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. . , . .

. .

2002

537.1
28

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. ., . .
. : , 2002, 640 .
900 , .
, . ,
, ,
.
-,
.
ISBN 5-93972-155-9

, 2002

http://rcd.ru

4
5
7
8
9

11

239

V.

11
17
27
39
39
51
54
62
69

239
245
249
263
263
280
282
299
307

VI.
1.
2.
3.
4.

81
81
85
91
94

328
328
335
343
350

I.
1. .
2.

. .

III.
1.
2.
3.
IV.

VII. .
1.
2. -

98 353
98 353
104 366

VIII. .
1. . .
2.
3. .
4.
5.

109 381
109 381
118 399
122 410
129 429
139 437

IX.

143 442

.
1.
2.
3.

154
154
165
168

469
469
484
487

XI.

174

495

1.
2.

174 495
187 517

XII.
1.
2. ,

3. . .
4.

197 539
197 539
205 550
213 566
218 575

XIII.

223 586

XTV.

228

1.
2.

228 604
234 612

604

621

631



; ,
,
,
.
- ,

. , , , , .
,

,
.

( )
.
,
.
1969 .

,
(,
, , , . .) .
, , ,
. , , , ,
,
,
. ,
.
,
, , ,

.


. , , , .

, ; , , .


, , ,
( , ).
, , , , .
.
1961 .

1970 .
, . , 30 .
, , .
,
, 30 . ,
,
,
. , -
.
2001 .

, .
, , . : , (
), , . . IX ,
, . X , . XI
. , ,
.
, ,
. . . .
, . X, XI,
, . . . . . 3. . XIV.
1969 .

. , .

-
.
,
, , . ,
, , .
, , , (
). ,
, (
,
,
.). , , , : (. XIII), ( 1 . XI),
( 3 . VI) .
; .

.
;
, .
,
. . , , .
,
, .


-, , .
- .
, ,
, .
. .
. . , . . , . . , , . , . . ., , . , ,
.
1961 .

. , .

11

1. .

() ,
.

,

(i.i)
, [
; ,
- -
.
,
: ,
,
. , (1.1)
:
[ =
aikAk.
II (, = 1,2,3),
:
Tik = OcuakmTlm
(1.2)
( I, ). s-ro :
.

. .

''

-CHrr'Ti'k'l'.

s .

. .'-

(1-3)

14

,
, ( ' = , 1 = , z' = z). , 1
, ,
. ,
, , .
. s-ro ,
s , . . (I) 8 , ,
( l ) s + 1 .

an
21

ai2 ai3\
22 23 I

(1.4)

3i 2 /
. ,
,
:
^
an ai2 ai3
| S | = O!21 0122 <*23
31 32 33

(1.5)

a + /3 %
-:
lik=O4k+0ik.

(1.6)

/3 % /?^ :
=

(1.7)

( /). 7 ,
0, .

(1.8)
1
(., , [107]), , .

1.

15

{[ = Ai). Sik:

i = k,

( L 9 )

(1.10)

.

(1.11)

= ,
.
" 1 ,
'1

=~1=1,

(1.12)

. ,
. . \ = aikAk, = ^[.
, , :
= I ai2 2 2 3 2 I ,
\ai3 "23 "/

aik = aki.

(I.13)

1. ' , $', '. .


2. :
) ( ) ( D) = ( ) ( D) - ( D ) ( B );
) ( ) ( D) = [ ( D)]C - [ ( C)]D =
= [ ( D)]B - [ ( D)]A.
3.
ai (i = 1,2,3) , *6 = inv
. , 6* (),
ai ().

16

4. , = Tikbk ^
II , , * .
5. , -^- II .

6. , ^ II ^
II , TikPik .
7. , , , . . , () , ()
, .
8. , Sik , Aik
, AikSik = 0.
9. , II .
10*. , , az , ai = T~h=(o-x i>ay)> ao = -z-
.
-
1 .
11*. ~, *,. , , , *, , .
12. : , = %- ,
Sik II . (, Sik
, b , , , .)
13. , , Aiki
III , a Bik II , .
14. Tik = / XiXk dV
(xi ).
' 2.

1.

17

15. : ;
.
16.
: ;
z .
17.
, ,
, (. 1), ,
z
1, ON
z' ^.
18. D(aida2),
(. 10*)
, a i , , (. 1).

. 1

19*. , = 1+?", "


( = ki)- Sik20. , ,
.
21. ,
.
22*. , + 1 ,
1.
23. , ,
. ( .)
', + 1 , ; 1 .

18

24*. , :
*/ ; ei23 = 1.
, */ III
( III ).
25. , II
.
26.
^ . , .
27. :
) eikieimn = 6im6kn - SinSkm',
) = 2Sim.
28. :
)
einieiraeimpeatpanarbmct;
) einiekrs^imp^stpara'rfikb'
29. , Tikafik Tikukh = 2 ( ), ^ II , b , ,
^ .
30. [ (b x )] [' (b' x ')]
, .
. III (. 24*).
31*. , , , ;
II , , Sik; III ; IV ( +
+ SimSkl + 66)32*. , .
: , , , ,
,
.
33. : ( ) 2 , ( n)(b ), ( n)n, (a x n ) 2 , (a x n)-(b x ),
( n)(b )( n)(d ), , , , , d .

2.

19

. .
34.
, ' 1.
35. , ' 1? 2 , 3 ?

2.
q\, >

(1.14)

(1.15)

dV =

(1.16)
( ). :

ei

e2

/12/13

/11/13

/11/12

rotA =

dqi
/ll^!

I fh2h3 dip\
dqi V hi dqj

dq2
hi Ai

e3

(1.17)

dq3
h3A3

(hih3 \
^ h2 dq2)

/hih2 dy?\l
dq3\ h3
dq3)\'.

rot -, oq%
.

20

:
= sin cos ,
= 1,

= sin sin ,

/itf = ,

z = cos i9;

/i a = rsini9;

dip

e# dip

dip

gradyj = e r -^- + - ^ H ^a ^ 1 ;

sin

div A = -

(1.18)

rsini? da

d ip

r2sin2

da2'

:
= cos ,
hr = 1,

= sin ,

ha = ,
<

~er~dr

z = z;

hz = 1;
a<p

~r"da

i Q

dip
ez

~dz'

1 dA

dA

div A = - (rAr) H
s-2- + -^-:
x
rdr
'
r da
dz

rdr\

dr)

r2 da2

dAr
dz

dAz
dr '

(1.19)

dz2'

ip :
rot grad ip = 0,

div rot A = 0,

div grad ip = Aip.

(1.20)

, .

2.

21

-.

f dwAdV=
v

V , S ,
.
.

'rotA-dS,

I Adl=

(I.22)

s
I , S ,
.
(1.21) (1.22)
.
36. 1 .
37. , , divr, rot , grad(l ), (1 V)r,
-, 1 .
38. ( )
, rot(u x ), ,
z.
39. :
) grad(yj^)) = grad + grad cp;
) div(y?A) = tp div A + grad tp;
) rot(y?A) = ( rot A grad (p;
) div(A ) = rot - r o t B ;
) rot(A ) = A d i v B - Bdiv + ( V)A - ( V)B;
) grad(A ) = r o t B + rot + ( V)A + ( V)B.
.
V,
.
'. 10*.

22

I
40. :
) grad(A ) = ( V)B + ( V);
) ( V)(A ) = ( V)B - ( V)A;
) (V ) = ( V)B + div A;
) ( ) rot = ( V)C - ( V)C;
) ( V) = ( V)B + rotB - AdivB;
) (V ) = AdivB - ( V)B - A x rotB - rot .
41.

gradyj(r); d\vip(r)r; rotip(r)r; (1

42. <(), div () = 0.


43. : ( ), ( ),
( ), <p(r)(a ), ( ), b .
44.
g r a d A ( r ) - r ,
Tot<p(r)A(r), (1
V()A()

gradA(r) (),

div <p(r)A(r),

45. grad ^^ rot P 3 ( ), . ( ).


46. ,
( V ) A = rot

2 = const.

47. .
. = rot rot A + grad div A.
48.
.
49. /(grad ip rot A) dV
.
50. ^ ( n) dS, f(a ) dS, , .
51.
fnipdS, $(n x a)dS,
^ ( b)adS (b , )
, .
. .

2.

23

52. ,
, , .
53*. /(, )
+ c 2 a 2 , r ) = c i / ( a b r ) +2/(2,),
\ 2 ,
. , V , S ,
-:

V /(V, )
.
. -:

54. 50 51 -, .
55. ip d\
, .
56. df, , , (, f
).
57. :
/ ( rot rot - rot rot A) dA = <j> [( rot A) - ( rot )] dS.
58. V div A = 0,
( S) = 0. ,

24

59*. , div R /
= 0, () , |R |
.
60. II -:

. - Ai

, .

61.
, : ) ; ) &; ) ( ).
62.
, : ) ; ) ; ) z ( ).
63. , Aip + k2ip = 0 ,
L = grad^>, = rot(a^), N = r o t M + fc2 A = 0.
2

64*. ^-z + ^ + ^z = \{a>b>c)

, 6, .

,
, .
, , ], - , ],
, , z. , ), , , z.
. .

25

2.

65*. = b > (. ) . ,
2, . .
, ]
2

= 1,

+;

= 1,

f ^ - 2 , - 2 ^ 77 ^ - 2 .
= const
z, 77 = const
(. 2 ).

= const

/) = COIlSt

= const

.2

.3

, z , .
66*. (. 64*) > b = . 77 ,
yz .

26

I
,
w

'

> - , - ^ > - .
^ (. 3). , , ;
, , .

/ = const

= const

.4
67. , /, :

; =

a sin Tf cos a
ch COST;'

a sin r/sin
ch COST;'

ash
z = c h COST;'
a , o o < < o o , 0 < 77 < , 0 < a < 2.

27

2.

, = const 2 + 2 + (z a c t h ) 2 = ( - ) , ] = const
z,

a = const , z (. 4).
,
. .

.5
68. , ,
X =

ashp cos a
ch p cos '

ashp sin a

= dip cos'
Z =

asin
ch p cos '

28

, < < , 7 < ^ 7, , 0 .


, = In | (. . 5, = const, + = const), a
\ 2 ( > 0 > 0 < 0 z < 0).
? .

. . [94, 95], . . [62], . . [101], . . [100], . . [30], . , . . ., 3. . [31], . , . [81], . ., . .,


. . [69].

II



<() () , (), () () .
() = ^2 <7i<S(r Ti), <7J - , * --

- , 5( Ti) <5- (. 1).



div = 47,

rot = 0.

(II. 1)

( ):

(11.2)

5 , q
.

E = -grad^,

<() = J dr,

<p(ro) = O.

(11.3)

ip
< = -.

()

,
, , ,

30

II

1 2, >\ = >2 (. 6). >


:

^ - ^ = 4 < .

(.5)

1 2.
(.,
, [101])
(U.6,
( ).
\ <\
tf2, = pi + 2 >=>\ + >2
( ). . ,
q/r (2)
:

(.7) 6

,
. , .
(.7) .
, /r '/r .
, .
(. 7). > ( ):

<p(xyz) =

2! /

Qgfr
3
3!

(.8)

31

q, pa, Qa/3 :
,

q = I {) dV'

= I p(r')x'a dV'

(II.8')

Qap = I {)' dV'

q, pa, Qap , , II ..
(.8)

3

(.9)

'

R = r-r'

r{r,d,a

= (px,Py,Pz) ;

(2 - r2)Qyy + (3z2 -

r2)Qzz+

6xyQxy + 6xzQxz + 6yzQyz].

.7

. | r ' | - 1 , 2 (2.15). (.7),

> ':

f\ >

2-~i 2-~i 21 +1
/=0 m=-l

( > '),

(11.10)

'

Qim I, ;
(11.11)
' > , (1,15) '

=
/=0 m=-/

(11.12)

32

II

(.
. 7), (.7)
.
(2.15), (2.15) <^ '.
,
, 1/.

, .
,
, .
.
, \,2, <?
i?!

/ij ; ip(r) = const.


,
, = 0.

:
W = -- / E*dV,

W = / ptpdV

(11.15)

( , , ).
1 2 :

| 1

U W ,:

ffi.


, .
69.
. tp .
70. =
= cos cos / cos jz, . tp .
71. z = 0 , = sin ax sin (, , , (3 .
tp .
72. R
,
. tp
.
73. tp .
74. tp 2,
z +; q.
75. , .
76. tp ,
. R, q.
77. tp
R, . q.
78. R,
, , R\, ( + R\ < R).
.
79. ,
R\ ( # i < R2), = ^.
q, tp
. > Ri, q = const.

33

34

II

80. W
, 76, 77, 79. (. (11.15)).
81. : = ().
, ()
< ( <
).
82. 81, 76 79.
83. , _2

, () =

, = 0,529 10~ 8

, = 4,80 10~ 1 0 CGSE .


ipe , < ,
, .
< .
. 81.
84. , i?max1

R = 1,5 10~ 1 3 3 , Zeo ( , Z


, ).
85. 81, 77.
86.
R .
, , q
, \ .
q\ 9287. f
R; q.
,
4. .
88. R
q q. < .
?

35

89. tp
q R

/2

()= [

2^

. ' =
90. ,
(. 89), tp : )
; ) ; ) .
. ) 8.113 [90].
91. R < = cos &.
tp , .
92. . . tp
tp
.
93. tp
, . q, R.
94. tp
: ) q, 2q, q z
( ); ) q ,
, +q,
( ).
95. tp
: ) (. 8), ) (. 86).
96. q (, i?oi ). tp .

36

II

97. , 6, ;
q. <
.
1 = 6 ( = = ).
. = ar sin fl cos , = brsintfsina, z =
= cr cos .

+9
/

-q

-Q

[-.

+q

6)
.8
98.
6 ( > 6) qn q ,
. <
. (.
94).
99*. , = (' V)J(r)
', . , ^-
( 1).
. .
100. ,

= qf[(ai-V)6(r)
*=1

' , ,

37

101. 94 ,
II , tp
,
7, (3. ?
102. (. 86) z
0. tp
. .
103.
tp , ,
z (. 9). , , 946).
104. R
, . tp.
105.
(), z. () 0 5 , tp
( ). .
. 73 ,

1(1 + 2 2ucosy>) = 2 *-
=1

cosfcy;

k
IT u , \u\ < 1 (. [90], 1.514).

"*

106. tp . z
(, *) .
107. tp
,
( ).

38

II

108. R = const. (
, .
109. = const, = 0,
> 0. ,
z. : ) , ;
) .
. : +q, z = , q,
z = ; . ?
. = const, a Ez ( ). (II. 14)
:
z+a
z a
=--, =--111. , .
112. (. 94) .
113. , q 5 qQ. Q ,
5 , q
(Q > 0, ).
114. q\
. 92
,
q\ ?
115*. 9i, 92! ! 9 z\, z-i,..., zn z,
. , 113 ,
.
116. , (, 110)
(. 112).

39


117. , \ , h. , \
. .

118. q\ qi h
. , .
. > , () = 0.
119. ,
: <{) = qe~ar/, a, q .
120. ,
() = ^~
, .

( + 1J,

121. U
. () = - ^ ~ , (. 83),

( ).
122. , = ^ | ~ ,

, . U (
).
123. q\ q? ( > R\ + , Ri,R-2 ).
. U F.
124. , ,
( ). , (
, ) -, , . R ?

40

II

125*.
q\ <7- . U
F.
126. F N, q.
127. pi ,
2 - .
U F.
?
128. () .
,

U ,
/ Qim (. 166*).

. . [101], - [1], . [52], . . [111], . . [100], . [93], . . [49],


., . [86].

III



1.
D, :
r o t E = 0,
i

div D = 4,

j>DndS

= 4nq,

s
, q
, S.
(
,
):
= - div P .
(III.2)
D :
D = + 4.

(.)


D = ,

(.4)

. II , . .
= ,

(.5)

42

III

( ).
ip:

= - grad <, <{) = [ dr,

(III.6)

- , <() = 0.

div(egrady) = 4/0,

(1.7)

, ,

* = - ^ .

(.8)

1
1 = 2,

D2n - Dln = 4(7

(.9)

>1=4>2, 1 ^ - - 2 ^ = 4 < .

()

; ,
, .

< = Pin ~ Pin(. 11)


> . . (.7) (.8)
(.9) (). ,
, ( ).
(., , , 142, 146,
153*, 155).
' (III.9) ,
.

1.

43

, , = 0.
:
= 0, tp = const.
(III. 12)
, ,
> , ,
.
,
, , , , . ,
(III. 12)
(111.13)

q , .

() :
=

(.14)

( , < =
).
, V, :
W = fujdV,

(III. 15)

= D /8 .
W , .
W:
=

_(_\ = (dW\
\daJq \daJv'

44

III

q
, V .
\ ( V, 2),

E1dV,

(111.16)

( E i ). U

E i (. [76], . 108).
,
,
f =

_ *ffade

+ JLgrader).

(111.17)

,
V, , S :
F = ffdV=

<I)TndS,

(III. 18)

, .
^. (III. 18) ^
dS:
(T n )i = Ti

(III. 17) (III. 19), ^- ( ), , . , ,

1.

45

(., , [77], 34 140,141).


(III. 19) ()
(

(111.20)


fn0B = ; = ^

= ^ .

(.21)

, ,
. ()
:
+ = const.

(111.22)

, ( = 1)
() , ,

23)
( , Et . (111.23)

. ()

, *() -%

24)

( = 0).
,

( 2 5 )

129. q
\ ?.
tp D .

46

III

130. , q,
,
a i , *2, (ai + + = 2).

2> - <, D .
131. , q,

\ ?. tp ,
.
132. ,
. 6,
. .
133. 6

\ = const ^ < ,
2 = Const

^ ^ 6,

< <.
, <
.
134. 6
,
() = ^/2. ,
,
, 42,
( ).
135. , = EQ(X + a)/a, a
, , S. , ,
V.
136. ) /
,
, V; ) / ,
,

1.

47

,
, - ,
; ) / , ,
, ?
137. h\
.
,
axb. .
F, , : ) V;
) q . .
138*. ,
. d, V. h .
. (111.23) (111.25).
139. ', dS, & ?
'? ^?
140. q .
F , . , 2

-^-. ,

: ) , , ; ) ,
.
141. R
, .
, ? : ) ; )
, .
142. q

48

III

\ (. 10). <
.
.
z ^ 0,

J_

z < 0,

q' q" , , \ 2 .
143. < ,
\ q (. 142). > ,
?

. 10

144. F,
142 ( ).
, . ,
.

145*. \ 2 , .
q\ q? , ,
. F\ F 2 ,
. ?
146. q .
, F, q.
147.
. q.
. 0 = 90, 0 = 60 0 = 45.

1.

49

148. .
U , F N, .
149*. i, ?.
, . ( . : e i > 2 H e i < 2 ;
.
150. ( = const).
.
: ) 1; )
( =

).

151. R , .
= const. <
.
152*. q\ = q? = q
ei.
R.
, . , , ,
.
153*. R q, > R.
. <
, ) V ( < = 0); ) Q. .
' , () ,
.

50

III

. ( 2) ,
96.

154. V
R, .
( < R) q.
. -.
155. . .
, > q.
, (, q1, .
156. R\ \.
R.2, ^ ( < )
q. < .
157*. R \ ?. > R
q. < ; , q
. ,

?
158. q R \ . . tp
. , , = 0 ( ).
159*. .
, - , <; b.
q. F , .
160.
(. ). ,
, .

1.
161. U F q
R. .
.
162. q
R. Q.
U F .
163. q ( ),
,
, ,
?
164*.
R. , , U , F N,
. > R ( > R).
165. R.
. , . '
?
166*. ,

(, , , , ei ).
,
ip = <pi + ip2,

, ( ). -

51

52

III

U
fi.
. , , .
128.
167.
(.
). I = 0 1. .
F N,
.
168. , > ,
, > .
, < . (III. 16).
169. , ,
pi = fiikEk, fak .
? , fiikXiXk > , Xi, (i = 1,2,3) .
170. i .
, ?
, ?
171. F,
q (. 157*).
. : 166* (III. 16).
172. , 2
. > R\ + - . ( = *c/(ip\ >),
(f2 ).
. 117.

2.

53

173. R
.
. .
174.
R\ > R\- < Ri .
175. ip
, ^ .
176. ^. .
, .
177. S
, Sik- .
178. . 176.

2.
, :
( = 1,2,3, . . . , ) .

(111.26)

fc=i

s^ .
, , . s :
Sik = ski.
(.27)
, - , /- = 1,
. > 0.

54

III

, :
(t = 1,2,3, . . . , ) .

(.28)

fc=i

Cik .
> 0 ( ); , = Cki > 0 ( , ).
, i- , fc-ro , fc-
V* = 1. .

, . (III. 14)
(. 180).

\

\
,

i,k

Fa , :
d

.1

2 . faMk =
=+2
+2
ik

ik

: V\, V2, V3, . . . , Vn,


91, 42, , , V{, V{, V3, . . . , V^,
?i, ?2> ?< 1 ?> 0 :

179. (.31).
, = s^.
180. ,
. 1 2.
,
, . , 1 , 2,
.

2.
181.
.
182. \ .
, .
,
/
Cll=Cl\l-\

12

\2\
),

12 =

.
1/.
183. ,
22, ci2 = C21. ,
.
184.
. 1 q. , , 2, 3, 4 ( ).
.
.
185.
b ^ .
q.
, .
?
186. , , \ , V\ V2,
.
F.
187. V\
Vo.
Vp. , q.
?
188. , , , .

55

56

HI

189. 22 \2,
, .
, ?
190. , 6,
.
q q\, .
() AW .
191. . ,
, ,
. q. 6, . F, .
192*.
. , Q.
q. ?

3.
, , .
([46], [66], [69], [93], [100])
: (
),
, . ( ,
, 193*, 195*, 205*, 209*, 211*, 215*).
.
, ,
,
R. (

3.

57

) , , , ' = ?/, i?, .

