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MATH 209

Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
MATH 209Calculus, III
Volker Runde
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Fall 2011
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, I
Example
Let
D :=
_
(x, y) R
2
: 1 x 1, 0 y
_
1 x
2
_
.
What is
__
D
x
2
y dA?
Set R := [1, 1] [0, 1], and dene F : R R as
F(x, y) :=
_
x
2
y, (x, y) D,
0, otherwise.
Set
__
D
x
2
y dA :=
__
R
F(x, y) dA.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, II
Example (continued)
Then:
__
D
x
2
y dA =
__
R
F(x, y) dA =
_
1
1
__
1
0
F(x, y) dy
_
dx
=
_
1
1
_
_

1x
2
0
x
2
y dy
_
dx
=
_
1
1
_
x
2
y
2
2

y=

1x
2
y=0
_
dx =
_
1
1
_
x
2
x
4
2
_
dx
=
1
2
_
x
3
3

x
5
5

x=1
x=1
_
=
2
15
.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Integrals over general regions
Denition
Let D [a, b] [c, d] =: R, and let f : D R. Dene
F : R R as
F(x, y) :=
_
f (x, y), (x, y) D,
0, otherwise.
If
__
R
F(x, y) dA exists, dene
__
D
f (x, y) dA :=
__
R
F(x, y) dA.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Regions of type I
Denition
We say that D is of type I if there are continuous functions
g
1
, g
2
: [a, b] R with g
1
g
2
such that
D := {(x, y) R
2
: x [a, b], g
1
(x) y g
2
(x)}.
Integration over regions of type I
If D is of type I:
__
D
f (x, y) dA :=
__
R
F(x, y) dA
=
_
b
a
__
d
c
F(x, y) dy
_
dx =
_
b
a
_
_
g
2
(x)
g
1
(x)
f (x, y) dy
_
dx.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, III
Example
What is
__
D
x + 2y dA, where D is the region bounded by the
parabolas y = 2x
2
and y = 1 + x
2
.
We have
D = {(x, y) R
2
: x [1, 1], 2x
2
y 1 + x
2
}.
Hence, D is of type I.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, IV
Example (continued)
Then:
__
D
x + 2y dA
=
_
1
1
_
_
1+x
2
2x
2
x + 2y dy
_
dx =
_
1
1
xy + y
2

y=1+x
2
y=2x
2
dx
=
_
1
1
(x(1 + x
2
) + (1 + x
2
)
2
x(2x
2
) (2x
2
)
2
) dx
=
_
1
1
3x
4
x
3
+ 2x
2
+ x + 1 dx
= 3
x
5
5

x
4
4
+
2
3
x
3
+
x
2
2
+ x

x=1
x=1
=
32
15
.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Regions of type II
Denition
We say that D is of type II if there are continuous functions
h
1
, h
2
: [c, d] R with h
1
h
2
such that
D := {(x, y) R
2
: y [c, d], h
1
(y) x h
2
(y)}.
Integration over regions of type II
If D is of type II:
__
D
f (x, y) dA =
_
d
c
_
_
h
2
(y)
h
1
(y)
f (x, y) dx
_
dy.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, V
Example
Evaluate
__
D
xy dA, where D is the region bounded by the line
y = x 1 and the parabola y
2
= 2x + 6.
Then D is both of type II:
D =
_
(x, y) R
2
: y [2, 4],
1
2
y
2
3 x y + 1
_
.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, VI
Example (continued)
Thus:
__
D
xy dA =
_
4
2
_
_
y+1
1
2
y
2
3
xy dx
_
dy =
_
4
2
x
2
2
y

x=y+1
x=
1
2
y
2
3
dx
=
1
2
_
4
2
y
_
(y + 1)
2

_
1
2
y
2
3
_
2
_
dy
=
1
2
_
4
2
y
_

y
5
4
+ 4y
3
+ 2y
2
8y
_
dy
=
1
2
_

y
6
24
+ y
4
+ 2
y
3
3
4y
2

x=1
x=1
_
= 36.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, VII
Example
Let D be the triangle with the vertices (0, 0),
__

2
,
_

2
_
, and
_
0,
_

2
_
. What is
__
D
sin(y
2
) dA?
D is of type I:
D =
_
(x, y) R
2
: 0 x
_

2
, x y
_

2
_
.
Hence:
__
D
sin(y
2
) dA =
_

2
0
_

2
x
sin(y
2
) dy dx = ???
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, VIII
Example (continued)
D is also of type II:
D =
_
(x, y) R
2
: 0 y
_

2
, 0 x y
_
.
Thus:
__
D
sin(y
2
) dA =
_

2
0
_
y
0
sin(y
2
) dx dy
=
_

2
0
y sin(y
2
) dy =
1
2
cos(y
2
)

y=

2
y=0
=
1
2
.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Properties of the integral, I
Proposition
1
__
D
[f (x, y) + g(x, y)] dA =
__
D
f (x, y) dA +
__
D
g(x, y) dA;
2 for c constant:
__
D
c f (x, y) dA = c
__
D
f (x, y) dA;
3 for f (x, y) g(x, y) on D:
__
D
f (x, y) dA
__
D
g(x, y) dA.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Properties of the integral, II
Proposition
Suppose that D
1
and D
2
have only boundary points in
common. Then
__
D
1
D
2
f (x, y) dA =
__
D
1
f (x, y) dA +
__
D
2
f (x, y) dA.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, IX
Example
Let
D
1
:= {(x, y) R
2
: x [1, 0], y [x + 1, 1]},
D
2
:= {(x, y) R
2
: x [0, 1], y [1 x, 1]},
D
3
:= {(x, y) R
2
: x [1, 0], y [1, 1 x]},
D
4
:= {(x, y) R
2
: x [0, 1], y [1, x 1]},
(All of type I.)
Set
D = D
1
D
2
D
3
D
4
,
and evaluate
__
D
x
2
dA.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, X
Example (continued)
Thus:
__
D
x
2
dA =
4

j =1
__
D
j
x
2
dA
=
_
0
1
_
1
x+1
x
2
dy dx +
_
1
0
_
1
1x
x
2
dy dx
+
_
0
1
_
1x
1
x
2
dy dx +
_
1
0
_
x1
1
x
2
dy dx
=
_
0
1
x
3
dx +
_
1
0
x
3
dx +
_
0
1
x
3
dx +
_
1
0
x
3
dx
= 4
_
1
0
x
3
dx = x
3

x=1
x=0
= 1.
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Properties of the integral, III
Notation
For a region D R
2
, we denote its area by A(D).
Proposition
Suppose that
m f (x, y) M
on D. Then
mA(D)
__
D
f (x, y) dA M A(D).
MATH 209
Calculus,
III
Volker Runde
Double
integrals over
general
regions
Examples, IX
Example
For
D = {(x, y) R
2
: x
2
+ y
2
4},
estimate
__
D
e
(sin x)(cos y)
dA.
We know that A(D) = 4 and
1
e
e
(sin x)(cos y)
e.
Hence,
4
e

__
D
e
(sin x)(cos y)
dA 4e.