like your mother! After arguments she seeks support from her parents. Her parents are protective and tend to take her side. They are growing more critical of Raven and his family of origin of late, and frequently offer their daughter advice on how she should handle her husband. They tell her that Raven is unable to handle responsibility. Reshma worries that this pattern of fighting will lead to divorce and that is why she insists that they attend counselling. 3. The counsellor during the assessment phase gets Raven and Reshma to share their personal perceptions of their difficulties. She starts off by asking the couple, What brings you here? Raven shares that Reshma made the appointment and therefore she should explain. After learning about the issues that the couple has experienced the counsellor suggests that they stop for a while and just reflect upon what things were like between them before the problems arose. The counsellor steers them to talk about their courtship and the activities they enjoyed together before they married. They spend time focussing on the messages they each gained from their families of origin on issues such as independence, money and in laws. The counsellor creates a safe context for them to talk. Before long they start talking about their arguments calmly and rationally. The counsellor helps them to identify the needs that lead up to their frustration with one another. They begin to understand what has been fuelling their anger. By the end of the first session Raven and Reshma recognise that their needs and feelings are similar as is their vision of what they want in their marriage. They choose to sort out their differences and work towards improving their relationship so that finally they will buy a home and plan to have children. 4. Counsellor: Reshma, I would like you to talk about your experience of the arguments between the two of you without blaming Raven. Talk about how the problem affects you. 5. Reshma: Raven, you are happy to spend money on your friends even though you know we cant afford it. You clearly dont want us to be able to buy our own home. 6. Counsellor: Reshma, I would like you to try again. Dont focus on what you believe Raven is doing wrong this time but state simply that which you need from Raven at this point in time. You can mention how you are feeling. 7. Reshma: Raven, I feel worried that I am not important to you. I would like us to decide how we can work together to buy our first home so that we can start thinking of having a family of our own. 8. Raven: But that is what I have been trying to tell you. You are very important to me. I want us to be together. I also want us to have a house. I just think that as we both work so hard we need to spend some time together having fun, without our families. They make me feel so pressurised. I dont feel as though they give us space to sort ourselves out. I want us to fix up our issues alone. How can I prove my love for you and prove to them that I care for you if they are always stepping in to take charge of our personal matters? Dont get me wrong. It is not as if I dont appreciate them. In fact I admire them greatly. I just believe that we have to have a little more space between us and them so that everyone can see that we are now a separate family. We need to decide on things for ourselves by ourselves. 9. Counsellor: So let me make sure that I understand. You want many of the same things that Reshma wants. You want a house and you want time to have fun with Reshma. You appreciate the support that you get from her parents but you realise that this is a crucial time for you both to work together so that you can create your own family blue print. You want to be able to sort out issues as a couple and create your own goals and values rather than follow the blueprints of the families you grew up in. 10. Raven: Yes. That is exactly it. I think that what we have been going through is a typical stage that all young married couples go through. We have to start to work these things out for ourselves. I love Reshma and dont want anything or anyone to come between us. We have to decide what is important for us, not just follow on doing things the way our parents did things. 11. Reshma: Well I am so relieved to hear this. The way we have been fighting made me fear that we would soon be planning our divorce, rather than a new home or a family.