1
( 3 2 )
11

. . , ,
, ( ).
: ()
,

<'(') = -<() = ^((')

(.)

.
, , .
qi, $. V = const.
, .
qi
q'i = r:Qu

(111.34)

, ' = 0
9 = -.

(.35)

</?'('). <()
. , < ('.
193*. q , 6, . ,

.

58

III

. (. 64*). ()
194.
.
.
< ,
75.
195*. q ,
. < .
. 64*.
( = 0) ,
<//, , ), ,
, :

196. . ,
.
. > . ,
EQ}
197.
,
. (.
, :

() _

() _

ds

d s

(. =

' .

ds

3.

59

198. ,
, ( > =
= ). ()
, .
199. ( = > ). , , .
200*. , , . \, ip ( 195*).
, >2
, .
201. \
2- U
N. .
202*. ,
.
q^. R, .
. , .
2

5 = 2 + -JzjzL- arccos |

(> =

203*. || z z < 0 z = 0
. ip . ,
, ( z > 0).
.
(. 65*) =0. if = EQZF().

60

III

204. .
205*. , /3 , N(TQ) q (. 11).

. 11

(, 7i 0); z
, . ,
<p(r, a, z)

<p(r,a, z) = / <fk{r,a) coskzdk,

71=1

()1 () sin sin

<0,

7 (fcro).ft'mr (fcr) sin - - sin g-

> r 0 ,

PP

7 ^ .
0
0
. ( 1.11) 3.

61

3.

206. ,
, ,

<p{r,a,z) =

\/ch ch 77

chrj =

2rr0
. :

-,

/ Kv(kr)Iv(kr0) coskzdk=
J

77 > 0 .

-chr/

2V2TTO J

1-P2
2p cos x + p"

-0-

207. q, = 0 (ro,y, z = 0).


. 206. ch = ch ^ ch , 0 < < .
208. /3 ( ). .
. , ,
, 205*, (3.6)

Kv{kp)kvcaskzdk = 2v-1

62

(5.6) (& ) Uk(r) .


.
, > ih-^-, (5.5)
or

VV(r)+/(r)p*(r)=0.

(5-7)

, . (5.7)
1883 . .
(5.6), . . ,
.
.

. , , N
. ,
JV- .
:
.
(5.8)
,
. :
() = ( + ),
(5.9)
= 0, . . . , N. ,
(5.5),
()=

+ ).

(5.10)

,

Tnfk(r) = cn<pk(r)
(5.11)

63

5.1.
. (5.11), = 1
n = N:
(5.12)

+ a),
N

TN<pk{r) = (ci) 4>kir) = <Pk(r + No).

(5.13)

(5.8), (5.13)
(ci)N

= 1,

(3.8)
2
= ,
Na

(5.14)

=.

(5.15)

, , (5.10), (5.11)
(5.15),
{ + )=().
(5.16)
( ) , a <^fc(r)
. (5.16)
(5.6). :
ik(r+na

+ ) = e

^uk(r

+ ) =
=

Ufc(r) ,
() ={ + ).
(5.17)
,

<( + ) = ()
.

^{).

64

, y>fc(r), ,
Hs . . ,
.

, . .
:
<pk(r) = Aeik'T.
, , .
.

+ G .
5.1.2.


,
. ,
( ) ( = 1, 2, 3). , ,
:
I = lidi

( = 1,2, 3),

li .

,
.
.
5.1.3. .
-
. -

65

5.1.
, , ,
.
:
.
-.
, ,
. ,
.
- , ,
, , . ,
,
.
5.1.4.
,
,
.
= ()],

(5.18)

. ,

{)13
(A)ij(B)ij

= {)

(5.19)

= 1, ,
a-ijbij = 5ij,

(5.20)

Oi-bj

(5.21)

= 5ij.

, bj ,
. , X Y
X = , Y = yibi, X Y = .

66

5
:
G = ^^ + 222 + 323,

(5.22)

rij , .
G . 2
,

R = z\a\ + Z OQ + z3a3,
2

G R
G R = 2-^ = 21

( = 1, 2, 3).

(5.23)

,
. G:
e x p ( i G - r ) = / ( G , ).

(5.24)

\
TRf(G,

r ) = / ( G , + )=(?-( + ))=(?-)(?-).

(5.23),
TRf(G,

iG

) = e * b e " \

(j = 1,2,3).

(5.25)

, (5.24) . Mfc(r), (5.17).


(5.24):
i Gn -r).

(5.26)

5.1.
(5.6)

.
:
1. G , .
2. | G
.
3. vn
:
= ^ - .
(5.28)
5.1.5.
- .
, , . G ,
. , ,
' = + G . ,
ik-R

ik'-R _

ik-R

i G R

ik-R

-R . ,
, '
. , , ,
,
. , . ,
, .

67

68

,
, .
,
. , ,
.
5.1.6.
, . .
, , - .
. . ,
. ,
, . :
,
, N , . , :
ipk(r + Na) = tpk(r).

(5.29)

, , . , , ,
, ,
JV . - (5.29) , .
, - ,
.
(5.29) , (5.14):

=| ,

(5.30)

69

5.1.
z = 1, 2, . . . , N. ,
, . . ,
z
(5.31)

-\N<Z<\N.

, , . .
. ,

- |

< < | .

(5.32)

z (5.31),
, (5.32). , N , , .
, , N\ a\, N^a^, N3
, (5.8),
.
fci,fca, :
2TTZI

2TTZ2 ,

k1 = -b1, fc2

b 2 , fc3

J\i

2TTZ3 ,
= _ b 3 ,

N2

N3

bi = ^- , (5.22), . , ,

fc

2nzi

= lvr

2-KZ2,

bl +

lvr

b2 +

2TTZ3 ,

b3

V -

(5 33)

,
Zi
Ni
iVi
N2
N2
N3
N3
/
-^-<z1<^-,
-^<z2<^,
-^<z3<^.
(5.34)
. , ,

70

TVi x ^ x
. ,
, .
fc-.
, N3 = Ni N2 N3 ,
v, vn = (v/N3)
.
(5.28):

(5

35

fc-:

*i = fn

(5 36)

(3.10).

6.1.

, , , , . . . , .
, .
,
.
, , . . , .
U () ,
, Uk(r):
exp{iGn-r),

(6.1)

Un - U(r). (6.1) ,
U(r) , . , U(r)
, , . .

72

. :

(6.2)
E^ = ^-^


> = I e~lk 'rU(r)elk'r

d3r = / > Unel{k~k

+G

">'r

d3r,

(6.1). ' =
= Y, Un, - ' + Gn = 0, > = 0, - ' + Gn 0.

, U{r) ,
:
k'-k
= Gn.
(6.3)
, (6.2)
U(r):

, (6.4) , ,
, . . ^ ^,
,
-^> . , , , . ,
. , , ,
(5.27),
Gn:
Vk{r) = ^ c f c r l e x p ( i ( f c + Gn) ).

(6.5)

6.1.

73

(5.5), (5.27):

(Pi

\ 2
\

) ^
/

. (5.27)
,

( - ( + Gn>)

-r),


(6.6), :
3

r-\-

,
:

Ckn'Ckn'Ek+Gn,

- ''

+ ' 2_^CknUn'-n = 0.

. Un U(r).
, :
' (Ek+Gn- ~)

= -2CknUn>-n-

(6.7)

74

Gn Gni , .
, .
, , . .
:
Gn> =
Gn,

-g,

(6.8)

=0

. , (6.8)
(6.7),

-g = 0.

(6.9)

, , , ,

. . (6.9).

det =

Ug
U-c

= 0,

EkEk_g-UgU_g=0.

, :

-)
:

-)

-AUgU.g

(6.10)

75

6.1.

, ,
, , ,
%, ^
hk2
2m'

(6.11)

^ (6.10), . , - . (6.10) .
% (6.11) (. 2).
, :

0, ,
% %_
Ug ( ) ,
(6.10), :
^ 1 _i_ - (

fc - 2 1 + - \ - -)\

. 2

(+),
:
(6.12)
, . , , , . . = /2.
(6.10):

76

Eg/2

= Eg/2(UgU^.

(6.13)

,
:
Eg/2

= Eg/2-(UgU_g)?,

(6.14)

Eg/2

= Eg/2 + (UgU-g)i,

(6.15)

. . ,2. , 2([/[/_ ) 1 / 2 . , ,
, , , .
. , ,
. ,
. ,
( ) ,
. .
, .
, ,
. .
(. 2) . ,
, .
,
, . , , ,
,
. ,

6.1.

11

, , , .

(6.3):
,

>

\Jfyi ^

(6.16)

,
. -
-
\ = 2dsm9.

(6.17)

, , . , , . . (. 3).
;

. , , . .
.

:
. 3
1. , , ,
.

78

2. ,
.
3. -
2([/ g [/_ g ) 1 / 2 .
4. .
5. ,
.
6. .

6.1.1.

.
.
, (5.4):



ifik{r) = exp(ik r)v,k(r).

(6.19)

-+{) tp(r), (3.27) (3.28), one-

79

6.1.

(6.18):

= J +() | ^ + U(r) I V(r)tfV=

fefe' CT

<WfcC+CTCfcCT =

kk' a

EkC+aCka,

(6.20)

ka

H = YEkCtCk

(6.21)

, (6.19)
.
, (6.21). , (6.18),
.
:
2

+()^-()

d3r + / +()()()

d3r =

+ C+
+ aCka ffe-*k''-rU(ry kkk'

d3r =

= ek5kk,C+aCka+ Y: C+acJ e"<k'-UGe> ^


h'
h '

b '
b> a
rr

kG

:
UG = Un - U(r).
G .
, (6.18) -

80

J2 UGCt+GaCka.
ka-

kG

(6.22)

(4.39),
, ,

:

= ^+

' a-a'

G^O

uGc++Gi(rck<T+

{CU -+,, - ) . (6.23)

,
. .
, . (6.22), ,
. ,
. ^ ^^,

.
:

,
,

- <>

(6-24)

(6.22), ,

6.1.

81

, ,

' G'
.

. . .)

. (... rij ...\C,Ck>

'

...

*'

Cj,+G,Ck,

|... ...) =

. . .

,

G'

, , :
a

CtiiSjOji HjOji) + 2_^ i


i

aj(5jj = a^, 50+>,

/-^t G'Oj+G',i

= U,

G'

= &J+G',
^^

=0.

, , . j ( + G), G :
ak+G(ek+G

= 0.

82



G + G' = G",

G' = G"

G.

, :
E) + Y^ UG"-Gak+G" = 0.

(6.25)

(6.7) (
)
(6.24). , , .

7.1. -
, U(r).
, . ,
- ,
, - UQ- ,
. ,

. , U(r).
/,
:

(r-na),

(7.1)

S(x) - . 4
, - (. 4), , .

84

, , (5.5)

(. 63),
. , , (5.6):
<p = eik-ru(r).

(7.3)

, (7.2). - (7.1) (7.2):


>

2
2

(7.4)

- )

s -

, . .
.
:
-

II

ip2

Z//t

= 0 ,

0 $J r ^ .

(7.5)
(7.6)

(7.3):

u'{{r) + 2iku'1(r) -

,"Ir\ _l_ Oi hoi* (<


I J-2
'm
I
I \
,
2\ / <
^^2\ /
9 ~ ^ ^2\' ) *-*

:
l

-(U0-e)=a2,
2
2

(7.7)
(7.8)

85

7.1. -

:
2
2
-,"() + 2 ku[(r) - ( + ) () = 0

2 () + 2iku'2(r)

(7.9)

- (2 - (2) 2() = 0.

(7.10)

:
Ul{r)
=(-+)
+-(+)
( ? _ )

2() = (-+> + D -1 {+^.

(7.12)

(7.1) ,
(7.11), (7.12), .
, , , D , , {)
'() ,
U(r), . . = 0, = ( = ):
ui(0)=u2(0),

wi(0)=u' 2 (0),
{

[(-b)=u'2(a),

(-)

" '

=2{).

, (7.13) U[). (7.13) (7.11) (7.12), :


A+B-C-D

= 0,

(ik-a)A + (ik + ) -i(k-(3)C-i(k


+ [i)D = 0,
(-) _|_ g e(ik+a)b _ Qg i ( k+ff)a _ JJ g - i (k+/3)a __ g
(ik-

a)A e(i k~a)b

+ (ik + ) e(i

-i (k - [i)C el (~k+P)a

+a)b-

-i(k

+ 0)D e~l (k+^a

= 0.

:
(ik a)

(ik + a)

a-(ik-a)b

~(ik ct)b

(ik-a)

~(ik + a)b

(ik + a)

-i(k-(3)
i(k-f))a

e-(ik+a)b

(+(3)

_pi(-k+0)a

_p-i(k+0)a = 0.

-i(k-P)
1

-i(k + (3
-

, , . , :
cos(k(a + b)) = ch(ab) cos(/3a)

2af3

sh(o:6) sin(/3a).

(7.14)


/3. , (7.7) (7.8),
2

(7.15)

, , () (), ().
(7.14), (). (7.14)
. -,
. b , , . (7.15) (7.14) :
cos(a;) = cos((3a) +

sm((3a)

~^2p~-

(7.16)

:
sh(o;6) ab,

ch(ab)

am 7 D
Uob = ,

(7.17)

7.1. -

87

,
UQ .
(7.16) :
cos(afc) = cos(/3a) + P sm^a>,

(7.18)

-,
.
.
, (7.18) , (7.11)
(7.12) , ,
(7.11) (7.12) .
(7.18) . (;
= , , ,
lim - ^ = 1,
,

^n

(_X

( + , 1 = (,
/ > , ,
, / = 2 + 1 . / > 2
,
. . , / . . 5

, |/3a| = 2, = 1, 2, . . . , , / = + 1 ,
|/| = (2 + 1) / = - 1 .
/, (7.18), . . , , /,
cos ka . 0 ,

. 5

(, , /. (7.18). , , |/| > 1,


. , (, |/| > 1, ,
(7.2). , (,
, , . . /. / . 5
. \(3\ \(3\, , .
(,
. , -
, , . .,
, .
, -
. -,
. . , = 0, ,
(7.18)
2
cos(fca) = cos((3a),

s = i^k

(7.19)

, , fca + 2 = (. , (

89

7.1. -

, . .
. , ,
, .
, . . = . ,
, , . 5, (
= .
, . 5, ,
( ,

( =

= 1 , 2, . . . .

(7.20)

, (3,

^ 4

= 1,2, . . . .

(7.21)

,
. ,
. , ,

, . . .
, . /, . ,
/ :
( = + ,

0.

(7.22)

-:

cos(afc) = (-1)" + ^.

(7.23)

,
cos(/3a) = cos(n7r + ) = cos(nn) cos + sin(nTr) sin = ( 1),
sin((3a) = sin(mr + ) = sin(nTr) cos + cos(nTr) sin = (1)" ,
pa = nn + ~ 7.

90

(7.23) :

, (7.22),
( = + = 11 + -^ [(-1)" cos(fca) - 1]

(7.24)

[3, (7.8), :
2
2
h

- + (-!)" cos(fca)

(7.25)
= 1 , 2, . . . .
.
, ,
-, . .
. ,
, (5.30)

z , , (5.31),

021)
z , . . /3 > 0 [3 < 0.
/ . ,
(. 71),

91

7.1. -

, .
, ,
: , ,
z, . , (pkn(r)-
, . .
.
- ,
( = 0)
,
.


.
-:
/(/) = cos(ka).
/, . . :

d[3a

. 6

d[3

, . 5, = , s'mka = 0.
0, , = 0. :

dk

d k

=0,

(7.28)

= \.

,
, .
. 6 () = 1,
. . . = ^ ^ | = 0.
- ,

92

, .
,

. -
.

8.1.

. :
. ,
, , . .
. ,
, . , ,
,
, ,
. .
, ,
, .

,
. ,
, .
, , . , , . ,
, (. 61) .

94


, ,
-
, , .
, ,
.
,
, .

,
-.

8.1.1. - ( )

-,
V =
= f 7ri?o> -^ . .
,
. , RQ = 1.85 , RH = 0.95 .

. , .
, ,
- , , ,
.
,
. . = 0. . (fikn(f). , ,

95

8.1.
:
ipkn(r + R) = e

i b 8
f c

(r).

= 0
(8.1)

+ R)=ipkn(r),

R , .
,
.
.
:
f)/ni

= 0.

(8.2)

r=Ro

, ,
, , -, U(r) ,
, (8.2).
,
[(0)]. , , -, ,
, > , ,
. ,
;.

'

- U() ~

Ri=0

(8.3)

ar
(8.2). U(r) . , , .
RQ , .

96

,
, , ,
= 0, . .
. ,
^ 0.
, , , :

(8.4)

) = - ).

, , ipo{r)
. , , ,
. :

A,H}

+ () + | ^ W )

Po

(8.5)
, , {)
-. ,

2 m

2 m
3

d r + / <p*0(r)U(r)<p0(r)

(8.6)
d3r

8.1.

97

k =

l S ~ " / ^(^)VVo(r) d3r + ^(r)[/(r)(p o (r) d3r.

(8.7)

.
(8.7), , , -.
(8.7) :
(8.8)

SHVVoC) d3r + I v'0(r)U{r)Mr) d3r.

(8.9)

(0)
, ,
.
(8.8) ,
=/= 0
-. (8.8) .
, <(), -, , (8.8).
,
, (8.8). ,
2
, (3.19):
(8.10)

98

. (8.8),
, -:
.11)
, : 1.
, 2. ,
.
, (4.17)
.

8.2.

,
. ,
, ,
-. ,
, , , , .
, . .
- - ,
, .
,
. , ,
. -

99

8.2.

,
.
:
= + EOQ Ei,

(8.12)

:
- ,
Ei ,
= {0) + -^ ( 2 ) 2 / 3 - -,
.
ipk(r), -,
.
.

.

. , .
. ,
,
, RQ. ,
, .

. , :

= (0) + ^(^2)~

= (-0.611 + 0.144) ^ = -0.467 ^ ,

= -0.378 -,
- = -0.089 ^ -27.2

VII


1.
:
-,

^,

(Vn.l)

, I , . 1.
... S(t), , L
R

dq

q .
... ($(t) =
. . :

~1)

( m 2 )

Z () .
^ ,
L,

1
(VII. 1), , . . [101] 107.

1.
,
, .
. . . , :

.
,
.
, -

Jk fc- , L ^
- fc- , = Li -ro . (
. V.)
, ,

W , <&

. , (.
(V. 17), (V.20)).
,

a(t) = - * " ,

101

102

VII

350. ,
, . </(),
N(t) ,
.
351. R,L,C S >
, . N, .
352.

J(t) = Joe~Mt. .
<ft.
353. , R L, . . . (t) = oe~lu>t. L\i. F . .
354. )\, )2
(. 17), . 17

(z = -^.

.
.
355. , (. . 17, Z = /2).
356. u>i,2
\, ?, L\, Li
357.
(. . 17, Z = R). ,
(R ).

1.

103

358. L\, \ R\ . . . (t) = oe~lu>t. , 1/2. , .


L\i. ^ i ^ . , , , ( = 0, = ); , J\
.
359. Z (), . 18.
360. 2

= 1

;- ( , . 312*).
( + 7)
- , , ,
, . 18,
. R, L, .

R
. 18

. 19

361. W Q
, . U =

362. = 1 + -

( , . (VI. 12)).

. , \,
L, R , . 19,
, ?

104

VII

363. W Q , 362.
Uoe~twt.
364. L.

. . . R.
, , .
R, L, .
365. , R , : C/i(f) = / 0 ^ t ^ , Ui{t) = 0 t < 0, t > .
U?(t) R.
366. , R L,
: U^t) = Uo 0 < t < , U^t) = 0 t < 0, t> .
U?(t) L.
367. R (. 20). ( h) , 0 EQ ,
*| |
. ,
.
R||

. 20

368. , R L,
t = 0 .. . S(t) = <gocos(w + ipQ).
^(t).
(fo ?

369*. ( )
N (N 1) (. 21).
.
370. (. 369*) , ,
371*. , 2N
L\, L?, , (. 22).
.

1.
1

-\

J_t7 X J_C7
ft

+1

105

\JC'\_LP'\J_C_LC'\
ft

f t

ft

. 21
372*. (. 23) N ,

U\, . U2 , 6.

. 22
.
& = const qn.
a'

Z,

. 23

Z,

106

VII

373. N ~> 1,
= U2/U1 .
, .
374. ( 369*)
.
375. / .
, (. 369*).
376*. . . , ,
^(t) = ^oe~lu>t. , .
377. , , Rr(u))
(. ). , Rr(uj)
, ,
.

2. -
, (VII. 1),

divB = 0,

rotH = 0


rotE = - i ^ .
at
{(/ 2> ',
' ) (VII. 10)
div = 0,

rot = % ^ .

(VII. 11)

2. -

107

(VII. 10) (VII. 11) ,


:
= ,

HiT = ??,

\ = .

(VII. 13)

6 = //2( ( -)
( ). - , ; = 0, , , i

H = ^ixn.
(VII. 14)
,
, , =
= 1.
0ik
m ,
. / (/ = /?**),
.
( )
:

Q = 1( dV= f <2 dV

(VII.16)

Q = - JL / ( ~ ) dS.

(VII. 17)

,
. Q
(fak = 0'ik + i0"k):

108

VII

378. \i, = , , &e~Vjit. ,


, .
,
. (5 ~> h) (5 - h)
-.
379*. \i , ,
= Joe~lwt. ,
j ; , 6,
.
380. = Hoe~lwt, .
, j
.
381. Q, , 379*. .
382. /3 ( ) , , .
, , , \i = 1. .
383*.
= Hoe~* w t , . , , = 1. j .
.
.
384. ,
, .
385*.
, :

2. -

109

Hoi : HQI = #02 = HQ. ( Ho(f)


, .)
N, ( = 1).
386. ,
,
UJ. N,
.
387*. , , HQ.
. .
388. ,, Ho(t) = ~*. ,
Q.
389. , ). Q . ,
,, .
. ,
(. . 5
). .
390*.
.
- (. . , ). .
391*.
H(t) = ~.

