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# Sarah Chang EDUC 531: Term III Assignment To be taught: November 25th Core Decisions of Lesson Design Pedagogical

Comment [CE1]: By round, do you mean comparing to the nearest benchmark fraction?

Comment [CE2]: So what conceptual understanding does this involve? What models will help them make sense of this? Comment [CE3]: This is good, but what would that look like? What kind of strategies would students develop or construct. Keep in mind that they may already have been introduced to the procedure of finding common denominators.

Comment [CE4]: Can you say more about this? What does the bar chart help them see or reflect on?

Lesson Plan Goals / Objectives Students will add fractions that have the same and different denominators to make a sum of 1. Students will develop strategies on how to add fractions with different denominators. Standards (and Assessment Anchors, if applicable) CC.2.1.5.C.1 Use the understanding of equivalency to add and subtract fractions. Materials and preparation 1. 1 Fraction Cards Activity Sheet (pre-cut) 2. 4 Fraction Bar Charts (pre-cut) 3. 4 Fraction Bar Charts (uncut) Classroom arrangement and management issues I will be taking the four students to a separate empty classroom. The room would be a quiet private area, which will help eliminate distractions and help my students concentrate. I will have the students seated closely together around the same table so that they can easily play the card game and discuss with their partner player during the game. Students will be able to hear all discussions going on during the game because of this close arrangement and will thus be exposed to a variety of methods on how to find cards that sum up to 1, which will help facilitate the group discussion that will occur after the game. I will also be seated at this same table so that all students can hear me and see me demonstrate how to use the Fraction Bar Chart. I will also be able to hear their discussions during the game and see how and if they are using the Fraction Bar Chart to find cards that sum up to 1. I will provide students with all materials needed for the lesson. I will not have to worry about students forgetting to bring materials. I will not hand out the fraction bar charts or the fraction cards until students are ready to play the game, so that these materials will not distract students when I am introducing the lesson for the day. The four students may disrupt other students as they transition from their original classroom to the classroom that I will be teaching them in. I can ask the students to not talk during this transition. Also at the beginning of the lesson, I want to establish the norm that all students need to be respectful of what their peers say during the discussions that occur throughout the lesson, so that all students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts with the group. If students are disrespectful, they will return to their normal classroom. Plan

Comment [CE5]: You might also want to remind them that the classroom rules for behavior still apply in this small group setting

Comment [CE6]: It might make sense to first show them the chart and ask them to explain what it shows. (Get them reflecting on and communicating about equivalence and help them see how the chart can be used as a tool) Comment [CE7]: Then you can respond how do you know? And they can show you on the chart. Comment [CE8]: And how does the chart show that?

Comment [CE9]: What does it mean that its precut? Are they little pieces? Comment [CE10]: I would suggest playing a few mock rounds with the studentsengaging them and also modeling how its played.

Comment [CE11]: How will you help them make this transition. It might be helpful to have them reflect on strategies they can use to find equivalent fractions. You might write several examples on the board so they can see that you can multiply numerator and denominator by the same number to make equivalent fractions.

What strategies did you use to find cards that add up to 1? How did your strategies change between the first round and the second round? Did anyone use equivalent fractions to help find cards that add up to 1? How might you add 2/3 + 3/12? What strategies do you think you can use to add fractions with uncommon denominators? Does anyone have any remaining questions?

Comment [CE12]: It might be easier to get them talking if you give them a specific problem to do or talk about. Tell me how you can find a card that pairs with 1/3 to make 1. Comment [CE13]: How could we used what we know about equivalent fractions to add 2/3 + 3/12? Use the fraction pieces to help show this.

Anticipating students responses and your possible responses 1. Students may find it difficult to find cards that add up to 1 without the Fraction Bar Chart as a reference during the second round of the game. For these students I can help guide their thinking by suggesting one card and then asking them questions about what other cards may be needed to make 1. I can also bring up the before game discussion on equivalent fractions to help them think of other possible cards that can be used to make 1. Alternatively, I can have these students play more rounds of the game with the Fraction Bar Chart until they feel very comfortable finding cards that sum up to 1. Once they are comfortable, they can play a round without the Fraction Bar Chart. 2. Students may find the game component of the lesson especially engaging because they are competing against each other in pairs. I can encourage this friendly competition, so that students will be more mindful of the strategies that they are using during the game, which will help fuel the after game discussion. 3. Students may lose interest in the game after playing for a while and start to get off topic. If this happens I can introduce a new game that involves all students competing against each other instead of pairs of students competing against other pairs. This new game will involve each player trying to get as close to 1 as possible without going over. There will be a dealer who gives each player one card that only that player can look at. The dealer will ask the player if he wants one more card, which will be face up. This will continue until the player either stops asking for cards or if he goes over 1. It will then be the next players turn. In the end, all players share their cards and the player closest to 1 wins the round. Assessment of the goals/objectives listed above I will assess student learning by listening in on the conversations that students have during the first and second rounds of the game. Specifically, I will listen in on the pair conversations to see how students are figuring out which cards add up to 1. I will also assess student learning through the after game group discussion. I will encourage all students to participate in this discussion so that I can understand what each student is thinking. Accommodations 1. For students who may find the material too challenging, I can help guide their thinking by suggesting one card and then asking them questions about what other cards may be needed to make 1. I can also bring up the before game discussion on equivalent fractions to help them think of other possible cards that can be used to make 1. Alternatively, I can have these students play more rounds of the game with the Fraction Bar Chart until they

## Comment [CE14]: Yes, I like this idea, as I suggested above.

feel very comfortable finding cards that sum up to 1. Once they are comfortable, they can play a round without the Fraction Bar Chart. 2. For students who may need greater challenge, I can encourage them to think of as many alternative strategies for finding cards that sum up to 1 as they can and then to think about the advantages and disadvantages of each of these strategies. 2. This looks like a good lesson, and I think the students will enjoy playing the game. It was not clear to me whether you were giving students the fraction chart or giving them a set of fraction bars (the chart cut apart). I think the chart (not cut apart) would work well, especially if you spend time in the beginning having them articulate what it shows and how it shows equivalent fractions (have them name several). Having a lot of little pieces to keep track of can be challenging and it doesnt really cause them to reflect on the fact that there are 12 twelfths in 1 whole, for example. They could also solve it by trial and errorfinding two pieces that look like they fit together rather than finding an equivalent. At the end of the lesson (or before you take away the chart) you want to give them the opportunity to connect what they are doing with the chart with the procedure for finding equivalent fractionsmultiplying the numerator and denominator by the same number, which is the same as multiplying by one.
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References Bremner, A. Drop Zone: Adding Fractions with Like and Unlike Denominators Utilizing Strategy. http://illuminations.nctm.org. Retrieved November 15, 2013, from http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=3672. Hiebert et al. (1997) The Social Culture of the Classroom Making Sense: Teaching and Learning Mathematics with Understanding. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Van de Walle, J. A. (2004). Developing Understanding in Mathematics, (Ch. 3 in Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally.

Assessment Checklist Student Understands the concept of equivalent fractions Is able to find equivalent fractions Is able to find a common denominator Is able to add fractions with unlike denominators with manipulatives Is able to add fractions with unlike denominators without manipulatives Is able to add fractions with like denominators with manipulatives Is able to add Is able to fractions with articulate like strategies denominators used without manipulatives

Comment [CE15]: Where/how will you keep track of the actual strategies that students use? You may want to keep your chart more open ended. The column could read adds fractions with unlike denominators and you could describe the strategies that you observe students using, with or without the tool. (Its not really manipulatives is it?)