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Focus: Assessing student understanding through listening to and making sense of student solution strategies and explanations What Students are currently learning about equivalent fractions and lowest common denominators. The problems in class focus on estimating the sums and differences of fractions with unlike common denominators by having students round each of the fractions involved in the problem. I believe that this estimation process will help students determine if their results are reasonable in the next step of fraction operations: adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators. For this particular lesson, I want to focus on adding fractions with unlike denominators. I want students to develop their own strategies on how to add fractions with unlike denominators by drawing on their prior knowledge of equivalent fractions and lowest common denominators. I want students to be able to articulate their strategies to their peers in a manner that will allow their peers to understand their thinking. I also want students to develop a conceptual understanding of adding fractions instead of just applying rules on how to add fractions with unlike denominators, so that they also know if their answer makes sense. How I will use inquiry-based learning in which students are able to form their own strategies on how to add fractions with unlike denominators. I will engage students in the task of finding fractions that sum up to 1 without the use of any standard algorithms. Students will play two rounds of a game that involve this task of finding fractions that sum up to 1. I will use the Fraction Bar Chart as a tool to scaffold student learning. For the first round of the game, students will be able to use a tool (the Fraction Bar Chart) in order to help them find fractions that sum up to 1. The Fraction Bar Chart can assist students in finding equivalent fractions and in checking their answers. For the second round of the game, students will no longer have access to the Fraction Bar Chart and will have to rely on insights gathered from the first round. Students will be playing the game in pairs. This pair collaboration will allow students opportunities to share their strategies with each other during the game. There will be also be a whole group discussion at the end of the game in which everyone shares his or her strategies. Hopefully, the students will be able to tie the insights and strategies from the game to form a general understanding of how to add fractions with unlike denominators in contexts outside of the game. I also want to establish the norm that all students need to be respectful of what their peers say during the discussions that occur throughout the lesson, so that all students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts with the group. Why

Comment [CE1]: By round, do you mean comparing to the nearest benchmark fraction?

Comment [CE2]: So what conceptual understanding does this involve? What models will help them make sense of this? Comment [CE3]: This is good, but what would that look like? What kind of strategies would students develop or construct. Keep in mind that they may already have been introduced to the procedure of finding common denominators.

Comment [CE4]: Can you say more about this? What does the bar chart help them see or reflect on?

Instead of teaching students the rule of finding the lowest common denominator first in order to add fractions with unlike denominators, I want students to be able to discover their own strategies. I want the students to be active participants in the development of their own understanding (Van de Walle, 2004). This is why I used inquiry-based learning and I believe this type of learning will help students develop a conceptual understanding of adding fractions. I also decided to have students play the game in pairs rather than individually for two reasons. First, a key process in building understanding is communication (Hiebert et al., 1997). Hiebert et al. (1997) mention that when students work individually they can get stuck thinking of the problem in only one way and then develop only one type of method to deal with the problem. However, if students work with others they can see the problem in multiple ways and develop more methods to solve it. I want my students to develop many strategies for adding fractions with different denominators and not just to rely on one strategy and I think working in pairs will help accomplish this. I also do not want students to feel uncomfortable during the game. I feel that by working in pairs, students will feel less bad when they get the answer wrong than they would if they were working individually. Part of the game involves the other players checking the answers for the players who pick the fractions that sum up to 1. I selected this topic because I believe it builds upon what students are already learning in class. As already mentioned, students are currently learning about equivalent fractions, lowest common denominators, and how to estimate sums and differences of fractions with unlike denominators. I think that having students learn how to find the actual sum of fractions with unlike denominators is the logical next step in student learning. Students can now have a relational understanding of adding fractions with unlike denominators by drawing on their mathematical understandings of equivalent fractions and lowest common denominators. When mathematical concepts are used to form new mathematical concepts, students will develop useful cognitive networks (Van de Walle, 2004). This topic is also a part of the PA Common Core standards.