. , - , 388 389 (
, = 1).
392. Q,
.

VII

393. R -. I, , ,
= 1.
.
394. , , \, .
, , . R , -
( = 1).
395. , ,
( )
Ho(t) = ~*;*. ' .
>.
. h -
.
396. J(t) = Joe'1"* , , , , . j
R . ,

.
. .
397*. I
J. , , a- (fi = 1). J, I
, , ( . -, /
, , , - ( 5).
398*. - ( 5).

. ., . . [66], . . [101], . . [112],


. . [25], . [93], . . [100], . . [23], ., . [19], . . [61].

VIII


1. .
.

divD = 0,
d i v B = 0.

D = ,

= ,

(VIII.5)

. , . (VIII. 1)-(V1II.5)
:

Vy = -= .
(VIII.5) ,
() . .

112

VIII

, , j =
, (VIII.2)
:
<7E +
^ ,

at
(VIII.2),
,

' . , .
() (VIII.8) ,

(>) = i % ^ .

(VIII.9)

,

,
,

= ().

(VIII. 10)

, ,
,
:
(VIII. 11)
(VIII. 10) || - 1;
( ).
, = 1,

AE + ^ E - g r a d d i v E = 0;

(VIII. 1).

(VIII.12)

1.

113

, k Ik = =^, ),
= ^ - - *>.
(VIII. 13)
= &' + iS"
, _L k ( ). &' &"
, .
, , . , ,
. >. (1)~1,
, () , ,
~. , ( )
, .
.
( ), ( ) .

Iik = EOiE*k,
(VIII. 14)
, a i,k = 1,2
( k || z). : Iik = Iki.

1\ / , ^ ) ^ )
, ^ e(fc)* = 6ik
. (VIII. 15) , 1
' ,

114

VIII

.
^1) ^2). , . 1\ /
. / = $* = h + h =
Ii eW

= hef.

(VIII. 16)

, = h/I\
. -

' = 1 - = 2h/(Ii + h).

= 1 ( = ' = 0), = 0 ( = ' = 1), I\ = h = 1/2,


Uk = \Uik
, # 92,
, (. 24) :

*-*
\ 2 ( ^ i =
= 2 = 1).
{Ei,H{) (i?2) -2) , :
) EQ ,
Ei =

sin(fl2 - ) F
E,
Sin(02 + 0o) o

E2 =

2 cos flo sin 0 2


/ 1 Sin(02 + a0o)

) ,
tg(0 o - 0 2 )
1 =

sin 20Q
^

(VIII. 19)
r v T T T

1.

115

02 (VIII. 18). (VIII. 18)-(VIII.2O) 62, #2


. 02 420*.
R ( ) , , .

:
(, t) = [ ^ ( k ) e i ( k " p - w t ) dkx dky dkz
(, t) . ^>(),
, . vg =
= du/dk.
399.
z.
, , b
-
.
400.
= .
401.
,
.
( ) 6 ( ).
/ ( 6
).
402. Iik .
/ ^ , ?
. (VIII. 15) .

116

VIII

403. , . ,
(VIII. 15)

1"" , ,
, I = I\ + h , .
404. / z , . i? .
.
405. / . , , , e ^ l j O )
^2) (cos I?, sin $). / ^ .
406. ,
(1\ I?), 7/4.
407. ,
,

/ , & , 2 = i +2 +3 ^ 1 ( ), ^-

_ (
1

" V '

5*2) _ > -

"V V'

^) _

0\

"V -V"

,.
*
, ,
:
) 6 0, & = & = 0; ) & 0, 6 = & = 0; ) & ^ 0,

, = , = 0.

1.

117

408. 1
. , \, ?2, ', ", (? ?2 ; ' " ).
?
, .
409. . .
410*. . l\k , l\k
pi, . .
411. .
R \^ , .
412. ,

(
413. R = + "-
?
414. . ,
, .
415.
.
7/4.
( )
f*f

II -i

rrf = tg 6:
11

1
, ' "
.

118

VIII

, S ' " (' + in" = 1/,


), \'2 n " 2 | ^> sin 2 .
416. R (. (VIII.8)).
417*. ,

. ?
418. .
, .
7419.
\ %.

( > /2)?
420*.
. ,
vv .
421*. ^,
z = 0 z = , \ (Mi = 2 = = !)
z < 0 . ?
\, , ?
422*. . .

. .
. E{z) (. (VIII. 12))

f = () = ~
V(O (. [90], 9.151).

1.

119

423*.
(. 312*):
_ ,

42
>

, : N(z) = NQZ. . (
.)
. E(z)
.
424. t = 0, () =
= (

, OQ, , .

,
.
425. . () =
= ( ~ J

, , , .

= 0. At .
426. , , . \, ^ 1.
427. . ,
I, ?
428. ,
, | | ^ q (, q ).
w(k) w(k) = w(kd) + %

-(k-ko).

429*.
.

() = ~ ( ~ ) .

120

VIII

430. v<p vg
, (. (VI. 12))

( >) > ( = 1).


431.
, . ,
vg.
. v = vW,

(. [66]), 7
.

2.
, .
,
(. 313*, 314)
.
1
Sik{u>) /Xifc(w) :
Sik = Ski,

= Vki-

(VIII.22)



, . ,
, .
, , (.. ).
' , ,
^ ^ (. [66], 446).

2.
,
(^ = ^ = , ^ = ), . = z.
, ,
:

e sin2 + \\ cos2

(vin.23)

, D
ki , ( ).
. D .
D.
fak
; ,
, :

(. 316)

g e g m ( ), ~'
'^. , (VIII.25), .

.

, 7/2.
,
(. (.9) (V.6)).
432.
. , $ (
) .

121

122

VIII

433. . .
,
434. ,

.
435. . 1 :

0\

(. 331; z ). 2.
v\,2436. \i = 1, .
(. 318)

V0
.
437. ,
. :
) ;
) .
438. .
( z) z = 0 . z .
' ,
(. (318).
2
,
, .

2.

123

. , 318.
439. .
. .
. .
440. ,
.
441*. , .
. ,
.
. , -
.
442. , .
.
?
443. (>). .
, . (
312*)?
444. < 0 e(ui) = 1 u>p/ui2 (. 312*), > 0 . ,
- ,
. , , . (^, = ui/k <C ).
445. .
. . , ,

124

VIII

( 0) .
. , 321*.
446. (, ) , g V 2 M (VI. 16) . .
.
. ,
.
447. g V 2 M (VI. 16) , , . ,
;(). ;()
,

_2 - 1. -

()


.
448. , ,
. 435, = G^I = &i,
<?33 = <?3> <712 = <?21 = i<?2> <7l3 = <?31 = <?23 = <?32 =

0.

. 11 (. (VIII. 10))
Eri = Cfc(HT x n) f c ,
i, = 1, 2, , .
449. , .

3.
.
-

3.

125

.
(., , 450*, 457*).
.
,
. ,
,
,
, .
.
, .
(XII. 17) (XII.20).

dil

< (VIH.26)
7

dl = 7 dS = 7 dQ ( ) dil; 7 70 -
.

7=^().
(VIII.27)

, , :
= .
(VIII.28)
7
,
, .

. up
(. 25), dS

126

VIII

( , ,
. . ), dSn dS
, dS, R
dS ,
.
,

. , ,
, ,
.

,
. 25
, , .
, , (VIII.29) :

' ,
,
.

| | 2 .
1 [55]:
Mi ,
,
,
+U-2 = U.

(VIII.31)

(VIII.29) (VIII.30) ( , ). , ,

' , , , , .

3.

127

,
(
), , ,
, dS ,
R ( )
.

:
= .
450*. , , , .
. , J,
.
451. dcrs ( ) , 450*. <.
452*. , = ^-'~^
, .
. . , , ( ^ 1) , das as .
453. dcr\\ da
, . do^ ,
>, da"
.
. .
454. ( < 1) .
.
455*. 452*
, ,
. (VIII. 10).

128

VIII

456. Q <
, . , , fca<l .
457*.
. /4 .
, .
.
458*.
, .

.
.
. < m
.

459. das <JS ,


,
. /?, /? .
460. , das <JS
( = 1), .
. . = 1.
461. | -
,
. das as
,
.
462. ( = 1) , , 2ft.

. das as .

3.

129

463*.
2/i < , /i .
. .
. 197, 198, 390*.
464. , 2/i ,
465*. So exp[i(kr u>t)\ , (
1)/4 <. 1 ( = 1).
. .
( > 1)?
466. , , > 1.
<. 1.
467*. (, ).

= , = -=, = ^ , , F(n)
,
. ( ):

crt = crs + cra


, , F ( n 0 ) , . .
.

130

VIII

468*. , .
: /? = (1' + /?" / ? = (' + /?^,
, . <.
.
, .
469. = + "
.
470.
. <
dcrs/dQ. .
F, .
471*. F,
, .
( = 1).
.
411. ,
. ( < ), /
.
473. (. . ).
474. . I .
475. dl ( > ) .
.
.
476. dl (
).

4.

131

477.
^ ^ , ^ ^ b
.
= EQ, = EQ, = = 0.
, dl.
478. (-'~)


. dl.

4.
I ,

,
10~ 1 0 ( 10~ 1 3 ),
10~ 1 5 -10~ 1 6 .

,
, .
.
, , ,
, () , . (), .
-
.

( ) . ,
,
, .

132

VIII

, .
( ., , [18], [84], [27], [120]).
1) . ,
, At . At ~ 1/Av>, 8v = Aui/2n
(. 482-484). At
2 (
):

<"= *~~'

(VIIL33)

# , , =
= (X2/c)Av.
2) . , ,
, , .
,

*x~^~Af,

(VIII.34)

# , L , R
. 2
(VIII.33).

5 ( ), 1\
At = \/Av:
S = 1\ At = ;t,
(VIII.36)
nw

7 ,
27
, hw = 2nhv , h = 1,05 10~

4.

133

.
: . ,
, , 1+6
S.
u(r, t) t , , t 1\,
t-t2:
u(r,t) = Amirut- h) + A2u(r2,t- t2).
(VIII.37)
t\ = s\/c, t2 = s2/c, si = | r 141, s2 = | r |, A\, A2 , ,
, - r i 2.
t

= (si s2)/c,
Ji(r) =

,
- . 7 ( 2> ) ( )
:

( V I I L 3 9 )

(1, 2 | ) = t i (

r i t t + .
= 0.
(VIII.39), (VIII.40)
.
1\ 12
. t

134

VIII

, (VIII.38), (VIII.40), (VIII.39) r i = = .


(, , )
- t t + .

,
/() = /i(r) + /2(1"), .
:
= {{
max -minx

= |7(ri,r2),r)|2^2.

(VIH.41)

-1 -*2

a r g 7 ( r i , r 2 ) , r ) =27,
= 0,1,2,...
, ,
() ,
, .
, , .
/ ' ,
(, ) ,
1(,), 1(, ):
1'(,)=(,)1(,)
, (, ). 1(, ) , , ,

7 .

4.

135

, , , .
,
.

(., , [99], [84]) 495-499.
, :

1,50-10 8

1,39-10 6

9,46-10 1 2

30,8-10 1 2

479. (VIII.34) 1 . , ,
,
L, . R, .
480. (VIII.36) S.
481. L
. , .
482. ,
, , . ( )
= 5 10~ 5 , = 3,7 10~ 2 3 .
( 6000 ).
.

(. 795).

136

VIII

483. , , 10
?
484. ,
, = 5 10~ 5 = 10 2 . D = 5 .
485. 8
, . =
5
5

= 10000.
.

; = 1,38 10

/ .

486. , 484. 200 /.


<$?
487.

(, , ) =
= (, t)u* (, t + ) 1{>) .
I = u*(t)u(t) = / 1(

488. , ;
>. I.
489. ,
(. 26). D (0,0) (, ). ,
D R
(R D). ,
.
1(, ) .

137

4.

490. , . D
.
) , . .
.
) (
).
,

D
R

(0,0) z

. 26
491. , , . D
D = DQ . : ) , R =
= 44,6 , Do = 70,8 ,
5
= 5 10~ ; ) d ,
652 , Do = 720 , = 6 10~ 5 .
. h(x) \ =
= 3,8317.

138

VIII

492. (. 27) , ,

. , , ( k i , ),
. ,
.

)
. 27
493. ( ) 1
. (. 28) ,
ABCD, .
494. Ri, R?
(. 286). ,
. ,
ABCD, .
495. ( ) (. 29) ? < 1 .
, , .
, i?i - 1

4.

139
i

. 28
, . ,
?

. 29

140

VIII

496.
, /
(. 30). , < 1 , .
( , ) ,
( ).
.

. 30
497. () , , . ,

, .
uo = ' exp[i(kz u>t)} ( ,
). , .
. () (). 493, 494.

5.

141

498. , 496, 497, , 2D


.
. ,
.
.
', ,
.

499. , , 496. d

5.

, .
,
. , .
, ~ vm/c, . ( )

, , :

=1

_ *!*).
>2

() , , .
(VIII.1)-(VIII.4) (VIII.42) =
1

= 1, ^/ < 1.

[( u>t)} > > .


, ,

142

VIII

1.
( 3 )
da = 2, sin 2 \ / () exp[zq ] dV dfi,

(VIII.43)

= 2/2 ,
, = = /, k, du
, q = . q - ( )


da = \rl{\

+ cos2 tf) I I n(r) exp[zq r] dV du.

(VIII.45)

(VIII.43), (VIII.45) ,
= J da
(4)

.
(VIII.43) (VIII.45) ,

- = 27rg,

(VIII.46)

g .
2, ,

rii,
ii, ,
,



.
.

, (VIII.43) (VIII.45), Va , :
()

= I () exp[zq ] dV.

' . 4

(VIII.47)

5.

143

() ().
, , [63], [66].
500. ,

( ). . N,
Z.
501. Z- () = , = Z/3,
= UQ/Z1/3, = 0,529 10~ 8 .
, N , .
502. ,
N . R . , Fa(q) , , , .
503.
, ,
.
. , R
6 dWx = ^

dx, = R ,

b = 4 /-^-5-, , fj, ,
V
.

504.

(VIII.46) --

fcsin($/2) = 7r|g|, |g| , ,


.
505. , N Fa(q)
(, , ).

144

VIII

, L\, L2, L3,


. ,
(VIII.46).
.
506.
( L\ = L2, Lz). ,
.
507.

, 505.
, ~> 1/. ,
.
508.

1/. ,
L\, L2, L3 (. 505).
509. ( ).

. ., . . [65, 66], . [16], . [10],


. . [101], . [55], . . [111], . . [100], . [93], . [52], . ., . ., . . [3], . ., . ., . . [5], . . [25], ., . [86], . . [23], . . [48], . . [116], . .,
. . [91], ., . [18], . . [78], . . [43], . . [ 118], X., . . [2], . . [60], . ., . . [34], . .,
. . [42], . [99], ' . [84], ., . [27], . . [63], ., . [120].

IX



,
, . > (
). ( )

+ ^ = 0,

divE = 0

(IX.1)


= 0.

(IX.2)

,' >, . , ( .
529,531), . 4:

. ,
.
,
, ,
.
' v , () .

146

IX

Qv,

Wv , , ( )
; > ,
; 1 .
, ()
. ( z) , .
. ,
Ez , Hz = 0 , Hz , EZ = 0 .

.
, , . , ,

E(r, t) = t(x, )*-,

H(r, t) = ,

)*-*.

> , . .
(.-) #z = 0, a 8Z
+ >?8Z = ,
(IX.5)
2 = ^- fc2, ,

, ,

, =
(IX.6)
.
(-) 8Z = 0,

+ ^ = ,
(IX.7)

=0
.

^ =
on


(IX.5) (IX.7) . (IX.6) (IX.8)
.
8

.
- - (.. )

, U>Q.
= ^ ^
. < 0
, .
> LJQ .
, ,
e~az. ( )
,
, . , = ' + "
,
.-:

-:

z &z , = 0 (..
), dl , dS
.
510. , ( , 6).
(..
).
511. . .

147

148

IX

512. ^ ^ . ,
( ,
, ,
). , . , .
513. , ,
0 ^ ^ , . > . , , ?
, .
514. , . >
.
515. ,
. .
516. vv vg . = -.
517. % vg .
Hw , .
518.
(
). 7 .
.
519.
(
> ).
520. . a, b > = + "-

149

. .
521*.
, .
. ,
(. 518. (. (VIII. 10)).
522. .-
, . ^ ^ . < 6 , .
?
, .

)
.31
523. =
(. 31) = 0 (. 316),
,
.
. > 0 -

150

IX

, < 0 .
,
z.
?
.
, , z .
524. 6 . (
).
/

<* =

-\

We 0

= I 0

(. 331). ,
, .
525. , ,
= S0(x, y)e%(-koZ~ut\

y)el(-koZ~ut\

= (,

,
, ,

= (,)

',

tl = Ju{x,y)e

'.

, - ,

= -=

AS

,^

rr

, = *fc 1 ^M*fc = M*fc ~ 1 (AS),


(S).

151

526. d < a , (. 32). ,


, d ; .
, 435.

X,

. 32

. 33

527. (. 33) (d < , 6), .



.
. ,
.
528. , . : ) ; ) .
529.
.
, b x h.
530. AN(LJ), > V,
. , > <
>1.

152

IX

531. h
. , . .

. 34

. 35

532. R
d , . 2, b (. 34).
, .
.

(
1

'
'

Y^ d

J .

^^__

'

. .

. 36

533. u>o , . 35, ,

153

. .
534.
(. . 34) , ( . 36).
LJQ .
? .
535. (. 37).
536. ( 6, h), (. 38).
.
d.
, ,
d ( h ).
d > ?

t
1

I
I
I

26

ft"

. 37

. 38

537.
, . ,
. .

154

IX

qv . qv
, .

538. .
, = 1. . ?
?
539. , , j(r)e~lwt, . .
, , ) .
. , 537.
540.
D, L
(. 39).
< I ,
.
. ( R)
.
: D = L = 1 ; R = 0,95;
= 310~4'.
. 39

541. , , . / 3 < 1.
, . /3
?
542. ,
(. . 39), < I , D


. ,
.
) , .
)
.
.

. ., . . [66], . . [23], . . [47, 48], - . [51], . [52], . .,


. . [42], ., . [86], . ., . . [7], . . [88], . ., . ., . . [9].

155

1.
S S'
1:

( 5 5 ' , t = t' = 0
5 S" ).
, (, (.4), (.11)) V:
x' = -r(x-Vt),

y' = y,

f' =7 ( f - i j ) .

z' = z,

(X.2)

= et, \ = , ? = , = z

Xi = (ct,r).
(X.3)
$, \, ?, ,
, . .
M = A'2,
1

V S' S.

= ' (.4)

1.

157

(4-) Ai, = 0,1,2,3.


= (1,2,) ,
4- ..

:
(.5)

= -11-22-3.

(. . I), , 0, 1,2, 3.
0 , 1, 2, 3 .
.
4- 2, (.5),
AiBi ( ). 4- Ai , 2 < 0,
, 2 > 0.

= [<1 - h)2 - ( - 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2

(.6)

(ri,<i)
( 2 ,< 2 ).
, , , . S V,
dr dt S
dr = dty/l - V2/c2.
(X.7)
2

dt \Jl / .
1,
v

2
2
I = loy/l-v /c .
(X.8)
(4-) 4-,

,= g i= (_^

,__v

.9)

158

v = dr/dt . (.9) ,
u?=c2.

(X.10)

4-, 4-, (.4).


- 4- (V || ):

+ v'xV/<? '

Vz

l + v'xV/c*

' 5
5 ' ,

4-

> 4- ^

ip = fcjXj .
(.4) i9, :

, 1 . XI.
543. 5 ' 5 V . , 5 ' (', /, z'Q), t'o
(, 2/, ZQ) S, , -
.

1.

159

544. 5 ' 5 V.
, S S' , .
. (
, .)
545. , , : ,
, . ,
.
546. S' S V.
, ,
t = t' = 0. ,
, S S'
t = t'l .
547. , I.
. S' . , , dr dt
S (.7).
548. ,
.
549. '', fo = 8,64 10 8 ,
, V = 240 000 / ,
. ' '
, . () () .
, , 12 00. :
) , -
12 00; )
, ;
) ,
?

160

550. At - (
4 1), v = ^0,9999 ? ?
, 10 ?
551. , /, . , , ,
At. v ? ,
, ,
?
552. S' 5 - t, , V
5 ' S . .
. V (.1).
553.
4- At = (A, *), , V 5 ' 5 .
554. , V 5 ' 5 . .
555. : 5, 5', 5 " . 5 " 5 ' V, ', S' 5 V, .
. 5 " 5
.
556.
/1 - v12 / 2 /1 - V2/c2
l + v'-V/c2

'

' , (.
4 . VIII).

1.

161

v v' 5 5', V 5 ' 5.


557.

_ y/{v> + V) 2 - (v' V) 2 /c 2
V

1 + v' V/c 2

'

v v' 5 5', V 5 ' 5.


558. : 1) 5 5', 5
V, ; 2) 5 ' 5", 5 ' v, ';
3) 5 " 5'", 5 "
, v V.1 ,
5'", , 5 t'" =
= t, 5 ' " 5
( ). ip .
. (. 552) (. SS4),
.

559. ,
1, v . I ,
, ?
560. v = 0,9 . V : ) ; ) ,
?
561. ,
, , ;
.
( , ): ) 8,
1
, ,

162

;
) ,
; < < 8.
8 So- , ,
.
562. v ,
S' S
V. .
563. > v v . u>f.
?
564. v'
v .
, v
.
565. ( v = > ).
v(t) x(t) t
, VQ,
$. , , .
. .
566. , 550,
v = v^0i9999 . |v| =
2
= 20 / , .

?
. 1.
567. v v,
St S 5v = ir5t. 5 ' ,
t, 5 "
/
' , dr = dt* /1

2
j-

, f dr. . [107], 62, [17], [72].

1.

