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1

1.1

. X ( R).
X h, i : X X R, :
(1) : hx, yi = hy, xi x, y X.
(2) (): hax, yi = ahx, yi, hx + y, zi =
hx, zi + hy, zi x, y, z X, a R.
.
(3) : hx, xi > 0 x X \ {0},

.
. 1. Rn
hx, yi = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + + xn yn
x (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ).
2. (
, ).
3. X = C[0, 1]
[0, 1] R. R1
hf, gi = 0 f (x)g(x) dx.
4. X = R2 .
h(x, y), (x0 y 0 )i = 3xx0 + 5yy 0 + 2(xy 0 + y 0 x).
5. : a, b, c, , a > 0, b > 0, ab c2 > 0.

h(x, y), (x0 y 0 )i = axx0 + byy 0 + c(xy 0 + y 0 x)


.
: R2 .

1.2

. X
. () |x| x X
p
|x| = hx, xi.
. 1. : |0| = 0, |x| > 0 x 6= 0.
2. : | x| = |x| x X.
3. : |ax| = a|x| x X, a 0.
4. : |hx, yi| |x| |y| x, y X, , x y . (:
f (t) = |x + ty|2 .)
. x y
hx,yi
. , .
(x, y) = arccos |x||y|
5. : |x + y| |x| + |y|,
, x y .
6. : hx, yi =
1

|x+y|2 |x|2 |y|2


.
2

7. : |x + y|2 + |x y|2 = 2(|x|2 + |y|2 ).


: | | ,
, , , .
. x y X d(x, y) = |x y|.
. X d .

1.3

. X . x, y X (: x y), hx, yi = 0. v1 , v2 , . . . , vn
, :
|vi | = 1 i, hvi , vj i = 0 i 6= j. , .
: Rn .
. 1. : v1 , . . . , vk , |v1 +
+ vk |2 = |v1 |2 + + |vk |2 .
2. .
3.
P
P n
, R : v1 , . . . , vn P
, x =
xi vi , y = yi vi
( xi , yi R, i = 1, . . . , n), hx, yi = xi yi .
( ). w1 , . . . , wk . v1 , . . . , vk , .
1. k n {w1 , . . . , wk } {v1 , . . . , vk } .
2. hvk , wk i > 0 k n.
. . ,
.
. Y X. Y Y = {x X : y Y hx, yi = 0}.
. X = Rn , e1 , . . . , en , Y
. Y .
(?). X , Y .
1. Y .
2. dim Y + dim Y = dim X.
3. (Y ) = Y .
4. x X y Y , ,
x y Y ( x Y ).
5. , Y .
2

1.4

. X Y
L : X Y , , . . , hL(x), L(y)i = hx, yi
x, y X.
. 1. .
2. X
Y , .
.
. , n Rn .
. .
. .
: .
. A , AAT = 0.
. L : Rn Rn ,
.
. 1. .
2. , , .

1.5

. ,
.
: , , .
. .
(?). X , M X . M X
.

2
2.1

f : I Rn , I R .
n f1 , f2 , . . . , fn : I R:
f (t) = (f1 (t), f2 (t), . . . , fn (t)).
fi f . , , Rn .
3

. f : I Rn t0 I a Rn ,
|f (t) a| 0 t t0 . , t0 I
f (t0 ).
(t0 )
f t0 I f 0 (t0 ) = limtt0 f (t)f
.
tt0
, t0 .
. 1. f (t) a = (a1 , . . . , an ) t t0 , fi (t) ai
t t0 i = 1, . . . , n.
2. , .
3. f fi .
4. f fi , f 0 (t) = (f10 (t), . . . , fn0 (t)).
5. (f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0 .
6. : I R, f : I Rn , (f )0 = 0 f + f 0 .
7. f : I Rn : J I ,
(f ((t)))0 = f 0 ((t))0 (t).
8. f, g : I Rn , hf, gi0 = hf 0 , gi + hf, g 0 i.
9. r(t) = |f (t)|. r0 (t) = |f 0 (t)| cos (f (t), f 0 (t)).
10. L : Rn Rm , f : I Rn ,
(L f )0 = L(f 0 ).
. , C 1 , C k , C .
. 1. A = A(t) A = B(t)
n n. (AB)0 = A0 B + AB 0 . 2. A(t)
t. , A1 (t) (A1 )0 = A1 A0 A1 .

2.2

. Rn : I Rn , I R
. , C .
. (t) = (t2 , t3 ) , .
. ,
.
. 1 : I1 Rn 2 : I2 Rn , : I1 I2 , 0 (t) > 0 t I1
1 = 2 . .
. .

, . , (1) ; (2) ; (3) .
. L() : [a, b] Rn
Rb
L() = a | 0 (t)| dt.
, ( ).
4

. 1. .
2. .
3. ;
.
. : [a, b] Rn , L() ((a), (b)),
.
. ,
| 0 (t)| = 1 t .
. , t 7 t + const.

3.1

. : I R2 .
t I v(t) = 0 (t). n(t)
, v(t) , v(t), n(t) (
v(t) n(t) ).
(v(t), n(t))
t. t .
. t (t) = hv 0 (t), n(t)i.
. 1. . 0.
2. R.