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12. The counsellor focuses the couple specifically on the way they manage conflict. Raven discloses that Reshma is easily angered when he goes out with his friends or when he refuses to comply with what her family expects of him. At those times she refuses to talk to him for several days. In trying to discover more about Reshmas angry withdrawal from Raven the counsellor asks, When you go into your silence and ignore Ravens attempts to make friendly conversation with you, what happens next? 13. As the couple start to relax with the counsellor and their intense fighting abates they talk about their relationship more objectively. It becomes apparent to the couple that their values about money and recreation are different and the counsellor assists them to explore the needs that are behind their personal values. Raven starts to recognise the friendships and leisure time activities that upset Reshma that need to be terminated to protect his marriage. In the same session Reshma is helped to find appropriate ways to demonstrate her respect for Raven. Soon the couple begins to see the need for developing their own family traditions and rituals. Together they talk about the rituals that they equally value and would like to adopt from their families of origin. Raven recognises that he is less traditional than Reshma and points out the rituals that he is prepared to participate in without resentment. They identify the ones that they cant agree on and reach a mutual decision about which of these will become redundant in their nuclear family. 14. After three sessions the couple and the counsellor decide that they have made sufficient progress to terminate counselling. The counsellor helps the couple identify possible setbacks and obstacles that could threaten their progress as a young couple joined through marriage. They are asked to imagine how they think they can effectively overcome these. Answer the following questions on a mark reading sheet 1. The psychological task highlighted in paragraphs 1 and 2 that Reshma is struggling to transcend is referred to by Wallerstein (1995) as 1. consolidating psychological separation and establishing new connections with a family of origin 2. building togetherness and creating autonomy 3. making a safe place for conflict 4. coping with crises 2. In order to transcend this psychological task we expect Reshma to 1. 2. 3. 4. develop trust in Raven, believing that he will not scorn or reject her clarify her expectations of parenting find a balance between spontaneity and tradition develop a different kind of relationship with her family of origin

3. The psychological task that Raven appears to be struggling to transcend, as described in paragraphs 1 and 2 is 1. 2. 3. 4. consolidating psychological separation and establishing new connections with a family of origin building togetherness and creating autonomy making a safe place for conflict coping with crises

4. In order to achieve this psychological task we expect Raven to 1. decide what competing leisure time activities, friendships and associations should be terminated to protect the relationship 2. develop respect for Reshma and the relationship 3. develop realistic expectations about sex and intimacy in the relationship 4. find a balance between spontaneity and tradition

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MGG2601/101 5. Clearly Reshma and Ravens families of origin have differing attitudes regarding money, independence and recreation and this places a stressor on the young couples relationship 1. 2. 3. 4. vertical horizontal system level vertical and system level

6. Wallerstein (1995) suggested that when couples like Reshma and Raven need to better manage their conflict they first have to achieve the related psychological task of 1. 2. 3. 4. 7. maintaining a dual vision of each other that combines early idealisation with reality perception\ achieving fusion instead of intimacy establishing the relationship as a zone of safety and nurturance developing realistic expectations of each other and marriage

Gottman (1998) identified different types of unhelpful conflict styles. According to Gottman, when Reshma says to Raven in paragraph 2, All you think about is yourself! that is 1. 2. 3. 4. criticism contempt defensiveness none of the above

8. Ravens reply to Reshmas accusation of him in paragraph 2 would be classified by Gottman (1998) as 1. 2. 3. 4. 9. criticism contempt defensiveness none of the above

The counsellor should start the counselling process with Reshma and Raven by 1. 2. 3. 4. initiating a dialogue about the problem sharing information about his or her approach to working with couples asking questions to illicit basic information about the couple such as their demographic details explaining the format that the couple counselling will take

10.

The broad role of the helper in this case is to 1. 2. 3. 4. save the couples marriage teach them coping skills facilitate a communication process between them assess their relationship

11. The helper systematically gets the couple to explore their personal perceptions of the problem, their family influences their relationship, their efforts to manage the developmental stage of the family life cycle they are in and previous attempts at manage their difficulties. These four steps are characteristic of the phase of intervention. 1. 2. 3. 4. assessment fostering hope changing feelings and behaviours developing cooperation

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12. The question that the counsellor asks in paragraph 3, What brings you both here? is typically used by counsellors to
1. 2. 3. 4. develop a definition of the problem develop meaning of the problem start a dialogue about the problem all of the above

13. The question that the counsellor asks in paragraph 11, When you go into your silence and ignore Ravens attempts to make friendly conversation with you,what happens next? is typical of a question. 1. 2. 3. 4. problem definition sequence of interaction comparison and classification question intervening question

14. This question is usually asked by the counsellor in an attempt to 1. 2. 3. 4. start a dialogue about the problem collect information about the developmental history of the relationship develop an operationalised definition of the problem develop an alternative meaning of what is really going on