163

t + St. , , Sv,
:
" = ' + Aip ' -

t'Av,

_ +1 r ' - A v

(!)

(1)?
(2) V < C B ?
. S" S S' , 552.
568. 5 5 ' V
vi V2.
5 5'?
. 554 556.
569.
, 5 ' 5 ?
570.
v ( ,
).
( ), , | .
571. , . ,
, #, ( ). < .
572.
du.
?
573. ,
, dN/dSl'
, , ?

164

574. ( )

. V .
575. ) ,
(
,
).
, ?
576. , ,
,
, .
: ) , V ) , ?
577. ,

,
. 40

V, d. ,
(
), Jo .
J , , V. =
=
wo Jo? 0 < < < < 7? ()
J(d) V/c = 1/3 V/c = 4/5.
V/c -> 1?
578. / ( ,
),
, .
, hw, h .

1.

165

579. V.
(
V = 0), . , , V .
580. , .

. 41

581. IQ
V (. 40). , , ,
( ). ,
, ,
.
? , ,
. . ?
,
?

166

582. M'N' 5',


IQ , . 41. S' V || ,
5. ,
.
) I ?
IQI
) ' ?
) 0x1
583. , V, .
,
V.
? ?
. ,
, .
"

D'

. 42

584. ,
, , V ( ). ,
, ,
(. 42). , ,
.

V .
V ''1
''1

585. 4-, V ( -

2.

167

v' = ^ ) . ,
.
586. V
. .
v ( ). S", ,
' . V/c.

2.
(S") (S) 4-
(X.16)

Ai = aikA'k,
1
7
/97
0
0

-h

-7
0
0

0
0
-1
0

0
0
0
-1

(.17)

(.1), S S" , t = t' = 0 .



= 9ik,

(. 18)

((*1 = 9ik,

gik ,
1 0
0
0 - 1 0

0 \
0

( 1 9 )
0 -1 0

0 0
0 - 1 /


(X.S), 4-.
1

, (.5):
0
+, 1, 2, 3 .

168

, (.16), :
(X.20)

= akiAk.

= et, \ = , 2 = , = z
4- (.16), (.20).

(. . I, 1).
(4-) N- 4 ^ Tik... i,
4- Aiy , ..., Af.
Tik. ..i = cuipcukr aisT'pr...

(X.21)

|<|, 2 , 1 ( , , (.1)) + 1 ( ). (.1)


; . .
iV-ro 4 ^ Pik.. .i,
P i k . . . i = atipOtkr

Oils \ a

m n

(.22)

\Ppr . . . -

4- (. 592).
: a) e-ikim ; ) = 1- , eikim , ,
1 , .
587. :
= 9u,

9u = 4,

gik (.19), ; Bj - .

, (.5).

2.

169

588. , (.19)
.
589. , \, A-i, Ai = (Ai, A?, A3, Ai)
= (\, , A3), \
.
590. , 4- II
.
591. , 4- II
.
592. , eikim, , .
593.
: a) e i W m e j m r s = 2(gisgkr - 9ir9ks);
) eikimekimn
= -6gin, gik
.
594.
eikimeimrs = AiBkCrDa

= 2(AiCi)(BkCk)

2{Aid){BkDk).

595.
4- dip/dxi (i =
= 0,1,2,3), tp . Vj
.
596. 4- Tik dAi/dxk (, =
= 0,1,2,3), Ai 4-. , 4- VjAj
, V 4-,
.
597. :
) ?; ) TikAk, 4-, Tik 4-.
598. 4- Ai Bi ,
_ Ai _ _

\
-2
, 4-
.
599. 4-
III ,
? ,
.

170

600. : 5, 5', 5 " . 5 " 5 ' V, ', S' 5 V, . .


5 " 5. (. (X. 11))
.
601. (.1) \, 2,
. = et, V
^ = th .
602. <? 5 ' 5
. 5 ' 5 V (-- = t h a i ,
$, <. S S' .

3.
. j = pv
4- :
ji = (cp, j).
(X.23)
4- Fik'.

5 ' 5 ( ' ):

= ',

Ey = 1(Ey+f3H'z),

,=7(;-/);

= ',

Hy = -y(Hy-/3E'z),

Hz=-y(Hz+/3Ey).

'

2 - 2 = inv,

= inv

(X.26)

. ip 4-
Ai = (<p,A).

(X.27)

3.

171

-
(X.28)

Tik = (-FFkl + \gikF?m).

Tik
- 0) + ^ ( 2 + 2)60.

0 = (-0

(.29)

- . S g:
= ^7,

S=^EXH,

= cga,

g =

(.)

ii-ExH=iS

Tik / =
= ( ^ - ^ , f J, :
(X.32)

.
, D, ,
II :

P..

' 0 -Ex -Ey -Ez


0
E
^ Xx
W
?
R
5
E
y

KEZ

. = \
Dy

-B
~D z
Z

-Dy

.
H
z

Hx

-0

-Dz

-H
' z "

By
Dy

_R

-0

. . .

(..)

(X.34)

172

4-

U
-

' \
My

MZ

-\-

/VTC4

<-35>

- -

0 /
D = + 47 = + 47
Hik = Fik-4irMik.
(X.36)
/*,
,
(.37)
f , , Q , .
603. , ; D,
, S', S V.
.
. ,
602, Fik, , .
604. 5 , . S S',
' || '? ?
' '?
605. S : . S
S',
? ?
606. . J?. = = 1.
,
. .

3.

173

607.

dr = 0
(1)
.
) ,
drxH + cEdt = 0, E - d r = 0
(2)
(1).
) , ,
(2). (2)?
) (2)?
) , , (2),
XT

= -==^, . .

.
608. ,
, (2)
, eikimFim dxk = 0 (1).
,
(1)? , (1)?
609. . . . , .
, .
610. ip, A, E, H , V,
, .
611. , . . \\ =
612. V.
ip, , , .

174

613. m
, , .
. .

614. >',
, V
. .
,
, .
615. Q,
.
616. .
617. (.28), . . .
618*. V, .
, 4-.
619*. , 1
,
= ~\

[{ - ) dSl + ^{XiPk

XkPi),

= et =
= const. ;
,
= const.
^ , ,

' , , ,
= / ( g) dV + ] , g = -. ( ) .
17

3.

175

620*. .
. ^,
.

. . [107], . ., . . [65,66], . . [13],


. . [111, 112], . [117], . . [76],
. [52] . [12], ., ., . [106],
. . [49], . [87], . [29], . . [60],
.[79], . [17], ., . [72], .,
. [86], . [24], . . [97].

XI


1.
v

. 8
:
g

2
VI - v2/c2

( 1 2 )

:
8 = 2 + 22.
(XI.3)

8 = ?:
= 8- me2.

(XI.4)

, :
8w = c 2 p .

(XI.5)

4- (4-):

(.4). 4-
:

1.

177

,
, , .
,
(XI.8)

8 = .

(, )
, .
:

h = 1,05 10~ 2 7 .
.
,
( ) ,
4- :

,
.

: S S'
( . .), .
,
4- (. 651, 657*, 675).
: , , , , ,
() ,
. \+

= 1+2-

(XI. 11)

.
2

. Q = AM .
,
^c

+ d,

(XI.12)

178

XI

. . , ,
( ).
s, t, :
S = (Pai+ Pi) 2 ,

t = (pai-

pci)2,

U = (pai-

pdi)2,

(XI.13)

. . 4- , .
s, t,

, s
t ( s, t . 673). s, t, ,
.
, , =
= 1. , , (1 = 10 = 10~3 = 1,602 10~ 6 ).

( ). (. . ,
= 1).
XI. 1 . XI.2 .

= 2 = ^20-

(XI.15)

< , < .
621. .
622. v .
623. m 8. v
. , , .
1

, , 1 . ( . .)
. 668-670.

179

1.

XI. 1

0
0
1

0
0
0,511

207

105,7

273
264
966
974
1836
1839
2181

139,6
135,0
493,8
497,8
938,2
939,5
1115,4

7
v
~
+
- /
- 7
7

-
0

, 0


-

XI.2

2,23

28,11

38,96

624. : ) ; )
v
^

i , < .

625. v , V ( ).

( ).
626. v : )
{8 = 300 ); ) 300 ;

180

XI

) 680 , )
10 .
627. ; J. F
W.
, .
628. v
, N . , , ,
.
629. ,
. v = const. ,
.
, ,
Ve7 N
.
630. /i-, 1, .
/i- h (//,) (/),
, h /i-.
/i- 8 = 4,2 10 8 , h = ,
/i- TQ = 2,2 10~ 6 .
631. 5 ' V 5. , 5 ' 8' v',
' V.
V 5.
5 ', 8' ', v'. , , 8' 3> 2, V . ,
(?)
ss I tg | .
' .

1.

181

632*. 5 ' 5 V.
, 5 ' <", ^ = F ' ( $ ' , a ' ) , dW
, 5 ' <!. ,

fdW = /
&' V.
5 . , ,
.
633*. dN, dV , + dpx,
+ dpy, pz pz + dpz,
dN = f(r,p,t)dV(dp),
(dp) = dpxdpydpz ,
/(, , t) ( ).
/(, , t).
634. 1, 5 v b 2. dai2 5', 2
\'2, 1 v^? ,
, , v^ \'2 .
. do\i , dQ ,
J\i = n\vo, ni
, vo = |vi V2I 1-
2- (. 560).
635.

7- v

7-. 7- ^^- , , -
.
636. -, , / 7- ,
, 7-, .

182

XI

637. 7- 7-. , i?min 7- cos - - p = , - v.


638*. 7-, 7- (. 635), i? -.
7- .
. ,
- 7- S' = /2 ( -).
639. , -, 7-
2

= ', ' = ^-, -. 8\ 2 7-


, .
7- 8\ 2. 7-,
638*.
640. , , m i , m 2 .
\, 2 , , i?
. -,
> + v, , -
, ^- = 29,8 /. ^- XI. 1.
641. mi , , ,
. . 1?
, , .
642. mi v . V
.
643. mi . \ .
) - - U 2 3 8 ; ) ^--

1.

183

(v) - ( + v); ) 7-
7-.
644. 6 + d. Qa = ( = 1)
mb,rrid. + -, + + +,
+ = 91,7 +-, . XI. 1.
+ + + , = 18,8.
645. ( AS) '-. .
. , AS/H7 ,
( )?
646*. m
ai + 2 + m i , ,
Ti, -2, .
. = ( )/\/3, = \
(, ).
.
) , (, ) , . , , , , ,
.
) ,

.
) ,
.
, ,
= = 0, \ 0.
647. (. )
- '-:
) - + 2v,
2v

) * - + + v.

, , , .
.

184

XI

648. (. 646*) "+-


+

->7~ +7 + +7 + .

Q = 3m w < m w ( = 1), - .
?
649. (. 646*)
+

U> > 7 + 7~ + 7.

, Q =
dm* 360/> .*, 780/ ( = 1).
?
650*. 646* . dW
dW = pdT.
, ,
, , a dT ,

f (dpi) ( ) (dps),,
= I ~~> ~o> ~o> VPi -PH -Pb
J

,
~P3i),

Pi 4- (* = (m, 0) ), pai = (<?, ), = 1, 2, 3, 4 4-


, (dpa) - .
^- 4-
,
p i , , , .
dT dx, dy ,
. mi

1.

185

651. m mi. ,
. + mi < ,
.
( ),
.
652. : ) - (N+N N+N+); ) - (N + 7 * N + ); ) "-
- - ( + N + );
) -
. , , . ,
653. ,
( ).
: ) ( 7+? +);
) He^+He^ Li + . (. 651).
654. , - 7- , mi
( ; ,
,
). .
655. , -
-, 7-,
.
656. mi
^. v .
657*. mi So , ?. i?i, i?2 \, 2
.

186

XI

658. ,
, , .
659. So
3> . S $ .
660.
. 2 - Mer.
661. . Ti

1)\.
662. 658, \ ,
, $i $2 (
).
663. \ .
. . v[ v'2 ', . .
V.
. , , mi = .
664. OJQ .
. >
. , , , ( ).
, , , .
665. fko0
m So 3> HUJQ. hjj .
666. . So, hwo, ??. .
?

1.

187

667. s, t, (XI. 13)


, q $ . .
668. .
@ , 8', @'
. . s (. (XI. 13)).
, '
{ = = 1)- , =
= 1.
669. , , , , (XI. 13). , Sa
.
670. , s, t, (XI. 13). 1
^, ' . .
671. s a t
(. (1.13)) 7 + * + ( -
). ?
7- ?
-
7-?
672. 7- -.
<- <2
$ ?
S?, cos $. s,t (XI. 13). 2
, .
673. s, t (XI. 13)
, :
) + + + + ,
) ~ + ~ + ,
+
) + ~ > + -.
( ).
674. , . -.

188

XI

675. , () ( ,
, v)
( -) 1 . D v v, , ()
(. 827*).
. () = fiw = ()^-.
676. , , v, ,
v > -, ()
()
.
677. , , , (, ),
v () .
UJQ ( ).
. ( )? , ,
> 0.
. h , , fiwo
2, .
678. , 677, , (
677 ). , , . ,
.
( ).
679. , ,
() ^ 1 (. (676)). , ,
() < 1. ,
<?
' , .

2.
, ( >)
, (>2) 1. , u>i vo (huJi - ), (
-). ?
680. - (. ), , > , #2 .
(ftu^max ,
; .
681. q = 2nhg, g .
,
ai, a,2, , g =
= (-, , ^ | ) , Tii, 2, . , ,
, ,
, , .
682. = 2// , -: la sin ^ = , , 1? .
683. ,
,
(. 681).
, 1? ; 1. , So > 2.

2.

, ,
v,
F = eE + | v x H .

(XI.16)

189

190

XI


F-v = eE-v = < g " = ^ ,
at
(. 1).

(XI.17)

, . F ^

4- ( ):

Ft =
= (( ,,

F
F

F
F V
V

ii ,, ''

Y
Y

(XI.18)

4- F ^ : Fi =
= %FikUk, Uk 4- .
:

, :
= + | v , = ev .
(XI.20)
2

= 8 , ,
t. (XI.20) .
if, :

U;

(XI.21)

cr

= ! _ /,

(XI.22)

2.

C/ = - A - v + e<p.

(XI.23)

U .
:

qi, qi .
, () , 1
m = \,
(XI.25)
= -

, , 1 = mv

. N = m x H, 1
^ = N . (XI.25),
m :
^
= .
at

(XI.26)

, , ()
s ,
:
mo = xos.
(XI.27)
= ^ < 0, , m .
(XI.26), m .
, , ,
. () : , 1
, , .
.

191

192

XI

, 1.
, (
),

(XI.28)

U = ,

=|()|.

U ,
() .
684. F , v .
, , , )
; ) ; ) v - .
685. ,
(F) (F'). v.
686. F
, , v
687. ' v. 610, ,
, , 2
2
= (1 /3 )-,
R = /(1 - 2 ) 2 + (1 - /32)[(j/l -

+ (21 - 2 2 ) 2 ],

- , F = e'gradV'. -?
' , ,
..

..

IVXQH

, , = z

.
2
, ,
,
.

2.

193

688. .
, . v (
). , , = , = ^ .
689.
, ,
v. , .
F, ; v .
690. , .
V. $. F,
.
. 689.
691. , , L .
. ( - L).
691*. .
t = 0 t , . ,
t.1 , , .
693.
, 692*. , , .
694. I ,
8 , .
' .

194

XI

695*. m . t =
= 0 - , . .
696*. =
(0,Ey,Ez)
= (, , ) . t = 0 v = (, VQZ).
x(t), y(t), z(t), .
. = + iy.
697.
( || || z). t =
= 0 , =
= ( 0, Poz). , , z, t
.
698. . : )

(. 692* 695*) ) (XI. 19).
699. , 692*, 697,
698.
700. , VQ (VQ <. ),
= (0, Ev, Ez), = (0,0, ), <S H.
,
(. 697).
603. 696*.
701.

(,

(,

t' = t ^ j j ^ , n .
.
. , t' .

2.

195

702.
=
= /(2 1), k = const > 0 ( ).
t = 0 , , ZQ; vo z. .
703.
.
.
, , ,
a, z .
704*. b ( < ) V. ,
. , ,
. ^
, .
705. ,
</,
.
V .
, ,
</?
706. $.
vo . 6, .
707. 705,
, ( ).
. 606 706.
708*.
Ze.
. , " > -.

196

XI

. , 703.
709.

,
2

, , ^

^-.

710*.
Ze.
.
711. , (. 708*) -> 0
(Ze2 > ).
712.
, ', m b m 2 8. .
713*. <() '.
.
714.

, 8 > 2 > ,
' (. 708* 710*).
715. ,
vo '. <().
716. .
v
.
?
717*.
, . . . ,
. , ,
, , ,
,
( 2: 1).

2.

197

718*.

, ^

:
U(t) = ^ { l

- ^

[ V l V2 + ( V l n ) ( V 2

R - , = ^ , vi,

V2 .
t.
. -,
757*, , .
,
.
719. \, e-i \, .2,
2

^ .

720. m .
.
721*. , () s

, - <(). U v/c,

V XV
567.
' .
.

198

XI

(f)
V al

=(f)

V at /

'

(. [64]).

722. , V(r), .
.
723. <?
= const, . ?
724. ( , ) J?.
725. ( vo, ,
)
.

s(a) ,
.
. 713*.

. ., . . [64, 65], . . [107], . . [111], . . [49], . . [13], . [87],


. [12], . [98], . [52], . [114],
. . [83], . ., . ., . . [8],
. [56], . . [73], . . [45], . ., . . [58], . [80], . . . [92],
. . [102], . . [108], . ., . . [37], . . [60], . ., . . [6], . [41].

XII

1.

(', t) j(', t)
:

<p(r,t)=J

(XII. 1)

(XII.2)
R = | ' |, - , ' - , dV .
:

at2

,
(, t) <p(r, t), (XII.5),

200

XII

Z(r, t) ( ,
), ip :

(XIL7)

'W

(', t), j :
/9=-divP,

(XII.8)

j =

(XIL9)

div j + - = 0. (
).
Z :
AZ - -\ ^-f = -4.

dt
Z :

(XII.10)

(XII. 11)
j , , (XII.8)
(XII.9) . (.)-(11.4) (XII. 10) ,
ip j :

Z(r, t)=

I ^ ^

'- dV.

(XII.12)

, , , , ,
^ < 1

< 1

(XII.13)

1.

201


-.

,
Z(r,f) = ^ r A

(XII. 14)

t' = t .

(. 741,742). ?
(XII.6) (XII.7).

, (XII. 13)
'<<
(XII. 16)
( ).

^>

( Y ) :

= ,
tn= ^

fr'xj(r',t')dV

(XII.18)

, t'.

202

XII


. (. ) .
, .
( ) ( ) j 1 (
) ,
- , .

.
:
= ,

= .

(XII.20)

, :
du

47

/
(XII.21) .
(XII. 17),

= ?

) +

?()2'

(XIL22)


I 4ail

726. , .
727. 32*, (XII.22).
728. ,
ip , (XII.S)
div A = 0 ( ).
' ,
v, .

1.

203

729. ,
< = .
730. 620* ( (2) (3)), dK ,
!=^ .
731.
=
= cos tot. ,
, .
. ,
:

2pocostf rcos(kr-ui)
-

+ ksmikr ut)\,
J

= ^
r2

EQ =

( k2 ) cos(fcr ut) -\ sin(fcr <

Ea ^ Hr ^ ^ 0;

Pok2

Ha

=
r

,,

. .

Sill COS(fcr Cjt) H


Sin(fcr Cjt) .
I
r
i

732. , , . ,
). > .
4

as 2

/ ,

.
733. :
) ,
. , ^jr / .
, (. 732).

204

XII

734.
, ?
735.
>, ^ .
/ . .
, / .
736. , , , 399.
737*. 7
, 732,
-=^. N, ,
.
738. > ,
tp . , .
^

/ .

739. .
= [1 + 2 (cos tf) cosujt],
< 1. q. ^

/ .
740. q
.
, .

1.

205

741. Z p Z Q , Z m
,
, > , > ( >
).
742. m , .
. , m
t' = t , ,
.
743. ^j? / , : ) 532; ) 533.
. , >.
744.
> ( ).
, > .
__
7
> . - ^

/.
745*. I J
Jo, > . , , .
^ - .
746. / R = -==^
, .
.
Ci(x) = C + lnx +

cos

^~ dt,

b
= 0,577 (. [90], 8.230).

206

XII

747. I 1
t( k
ut
J = Joe - ^~ K = ^ , .
- ^ / .
748*.
J = Jo sinna'e"*"*. ,
.
749*. UJ || z,
= j .
^ .

^.

750. (, t) j(r, t) z = 0 , ) = (, , z)
' = (, , z); ) : (, t) =
= '(', t), ' '. , j (, t), , Q m ,
, .
751. ,

',
(. ). , , p(t) = pof{t) (|po| = 1, f{t)
), b <S ipo = const (
).
752.

>

| ( < ,
). ,
> ^-.
1
,
.

1.

207

753. ) , u(r, i?, ) + ? = 0, ( = 0) > =


: Z = +
1 )

+ gradx. X = ~^7

()' ) -


,
u(r, i?, ) ( ).
. , AZ + k2Z = 0, ,
+ 2\ + 2 = 0.
754. , ~ *, ( || ),
(. 654) = - ^~~, R =

= - 0.
. Z = u r + grad x, ,
-^ (. (XII. 14)),

.
755.
~* 6 . ,
. (. 753),
, .

2. ,

, \(t') t' ('), , t
- :
4>{r,t) =
R = r - r 0 .

R - R v/c

ev

c(R - R v/c)

(XII.23)

208

XII

f
(* *') = |R.|.

(XII.24)

- :
(1 - /32)(n - v/c)
3

(1--/)

en x [(n - v/c) x v]

2(1--/)3

H = n x E || t ,,

'

/ 3 =

, - ^ ( ),
R
, . ,
-; ( ); .

