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. .. , vityaev@math.nsc.ru
2)
, netid@ya.ru
3)
Harvard University, Air Force Research Laboratory, US, leonid@seas.harvard.edu
4)
Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926-7520, US, borisk@cwu.edu
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. 4 2002-2009 Projic (Probability+Logic). 2002 : Artificial intelligence is one key discipline in which probability theory competes with other
logics for application. It is becoming vitally important to evaluate and integrate systems that are based on very different approaches to reasoning, and there is strong de-

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mand for theoretical understanding of the relationships between these approaches.
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x1 (a),..., x n (a) , a . x i Pji (a) = (x i (a) = x ij ), j = 1,..., n i ,
x i1 ,..., x ini x i , i = 1,..., n . -

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a, b, c, . ,
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a, b, c, ( ). L.
, [20]
( )
Data = A,{P11 ,..., Pn11 , P12 ,..., Pn22 ,..., P1k ,..., Pnkk } ,

A.
, At. , {R}
(a1 & ... & a k b), a1 ,..., a k , b L ,
(1)
{R}.
(1) Pr. , (1) Data, a1 ,..., a k Data
= {R} Data, Data.
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.
1. R1 = (a11 & a12 & ...& a1k1 c)
, R 2 = (b12 & b 22 & ...& b k2 2 c) , R1 f R 2 ,
, {a11 , a12 ,..., a1k1 } {b12 , b 22 ,..., b 2k 2 } , k1 < k 2
, k1 k 2 .


1.
(
).
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[20].
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2

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, 2011, 5, 1


3. F : F a [ 0,1] , [15]:

1.

2.

, ( ) = 1 ;

, ( ) = ( ) + ( ) .

R = (a1 & ...& a k c)


(R) = (c / a1 & ...& a k ) =

(a1 & ... & a k & c)


, (a1 & ...& a k ) > 0 .
(a1 & ... & a k )

(a1 & ...& a k ) = 0 , .


Pr, , Pr0 .
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4.
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1. R Pr0 , , R ' PL , R ' f R
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5.
= {R}, R PL .
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PL.
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R1 , R 2 PL
(R 1 ) (R 2 ) .
, .

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.

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(R 1 ) (R 2 ) ,
(R 1 ) < (R 2 ) , (R 1 ) {(R1 ), R1 1} .
, .
10. L : 1 2 1 2 ,
1 < 2 ,
1 2 .
Discovery, :
1) 0 = {R} (1) k N, ;
2) 0 , 1 = {R | R 0 , R PL} ;
3) L : i i +1 , i = 1, 2,... ,
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, 2011, 5, 1



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a 11 & a 12

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a 32 & a 33

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{R} (1):
(a1 & ... & a k b) , a1 ,..., a k , b L ,
a1 ,..., a k (/) (),
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() . , .. P0 (a) .

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a1 ,..., a k . ,
, [4,5].
n(a1 ,..., a k , b) n + (a1 ,..., a k , b) , , n (a1 ,..., a k , b) ,
. () (a1 & ...& a k b) :
n + (a1 ,..., a k , b) n (a1 ,..., a k , b)
.
n(a1 ,..., a k , b)

. [11].
(b / a1 ,..., a k ) =

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w1 , w 2 , w 3 , y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ( : 1 , 0
). , 11
:
x1 , w1 , w 2 , w 3 :
w1 / cm 3 ,
w 2 / cm3 ,
w 3 .
x 2 ,
y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 :
y1
y 2
y3
y 4
y5 .
x1 g(w1 , w 2 , w 3 )
x 2 x 2 = h(y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) , . :
f ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ) = f g ( w1 , w 2 , w 3 ) , h ( y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 .

2. .

(x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ) . : (10110) (10100).
(10100) , , , , (10110) , 1, ,
.
f ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ) h ( y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) .

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13

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6.
, , f h . [16,21].
, [21].
1. 2 3
f h , .
g ( w1 , w 2 , w 3 ) ,
. 32
x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 1. [21,24]. 1
(01100) < (11100) . 10 6 :
(00000) < (00001) < (00011) < (00111) < (01111) < (11111) .
1 10, , ,
1.2 . 2 3 ,
, , 1* (01100) 3 ,
( ) . 2 3
. f (01100) = 1 1.1 1.2, 6.3. 7.3 .
h ,
, , (10010) y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 . , .
4 5 , f h . 4 1 5 0 .
f (01100) = 0 (01100),
2 7.1 (00100) 8.1 (01000), 5. 7.1 8.1, ..
. f (01100) = 0 1.2 f (11100) ,
f (11100) . f (11100) = 0 , 5.1. 3.1, 5.
, (*) 2 3 13
12 . , 13 f ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ) 12 h ( y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) . 37.5% 32 .
, 2 211 = 4096 .