15. According to Carter and Mc Goldricks Family Life Cycle this couple is in the stage. 1. the unattached young adult 2. the joining of families through marriage 3. the family with young children 4. the launching and empty nest 16. Carter and McGoldrick (1989) point out that the stage in question 15 is viewed too simplistically. It is more than a stage of private coupling. It should be recognised as the formal joining of 1. 2. 3. 4. two individuals private worlds of meaning the couples material assets a husband and wife the couples two families

17. One should view this couples problems as a/an crisis. 1. normative 2. idiopathic 3. identity 4. existential 18. Raven explains at length what it is he wants from the relationship with Reshma (paragraph 8) and in the next paragraph the counsellor uses , an interviewing skill used to consolidate the clients description of his perceptions of the situation. 1. 2. 3. 4. summarising empathy immediacy making the implied explicit

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MGG2601/101 19. The counsellor assists Reshma and Raven to move away from blaming one another to addressing their issues by making changes. 1. 2. 3. 4. behavioural cognitive affective all of the above

20. The counsellor helps Reshma to rephrase her response to Raven about what he does to upsets her in paragraph 6 when she says, Reshma, I would like you to try again. Dont focus on what you believe Raven is doing wrong this time but state simply that which you need from Raven at this point in time. You can mention how you are feeling. This enables Reshma to replace criticism and contempt with a straight forward request. 1. 2. 3. 4. behavioural interpretative confrontational contemptible

OTHER ASSESSMENT METHODS

The study guide includes self study sections with feedback from the lecturer to enable learners to test their understanding and perceptions around different topics. Learners are urged to complete these diligently as a means of alerting them to sections where additional assistance or self review are required.

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EXAMINATION

There is one examination (summative assessment) that takes place in October/November. The examination date is determined by the Examination Department, therefore do not contact the lecturer regarding exam dates and times. The examination consists of a two hour paper, based on the study guide and additional tutorial letters. This exam provides direct evidence of your competence. The subminimum mark for the examination is 40%. The examination consists only of multiple choice type questions and tests foundational knowledge. It also contains a case study to test practical knowledge. The examination counts for 60% of the final mark. The other 40% is obtained from the two compulsory assignments outlined in the preceding section. The pass mark for the module is 50%. Use the my Studies @ Unisa brochure for general examination guidelines and examination preparation guidelines

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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

The my Studies @ Unisa brochure contains an A-Z guide of the most relevant study information. Some of the most frequently asked questions pertaining to the administration of this course are as follows: 1. There are two dates given for each assignment, the due date and the extension date. How do I get permission to make use of the extension date? You simply email your request for an extension to pettya@unisa.ac.za or fax to 031 3322214, Attention: Mrs A Petty. 2. What should I do if as a result of circumstances beyond my control I am unable to submit an assignment?

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Contact the lecturer as soon as possible to inform her of your personal circumstances so that she can determine if some special arrangement can be made for your work to be assessed. 3. How long can I expect it to take for my assignments to be marked and returned? These are lengthy assignments that have to be individually evaluated and therefore you should expect the marking process to take a minimum of eight weeks. 4. What should I do if my study material arrives after the first assignment is due? Contact the lecturer immediately so that special arrangements can be made for you to submit Assignment 01. You will be expected to produce evidence of the late arrival of your study material. 5. As there are no prescribed books for this module do I have to do extra reading and where should I source additional information? You are definitely expected to undertake your own research into this subject. You may speak to community members who are regarded as experts in couples counselling; locate books on the subject; do research on the internet; collect informative brochures and booklets; identify relevant service providers who are willing to offer you assistance. 6. It says that the assignments are compulsory. May I write the examination if I fail to submit the assignments? UNISA has to prove that their students are active students and the only way we can so this is by getting students to submit their assignments timeously. To fail to submit the assignments will compromise you greatly as the assignments count 40% towards the final mark. It is highly unlikely that a student will pass the course without submitting both assignments.