, .
( )
. (XII.25),
v 0.
=
:
2

du

2(-)()

43 U(l -
2

c(l-n.v/c)

(l-t;2/c2)(n-y)2l
4

c(l-n.v/c) 6 J'

v ,
,
(.17)-(.22).

, . -
4- - pj = ( | , )

2.
4- 4- i :

^ ( ) dt
(XII.27) 7 =

, dt' = 'ydr. /1 v2/c2

, (XII.26), ,
, (. 762*-768).
A(Ro,i) , = To(t') ^L,
A(Ro, t) =

A/e~*"'0". /,

Yl

/=-

:
, _

ikRo

CHQI

i
t
i[lu>ot k-ro(t )]v(f'\fif'

^YTT 7R\

^o

.

, , . , , s (
). ,
,

= 2 I AW(s)s ds,

(XII.29)

AW(s) , , s .

209

210

XII

dxn, :

d[AW (s)}
n

dfi

-" /

dfi

(XII.30)

sds.

_
d[bWn(s)]

, s, , .
dx,
-^.
ujuj

, (XII.30) :
( X I L 3 1 )

* Pfaosfi)

= | cos 2 ^ (. 2),

z
,
+

= - I 2 ds

I p 2 dt,
}

= | J2nsds

(XII.32)

I (p 2 - 2) dt.

, , <g.l

<)
, vi, V2
(i, < ).
756*. - (. (XII.23))
.

2.

211

. (', t) = 6[' ()], (4) -


t, e . dV' = dx'dy'dz'
R i = ' .
757*. R/c ((XII. 1), (XII.2)),
- 1/.
758.
-, f t (. 610 811*).
759.
, (.25).
t , t' (.
610).
760. v v . , ,
.
.
761.

^ - , 1

. /.
762*. 2 _ \ ( dt uO/
).
4k

. : )
t' t;
) ,
, dt'.
763. , ,
.
764. (XII.26).

212

XII

765. *) , ) /
v(i') v(i')> ) v(i') ,
, . , .
766. ( ) \ at )

.
767. , .
.
768. v t' v.
^=-,
/, ^ 7 ).
dt )
?
769. VQ 0
. , , .
At ?
770. ,
.
= jr.
I ^
\ dt
771. . v . =^,
dt
. / , .
772. ^- ,

2.
. < ) ~ ,
.
773*. v
.
^

, -

.
v ~ ?
. .
. 3.428 [90].
774*. , ,
v.
.
. (3.11) (3.9).
775. ,
(.
). , /3=^ 0?
?
776*. v = /
^
.
777*. N
(. 774*). , , - .
: )
; ) - ; ) ,
(
).
778*. \, % m i ,
(. 712). , , /.

213

214

XII
9.

, (.
).
. 730.
dx
780*. - ^

\ vo ?.
. , (XII.3I),
dt dr, dt = , =
= /1
^ , s , 2 ,

( s = 0).
ds, dr.
, 712.
781*. \ m , , ?; s.
^ ^ . v
; dAW
.
" . ,
, /3 = ^ < 1.
.
(XII.26). v
2

.
v v = - =
8

782. ^ , , .
, , , ,
765, 766.

3.
783*. \ , 2- s ,

. dAW
-.
. (3.15).
784. v <C
. 1
du>. xl
785*.

\ \

( - = -). - ^ Qap
. , (XII.31),
(XII.32).
786*.
( , , vo)
.

3.
, , (
). ,
( ):
f = ',

(XII.34)

.
, < ,
f = \.
(XII.35)
3

215

216

XII

, ,
, 8 =

/1 - V2/<?

.
, (.34)-(.36),
.
,
, .

, ,
,

(.37)

- = - | ,
3
rg

(XII.38)
2

, , = -^= = 2,8 10~ 1 3

. (.37) (.38) ,

( ) 1.
, ,
. , .
, 2 . VIII.

, , , ( ).
. . 787*-790* ,
.
787*. ,
v. 5 ' ( ,
' , , .
= ^ ^ = 137 ~

-.

3.

217

v, ). ,
. ?
788. Wm , W , .
789*. F,
( )
.
. , de ,
(11.25).

790*. F (. ).
t' t
. , , .
t' t .
791. ,
? , , , ,
( ).
8
? = 0,5 10~ .
792.
, .
(t) r(t). t = 0
So (. 791).
793. .
. , , .
794*.
^. 1 = 0

218

XII

. , ,
.
( ).
hu> ?
795. .
> ( ). -
, ,
, - -^- ,
.
.
dN _ (

\1

- ^

, v

dvxdvvdvz,

16

= 1,38 10~ / . t i c , , (.
574), , ^ .

796. , , ; , .
,
+ dr dW(r) = ^

dr (

= ^ J. ,
, 797*. , Su

S = J Su dui ( 5 ,

1
1 ).

3.

219

7- D C , , , .
, ?
798. AW, >0 S^,, : ) ,
D ; )
, ; )
(
).
799*. . . ^

<

. , , .
800. , , . ,
. ^
.

801. .
1? .
802*. . v . . .
. (XII.26) v , .
803*. >,
. . 1.
1

. , , .

220

XII

4.

, t.

. :
1. :

f(r,t)=

J ()-<1,

(XII.39)

= f ,).

(.390

2.

:
(XII.40)
-

(XIL40

')

/ - , (dk) = dkxdkydkz.
3.
:

/(, *) = Aa,ei<k'p-rt>(dk)dw,

(XII.41)
r) dt.

, >
. , = >(), . /(, t)
:
, = / - , /k = /-k. /kU = /-k,-(.42)
(XII.40), (XII.41)
. ,

4.
. , V,
, , [65], . 167 [29], . 1.
( 1.15) ( 1.14) 5-. ,
( 1.15) (XII.42) :

(XII.43)

/ 2 (r,i)(dr) = ( 2 7 r ) 3 | | | | / k | 2 ( d k ) .

. , .
:
= , p = hk.

(XII.44)

804. (XII.43).
805. , , < ( ).
806.
. {), {),
, .
807.
(, t) <p(r, t).
. () {).
808*. > .
809.
.
810. v = const.
<, , , .

221

222

XII

811*. ip(r, t), A(r, t) (. 610),


, .
. (dk)
>
, > fcj,, fc* > fc* ( || v) ^/1 - v2/c2
(. 808*).
812*. v. ip(r, t), A(r, t), , m .
. :
j = crot[m<5(r - vt)] + J^[P<5(r - vt)],
p = div[p<5(r vt)].
813. ( ). v.
: ) mo || v, ) -L v.
, 613.
814.
( ) 812* (.
612).
815. , (),
().
816*. , .
, (,<)
() , , .
817*. ( = 0, j = 0) (, i) ( ip = 0). .

4.

(0 = ^9(0 >

223

7\/2

, ^ =
(. 1 . VIII). , ,
( = 1,2). ekj 2 , : e k i = e k i 2 = 0. ,
qk\(t). , , W G q^x <jk\.
818*. ,
, , .
W G Qk\.
819*. q^x (. 817*). , <? .
820*. =j- .
qk\ F^\{t) (. ).
821*. = rosinwoi, = const.
(. 819*), I 1.
822. LOQ CLQ. , ,
(. 732).
823*. > , LOQ.
, ^ ( ). .
', , (. 1 ).
.

224

XII

824. ^ , ,
(. 799* 800).
825. : )
; ) , .
, (. 799* 800).

. ., . . [65], . . [100], . [52], . . [49], . . [111], .,


. [86], . [93], . ., . . [57], . . [25], . [12], . . [46], . . [23],
. . [60], . [54], . ., . . [104], . ., . ., . . [20],
. . [43], . ., . . [6], . [29],
. [87]. . ., . ., . . [35], . ., . . [36].

XIII




.
, , , , ..
. ,

, ,
, ^ ,
;
( 10~ 8 ).
v v 3> vam, vam
.
, , .
, , .
,
( ,
. 443).
. ,
, ( -; . .
.. [103]).
, ,
;

226

XIII

= 6[ ()], j = <5[ ()],


, () -.
( ) .
(., , 826*).
-
, ,
,
, .
,
.
(),
-, , , > .
826*. v = const . (>),
= 1. , .
827*.
v = 0. ,
. , ( -). w B _ 4
.
828.
,

- >_, v2e0 > 2 , 0


.
? ,
15

0 = 6 10 ' ,

0 = 2,

v = .


829.

cos0 = --,
-,
, .
830.
, . , - .
831. , v,
I .
, .
, .
/
. .
832. , vmm,
- ,

vmincos6

vg(um),

vg , )
, ,
. .
833*. v = ( , .
( . v < vv v > vv, vv
.
834. , ,
v = const (), //(<*>). 1
, J . ,
-. > _ .
f,
.
1

.

227

228

XIII

. (, z, t). ,
833*.
835. \ 2 v /
(), = 1 (/ ). - >_ .
: ) \ = = ; ) \ = = .

, .
836*. + v I (), , = 1. , ,
(/ ). , ,
- >_ , / .
837*. 1 v = /
, (>) ,().
, , m . >_ .
.
. j(r, t) = rot m<5(r
-vt).
838*.

() =

,2 = 4 ^ . ( ^-)
\ al /
,
( , >
).
.

1
() , , , .

229

839*. v = 0 , (. 312*)

U1

/2 =

. \ -)

. > , , .
840*.
. , ,
. v = 0.
. , . ,
, .
841*. v = 0
(>)
( = 1). .
,
(.. z > 0, . . 133).
. , , .
(. [66], 69): () =
= (-). (-) , , ; () ,
, .
( ), () .

. ., . . [103], . [105], . ., . . [66], . . [14], . . [32], . .,


. . [37], . ., . . [91], . [53],
., . [77], . ., . . [36].

XIV

1.
.
, . , ,
,
,
(XI.20) (XI. 1).
, , .
,
, (. (.6)-(.6"))- ,
.
:

/, , . ,
( ),
,
.

.
, , ,

.

(.6)-(.6")-

1.

231

= + -^[ ] + vR[h \ +v]lRll[h (h- V)h],


(XTV.l)
P|| = +\P.VL

div h + e(E h),

(XTV.2)

(XTV.3)

, , h = H/H
,

.
(XTV.l)-(XrV.3) ,
, .
vyh (XIV. 1) ,
(
).
. , ,
F , (XTV.1)
^ [ F ], (XTV.2) (F h).

(XTV.2) (XTV.3) :

t(mc2) = (-).

(XTV.4)

,
\/

= const,

(XTV.5)

232

XIV

. . / = \/ . ,
, . .
(.1)-(.)
, :

(XIV.6)
.
,

(XIV.6')

< ceH/S,

(XIV.6")

> .
842. F,
. , F , , ()

[FxH]
2
.
,
, .
843. / ,
H(t).
,
,
,
, .

1.

233

844.

. So-
. du){d) 82
.
845*. , ,
. ,

vj_ , , R = - ^ (. (XIV. 1)).


I

III

. 43

846. / = \/ ,


, . ?
847.
. / = \/ , ,

234

XIV

F, ,
.
.
848. I II, , III,
( ). , . 43. I ,
. ,
, ,
.
849. - , . 44.
, ,
. R ?
< ,

.44
850. - ,
. 44, . , .
, . ,
.
851.
q. ,

1.

235

,
q. , ,
. ,
z, q
, = I, ( = 0.
852.
\i = 8,1 10 5 3.
= 50

. .
? R
? = 6380 , = 6 10 2 7 .
853*. (.
) ,
, ) , , ,
, , w^,
. ) , ,
) , .
~~ "I
:~

'"
854. ' 45

, m v (. 45).
. , , .
, sm . , '
?
. 713*.
855. m v , . ',

236

XIV

', ', /(v) (//(v)(dv) = '). F(v),


.
. ,
. .
856. ,
' .
?
857. >, , .
F , ' ', v.
858. ,
v 0 .
859*. , , ,
,
. F , , . , F , F m a x .
< / /
> Fmax/e.

2.
, .. ,
.
. . , ,
. ,
.

2.

237

, ,
, .
,
.
. ,
.
()
. .

:
^v,

(XIV.7)

= rot[v ] + - ^ - ,
(XIV.8)

4
divv = 0,
(XIV.9)
divH = 0.
(XIV. 10)
v(r, t) () ; = const ; ; ; \
.

rot H = -] ,

)

(XIV.11)

(< * ) (XTV.8) ,

= rot[v ].

(XIV.12)

:
. , , .

238

XIV

v , (XIV.8)
rot[v x H], (VII. 12).

.

{) = 1->>2,
(XIV. 13)

( , ) , . .
(. 871).
,
, , .
860*.
z
-j- = const.
", ), 2.

. , . .
861. = . = vo,
= vo z. , ) . .
.
862. , , $', j(r).
, , ?
. $

2.

239

N ,
. , v = 0.
863.
(. ), ?
864.
, 12. v
. ,
, , (, $, ) =
= ($,), , . ,
. ,
>
1.
865. , .
, :
= 0,7 10 6 = ;
1 ; 1,5 10s ;
Q = 2,7 10~6/; ; =
= 300 /.
866. , , . ,
, .
, .
867. =
= d. ,
= d,
= d. -
. , >
, .
1
, , , ( ).

240

XIV

868.
. ,
R (, t).
(XIV. 13).
869*.
. = [(
u)t)\, , ,
, . , .
( ).
870.

v?i = /, . .
871. t = 0 ,
(, 0).
) (, t) t > 0, (XTV.13).
) , ? ,
,

(,0) = ; [-(J^J ],

0 = const, 0 = const.

. [52], . [74], - . . [109],


. [82], [28], . ., . . [91], ., . . [2].

1. .

1. cos 0 = n ' = cos I? cos I?' + sin 1? sin i?' cos(a a ' ) .
3. 6 ( = 1,2,3) , [ = - ' '' = inv
= inv, = onkd'i, .. *
. ()
, 6*,
( ().
10. ( a x b ) o = i ( a _ i 6 + i - a + i 6 _ i ) ,

( b ) i = i(a o 6i - a i 6 0 ) ,

11. , ,

~^
.
1 _
- | | >

Aki ^ ||.
(2) , ,
|| 0.
\\

242

, , (1),

7kkl = &U(3)
, : *& = ^
( ),

14. Tik II .

. 46

. 47

15. > < < = ^ , dik = e'i e/t .


(. 46,47), :
,
/sin I? cos a
= I cos i? cos a
\ sin a

sin I? sin a
cos i? sin a
cos

cosi? \
sin i? I ;
0 /

/sin i? cos a cos i? cos sin a\


S " 1 = I sin i? sin a cos sin a cos I ;
\ cosi?
-sini?
0 /
,

cos a

sin

0\

sin
0

cos
0

0);
1/

/cos a
" 1 = I sin
V 0

sin
cos
0

0\
0].
1/

1.

243

16. <? ,
S' S (- = gikAk), :
,
9- =

/-10
0 -1
\0
0

0\
0 ;
-l/

cos a
sina
0

sin 0\
cosa 0 I .
0
1/

z .
17. ,
5 ( a i 0 a 2 ) = 5(0:2)5(0)5(0:1) =
/ cosai cosa2cosflsinai sin02; sinai cosa2+cos0cosai sina2; sin0sina2\
= | cos ai sin 0:2cos 0 sin ai cos 0:2; sinai sina2+cos6cosai ; sin cos I .
\
sinaisinfl
sindcosai
cosfl /

18.

V2

V2

aiA

cos ;

19. ( ) 1, | ^ | < 1. = k% 2 2 =
S
. \ = - = i + %,
'' 22 = 22
2 , SikXiXk = 0
Sik = Ski- Sift =
= keikiki- ' = + , , 5<
,
, .

244

22. .
, \\.
2 1 = 8. ,
,
\\, | | - | | = | 1 | = 1 | | 2 =
= 1. , \\ = 1 .
, \\ = + 1 .
( ), \\ = | 1 | = 1;
, (, , . 17),
| | = 1.
\\
1
0
= 0

0
1
0

0
0
1

...
...
...

, . , \\ = + 1
1 .
24. 27 .
( = = 0).
= ^231 = 21 = ^213 = ei32 = 1-

.2(*^- , OLua2k(^zi^iki = || = + 1 = ' 1 2 3 .


, , 1 2,
oi2iOcikOC3ieiki = -ocikOC2iOi3iekii = -'

= e2i3

,
III . , III .
: .
25. ^ :
/

0
-21
V

12
0
-23

-31\
23
.
0 /

1.

245

= \, A^i = 2, 12 = A3.
= \eikiAki, III , .
III , II , Ai ( =
= 1,2,3) . , .
26.

( ) = eikiAkBi, rot A = ^^- rot

II
, ().
28. ) 2 ( ) + ( )( ); ) [( ) ] [(' V) '].
30. (a-a')(b-b / )(c-c / ) + (a-b / )(b-c / )(c-a / ) + (b-a / )(c-b / )(a-c / )- ( ')( ')( ') - ( ')( . ' ) ( ') - ( ')( ')( ').
31. II .
)
, \ = aiy . .
= ,

= Ay,

Az = Az.

(1)

z . \ = otikAk ,
=

Ay =

Ay,

Az = Az.

(2)

(1) (2) , = = 0.
, , Az = 0,
.. = 0,
, .
) II : ^ = Sik + Aik-
(. 25) ,
,
, . Sik.
, Sik
X^Sik. ^ ,
, . . , (1,2 3)
. ^) = ^2^ = ^3) =
. 5,
.

246

32. :
._

1
4 J

_ _ _

1
4 J

,
. , , . .
I, II, III, IV . ,
(1) , .
, .
. ,
, (.
31), = 0.
II ,
.
Sik.
~ = AJjfc.

(2)

1 :
2

= 1 = ,

= ^.

= 0,
=

66 + 8im6kl)-

(3)

33. l a ' , i a - b , la, a, fa-b;


i [ ( a b)(c d) + (a c)(b d) + (a d)(b c)].
34. n n ' ,
35. 1,

(nxn')l.
n' 1,

111 (2 X ).

1
.

2.

247

2.
3*.

V. -^-*4&.
37. divr = 3, rotr = 0, grad(l ) = 1, (1 V)r = 1.
38. rot(u> x ) = 2.
41. gradyj(r) = jjy/;1

divy?(r)r = + /; rotyj(r)r = 0;

42. ( ) = *.
3
43. div(r a)b = b, rot(r a)b = a x b, div(a r)r = 4(a r),
rot(a r)r = a x r, div(a x r) = 0, rot(a x r) = 2a, div f(r)(a x r) = 0,
rotip(r)(a x r) = (2<p + r<p')a
rot x (a x ) = 3(r x a).

:->', div ( ) = 2(a r),

44. gradA(r)r = A+(r-A'),


div<p(r)A(r) = -^-(r-A) + ^(r-A'),

45. grad ( ^ - 3 - J = rot (

gradA(r)-B(r) = ^(A'-B + A-B'),


rot<p(r)A(r) = y ( r x A ) + ^ ( r x A ' ) ,

J; -

, #,
cos i9
3

p sin i?
, 0.

: = \, = 2 sin 2 , & = 0, .
' .

248

I
47.

(AA)r = AAr - \A
\A2 rr
r2
r

- ^^)
-^-
r 2 sint?cw
r 2 sint?cw
A
*
. 2 dAr
2cost?
2
2
r siirt?
r1 ov
r

r 2 sint?

<*
|
2
2cost?
|
+
i 22 ?
2
r sin t?
r sint? da
2
2

48.

(), = AAZ.
49. /(grad y? rot A)dV = f(Ax

grad <p)dS = f<p rot A dS.

50. , ,
:
/ ( n) dS = 1{ ) dS = f div[(c )] dV =

= (-) I dV = (a-c)V.
, , , / ( ) dS =
= aV. /( r)ndS = aV.
51. <fnipdS = fgraAipdV,

/ ( n x a)dS = JiotadV,

${n b)adS = /(V b)adV = / ( b V)ad^ + /a(div b) dV.


55. 50, / > d\ = / ( n x grad ) dS,
n .
56. /(grad grad/) ndS.
61. a ) A + f ;

6)A + B l n t g | ; ) + .

62. a)A + Blnr; ) + ; B)A + BZ.

249

2.

64.

( 6

>

" 2=

( -6 )( -6 )

J '

2_2)(62_2)

j .j

"1 =

2_2)(2_2)

V(v-0(v-0
2Rr,

(1)

= / (
(1) , , ), ,
, , z.

, grad, grad 77, grad grad-grad?7 .., . grad, grad 77,
grad , , ), ,
(1).

;. , - [ <

65

250

I
2

= /

2 i

\ (

)
i a

.
i
i
67.
tit
4 = =

'

j,

chf-cos77

asinr;

, =
;
ch^-cosr;

(ch^-cosn)3rg /
!
fl\
a2
La^ Vch- cosna^/
+

i a /
sin" a \ +
sinn an V ch^ - cosn an/

68. p = const :

(\/x2 + y2 -acthp)2 + z2 = (-^) ;


\sap/
= const :

ip = tit = r

ch / cos

cap cos

II



69. 4>x = 4>2 = -\npa{A\z\ -),

2 = -2-^- (\z\ > |

z .
70. ip(x, , z) = ^ - cos cos fly cos ^z.
of + / + 7

71. z>0:

1=?^-* sin ax sin 0y;

z < 0:

= ^

sin Q I sin 0y,

A=

z ,
.
72. .
,
ip .
:

ipi = 0, >2 = 1\ ^ .

252

II

73. ip = -2xlnr,
=^,
.
, < = 0 = 1.
74.

, z-a+ J{z - a2) + x2 + y2

,,) = $- + + y/(z + ) 2 + 2 + 2

75.
z\ = z + a,

z2 = za,

r i ) 2 =

+ + Zji2)

,
+1
\ + 2 = 2a-^j- = const
(1)
1
( , z\ z 2 = 2a).
(1) , , .
76. <pi(r) = -

77. Vi(r) = J ,

Ei=0

78. :

79. 9 =

4
4
4
= ^ - 7( - ) =

^
^
2
( 2 fli)H
2 -
= -~; = - > 2 .