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14


1.

f
h
5: 0 a 0
1
2
3
6
7
4: 1 a 1
1.2, 6.3, 7.3
7.1, 8.1
1
1.1
(01100) 1* 1*

(11100)

6.4, 7.4

5.1, 3.1

(01010)

0*

1*

2.2, 6.3, 8.3

6.1, 8.1

(11010)

1*

6.4, 8.4

3.1, 6.1

(11000)

1*

1*

3.2

8.1, 9.1

(11001)

7.4, 8.4

8.2, 9.2

(10010)

0*

1*

4.2, 9.3

6.1, 9.1

(10110)

1*

6.4, 9.4

6.2, 5.1

(10100)

1*

1*

5.2

7.1, 9.1

(10101)

7.4, 9.4

7.2, 9.2

(00010)

0*

6.2, 10.3

10.1

(00110)

1*

0*

6.3, 10.4

7.1

(01110)

6.4, 10.5

6.3

(11110)

10.6

6.4

(00100)

1*

0*

7.2, 10.4

(00101)

0*

7.3, 10.4

10.2

7.2

(01101)

1*

7.4, 10.5

8.2, 10.2

7.3

(11101)

5.6

(01000)

1*

8.2

10.1

(01001)

1*

8.3

10.2

8.2

(01011)

8.4

10.3

8.3

(11011)

10.6

9.3

8.4

(10000)

1*

9.2

10.1

(10001)

1*

9.3

10.2

9.2

(10011)

9.4

10.3

9.3

(10111)

10.6

10.4

9.4

(00000)

10.2

(00001)

0*

10.3

10.2

(00011)

1*

10.4

10.3

(00111)

1*

10.5

10.4

(01111)

10.6

10.5

(11111)

13

12

10.1

1.2
2

2.1
2.2

3.1
3.2

4.1

5.1

4.2
5.2
6

6.1
6.2

7.1

7.4
8

10

, 2011, 5, 1

8.1

9.1

10.1

10.6

15

.., .., .., ..


7. ()
f ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 , x 4 , x 5 ) h ( y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) 1
:
1. ;
2. ;
3. ( ) .
1 3
x 2 = h ( y1 , y 2 , y3 , y 4 , y5 ) = y 2 y3 y 2 y 4 y1 y 2 y1 y 4 y1 y3
y 2 y3 y5 y 2 y1 y3 y 4 y5 y 2 y1 y3 y 4 y5 .

g ( w1 , w 2 , w 3 ) = w 2 w1 w 3 23 = 8
. 1 2

()

f x = x 2 x 3 x1 x 2 x 4 x1 x 2 x1 x 3 x 4 x1 x 3 x 3 x 4 x 3
x 2 x 5 x1 x 5 x 4 x 5 x 1 x 2 x 3 ( x 2 x1 x 4 ) x 5

( w 2 w1w 3 ) ( y1 y 2 y3 y 4 y5 ) x 3
( y1 y 2 y3 y 4 y5 ) ( w 2 w1 w 3 ) x 4 x 5 .
8.
Discovery [3, 23-24,29],
. , .
0.01, 0.05
0.1. 156 (73 , 77 , 2 4 ) [24].
.
134 ( 22 ). 86%. 19 (14% ).
5.2% (7 ) 8.9% (12
).
2.
. : NUM
cm 3 ; VOL in cm 3 ; TOT ; DEN ; VAR ; SIZE
; IRR ; SHAPE
.
0.75,
0.85 0.95, ,

, 2011, 5, 1

16

.
, .
44
( f -) 0.05 0.75; 30 0.85; 18 0.95. 30 90% 18
96.6% 3 (3.4%).
, 0.75,
0.85 0.95 , 86%, 90% 96.6%
. Discovery ,
. Discovery.
[22-23]
Discovery .
. , (Brainmaker), 100% , 66 %. (
SIPINA) 7682 % .

9.

(), Discovery
(),
. ,

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17

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Discovery
.
, 30,
5 cm3
,
.
f - 0.05 . 100% .
, .

10 20
,
.
f - 0.05 . 100% .
.



.
f - 0.05 . 92.86% .
.
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[24].

10.
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. , ,
, .

1. . . //
. .: , 1978. . 727.
2. .., .., .., .. . ., ., 2004, 704.
3. .. . . . . -. , 2006. 293 .
4. .., , .. .. // , 2008, 3,
1, . 25-78.
URL: http://www.niisi.ru/iont/ni/Journal/V3/N1/Vityaev.pdf
5. .. . -

, 2011, 5, 1

18

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

// VIII - 2006, , , 2006, .24-30


. . .: , 1988.
. 462.
.., .., // , 2008, 3, 1, . 79-107.
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.. // , 2010,
4, 1, . 1-30.
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.. :
// , 2006, 1, 2, pp. 175-196.
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.. // , 2010, 4, 1, . 31-36.
URL: http://www.niisi.ru/iont/ni/Journal/V4/N1/Redko.pdf
.. // . .
. . . .. . 1977. . 27. . 941948.
. . . .: , 1981. . 140.
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// . .6,
... , 2009, . 340-365.
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