Lesson Plan Goals / Objectives Students will add fractions that have the same and different denominators to make a sum of 1. Students will develop strategies on how to add fractions with different denominators. Standards (and Assessment Anchors, if applicable) CC.2.1.5.C.1 Use the understanding of equivalency to add and subtract fractions. Materials and preparation 1. 1 Fraction Cards Activity Sheet (pre-cut) 2. 4 Fraction Bar Charts (pre-cut) 3. 4 Fraction Bar Charts (uncut) Classroom arrangement and management issues I will be taking the four students to a separate empty classroom. The room would be a quiet private area, which will help eliminate distractions and help my students concentrate. I will have the students seated closely together around the same table so that they can easily play the card game and discuss with their partner player during the game. Students will be able to hear all discussions going on during the game because of this close arrangement and will thus be exposed to a variety of methods on how to find cards that sum up to 1, which will help facilitate the group discussion that will occur after the game. I will also be seated at this same table so that all students can hear me and see me demonstrate how to use the Fraction Bar Chart. I will also be able to hear their discussions during the game and see how and if they are using the Fraction Bar Chart to find cards that sum up to 1. I will provide students with all materials needed for the lesson. I will not have to worry about students forgetting to bring materials. I will not hand out the fraction bar charts or the fraction cards until students are ready to play the game, so that these materials will not distract students when I am introducing the lesson for the day. The four students may disrupt other students as they transition from their original classroom to the classroom that I will be teaching them in. I can ask the students to not talk during this transition. Also at the beginning of the lesson, I want to establish the norm that all students need to be respectful of what their peers say during the discussions that occur throughout the lesson, so that all students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts with the group. If students are disrespectful, they will return to their normal classroom. Plan

Comment [CE5]: You might also want to remind them that the classroom rules for behavior still apply in this small group setting

1) The hook (10 minutes) Today we are going to play a card game that involves adding fractions so that they sum up to 1. Before we begin the game, I want to make sure that everyone is comfortable finding fractions that add up to 1. I will place the fraction card 1/3 on the table so that all students can see. Which card can be added to 1/3 to make 1? (I will have all possible fraction cards laid out for students to see. Students can respond with 2/3 or 4/6) I will model each of the answers by using the cutouts from the Fraction Bar Chart. I will lay out the cutout 1 and then lay out the cutout 1/3 underneath the cutout 1. I will then lay out two 1/3 cards next to the 1/3 card to show that 2/3 + 1/3 = 1. Next, I will lay out four 1/6 cards next to the 1/3 card to show that 4/6 + 1/3 = 1. What is the relationship between 2/3 and 4/6? (Equivalent Fractions) I will quickly review the concept of equivalent fractions. (Students already covered this in a prior lesson.) I want you to keep this in mind when we are playing the card game. Also, there are going to be many discussions that take place during todays lesson. I want everyone to be respectful of what others say. 2) The body of the lesson (30 minutes) I will hand out pre-cut fraction bar charts to each student and a deck of pre-cut fraction cards for the entire group to share. I will explain the rules of the card game Make One. o One student will shuffle the deck of pre-cut fraction cards and then take out five cards. The five cards will be put on the table face up. o Players 1 and 2 will find two or more cards that add up to 1. o Players 3 and 4 will check to make sure that players 1 and 2s cards add up to 1 by using the Fraction Bar Chart. Players 1 and 2 can keep their cards if the cards do add up to 1. o Players 3 and 4 will replace the taken cards with new cards from the deck so that there are always five cards facing up. Players 3 and 4 will find two or more cards that add up to 1. o Players 1 and 2 will check to make sure that players 1 and 2s cards add up to 1 by using the Fraction Bar chart. Players 1 and 2 can keep their cards if the cards do add up to 1. o If players cannot find cards that add up to 1, they can replace up to two of the face up cards with cards in the pile. If they still cannot find cards that add up to 1, then it is the next set of players turn. o The game ends when all cards in the pile have been used and there are no more cards that can add up to 1. The winner is the pair that has the most cards. Students will play one round of Make One with the Fraction Bar Chart as reference. Students will play a second round of Make One without the Fraction Bar Chart as reference. 3) Closure (10 minutes) I will ask all students to come together as a group.

Comment [CE6]: It might make sense to first show them the chart and ask them to explain what it shows. (Get them reflecting on and communicating about equivalence and help them see how the chart can be used as a tool) Comment [CE7]: Then you can respond how do you know? And they can show you on the chart. Comment [CE8]: And how does the chart show that?

Comment [CE9]: What does it mean that its precut? Are they little pieces? Comment [CE10]: I would suggest playing a few mock rounds with the studentsengaging them and also modeling how its played.

Comment [CE11]: How will you help them make this transition. It might be helpful to have them reflect on strategies they can use to find equivalent fractions. You might write several examples on the board so they can see that you can multiply numerator and denominator by the same number to make equivalent fractions.