253

i?2 > Ri = R q,
, .

q R l
W - ^
W - ^- W In ^ -
80. W-5R,
W-2R,
W-R2_Ri
COOT
{R2_Ri)2toRl
, 76, 77 79.

W, / /

,
(83% , ).
81. <() = - ] pir'Y2
0

dr> + 4 / p(r')r' dr';

83. :

84. :

85. ,

86.

254

II

87.

lf

z , .

dl= Rda'
. 48

88. >
, , < 5 ,
it

f -^-dl :

> =

4qRx
'

'
7(

),

255

z ~> R , -^q
89.
,
xz . (. 48)

= \/2 + R2 -

2TR

sin cos a'

<p{r,#)=2xR[
22

J v\/
r + 2 - 2rR sin cos a '

a ' = 2(5
2
4 sin
s/r"2 + R?
'

y/r2+R2+2rRsmd

z
.
) ' ,
' < R:
l - f c - ^^ 2 ,
4R

AT(fc) = l n^^ ,

() = - 2 In r ^ const,

.
91. </>i = ^

E\z = ^ ^ .

256

II

92. , (
),

(1) :
) = (),

(2)

=0

() .
(2) (1), ,
(), :

*('.*) = 7 ^ ( 2 ) | = - //(*)+ '


=0 ^ '

= 0,

, = - | = - * ( * ) + ...

93.

(2.1), (2.5) 2, :
(

n=0

= R ( ^ ^ ) .

257

_.

95.

^ 2 sin21? cos sin

a)ipf
_.

^ 15<7abcxj/z _
7

2
2
n i i9cosi9sinacosa
15go6csin
4

96. v ( r , t f , a ) = 9 E ^ I - ^ r ^ ( t f o , a o ) y i r a ( t f , a )
v(r,tf,a) = 9 E ^ I - - ^ r y ^ ( t f o , a o ) y i r a ( t f , a )
97.

v?(x,y,,)^

< 0;
> 0.

( = )

( = = )

98.

, q 2
2
Ja -
-?
2q.
99. :
q = - ('. V)(r) dV = - I(p' ) dS = 0.

258

II

6() = 0 , = 0;

= "

/*('

V)<J(r)dV = -JXaP'n M-

dV = Jp'n^6(r)dV.


. z' . ,
' 6() = 0 0.
-

, = ^ = Pjan = = 0 . , , .
,
49

= ~j 0'^

dV = f 8(v)p'J^-

dV = p'ax0 +p'0xc

r=0

= 0.

100. n-

101.

, ip =

qa2(3z'2 - r2)

(. 94), z' , , z (. 49).


<p = -- [3(x sin 7 cos (3 + sin 7 sin /3 + z cos 7 ) 2 - r 2 ] =
= g- [3(cos ti cos 7 + sin ti sin 7 cos(a /?))2 1].

259

, ,
II .
', ', z'
Q'xx = Q'yy = Q'xy = Q'xz = Q'yz = 0,

Q'zz = 2qa2.


/cos 7 cos 0 sin 0 sin 7 cos 0\
a = I cos 7 sin 0 cos 0 sin 7 sin 0 I .
\ sin 7
0
cos 7 /
Qap xyz

(.8).
102. < =

15qa

^Z

[(2 - 2) sin 20 + 2 cos 20} =


^ sin 2 tf cos tf sin2(a - 0).

= ^
2

(p=^-(3sin 2 ?9sin2a-3cos2?9-l).
Ar
104.
103.

dV>=

^ 7 ?

/ gnui' ] ^

-,
<() = J -rLj- dS, 5 S 1~ I
, = Pcostf. 91, :

or

260

II

105. )

= -2xlnr + 2

^n

nl

ft = J /(') dS" , =
= J p(r')r'n cos ! dS' = J p(r')r'n sin ' dS' - .
, , , < = 2 , = / /(') ' dS'
, - .

106. <p(r,a) = -2x In + XI ("^) cosn(a-ao) ( > ),


^

=1

'

0 0

=1 1 /

ip(r,a) = -2 In + Y, ( ^ )
1

'

cosn(a-ao) ( < 0).

. 50

107.
, - ( ), z .

261

108. ( z
):
= 1 = 2( -

2?

? -E
?-0,

E
x
y

109. ) :
= ,
) ^ = 2(-),

= - ^

Er = Ez = 0;
= ?;

Er=Ez=0.

^ = .
.

. . 50
.
= 0, z =
= 0 (. 506).
111. . , 2 , = sin21?.
112. = C^sin21?| cosi?|, = const.
,
, (. 51).

1 1 4 . <72 =

. 51

262

II

115. ,
z.
, z = const, , ,
() = ^2()
(.

113) z ( z z^ Zfc+i). Qi(z) =


= 2(1 cos ) ,
zu ; *
z - (, z). + z > zit
z < Zi. z
qk, () 4^,
Ylqi cos *. cosa* z, Zi ,

:
= ,

= const.

117. , z
(. 52). tp\s = const
S = 0.

R +x\ -2Rxicosa
R2 +x?,-2Rx2Cosa'
. 52
cos a
. , \ = <
, ,
2
R = \^. \ = 0 2 = 0.
.

263

118. . 53 R

Zl

92

.
119.

< =

--

~ - 1
=qA+qA-

= -4,J(r) + 2 2 ^ .
, q
= 120.

47[

, JpdV

. 53

= -q.

,
_2

() = ^

(. 83)

^J
^J^

121. U = J^-p
122. U =
123. U =
124.

125

U =

^-.
4
9192

F =

9i 92

El

22
9192
12

426

dli ,
a i 2 , . dot2

264

II

= 2,

TL
2

jfc =

2 ^ =
2 + (
/
2
Vc + (a +
+ )2
b) 2

da

4/l-Jfc2sin 2 a

.
F = ^- = ^-

E(k)
2

(. [90], 8.112), i?(fc) = / y/l k2siaada

.
,

()
1-ifc2'
126. *

-5
5 + + j-j,
,

,__

Sin 1?i Sin 1?2 COS W 2COS1?1COS1?2

T r

127. U = piP2

IN -

r3

di = Z ( r , p i ) , $2 = ^()2). V ( r , p i )
(,2),
sin ??i sin ??2 cos (p 2 cos ??i cos $2
4

i?i = i?2 = V = 0, . . .

128. tf21 = Jp(r')MT')dV

III

1.
129.

130.

ipx=ip2

. _

!+2

" '

ipi = 2 = < =

2EI

r 3-

i + 2

_._ _
- '

22

gr

i + 2

+ 2O2 +

'
qr

3
131.

(<^ = const

? = 0 > ) > = -; Dn dS = Anq, = ^ .


:
qei

"i = .,:'
27ra 2 (ei+e 2 )'

a2 =
"2
=

ae->

2na?(e1 + 2 ) '
(2

)
1 jZ.

-.
47

-1)

27^(1+ 2 )

266

III

. .
, , :
'
\

"

"
4

1
2

"
"

14

l/

5
47

q .
.
135.
e0S

= 412'

< = - ( { 1 --^J

X = ,
x = a


0 ( + ) 2
( = eV/(Ana In 2) = 0).
136.

) / = = "
rj2

/ = g ^ = g/o

( ),

/ = - = /

( );

/ = ^ = /

( ),

f = 5 = /
7

( ).

267

1.
2

137. a) F =
) F = -

( - 1)6/12 V

2nq2h1h2[h1e

b[sahi - ( -

~ 1)
l)h2x]2

(
).
138. (. 54).
. . , (111.25), = + - ^ ^
7

( pa = , = ^ J. ,
, (111.23),

. 54

. 55


-1
8

rgh,

= rgh + ^-^-

+ - ,
h=

"

139. ' , (. 55). \'\ = =


r n

^-

. ^ =
^

.

268

III

140. ) , . 56.
, =

. F, 2 + 2 /4) 3 / 2
, , , ,
dS , :
=

TzdS = --E2dS = ---

dS,

r22wrdr
ea

2"

,
. ,
, Fz + AFZ,
E,

6)
. 56
AFZ = q2e~2a~2r^-

. -

, , -

1.

269


= 4 ^ ^ ,
(111.25). AFzr

= 4~~2~|| =
s

= AFZ. Fz + AFZ + AFzr =

sa
,
, , .
) , R ,
q, (. 566). ' = j 7iE2er),
= E i + E2, E i = - e r ,
1
t
sR
, = -^ (^ sin er cos $) ,

, ^> . , ,

- .
141.

^0= ^

g .
142.

Z< 0:

<fi = <"2 =

l+2
1
143.

<7 ^

"-

1 /
i\^V2
/
i\^Vlll
"J (2 ^-/~ \ ^ 1 ^-/~

= / + + = r i | 2 = 0 = 2 | 2 = 0 .
> q, i, . > -

270

III

144.

F=-4

4?
\ > , \ <%
. , , , . ,
, , , ,
. ( ,
, .)
F :
) q' q"; ) , ,
; ) . ,
,
, .
145

F1=

2(ei+e 2 )o :2 '

4o 2
2 i

2(i + 2)

92

Q1Q2

4a? +

2(i + 2 )o 2 '

, q\ 92 ,
;
.
, q\ 92, ,
.
146. < = 0, < = q/er\
2
q/er (. . 10: q , q ; \ = ,
= ). q/er-i, , ,
q/e, z = . q/e q/e
z = 0 ( 1/ ).
"~

23'

' "

- z = 0.

1.

271

147. ,
. 57.

+9

+2
/////////////,

148. (0,0, z). , , z p s i n a , 0, pcosa,


' sin a, 0, cos a.

U =

(.') 2 -3(-)(')

F =-

25

16z

+ cos2a),'

(l + cos 2 a),

sin a

. N
z (a = 0, ). N = 0
a = . .
149. ,
z || .
' U , ' ' . d p ( )

dU = ' dp, U = f dU = 1^ ( ' ) (.

166).

272

III

(. 153). :
<pi =

sEorcosd
l + 462

<2 = -Eorcosd

< ,

03^-

> .

,
_

2 (>
i + 2 e 2 \ <0

2>
2<i-

EQ ,

,

.
150.

= - (.

104).

151. tp = - + 5- ( ^ R),

= 3 , 3 ;
4

1.

273

152. F, q, , q\
, 92 , ft. , ,
ZeE0 _
Zq

= -=-? .

3<7 2
F =
r.2'
(2e

EQ

,
(.
140). 140 ,
, 2

F\ = -=-,

F, ,

( , ). ,
.
(2 + 1)2
q, F' =
(2 - 1)<72
= -(2e + l)o 2 e , .

. 58

153. (. 58), .

(1)
q\ . , (1), , , .

274

III

, a j m = 0. , c m / 0 .
6/ = 6/ .
) <(, $) = V = const.
^- 96:

6/ =

I 0, 6 = VR j,

, :

=
)
Q . ,

Q = 2 (a(R,d)R2smddd

= eVR-

^ ,

V = - ^ + J j . 96, (2) :

9' = q,

r 2 = v/r + o ' - 2 o V c o s i 9 ,

' = ^ .

, > , : q
Q nqr = q^ q'
' = ^ - .

1.

275

q' , q
. , ,
q. +q' q , q .

. 59

. 60

, Q . (V =
= 0),

V=
154. <() = A---

155. ({) = - ^

+ V (. 59),

+ ^-%V
j _

156.

( = (pi = g |

(5)

1~ 1-

(. 60),
_

2-2
9

, < = < =
~

))

276

III

157.

-Pj(cos??)

ito

^ ;

\ q .

. 61
,
. \ * 153.
158.

ri q.
a = ,

2\ q
)

1.

277

159. Si $2 .
,
, , (. 62).
Si = . S2, , 00' :
*

(1)

(1)
S2:
6 + cPi(costf),
(2)

Pi (cos i9) = cos i9.


cPi (cos &) = cos i? (2)
, * 0.
(. 2), . ,
, .
,

(3)
Ai Bi :

51

'

12

<
<
- dSi = -Airq.
Si

3<?

278

III

, :
F=-

160. =

qc
3-3'

a2b2c2
(-)2(3-3)

161. q dq U
dU = tp'dq, tp'
. q: (/ = const q.

U = IdU = COnst 2

(1)

</ q ( ), (U =
= f'q). (1) 153,
U =
F = -

. 63

2(2-?
q2aR
e(a?-R2)2'
2

Qq
q R (2a -R )
2
2
2
2
""
2a e(a -R )'
ea'
ea3(a2-R2)2'
Qq > 0,
, q
().

162. / = -

qR

163. q ,
, , , , , , . , ,

1.

279

- (Q

, ).
(. )
Q _

(2/-1)2

\a/R){a/R-ir

a/R
q/Q.
164. p = p ( e x s i n a + e z c o s a )
, q =
= 1-- cos ' = ( ^ ) ( sin a + ez cos a ) , ' (. 63) ' = ^ - .
p2R(r2 cos 2 a + R2)
2e(r 2 - 2 ) 3

'

p sin 2a

2(2-2)3'
- , = R + z, R > ,
z = const, 148 ( ).
165.

<7 =

^rCOSI?,

43
1? .
= - ^ .
R
166. , ,

Qim.

280

III

U' U, ,
, > (.
(III. 16)). , Qim . , ,
| m Q ? m -

(2)

^ , 161, , Qim / .
(2) Q/ m , /
.
167. / = q<p0 - 0 ,

=<)--,

<2 = JL + _

F = qEo + ( V)E 0 ,

N =

( ).
169. , U = ^ . /%&, U = ^(0
+ 0 + Piz)E2z). , /?<) > /?<> > /?W > 0,
U , || ; /?() ^ /? ^ /?(*) < 0,
|| z.
170.

i > 2 , \ < .

, 2 > i .
i * . ,

1.
=

281

^
^->
2 2 ( 2 - 2 )

2 2 ( 2 -

R2)2

(. 161).
(III. 16). U' = ^ - / ( 2 - i)E Ei dV. V
5,
. , U',
U . E i
2 ( 2 i) . U' = 2 ~ l / Vy Vyi dV.

/ Vy Vyi dV = -^- dS + J (fA(fi dV, s c'n


, <^1 = 0, U
:
= 2-i

R2l+1
' 21+3'

v^
I
ff0 lei+ (1 +1)2

, (2) 166. F .

172

172

~ W=W ~ 2

'

173. = - - = -=

2R,R2
5,

. . , , , , 6 =

, .
-1

282

III

175. , , z ^,

(1)

\\ **.
.

177. C =
z , .
178. , z , n, z \\ ,

tg??o = ^- , .

2.
180. q\ q'
( qi,
). (III.28) :
, "1
= C12V1 + C22V2. J

,
q' = ( + cia)Vi + (12 + c 2 2 )V 2 .

(2)

2.

283

q' , , V2 . (2) , 1
, V\ q , V2,
,
+ 12 = 0.
(3)
(1) :
qi=cn(Vi-V2).

(4)

(2), (3) (4) ,


= = 12 = 21,
" = 12 + 22.
181. 1 1 =

32-5-,
2-5-, ss22
=
22 =
- C12

2li3-,
2li3-,i
i22 ==ss21
l ^
^l ^ - .
21 == ^

22 - C12

22 - C12

182. 5 = ^ - , 1S22 = -Q-, S12 = 521 = -gf-

183. c=
t S

'

q i =

+22 +2C12
S n 2 s i 2 + si3

au-an

185. <Zi = - f < 7 ,

'8'

92 = - 9 ,

99 22 = =

2'

99
==

4'

9 4

s\\ - 813

93 = ^ 9 -

189. :
COO = + 22 +

- :
Coi = Cij + C2i.

190.

284

III

191. 1/,
F=

bC2q2

3[ + 6(6-)-- 1 ]] '

192.

Vi = qsn +(Q-

q)su = qs\2 + (Q - q)s22 = V2,

an - aia
S22 - s

1 2

Q
~

( l )

^i;

'

Sik ( 1 2 ).
fc-ro .
:
(Q + 9fc-i - 9fc)si2 = <?fcSi2 + (Q-q

qk-i)s22.

, (1), , qk-i qk:


qk=q

+ ^qk-i-

(2)

(2)
:

3.
193. :

tp = const = 0 ( ), tp > 0 .

3.

285

, = \Jx2 +2 + z2 > , > 2 , :

de

49

47\ 4

47


: cra:CTJ,:< = : : .
194. = > ( ):

> =

, = 0 () = -.
> b = ( ):

> =

In

v
2

,
2

- / - b

+ \/2 2

, 6 < ():

195. : 9 = 0.
,

< = - =

( 2 - 2 )( 2 - 2 )

286

III

> , < 0. <,


>'
, ip' = <foF() ,

()

. ,
,

0= =

1-

q, , <\=0 = const -- dS = 4 (S -

, ),
(. 193):

196. , .
,
. :

-
1-

3.

6 , = W l ^

287

~~

V
,
X=

-z\

(. 66).
:

23(1-*)-*

<

1-
^

-2

(. 198). -

= 0 - ^ = 3. ():
bo

"1

6,

, .
197.
, 195 (
, ).
:

:
a(z) _

() =() =
= 4/1 ^ .
V

abc

288

III
> 1 ():
n

(-)=0,

n<> = nM = i

e C l (, ):

()

" 33
"*"

15'
15

"

~ 33 ++ 11 55

arotat>\ ">

:
n(z> = 1,
200.

(> = (") = 0.

< = < = < = <Pz-

< = fix

1-

= V?2x = EQX

V?y <pz ,
z, .
:

3.

289

(2 = - +

3 '

= /?<> /?<> =
..

201. (III. 16), :

6[2 + i + n(e2 -

dU=

a6c( 2 -
6[e2 + 1 + n(2 - i)][2 + (1 -

i9 , (., ,
).
,
( < 1/3) ( > 1/3)
, .
, \ >

abc(3n-l)gsin2i?
6(1 - )

202.

,
I
~
= /1 ^-= ,
V

R ( q),

( , (194).

, (1) .

290

III

U 4 :

, q<qKp = Vl6nR3a,
. q > q^, .
1
. ,
, -
qk ,
q ;
.
.

= -

\/ z > 0 z < 0.
( !
ip

E0a3z

z > 0.

, 3

0
z, = -.
, ,

, .
204.
( =

% (7 arcsin Y~ -\
47 \
1
yVi

)
2
-a /

z = 0,

ri = /% + ?
.
' , , ,
2
2 3 .

3.

291

205. Aip = 4TrqS(r ); ^- :

/ tp(r,a,z)coskzdk

tpk(r,a) = -

(1)

oo

ip(r, a, z)

(. . 11):
/?) = 0,

(3)
(4)

(2) . , (3),
( = 1,2,3,...), ()
7(), (). 0
0
(2) :

^2 Anlnn (kr) sin ^ ^


n=1

<,

(5)

'

> .
TT="I

(5) , (4)
= 0 (. 3).
, -,
= .

292

III

-, , (5) (2). (5) (2),


sin ( = 1,2,...) 0 /3.
sin - ,

1()

< ,

/3

() >.

Rm(r) = ,

6 = R'm(r0 + 0) - R'm(r0 - 0) =

'^ (fcr0) - kAml'^

(fcr0).

Rm(r) ^ ( ) = 5( ).
(7) ,
= , , :
'()
0

- 1'()
0

= --^sin

(8)


Kv{x)I'v{x)-K'v{x)Iv{x)

= l.

207.
ch ^ + cos
,
7
1
ch ^ - cos Y

3.

293

= ) + 2 + 2 2 - 2 0 cos(7 - ) = \/20 ^/; - c o s ( 7


= Jrl

-a),

+ 2 + 2 2 - 2 0 cos(7 + ) = /20 \/ch.T) - c o s ( 7 + ) .


(--i)

208. = const-r V / 3 ,
. ,
(. 205),

const = -

, I T - 0 > 0 (3 < ; cr > > 0


/3 > . , ,

209. 9 , z .
z = z = + .

f

ipi = q I Jo(kr\)e

- I
|z|

dk+ I A\(k)Jo(kri)e

00

dk

(00 < z < a),

00
kz

2 = I B1(k)J0(kr1)e~

dk+IB2(k)J0(kr1)ekz

dk

(a < z < b),

(1)

00
kz

= / M{k) J0(kn)e~

dk

(6 < z < 00, 6 = a + c).

\, 2, Bi, ?.

294

III

, :
=q/3

-2 _

-2

9/3(1 -0) -*

0 =

(2)

| ^ j , = + .

(2) (1) .
(z > 0) :
pz

n =

( )
<P

29

(. 129).
(
(-1)"

. 666.
211. , = i = & . z
, . 65.
z\ = a cth i, 22 = a cth 2 ( ). a, i, 2

3.
= a i s h i , =

295

, b = z2 z\ = a(cth^2 cthi),

a | - a 2 - b2

2 , k2

2a2b

(1)

_( .
sin r, dr,V
dr,

in 2 r, 2
S in

- 4 = 0 .

(2)

(2) ,
,
, \ = 0, :

= 0,1,2,3, . . .

. 65
i7?)-

*=
/ VK&2, )) = 0,

l=o

296

III

j=o

h(i + )(ftft)

(4)

1 _

; ; 1

dr}da


+ , . (4)
, :
= -=- + ai shft ~ ^ ' + 1 ) cth(Z + ^
J=0

213.

= ^- + aishft 2~\+' 1cth(l + ^)(^i


j=o

22 = + a 2 sh 2 ^e ^ 2/2cth^/ + -^
j=o

= ft = 2 , ai shft =
h

3.

297

214.
3

= ai(l + + + ),
1 2 = a i n ( l + ),
3

+ + ),
m = -, = -.

215. , V. R = 2,
(. 66, ).
(. 666, )

. 66

2R .
.
V. QQ = RV
. , 210 ( = 1),
: (l)nq'o z'n = 2Rn z',
. ,
:

=1

=1

=1

298

III

In 2 (. [90], 0.232).
(111.32), (III.33)
' ( z

. 67
, ). z
r\ =

r i

#2

, = r\ + z

^ , ?() - .

3.

299

217. /3,
( ) :
2 | i |,
\ 27 |^i + &I

i ,
i .