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SOURCES CONSULTED

Alexander, M. 2006. South Africa legalizes gay marriages. South Africa.info/services/rights/same-sexmarriage.htm. Brown, JH & Brown, CS. 2002. Marital therapy: concepts and skills for effective practice. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Carter B & McGoldrick M. 1989. The changing family life cycle. Boston, Mass: Allyn &Bacon. Carter B & McGoldrick M. 1999. The expanded family life cycle: individual, family and social perspectives. 3rd. ed. Needham Heights: Allyn and Bacon. Collins D, Jordan C & Coleman H. 2010. An introduction to family social work. 3rd.ed. Belmont, USA: Brooks/Cole. Gottman, J. 1998. Why marriages fail or succeed and how you can make yours last. London: Bloomsbury. Hepworth, DH & Larsen, JA. 1990. Direct social work practice. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth. Sperry L & Carlson J. 1991. Marital therapy: integrating theory and technique. Denver, Colo: Love. Wallerstein, J.1995. The good marriage: how and why love lasts. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

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MGG2601/101 Young, M. & Long, L. 1998. Counselling and therapy for couples. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Criminal Procedures [Act No. 51 of 1977]. Pretoria: Government Printer. Civil Union [Act No.17 of 2006]. Pretoria: Government Printer. Criminal Law (Sexual offences and related matters [Act No.32 of 2007 Amended Act]. Pretoria: Government Printer. Constitution of the Republic of South Africa [No. 108 of 1996]. Pretoria: Government Printer.

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CONCLUSION

We hope that you enjoy this module and encourage you to contact our department with your comments and recommendations. An evaluation schedule has been included as Addendum 2 for you to complete and return to: The Module Leader (MGG2601) Department of Social Work UNISA KwaZulu-Natal Regional Office PO Box 47431 Greyville 4023 Kind regards

Mrs. A Petty Module Leader

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MGG2601/101

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ADDENDUM

Addendum 1: Assignment 01 assessment criteria

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA

ABOVE AVERAGE
10 9 8 7

AVERAGE

POOR/ REQUIRES MODIFICATION


4 3 2 1

Understanding of the Family Life Cycle Model (10)

Ability to conduct an interview and elicit information pertaining to themes requested (10) Practical application of the concepts of the Family Life Cycle Model to the experiences of a real family. Good illustration of different concepts by use of examples given by the family (10) Understanding of vertical, horizontal and system-level stressors (10) Critique of the Family Life Cycle Model based on sound reasoning and objective observation of its relevance for working with couples in a locally specific community (10) Practical application of the practice of healthy behaviours of healthy couples to assess a couples relationship (10) Ability to integrate the couples own perspectives of their unique relationship into the report and good use of qualitative quotations to illustrate this (10) Report adheres to Unisas technical academic writing requirements (neatness; table of contents; bibliography; correct referencing in text; lay-out, use of subheadings; sequential numbering of pages; paragraphs; sentence construction (10) Objectivity in conducting the couple interview and assessment (10) Personal reflections about personal ability to interview a couple and apply the concepts of the Family Life Cycle Model to the experiences of a real couple (10)

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

10 9 8 7

4 3 2 1

TOTAL 100

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MGG2601/101

Addendum 2: Evaluation of course


By spending time to complete this evaluation form before you write your examination you will help us to improve this course. We are interested to know about your ideas and experiences whilst doing this module. Your feedback enables us to make the course more student friendly and relevant. (1) Is the course content interesting and relevant? Yes No

Please explain your answer.


(2) Is the language in the study guide clear and user friendly? Yes No

If not, explain with examples/suggestions.


(3) Did the study guide offer enough practical examples of theory covered? Yes No

completing the assignments and self study tasks.

(4) Identify the most important discoveries you made about couples counselling whilst you were

. .

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(5) Identify the most important discoveries you made about yourself as a potential couples counsellor whilst completing the prescribed tasks.

.
(6) Do you feel that the course has provided you with a satisfactory introduction to the dynamic nature of working with couples? Yes No

Please explain your answer.


(7) What recommendations do you have for the improvement of this course?

Thank you for your feedback and active participation.

Mrs A Petty

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