What strategies did you use to find cards that add up to 1? How did your strategies change between the first round and the second round? Did anyone use equivalent fractions to help find cards that add up to 1? How might you add 2/3 + 3/12? What strategies do you think you can use to add fractions with uncommon denominators? Does anyone have any remaining questions?

Comment [CE12]: It might be easier to get them talking if you give them a specific problem to do or talk about. Tell me how you can find a card that pairs with 1/3 to make 1. Comment [CE13]: How could we used what we know about equivalent fractions to add 2/3 + 3/12? Use the fraction pieces to help show this.

Anticipating students responses and your possible responses 1. Students may find it difficult to find cards that add up to 1 without the Fraction Bar Chart as a reference during the second round of the game. For these students I can help guide their thinking by suggesting one card and then asking them questions about what other cards may be needed to make 1. I can also bring up the before game discussion on equivalent fractions to help them think of other possible cards that can be used to make 1. Alternatively, I can have these students play more rounds of the game with the Fraction Bar Chart until they feel very comfortable finding cards that sum up to 1. Once they are comfortable, they can play a round without the Fraction Bar Chart. 2. Students may find the game component of the lesson especially engaging because they are competing against each other in pairs. I can encourage this friendly competition, so that students will be more mindful of the strategies that they are using during the game, which will help fuel the after game discussion. 3. Students may lose interest in the game after playing for a while and start to get off topic. If this happens I can introduce a new game that involves all students competing against each other instead of pairs of students competing against other pairs. This new game will involve each player trying to get as close to 1 as possible without going over. There will be a dealer who gives each player one card that only that player can look at. The dealer will ask the player if he wants one more card, which will be face up. This will continue until the player either stops asking for cards or if he goes over 1. It will then be the next players turn. In the end, all players share their cards and the player closest to 1 wins the round. Assessment of the goals/objectives listed above I will assess student learning by listening in on the conversations that students have during the first and second rounds of the game. Specifically, I will listen in on the pair conversations to see how students are figuring out which cards add up to 1. I will also assess student learning through the after game group discussion. I will encourage all students to participate in this discussion so that I can understand what each student is thinking. Accommodations 1. For students who may find the material too challenging, I can help guide their thinking by suggesting one card and then asking them questions about what other cards may be needed to make 1. I can also bring up the before game discussion on equivalent fractions to help them think of other possible cards that can be used to make 1. Alternatively, I can have these students play more rounds of the game with the Fraction Bar Chart until they

feel very comfortable finding cards that sum up to 1. Once they are comfortable, they can play a round without the Fraction Bar Chart. 2. For students who may need greater challenge, I can encourage them to think of as many alternative strategies for finding cards that sum up to 1 as they can and then to think about the advantages and disadvantages of each of these strategies. 2. This looks like a good lesson, and I think the students will enjoy playing the game. It was not clear to me whether you were giving students the fraction chart or giving them a set of fraction bars (the chart cut apart). I think the chart (not cut apart) would work well, especially if you spend time in the beginning having them articulate what it shows and how it shows equivalent fractions (have them name several). Having a lot of little pieces to keep track of can be challenging and it doesnt really cause them to reflect on the fact that there are 12 twelfths in 1 whole, for example. They could also solve it by trial and errorfinding two pieces that look like they fit together rather than finding an equivalent. At the end of the lesson (or before you take away the chart) you want to give them the opportunity to connect what they are doing with the chart with the procedure for finding equivalent fractionsmultiplying the numerator and denominator by the same number, which is the same as multiplying by one.

Formatted: Normal, Indent: Left: 0.5", No bullets or numbering Formatted: Normal, No bullets or numbering

References Bremner, A. Drop Zone: Adding Fractions with Like and Unlike Denominators Utilizing Strategy. http://illuminations.nctm.org. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=3672. Hiebert et al. (1997) The Social Culture of the Classroom Making Sense: Teaching and Learning Mathematics with Understanding. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Van de Walle, J. A. (2004). Developing Understanding in Mathematics, (Ch. 3 in Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally.

Assessment Checklist Student Understands the concept of equivalent fractions Is able to find equivalent fractions Is able to find a common denominator Is able to add fractions with unlike denominators with manipulatives Is able to add fractions with unlike denominators without manipulatives Is able to add fractions with like denominators with manipulatives Is able to add Is able to fractions with articulate like strategies denominators used without manipulatives

Comment [CE15]: Where/how will you keep track of the actual strategies that students use? You may want to keep your chart more open ended. The column could read adds fractions with unlike denominators and you could describe the strategies that you observe students using, with or without the tool. (Its not really manipulatives is it?)

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