,
2 ,
/3 ( z'), ( =
= 0,7) . . 67 i > ,
& < 0. ^ = 2aV.
, 7 = 7 ,
= i.
= const ' = const,

7 - '

0 < ' < 7 + 7,

\ 7 - ' + 27

7 + 7 < ' < /3 ( /3 > + 7).

' ,
( 68,
00'' 00'):

y/2(ch/9 cos)
, 206, (1) (2),
:

= V

n
" (,-.)

s h

_u*C

chC-11

300

III

218. &) = (sin 0 + 0);

217

0 =

|(5-X).

= .

IV


220. 4 =
221. R.
222.

R = -= = 2,
13
= -=- = 3,
= 22

= 4.

, , = 3 .
223. , . 12.
Bk~AkAk+\Bk+\
?fc.

(1)


: ~,

1
,

cos > ch ,

sin > t sh .

302

IV

(1) Jk = ' + '~.


, , (1)


(3)

Jk = /3 - ),

/3 . . .

^ ( + + ) - ^ _ ! = .

(4)

(4) $ $-\ (3) (2),


(3:
Ra ch + / sh ( + ^ )

)) -.

Ra sh + VRrchln +

ija

(5)

,
:
g.

(6)

(6) ,

Ri ch / + / sh (/3 + \ )
AkAk+i
:

gch(/3fc)a
Ri ch /3a + / sh 10 + i J a

(7) /3 (2), (5).


> , a > 0 (7), ,
:
Jk

R + R + in + W

(8)

303

(7) (8) . . . < ,


, :

(9)

[Ri + Rv + in

= 0, (5)
,
(10)

= + \.

224. ^(), tp(x) ( )


,
/ \

idJ

dV

225.
*/__

$chs(x-x0)
Richsxo + y/pf/shsxo'

s = .. XQ

VPP7'

(2)

Ri = Ra = 0

^"'""""

(3)

, ' * , XQ * a, s * 0
:

Ju

(7) 223

.
1
,

= pax,
= ,
K=-J~I
= -j-.
dx
dx
dx

304

IV

(2) 223 , = sdx. /3 /3 = -^-, / = xos.


(5) (7) 223
(1) (2).
226.

21'

12 + 21'

31

:
- 1) ~ xi (2 =

< =

2
4

Az-.Pi
4

V ,
.
:
>i
* = 4

ffi-.Pi
4

D2

11

"

E2 - D2
"

(Ji, /32 ,
.

305

228.
'

U,

>6.

,
z. ,

(Ti

eJz

eJz

r=b

z = 0 (Ti (2 . ,
(Ti = (2 = 0, .
, .
qi = 2\ q2 = 22 = q\,
( z),

V =

Si
V

= const.

q\/V
.
, , ,
. ,
,
.
229. =

-k(x2h

306

IV

So = 1 . . . . (. < 0).
, ,

; , 01
2

901 = --(Ei - ).
230. , , 0-
, . . . = =^-.
7 = ~( ) (
0- , , ., 229),
, . , , 27 = <?V> V = ^'
. JV
. . . 8$ {8 = 1)
.
JV , (
) 1- 2- , . ,
, 1- 2-
, JV\, $Vi, ,
, .
2

231. R = f -, dl 5; 1 2
.
232.

4\

) =^(1-04TTXI \

ln

) R = r-V- -
2nlx

233.

-L(I-i)+
472 \

.1.

21


234.

307

<?=*

235. =
236. Q =
237. =
238. R = Vl~V2

= Ri + R2 - -1-} fli + ,

i?i = -, = -^
4KXU1

(. 233).
239.

4KXU2

= /1 ^

(/ ).
1

0
,

_ 1

(1~)%1+
1

.
( V) , , .
240.
3 = "

(1)

(v(x) - ).
ip(x)

-V-^
(if = 0 = 0).

308

W
(1) (2) , = 3*/-

dip

(3) -f

( ).

(3)

^ = -^jJ-^= 0 4>\=

= Vo.


241.
<,
=

-gjr

<

> .

6,

242. . z ,
:

= ,

= ,

AAz

(1)

= -^p-jz,

j z = 0 > a, j z = -=-5- ^ .

J ,
; Az
z.
= = ,
:
<
,

= ^;

(2)

>

= -.
.

(2')

310

243. <
= 0;

=
^ ^ b

c(b a )
> b
Az = In Y + )

-BQ

gj. .

. ,
Az, , .
244

farctc

I a r c t6 c a ~ 2 x
"'
2

.
245.

246. Az = ^- In ^ =
_ 9^z _

_
~

- ^

_
~

2J (-
\ 22


(, 0) + (, 0) ; \ ?
(, 0) (, 0) .
247. ) = -i, = 0;
) = 0, = -i.

.

311


248.

=
( )

, = Hz = 0; ,

.
249. , z ,
Az Ar 0,
() () , 2 =
_

(a + r)2+z2'
:

(X

*
~^~ '

Hz = *f

^( _i_
() -\

\() +
2

* _|_ ip& _|_ &

I7l/'I^^
j\K) ,

--

(a-r)2

y/(a + r) + z l

( = 0)
= 0,

Hz = -

250.
. :

N = JBdS

= f(r, z) = const,

5
, (
). ,

BdS=

j> dl = 2(, z) = const.

a = const
.

312

V
251. :
2
(-1)"


= rot A:

= 2 ( ) ~~- '

=0

'

(cos 6>i+cos 2),

252. Hz =
(. . 68):

h-z

COS 0\ =

COS 02 =

253.

.
,
,

( ).
, , . ,
, ,
.
:
1 - = <
(1)

(. 47).

313

sin $, (1)
Aa(r,ti)

= F(r) sinti.

(2)

, F(r) , , (2). , (2)


div A = ,
, (1).
F(r) (1) , = rot A.
( < )

^"'

>
3r(m )

>

m = - .

254. , j = 0, = grad^>.
rot H = 0 , div H = 0

I , J.
r,a,zn
= ().

255. ) V , 5 (. 69),

314

, ,
:

= ir^

(1)

1 2
, 1
2
.

(. [101]):
. 69

(2)
(2) S', ;, ,
/

dip

-^- .
on
, ( ) . , -^- = , ,
on
. (2)
, 5.
5. -, -^- --(-) 5, (2)

on

on \r /
(3)

5.
(1),

(4)

315

rr

^ ,

, (4)

, - , S,
.
) , ; 55,

V M .
= rot , :

( i ) ! | ( )

(5)

( ( ) = 0 ; ,
= 0 . 1 (5)
= grad ,
1

-? fr-dS

Jo

256. F = 0, N = m x H, m = ^ / n dD
.
=

2 _ 3 ( m i - r ) ( m 2 -r)

F 2 = - F i = -5 [(mi r)m2 + (m2-r)ini + (mi m 2 )r]--j(mrr)(m 2 -r)r,

-, , Fi, F 2
, ;
_ 3(m 2 -r)(mi ) | m 2 x
5
+
3

IN 2 =

3(mi r)(m 2 )

m 2

.5

316

N i , N2 ,
. , N i N2,
N i + N 2 + ( r x F 2 ) = 0.
(mi = m i n , = , = ,
),
2

ro(5cos i? 1)]
i? .
259. J2
U21 =

7; In a + const,
2

.
, :
,
J

du2i
~

2 '

(J*\ J*2 ) .
260. F N :

s
U (, ) =

$\$.. 4 r 2 + g 2 + 4 a r c o s a
17^2'

4* + Aar cos a

261. N = f

264. Lia = 4(6 - V62 - 2 ) ;

-?'

317

265. (V.23).
, 89,

K"(fc) = f ^2 2
J Vl-A; sin V

E(k)= [ Jl- sin


^

.2 _

ipdip,

4a6

I 3> a, 6 fc :


[90], 8.113, 8.114):

(. -

I>i2 , 3, L\2 =
-

12

%
'

L i 2 = *-,
1
.
4
6 I, 1, X(fc) w In
(fc) w 1,

/1 A2

L12 = 4 fin

8 a

y^ + (a - 6)2

266.

318

267. = 425. , h,
,
L = Ann2Sh.
268.

2c2 J

dS\ dS2 , R
, i (ii = = = ) , , ,
.
:

7i/t

ujr

c2

i j_

_ A.
/ dz\ iI jdz2
<f>

cosada

( ^ J .

a/h , :
2

L = 4 /1 = 4 5/1.
269.
2

L = 4 (6 - s/tf - a ) .
! =
, 6 >
N
= -^-:
2
2

i ? = 4
(. 267).

2 2

= 4 5

319

26-'
6 = 4 2 5.

70
,
N2 , . :


L = 2/i In

26 +
26-

.
270. (V.16).
242. 1 (. 70)

Alz=C

< ,

+ 2ln^

(1)

>

, 2, (1)
J , 6 \ .
:

W =- ^

f(Alz

2 J

+ A2z) dS! - - ^ f(Alz


2 J

+ A2z) dS2.

(2)

, (2), , (3.765)
[90]. , :
ab

320

271. , ,
:
W = Wx + W2,

(1)

,
,

, .
, ,

< < R,

(2)

, R ( ). , ,
. , :
1

(. 242). W\:

wl = g

W2
5, , , . 5
+--

= %*.

(4)

, W2,
:

f(B-H)dV = - [BgradrpdV = - f div(^B)dV = -

321

( 2 div = 0).
5 S' (. . 71,
).
. ,

(5)
, (2) S' , , .
(4)
.

W2 = -

BndS.

(6)

( > )
, ,
. ( ^ < ) ,
, .
, (6) , ,
. 71
, ,
, . (V.22),
W2 = I / .

(7)

(1), (3), (7), ,


:

(8)

322

V
272. ,
L' = 47r/ib(lnf - 2 ) ,

, .

, / = 1 = 1,

q + Va2 +1 2
I
21 . 273,
273.

= 8\l- 2\Ja + 1 + 2\/2

275. L = 2 + 8fib In

V2-2 .

a(l +

276. (V.13) = h$ik (. 32), :

2
=

323

, (2,8 10~ 1 3 ),
(0,9 10~ 2 0 /),
, v = 10 1 3 /
.
.
. [111,6].
278. ' r o t H ' = 0, ..
. ' =
= gradr/', , :
div(^gradV') = -4 ,

.
:
77'

77'

1=2

^2

~fr=-fr


. ,

:
< = lim

pmh.

h. grad

324

279 Hl =

'

^f^ '

H2 =

^f^ '

, , H i , H2
\, 2280. 1 ,

$\ , $\ ^
, .
2 , J\ =

J, ,

J.
281.
rot = 0, div = 0, ( = grad^), .
. (. 149):

H l

^ 2


= + ,
,

, :

2) "

:
JMOI = CTOtM = 0.

325

(V.3) (.
). 2 =
M i = , :

4(/ + 2)

0 sin i?e a .

, ,
, (. 253).
282.
, , .

2 = + ,
,
*

= 77

1
Za

0k-

, :
N = m .

-ft)'

i 2

283. =

1-

284. =

1-

/Mi_+M2\ _ /oV
\M1-M2/
V6/
/xi 2 .

"ft)"

"ft)"

/xi /2 ( ; ).

326

V
285.
H = rotA,

= H

Az =

< a,

Borsma

z ;
.

288. / =

'

/=

2 ( 2 - 2 )(+1)"

2(2-2')(+1)-

290. H i

J-

, .
291.
= 22. , (V.27), Bi =
= /iiHi +4, .
, 281,

_ 4

_
/
1
~~
, ,
.
292. :

H =

40

327

:
2 =

2( )

44

2
' '
2

, m =

470

293. :

40

:
2 = +

()
-g

^,

(1)

111

4 3 0

- 1

r~s

/j + 2 ,
,
, . ,
. . ,
,
Ni=

eikiXkTim
eikiXkTlmdSdS,
m,

(2)

Tim (V.26),
, . (V.26) (2) ,

N = -L j ( 2 )( 2 dS) - ^ j ( dS).

(3)

, dS , (3) . dS = n dS = 2 dil, = an 2 (1).


N =

/ [ a 3 ( n ) + m ] ( + \. n ) dU.

(4)

328

2
^eikim,kmanina.

(5)

= ^5fcm (. 32) ,

(5) ,

N = m
(6)
, m ,
^

(7)

, (

3 ) .

- 1

m 2

(1+cos2g)

_-1

m2sinflcosfl

, m . > 1 ( )
, ,
(. 148).
295. 201 . , H i

, Nki
( ). 197 ^
.
296. , ,
.
, H i :
1

329

= Skm - Nkm "

6 j ^ .
, 11.
. .
:
{)

/*<>

bik , ^ 1
:

(//^-l)]" 1

1
[l+N^in^-l)]'

VI

1.
297. /3= Jog.
/? = aj).1
299. , ,
, .
: /^, /^ = /3^3\
:
) . ,
. ' " ,
' = /?'( + '),

" = /?"( + "),

(1)

, ' " ,
. ' "
, ,
, .
1

, ,

. /3 = ~aj).

331

1.

' " (1), = ' +" =


^

I
0'

2{a3 + 2/3')
a3(a3 + 2(3")

2{a3 + 2/3")
a3 {a3+ 20')

i
0'

) .

0(2)

0(3) =

_
3-(3'

0'
0' = 0" 0^

( -0")
0^

, -(3"

^7 + 3 3
0"
( 0')

\
20'

0'

301. ) .
(. (VIA')):

)
, . 8:

332

VI

, , :
Pi = Pik&k =
.
,

,
,
/3^ + /3^ + /3^ (. 9).

/3 (VL4').
302.
,
W = - | = - | ( / 3 i cos 2 + /32 sin 2 0)El
, , (VI.6). (VI.7) N .
= Np,
. ,
.

] ( - ^ ) ( cos2 + fa sin2 ) sin <


= 4F fpn dN =
N J II
, . ,

1.
, = -

333

- 1.
Ki

= Np = aEo,

, EQ , ,
. ( = 300 ). /?i /?2 10
3 , 6

10 . , , - 3 /.
Pi 2

, :

(. 301).
305. , ,
(1)
R dV, . ,

(2)

S,

' , ' , ' . (1) (2),


, 1

d2Qik

_,_

1 dQin

,
' , ' ' .

334

VI

' = divP', ' = ^, (3) ,


1 dQik
, _
P

'.
(3) , .

306. =
4
= &nN(J. 0

, ,
.
i < l ,
,

307.
(. [101]):

m
.

1.

335

2
:
* = 2ma3Wk.
(4)
Wk .
, Wk = . (4) (2) (1), = 0- ,
, , .
, .
1.
308. , (N) ()
(VI.6):
Zetp

