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9.

53

9.9.
V u, v w () . ,
, . , .

9.9.1
( , )
( ) .
i ,
:
D=

u v w
( X, Y, Z)
+
+
x y z

(9.9.1)

D=

u v
+
+
( X, Y, P),
x y p

(9.9.2)

u, v w () .
, , ,
:
D=

u v
.
+
x y

, ,
(. 9.16).
i, ,
,
,
..

9.

54

, :

) D>0

) D<0

V1 < V2

V1 > V2

. 9.16. (D0)

:
Dg =

u g
x

v g
y

g H
g 2H g 2H

g H
(
)+
(
)=
0
+
x
l y
y l x
l x y l x y

, 10-510-6 -1.

9.9.2.

(, , ) ( ).
.

= V

.
X, Y, X (P):

( x , y , z )

..

9.

=
x
u

y
v

x =

55

w v
w u
v u
= i(
) j(
) + k( )
z
y z
x z
x y
w

v u
w v
u w
, y =
, z =

y z
z x
x y

X, Y, Z.
( X
Y) ,
, (
Z ).
, :
=

u v u g =
=

v u
.

x y

1 P
,
l y

vg =

(9.9.3)

1 P
:
l x

v u v g u g
1 P 1 P
1 2P 2P
(
)=
(
),

=
+
+
x y
l x 2 y 2
x
y
x l x l y

u g =

g H
,
l y

1 2
P.
l

vg =
=

(9.9.4)

(9.9.5)

g H
:
l x

g 2
H.
l

(9.9.6)


, :
(. 9.17).

..

2P
x 2

2P
y 2

=1+ 2+ 3+ 440

9.

56

P2
P3

P0

P1

P4

)
995

990

990

990

. 9.17.

, . , , , >0. ,
<0.
i ()
, , . .
, > 0,
(

P
< 0),
t

< 0,
(

2 P > 0,

P
> 0)
t

..

2 P < 0,

9.

57

i ()

9.9.3.


,
t
P
.
t


H
du
dt = g x + lv

dv = g H lu
dt
y

Y, X
. :

l
l
v u
= (u
+v
+
) ( + l )D ( u
+v )(
)

t
x
y
p
x
y
x p y p

(9.9.7)

. ,

= (u
+v
+
)
t 1
x
y
p

(9.9.8)

.
t

= ( + l )D
t 2

..

(9.9.9)

9.

58

, t

.
,

l
l
= (u
+ v ),
t 3
x
y

X ,

(9.9.10)

l
=0 , ,
x

l
= v
t 3
y

(9.9.11)

v u
= (
)

t 4
x p y p

(9.9.12)

.
:

.
) + (
) + (
) + (
)
=(
t
t
t
t
t

(9.9.13)

.
:

U 10 /,
, ,
T , 105 ,
L 1000 , 106 ,
Z 1-10 , 103 -104 ,
v u U
10
[ ] =
= = 6 = 10 5 ,

x y L 10

10
U
10
t = LT = 6 5 = 10 ,

10 10

( c 2 ) b,

..

( c 1 ) ,

9.

U
10

10
u x = U LL = 10 6 6 = 10 ,

10 10

59


10
v x = 10 ,

( c 2 ) ,

[ P] = [ gz] = 1 10 10 4 = 10 5 ,

(c 2 ) ,

( ) ( 105 ),

5
P 10
[ ] = = 5 = 1 10 1 ,
t 10

),

gz
10
10 11 ,
p = t gz = t = 10



[ l] = [ 2 sin ] = 10 4 ,

2 cos 10 4
= 10 11 ,
=
3
7
R
10

[] = y =


[ D] = = 10 6 ,
p

[lD] = 10 4 10 6

= 10 10 ,

( c 2 ),

(c 2 ) ,

( c 1 ) ,

( 1c 1 ) ,

( c 1 ) ( ),

[D] = 10 5 10 6

1
v u 1

= 10 11 10 12 ,
x p , y p = 6 5

10 10
l
l
11
= 10 10 ,
u x , v y = 10 10

= 10 11 ,

( c 2 ),

( 2 )

( c2 ) .

, ,
:

[10 ] [10
10

10

] [10

, 10 10 , 10 11 ,

10

] [10

, 10 11 ,

10

] [10

, 10 10 ,

12

, 10 12

l
l
, (u
+v
), lD, u , v

t
x
y
x
y

..

,
p

9.

60

= (u
+v
).
t 1
x
y


.
,
( ), . l ,
l >> , ,

= lD .
t 2

. , .
:

l
= (u
+v
) lD v
.
t
x
y
y

(9.9.14)
u v
,
10
x y

, .
.

..

9.

61

9.9.4.


.
.. .