1
.
R

. ,
.
. r 1/r.
( ). v 0 = n, n0 = v.
. ( )
.
. =

0 00
.
| 0 |3

. M R2 . k M
t0 , dist((t0 + ), M ) = o(k ) 0.
. : I R2 , t0 I.

1. , 1
t0 . (t0 ) v(t0 ).
2. (t0 ) 6= 0, , t0 . 1/|(t0 )|
(t0 ) + n(t0 )/(t0 ).
5

:
, ,
.
. h h (t) = (t) + hn(t).
. , h 6= (t) t.
1. h (t) ,
2. h .
. h h.
(?). , |h| h
h h.
. . .

3.2

. : [a, b] R2 Rb
. a (t) dt.
. : [a, b] R2 .
0 (a) 0 (b) ,
2:
.
( ). v : [a, b] S 1 ,
|v(t)| = 1 t. : [a, b] R, ,

v(t) = (cos (t), sin (t))


t. ,
2.
, (b) (a) . v(t).
v(t) = 0 (t). (t) 0 (t) = (t). , v(t) = 0 (t) .
. : [a, b] R , p0 R2 , v0 S 1 .
: [a, b] R2 , , (a) =
p0 , 0 (0) = v0 , (t) = (t) t.
. 1 , 2 , 1 (t) = 2 (t) t. .
. < 1, L() > , 1.
6

3.3

. : [a, b] Rn ,
: R R2 , T = b a [a, b].
, , (a) = (b), 0 (a) = 0 (b), 00 (a) = 00 (b)
.
, 2.
. , ,
(x) 6= (y) x = y {x, y} = {a, b}.
. 2.
. , . , . .
1. ,
.
2. ,
.
3. 2.
. , h h. L(h ) = L() 2h.

3.4

. ,
.
. . :
1. .
2. , .
3.
.
. , , .
. , 0 = 0.
. ,
.
( ). .
7

4
4.1

. Rn . w = 00 . = |w|. 6= 0, n = 00 /| 00 |
.
. 1. .
2. n = 2 , .
2. () ,
. .
3. ( ), v w
, s = | 0 |, a = s0 . 0 = sv, 00 =
av + s2 w = av + s2 n. ( ).
.
w=
p
=

00 h 0 , 00 i/| 0 |
,
| 0 |2
| 0 |2 | 00 |2 h 0 , 00 i2
.
| 0 |3

Rb
. 1. ( 0 (a), 0 (b) a .
2. 1 .
3.
, .
4. : 2.

4.2

. , .
Rn , .
: , .
. Rn ( ). , t
0 (t), 00 (t), . . . , (n1) (t) .
: n = 2 , n = 3 ,
.
. (t) Rn .
v1 (t), . . . , vn (t), , t
1. v1 (t), . . . , vn (t) .
2. v1 (t), . . . , vn1 (t) 0 (t), . . . , (n1) (t).
: n = 2 . n > 2: v1 , v2
.
8

. ,
t.
. .
. i = hvi0 , vi+1 i, i = 1, . . . , n 1. i = i (t)
.
: 1 = .
. 1. i , n1 , .
2. i , .
( ).
v10 = 1 v2 ,
v20 = 1 v1 + 2 v3 ,
...,
vi0 = i1 vi1 + i vi+1 ,
...,
vn0 = n1 vn1
: 1 = .
: .

4.3

v, n, b, , . 1 2 .
:

v = n
n0 = v + b

0
b = n.
. 1. .
2. .
3. = 0.
: .
.
=
=

4.4

| 0 00 |
| 0 |3

[ 0 , 00 , 000 ]
| 0 00 |2

. i , .
. , .
9

. .
. 1 . 1

q
= 1 + 2 /2 .

. 1.
. , 6= 0 .
. (t) > 1 ,
.
. , 6= 0
p , 1
3. 1 + (0 / )2 .
. , , 0 6= 0 ,
.

6
6.1

. , .
. X :
I X, I R .
. : [a, b] X (t0 ),
(t1 ), . . . , (tn ), a = t0 t1 P
tn = b.
: L(, {ti }) = |(ti )(ti+1 )|.
L() . ,
, , .
. .
. 1. .
2. : L() = L(|[a,c] ) + L(|[c,b] : [a, b] X.
3. : (t) = L(|[a,t]
, L() < .
. {ti } [a, b] ({ti }) = max(ti+1 ti ).
. , 0, . , c < L() > 0,
{ti } , L(, {ti }) > c.
. : [a, b] X ,
t1 , t2 [a, b], t1 < t2 , L(|[t1 ,t2 ] ) = t2 t1 .
. ,
.
( ). : [a, b] X , L = L() < .
: [0, L] X
: [a, b] [0, L] , = .
10

6.2

. t
|(t)(t0 )
s (t) = lim
t0 t |t t0 |
( ).
. Rn ,
t | 0 (t)|.
. ,
R s (t) t . s (t) dt = L().

6.3

. , .
. 1. .
2. , .
. 1. Ur1 (Ur2 (M )) = Ur1 +r2 (M ),
.
2. C- , .
. (X, d) ,
. d (x, y) = inf L()
, x y. d
d.
. d , d .
. 1. d d.
2. d .
3. d, d
.
4. d (d = d ).

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