=

g 2
H,
l

:
g
( 2H)
=
t l t

g 2 H
=
t l
t

(9.9.15)

, :
:
2 P > 0,

> 0,

P<0

:
2 P < 0,

< 0,

P>0.

.
, :
H = A sin x cos y,
2H =

2H
x

2H
y

= [ A 2 sin x A 2 cos y] =

= A ( 2 + 2 )(sin x cos y ) = mH.

A .

2 H = mH ,

..

9.

62

2
H
H
.
H = 2
= m
t
t
t
g H
g 2 H
,
= m
=
t l
t
l
t

(9.9.16)

= (u
+v
),
t
x
y

u, v :
ug =

g H
,
l y

vg =

g H
g
, = 2H
l x
l

:
g 2 H 2
g 2 H 2

= ( 2
H+ 2
H)
t
l y x
l x y


g2

= 2 ( H, 2 H ) .
t
l

(9.9.17)

(9.9.16),
g H
g2
m
= 2 ( H, 2 H ),
l
t
l
H g
m
= ( H, 2 H ),
t l
g
H
( H, 2 H ).
=
t lm

(9.9.18)

, X (OS)
, n H, ..
Y, .

g
g H 2 H 2 H
H
H 2 H 2 H
2
( H, H ) =
[
(
)
(
)],
=
+
+
t lm
lm x y x 2
y x x 2
y 2
y 2
H H
= 0,
=
x
s
H
g
H 2 H 2 H
[
(
)] .
=
+
t lm y x x 2 y 2

..

9.

63

2H

,
x 2
H S (

H
= tg ,
x

= 0 ), .

2H
0.
x 2

y=f(x),
d2y
dx 2

(9.9.19)

dy
[1 + ( ) 2 ] 2
dx
d2 y

dx 2

dy
. H(x, y)=const
dx

, .. y=f(x),

H(x, y)=const), ..

dH ( x , y )
dx

dx

( ,

0.

dH ( X, Y )
dx

dH ( x , y )

H ( X, Y ) dx H ( X, Y ) dy
+
0,
x
y
dx
dx

,
H ( x , y )
dy
x
.
=
H ( x , y )
dx

(9.9.20)

, , (9.9.20) ,
x y, y=f(x):
H ( x, y ) 2H ( x, y ) 2H ( x, y ) dy
H( x, y ) 2H( x, y ) 2H( x, y ) 2H ( x, y ) dy
[
+
]+
[
]
+
y
xy dx
x
yx
dx
d2y
x 2
y 2
x 2
.
=

H ( x , y )
dx 2
2
(
)
y

..

(9.9.21)

9.

64

(9.9.20)

dy
=0.
dx

(9.9.20) :
H
2

d y
dx

( x, y )

y
H
(

2H

( x, y )
x 2

2H
=

( x, y ) 2
)
y

( x, y )

2H

( x, y )

x
x 2
.
=
H
H
( x, y )
( x, y )
(
) (
)
y
n

(9.9.22) (9.9.20) (9.9.19), ,

(9.9.22)

dy
=0, dx

2H

2H

H ss
dx 2
ds 2
= H = H =
,
Hn
(
) (
)
n
n

2H
dx

2H
ds

H
= H n ,
n

g H
H
H
2H
[ (
) + ( 2 )],
=
t lm n s
n
s n
g H H
H
H
2H
[
+ (
) + ( 2 )],
=
t lm n s n
s n
s n
, , :
g
H
H ( H + H ns + H nns )
=
t lm n s n

(9.9.23)

H
>0
<0,
t
t

, .. :

H
<0
>0.
t
t

H n >0, n H.

..

9.

65

H ns H n S: H ns >0 , H ns <0
.
: >0 , <0 -

s : s >0
; s <0 .

H nns ( , ).
H n >0,

H
.
t

s H n >0:

s >0
, s H n <0
s <0
,
:

H ns >0
>0, .. , H ns >0
;
<0, .. ; H ns <0 .

H ns <0
<0, .. ; H ns >0 ;
>0, .. , H ns <0
.
i

H
s H n
t

i , s H n

..

9.

66

i H ns

H
.
t



.
,
, 500, ,
( ),
.
.
,
500, , ( ), .
.

9.9.5.
:
H
du
dt = g x + lv

dv = g H lu
dt
y

X, Y . :
D
D
D
D
u
v
v u
u v
= (u
+v
)
)
( )2 ( )2 2
(

t
x
y
p
x
x y
y
x p y p
l
l
g 2 H + l ( u
+v )
y
x

..

9.

67

D
15-20 2 H
t

l ,

D
.
t

,
l = g 2 H + [(
=

u 2
v u
v
) +2
+ ( )2 ]
x
x y
y

g 2
1 u
v u
v
H + [( ) 2 + 2
+ ( )2].
x y
l
l x
y

() , (9.9.6):
=

g 2
H,
l

..