<

~~~~

(1)

<(, , z) . , > ,
, Nun
. (1)
Zetp

eip

(2)

< :
Zetp

e<p

(3)

, :

1,

_ 1.


, <, ZNQ = ,

4^'

., , [70].

fcT

336

VI

(3)
(5)

< = *1.

tp
. (5)
< =

~z

, = 0. \
, < 3j

:
= " = "'

C l

Ze

, ,
, 1/ , .
.
1/ -.
309.
>/_\

D ( x ) = E o

= \/

chxx

^ xh > 1 = h
D(x) = o e - ~ ( / l 4 x | ) ;

, \ h\ > ^ , D(x) = 0, ..
1/.

~ 4
47
47
, , . = h

2.

337

1 ,
, .

2.
311. = 1 + 4nNa3, = 1 - 2nNa3 < 1.
. ,
.

,
I,

I .
(. . 4nNa3 < 1).
312.
+ Tfir = eEoe"*"*.

(1)

, ,

= 7 =
N,
() ():

(1)
/:

" ^

(3)

338

VI

(2) (VIII.8),
:
(4)

^
(2) ,

(5) , ' . < 7



j -

. -,

- _

e2N

(4), (5),
(> > 0) .

(>)
.
7 = ( = 5 10 1 7 " 1 ). (3) :
2

_ Ne
7

23

N0e d

iVo 6 10 ." , 63,5 /


d 8,9 /3 . 7 ~ 1 0 + 1 4 " 1 ;
, 10 1 5 " 1 .
, , , , ,
. ,

2.
, ,
( ) . ( . [34, 66], 67.)

,
(), . . 321.
313. ,
,
. , 8 < , .
,
, .
/3'ik ( i, = 1 , ). /3'ik /?(*) :
/3'ik = 01 = (0-

/3')<1 + /3'6ik,


( 1 = Sik, &).

,
0'ik, .. anctki $, <, :
041 = cos ti, c*i2 = sin ti cos (p,

c*i3 = sin ti sin (p.

( 302),
(
, = -

= 0

i .

339

340

VI

(J3o /? ).

, :

= ( 3 ) =
,
(, ) .
. : 10~ 1 0 . (
.)
.
314. ^= = , 2 :

, .
315. S dS (dSx,dSy,dSz).

(1)

pi = PikEk .
,
:
dA = dW.

2.

341

dA
. dW
dW=\

Y,{hk$k dS* + &


i,k

(2)

dS*k).

,
, fine = 0ki;
dW

= 151

, .
317. ,
,

wo . , :

= ^

57 -

)-

, ^ (. 26).

2
201

Pile = }"5
Z\(>ik

(>k

2
2
(

, 315,
. (. 316)

g =

= ^-0 .
2

,L

342

VI

318.

eik=\_L{+_-}

!(+ + -)

|.

_ _ -,

_ ,

(JJ\(JJ ^* AJJTJ I ^ ~

, ,2 _ 42

^~ 0(\

9 =^ - - )
z.
2 <. \% \.
319. { , .
:

i7

/7

0
- () 0)
, .
320. j = o-E + ( E x a ) ,

, ( ).

2.

343

R = -\= .
ceN
:

321. , , ,
, , , R, +.
:
= - e E o e - i w t - % ( ) - m 7 ( r - R ) , ]
\

(1)

MR = eEoe-iu>t + | ( R ) - m-r(R - ). J
,
; , . . ( R ) (R )
. = ~ *
.
(1)
= -*\

R = Roe-'"".

(2)

z
Ro
roi = -=( ),

Roi = T"^(-Rox Iroy).

(2) (1) :
-(0

+ MRo) = f [(Ro - 0 ) ] .


-[(

+ m)Ro + m ( r 0 - Ro)].

,
)b

(3)

344

VI

(1) ,
. ^

^ , v ? 7 s

7S> ~ ( ^ ) ^ ( ) , = - ^
(2), :
iuj + 7 ^ ) ^ 1 ^ - 1 = JIT
(4)
(3) (4) s.
=
Nese~wt,
N ( ) .

1
1

= 1
^ ,
, 312;
>0. *
UJH^IH',
-jjj- < 1, . . >.
; 0 , 2

* : = 1-\

^.

( ).
445.
322. ,
, ^

Tik=[-Ta
V

0\

0 .
)

, 318, 319 .

3.

345

324. t = ,
, () = 0 t < 0. = ' + ",

P(t) I ('')-* ' dJ = : / (')->* dw',

(1)

(>') E(f) = <5(). (1)


t 0. P(f) = 0 t < 0

I dJa(u') f e-^'-^'dt = 0.

(2)

( 1.17) ,

(3)
-.
325. , ' = 1 +

327.

divB = 0.

3.
328. = Asin(wo* + ), = Acos(u>ot + a), Mz = ,
wo = 1, . , , 2
2
2
= MQ , . . + = MQ , $ .
.

346

VI
329.
^

= -^ ,

+ ; ( 0 - )
1

= ~^ , Mz = + m 2 e~

(1)
ia;t

; z .
(1) ,
,
% - (LJ + iuir)2

= 0.

: = ; ,
, .
/2. .
330. ,
/i x e~ 4 a ; t , /i y e~ 4 a ; t , + hze'^1. - (VI.15)

= -*\

= -\

Mz = + ~\

(1)

.
, ()
. , , mz ,
h. (1) - / , :
-

CL)Q

-2

(2)
h

2V

= 0.

, > LJQ = JHQ HQ : LJ = LJQ ,


.
m
-. (. 332) | | ,
2
- = const. .

3.
331.

[
Xik = [iXa

-iXa
X

347

0\
0 ,

Vo o /

/i||

, Hik (/^ =
= (1,^). , , .
/^
. 72.' 3400 .

332. = -^Ccosujt,
L)lu)

= -^Csinujt,

= ,

Aw = IJJQIJJ, ijJo = 7-Ho> ^i = lh.


2 + My + 2 = $, :

Q = /Aw2 + 2.
|>|, > 0.
:
= -^
>1
= -=- sinwf = xhy,

|<|
Mz = =

6. ,
h , h:

'. 72 73 .. [48].

348

VI

( ()

= JM2 + 2. ; = 0, (1)

= MQ cosutf,

My = sin art,

Mz = 0.

, , .

103

-2
-4. 72
twt

333. = Mo + m e " , , m
hx - ,2 - 2 - 2 hy,

hx +

- - 2,

U -ii
)* 2

3.

349

, ( / 0) ,
m .
334.

,,
LOtoJSl2 + 2)
= 4702
242, 2

(S2 to ) + 4; <

= 4 7 7 ^
5 ~2
(Si > ) + 4; '
L02i0Qi0r
2 2

= ^ + w r '
/|| = 1 + 470

^ .

) = 7-^0,
,

3400 .

', /"
. 73. / / .
", / = ~ %,
', ' ~
^
7 '
, . 73, , (>) (. . 16).
/" /, /',!
. > = 0.
335.

350

VI

0 -10 3

. 73
336. , z
. N^
. -
:

= - 7 [ 0
= 7 [ 0 +

(1)

Mz = , . , ( z) ,

= + me"*1",

(2)

z. 2,
(1) (2), (1) . ,

2 = 1 = 7 2 [ + 4((*) -

\1
u)k .

3.

351

/XI -
338. Xifc = 2
\
0
( 2 ),

2 = ^ { 7 2 0 [ 0

= (% - 2) ~ ujwr [2

Xik
,
.
339. M i
2
(1)
M i = + m i e ~ t w t , M2 = 20 +
(, 20 M i , M2).
(1)
nij = nijx inijy

(j = 1,2).

:
u>oi = 70,

^02 = 7| - 2 |.

(2)

(2) | | 3> HQ. UJQI


, .
>02 U>01.

352

VI

4.
340. j H = 0, div j c = ,
( = 0,
rotAj c = - H ,

(1)

d i v H = 0.
j c ,

(2)

,
6 = \l^f-

( , ).

341. HX = HZ= 0, = [ - | ] , j x = j y = 0, j z = f- ,v

--fl342.

F,I

Fx .
.

343. Hx = Hz=0,Hy

= H0

ch(a/<5)'

4.
My , (). { <

353
-

~ - j ^ - = J- / = 1 + 4 = 0.
if

if

344. Hz =

Io r S

(/ )

. .-.,
/o(a/<5)

/, /i .
345.
= ( + 22) cosi?,

= ( - + j g ) sini?,

m , .

= f(r) sin i?, j r = j# = 0.
ja(r, fl)

(. 47),

. j Q ( r , $):

354

VI

m #
= .

J C a =

cthf

^ - (. 281 = 0), = 0.

* a m = -

> ,

/, .
347.

r o t E = -^^, -

= - ^ , I,
.
,
j

= 0,

5 , I. I
~ S, , j c = 0,

348.
349

L
i

$ = ^*

VII


1.
350. J(t) =

sinM - >), tg ip = *-,

- ),

(7 2 0 ) 2

L (. 272), R ,
^ . , t =
-

(SHpfR
>2 , (

352. ,
qit
Jl

CJ2LL12

0L12

L R , Li2 .

356

VII

353. F =
dqi

354.

, . . = , LO\ LO2

.
,
.
( ~> \,) =

1 2
=
,
V = 1 2 ,
=
= \ + -
L\

+ Li

, \,
L\, 1,2.
355.

2
ll2

2 / 1

2 \LCi

LC2

LiCi

\,

L2C2)
L

,
2
2
356. L)? =
1

357.
, :

+ ^ ) +,=0,

(1)

1 = JL-, 2 = -=, Ti = 2 = 2 .
\JL\O\

V-^202

,
: LO = LO' + ". (1)
\, 2. (1)

| = 0.

(2)

1.

357

(2) : { ' = wi 4
= ^ .
, " = 0,
( , R );
. UJ =
= /) + / + ", UJ", / 1/ .
, . UJ
(1), (2)
,

/ = 0, "'/ = -;-, "2 =-;-

(3)

UJ' , R, .
358.
^

?1 max =

359. Z =

4
4

, UJI = VLC
2. -

. R = 0 UJ = UJ\ Z .

( ).
360. = 0,

L = L0,

R = ^ , Lo =

361.

Q = I Re(C/^*) = I | ^ | 2 Re(l)

= \ -

358

VII
2

J%},

363

^0

" "
'

1 " 0>
UJQ

j
2~

- Q = r-n5^-5-2- W ,
2.2

364. , , , \,$2, --

g(f) , $2 $2 = q, a
t > 0.
(1) J\.

R, L, :

a) wo > nn/^'y $\

(. [94], 25),

) = 2 ^ ; Mt) = | [l - ( l + )~*}
, .

1.

365.

359

t < 0,

__t_

U0RC

< t < ,

U0(e~RC _ ~ ^
366.
f

Uo

* < ,

< t < ,
Rc2{t-T)

J .

367.
'0

t<-T,

hEo(l + + 9f)
*) =

hE0(l-fy

-T<t<0,

0<t<T,

. ,
, t = 0.
368. /(*) =

*[

- if) -

cos((/?o

tgip = ^-. , tg</?o = --


R
uL
:
.
369. ,
n- :
= 0.

(1)

360

VII

(1)
. (. 223)
sin xn cos xn, :
;2 = ;2 sin2 f,

0 = -=.

(2)

^ = $ = 0,
Jn = Asmxn,

=-

(3)

( = 1,2,...).
= 0 .
sin , (2),
. ,
1 < < N. 0 < < ,
,
N, N .
0 < > ^ 2> = an -
( ). (3)
Jn(t)=

Jo sin -**-*,

(4)

(4) ,
. , .

; ; , vv vg
. (2) :
= j^- sin -^,

vg= woa cos -^.

(6)

361

1.

- ;

( ) < 1, ,
vv = vg =
. CJ av
. 74.
2,
>
,
. L ,
1/ 1

370. =

-ufl

TI

371.
L\ , L^ .
:

. 74

(1)

\ =

(2)

Jn =

ixn

^ =
= BeBe

(3)

' ., , . ., , , 1944 .; . , , , 1958 .


. . [19], . 3 4.

362

VII

, , . (2),

(22 + 2) = Buj(l + ~),

(21 - 2) = ! + ).

(4)

(5)
,
. , 369,
.
,
, (5).

. 75

. >+ _ , + (5).
. 75.
>- .
, ( )
-

. . .

1.

363

>+
+ = + 2.

> 0 , .
1
( 7) . (4) < 1 :
CJ(!).-'

to+

>- . >+
, . = 7

(4) > 7,

, = + =
I
= / ^ Li,
CJ- = .

^.

>- >+
, (. ,
. 359).
372.

364

VII

q\,q2

, = 0; (^
Ji)Z2 = U\. , '' (.
. 23) U\. q\q2 = 1 (2), :
2

~41

373. :
9 1

9 2

q^
q\ qi = 1, :
a) |9i| = |ft| = l;

q%

) | | > 1 , | 9 i | < 1 .

q^ q ,
. N ~> 1 |^| 2> 1, a \q\ <C 1,

<

<

, ) ),
(2) 372. ,

, q\ q2
, , . . ). , q\ q2
, .. ).
, Z\, Z2 ):

1.

365

>2,

374. n-
(. 76).
, AL , .
1/*~1

:

gn-l,n

<?n+l,n

.76
qn-i,n qn+i,n
. (1) <?_!, = - , + Jn-!, <?n,n+i =Jn - :
1

z
.

-a,t),

Jn(t) = J(z,t),

Jn+1(t) =

(2) , L = ^-
,

366

VII

.
,
.
, (.. ), . 77.
( AL
)
"""""""
, (3):

2 2
77

(4)

dt

R
.

375. (3), ,
w = vk,

, =
VLC
= -, = 1 , 2 , 3 . . . , L .

v =

, , .
, , N
.
.
376. : j = <( +
+ ), .
:
- ut

,
, :

w-

(1)

, (1), . . . , ; ^ d\ = JR

1.

367

. $ Vtp-dl = dtp =
= 0. .
a(f _ I

(1) ,

2
j


. R + (^).
sin

R ; (^) (. ).
_

uoLUo)

^,

, .
, = ^ - I, I
.
,

1 ,

368

VII


1; ,
.
,
() .

= --*4 <f> <f>r d\-d\'.


377.

L(u) = L + *{ 4 .

= ^(2)*-

. , , -2

- =^-, m .

a w
J
.
Rr(w).
5

2. -
378. {) =

6
5 < h, H(x) = Hoe
; 5 > h, H(x) = Ho (. 247).
379. , , , , .
, .
, .
, ,
(VII. 12),

, 1 dH
' (V.18),
11

11/

$
f $
f ^- .
,
().

2. -

369

ii

= Hx(r),

= ,

() = .
, = 0
, :

M k r )

^ ^ ,

=0

> .


(VII. 11):

rot , :

\dl = I Bn dS.
,

, , . I , 2.
(3.12). :

, . . = 0,

= \ ( < 6), = ^-(>

).

370

VII

, , , > ,
. , r o t H = -^M-,
/

, rot H = 0 ( ).

(. 452,
).
380. (\\ <. 1 S )

._
~

.CHQ

,
.
(\\ ^> 1 S <; ) ,

5 . ,
.
11
381.

a)]

--

- j , fc2 -i

\\ <. 1 ( ):

\\ 1| ( ):

> , /.

2. -
382.

371

/3 =

\\ 1 ( ):

/3" =

, /3" * 0, .. ,
.
\\ - 1 ( ):

al _

fi

124

U)

all _

()

8 2

'

'

, > 0 /3 > 0; , = 1, . .
.
383. , ,
. 2
4r(m )
2 ,

2() =
+ 0.
(1)
, ; - , . 2 ( )
.

= ^- + ( ), :
A2z

= A2={^

+ Hor) sin a,

A2r = A2a

=0

(2)

( ).
,
( ) , sin a.
,
:
Alz

= A1=

F(r) sin a,

Alr

= Ala

= 0.

(3)

:
if.

372

VII
, ,

eft
, divA = 0, (2) (3),
-%- = = 0, = -* = . ot
at

, (. (VII. 12).
, = 0,
:
F(r) = Ch (kr),
Ai = Ch (kr) sin a.
(4)
m (4) (2) (Hi) () : Hi =
= . ( 3.9),

2 0
kJo(ka)'

2
2

)
J0(ka)

2
(. 382).
(4) (5):
(7)

. j = j - rot H

0
Ji(kr)

(8) ,
0 < < 7 7 < < 2 7 ; .

2. -

373

, ,
, 380. (
, , ,
.)
384.
(VII. 17), ,
. 383,

(VII. 16), (3.13).


385. . ,
383 :

krJo(ka)
. _ ickHp Jijkr)
3z
~
2 ' J0(ka)e

()



Jo(ka)

i a

'

, ,
f=i(jxH)

(2)

(, / = 1).
, . j ,
:
7 = -{).

(3)

, , (3)

374

VII

. (3.13).

.
N(t) = m(t) x H 0 ( t ) .

(5)

Nz = N m, a m (. 383),
(4).
(4)


(7)
, .
,
( ,
JV; . 383, j
). ,
.
, ,
.
386. , z , ,
, \, z, .

Ho(t) = (Hoi - i H 0 2 ) e - i w t .
Hoi 02 01 = 02 =
= , , .

2. -

375

385.
( )

387. 379 , ,
, ;
.

. 1 _ ^"" _ .
/-|\
2

at

'

, .
(1) F(r)e~'rt,
7 > 0 . F(r) :
F"(r) + i f ( r )

* =

+ k*F{r) = 0,

(2)

= 0 (2) F(r) =
= CJo(kr). , , , ,
| = = 0, . .
Jo(ka) = 0.

(3)

= /, = 1,2,..., / Jo 7

1 = - ^ .

(4)

(1),
,
e-^t.

(5)

376

VII


).

(6)

:
1

/ xJ0(kmx)J0(knx)

dx = | [Jo(km)]2unn,

(7)

~
/ < ' )) dr.
(8)
2
()
J 0) ,

(,
=

, , . ( 3.12), (3.9),

,
. . 7i , (4)
/?i 2,4. = fj-.
388. ( ) 281:
= ^

(1)

,
(VII. 11), , . ( >) (VII. 10) .
,
, ;
.

2. -

377

z ,
^

j = oE,

(2)

(1). Q ,
q = \<\\2 :

389. :
( )

= 0

3'

m = ^ 3 ; 0 = ^ 3 -.
:
= -^^

sin??,

Hr = ^ ,

z , ;

8
390. -
, rot E = 0, div E =
= 0 Hn\s = 0, ^ ^ ^ ,
S .
s = 0,
.

r o t E = 0,

divE = 0

(1)

\ = 0,

E^-^Eo.

(2)

378

VII

,
(1) (2) .
, ,
-
, s = 0. ,
200, \ = 0,
:
() _

V
4(1-)'

^ , V .
a, b 3>
() (. 198):

(6 - , ):
2 3

12

391. + , . ,
,
: = f(r, ).
(VII. 12)

= F(r) sin ,

=#=.

,
47, F(r), F(r) = -^=- . , /

= 0,

X(r) = AJ3(kr).
2

(VII. 10).

2. -

379

, :

, ()

m
.
,

fka
Q

3a62H$ /
II

sh2a/6 + sin2a/6\
' ch2a/6-cos2a/6/'

\ka\ <C 1 ( ):
, 1
=
.

\\ 1 ( ):

27'

, - 25.
jy*.

it

'

2 2

5i =

52 =
, _

2Hp

\kh\ < 1 ( ) ' = .. . \kh\ 3> 1 (


), :

sh kh ch kh -

^;

380

VII

S,

0 |'|.

, , , .
396

'

shk(h-x)
chkh -,

;
R=

sh2h/S-sin2h/S
26- 2(sh 2 h/S + cos 2 h/S)'

5<<^h.

1
/

\s

/"

>
. 78

397. , . 78.
-
S
2 - 1 = ^i,

(1)

= crhE = ,
.
,
, , ^-,
0

"

1=2=.

(2)

159 ( ). (l/)

= a + lcosa.

(3)

, ,

Al = -- In + Circosa + ,
(4)

2. -

381

\ \ , (1/), (1/).
- ( - 6)
:
Al = . = a + l cos a.
(5)
, (1/)2,
,

C = 0.

(6)

(1) . ,
(1/)2.
,

,.

5:
!

, (1/),

4
dt

+ 2Ci cosa = 51 1 \\--**


+
cos a.
Lea at
at J

ca

J = J'; , - . \
2
p C

2naQ

d(Jl)

( ? )

, .
(7) .
t

1 =
f e^-^[J(r)l(r)]dr
caz J

oo

(, t ).

382

VII

/, J,

f Jx

! '

, J, , .

' = \ cos a = \,

' =

/- =
. (J =
= const),
t

"

(/ > 0) , . (I <C pi),


,

, I = vt
/

398

=^ ? -

VIII

1. .
.
399. E i = aex, = , ;

= Ei + 2 = + beixey.

, , /2. Eg = E o e ~ t a = &' + iS" , &' 8"
, 8' 8" = 0 (. 79):
8' = a cos + b cos(a ) ,
8

= a s i n a e x osin(a )

8' 8" = 0:
a 2 cos a sin a + b2 sin(a ) cos(a ) = 0,

(2) , (1) 8', 8". ' || 8' 1 || 8",

384

VIII
:
Exi = 8' cos(u>t ) ,
> = 8" sin(ujt - - ) .
\, ^ \,
, ^ f^ = 1, . -

.
8', 8" 0. ' ' /2.
. 79
', ' , , . . ', ',
z ( . 79),
, ( z),
. . ', ',
z , , ,
.
8' = 8" , 8' = 0 8" = 0 .

. 80
400. = 0 , , . =
,

1. .

385

(, ). = \ (. 80).
= (. 806). , < < 0 (cos ^ > 0,
sin > 0 . 80), 0 < <
(. 806).
401. = . > . < .
6 = 0 () = 0 ().
402. = /1 4 - , |//| /*&.
[Sp(A)]
= 1 | / ^ | = 0.
404. ' \\ any'

\\ 6. -

= > ibey>.
+ ,
. / = 2 + 2 . '- . >, >, , ,
Iik'.
2

In = a cos + b sin 19,


In = sin + b cos 19,
I12 = (b2 - a2) sin i9 cos i9
, . 6 = 0 Iik
2

_ ( cos 19
^sintfcostf

i k =

sin i9 cos i9\


sin 2 tf ) '

a = b = -\/I/2

I i k =

I (

2 \ i

I ) '

386

VIII

405.
= E i + 2 = ( + e ( 2 V a ) ,
, , | | 2 = /. (. (VIII. 14))

= 0,

, _ , / l + c o s 2 i 9 sini9cosi9\
, 402,
=

| cosi9|.

, Iik- (VIII. 16), , =


= l + | c o s i 9 | , / 2 = 1 - | cos tf|. = (h-h)/(h+h)
= |cos?9|.
ei = (cos ^ , sin ^ ) 2 = ( sin ^ , cos ^ ) . .
7(1 | cos i91) ei =
= (cos ^ , sin ^ ) /| cosi9|:
cos2^
. 2

sinfcosf

sin ^ cos ^
2

sin f

( )
= 0. = 7/2 .

406.

( xi ).

1. .

387

'

h+h

(1\ + /)(1 ) .

= arctg
.

. 81
407. = - | ; ^ = 0 , = 1 . .
& = 77 > )\ + rfo + 773 = 1.

, . ) = 1,

m = m = 0.

" _

0\

388

VIII

Iik = 1%, , = 1, = 0, . .
1" ,
( z).
, ) 771 = 1, 772 =
= = 0 , 45
, ) 772 = 1, = = 0 .
408. , . divE = 0 ' = 0,
" = 0, .. ( ' , " ) . r o t E = -^fL
at

^ J P 1 = ' ,

^-2

= " ,

. . JJ?i ?2 , \ _L k', 2 -L ".


(', ") (. 81).
409. .
, . .
:

tg(i90 - 2)

"

sin(i92 - do)

tg(* + * )

E =

'

M*

+ *)

:
p _

2 cos sin 2

_ 2 cos flp sin 62

, #2 ,
.
= ? #2 ( )
.
410. ()
. ,
\\ ,
. :

h=I=I.

1. .

389

- .

(1) _

Sin 2 (flo-fl 2 )/

, ,

COS2(fl0 + fl2) ||

COS (0 O -

e x ell ,
; , .
1; .
:

/_

_ \2

\ l 2 I

4 i So

411. R = ,
, p\ = 0 , P2 =
7. i 2 - 2(l+2)
(i+
2)

.
412.

S 2 = 2C COS 0O-S ,

\ 2 =

iJy i Sy 2 ,
ipo = ^ ~> \\ ifo <C 1

|| </? .

390

VIII

413. R = 1 4C'cos0o- R 1,
= 0 ( );

/?
-- = 0 >> :

,
< = (
).
414. . ,
1

20"

\\ 1 =

, 6 = 6 6\\ = ^ ;
,
.
|-B||i| = |-Ei| . E\\Q = 0
= 0 .
415.
, _ sin tg cos 2
_ sin tg sin 2p sin 6
2
l + sin 2pcos<J '
l + sin2pcosJ

, ,
' .

1. .

391

417. 0 \\ i, :

. 5

t g

T=

/sin 2 0 - 2

cos0o

t gg

'

T=
=

v/sin20 - 2

5 <5, .

:
)5 = 5-5 = | ;
) 0
) , , /4 . ,
).
(1) :

S
cosfloVsin2 0 - 2
tg =

.
(2)

sin J
, = arcsinn = /2, 5 ,
. , tg -* =

. tg 5/2 1 (5 = ^),

1 2 ^ 2n, n ^ 0,414.
418. ,

(1)

[1

~'

cos2{k x

'

1)]

z ,
,

' = sin ,

" = fa sin2 - 2,

fa = ^712 , .
(1) ,
2>. ( )

392

VIII

. 7 :
.

|sinfc'j|

(2)

.
. 82.
7 (. [118]).

//////////////////////////////////////
1
. 82

419. (VIII. 19), (VIII.20) , 0


7/2 \ > 0,
Ei . ,
.
420. :

sin 0 = 2 sin 0 2 ,

= 3

Ve

sin 02 cos 02 .
cos 02 = , , 0 . , :
/2 _ iu//2\

cos2 = 1 -

' sin
sin220,

sin2 =

, 2,

1. .

393

k2e2 .
&22 = ('2 + '2'){2 + 2COS02) = 2(0) + xki sin0 + -29(^0)1

(0) = p(k'2 sin + 2cos

)i

() = ('2 cos '2' sin ) .

,
2 (,<) = E 2 e ~ p z e i ( x f c i s i n e + Z 9 ~ a " ) .
,
. z =
= const .

xki sin = zq(0o) = const,


, 2 , , z = arctg

^ ' n (. 83).

\)

421. .
.
. ,
z = 0 z = ,
, , ,
z, :

Ei , ,
1 \2

1 ~ 7123

1 + Tli2

1 + 23

394

VIII
v
"

*bp Q!

(2)


.
, , , z = 0,

/////////////////////////////////////.

. 83

012 =

, z < 0
z = :
S\ = /3 2 ia 2 3 /3 1 2 Soe- 2 i f e 2 a .
, z < 0 s- z = :

\ , ,
8:

=0

= a12E0 + &

=1


, (1).
\ I2
R =
. -

||

R , , ,
a = an = n-l,
2 .

n= 1,2,3,...,

(2)

1. .

395

= -1,
R. R , :
2 =

/1-

422. , , (. (VIII. 12)):


d?E,w2(

Ae

, z z ,
. z
, , . .
() - Aeikoz

+ Be~ikoZ,

(2)

k0 = %.
z :
() - C e i k z ,

(3)

; = %\/i
(1) =
= . ^ ^ 0 z
+. () = ~1(),
VKO

= 0,
2
2

(4)

2 = ^ - . .
<
(3), VKO 0. (4), , (. [90],
7.200, 7.251):

396

VIII

(4)
= CF\-i(k

+ ko)a,-i(k-

ko)a,l-2ika,e

\.

(5)

> , , [90] ( 7.232, 2):

(/3)( 7 -)'

()(7-,

-~0.

(6)

, (2) .

R=

(210)[1 - i(k + ko)a\T[-i(k + fco)a]


r(-2ifc 0 a)r[l - i(k - ko)a]F[-i(k - ko)a]

(7)


r(2ifc0a)
r(-2ik0a)

T(2ik0a)
T*(2ik0a)

= 1

()(1 - z) =
v

'

'

-^
sin


R =

sh 2 7( )
2

sh { + )

(8)

( - 1) R ,
:
R =

( + 0)

2'

a R .
:
= "

fca> 1.

1. .

397

423. , z

4e(^z)E

dz2

= 0.

(1)

,2

^ ~ = z\, = 1 -. =
No
3

= (- ) (^i z) (1) 1
\ z\>

<
?"

-0.

(2)

(2)
. (1-) :

= E(u)e*"du,

E(u) = -

() (2), ()
:

uu


. (3)
,
() = '~~.
(),

= ' je-^-^du.
'
.

398

VIII

' , ,

sin ( ^ }
, :

E($) = -Jcos(f-$u)du.

(4)

1 ( \). ,

.
() ||. () (. [11]), :

.
:

. , . < 0 = ^ / , .
(
),
.
1
. . (. . . , ,
1946 .).

1. .

424.

ifc

399

* ( x , O ) = A(x,O)e ,

x2Afc2

(, 0) = /

(, 0) .
, \\ 1. ,

1. ,
. ,
.
425. (0, t) = A(0, t)e~iuot,

(0, t) = /
426. Axmin =

At 1.

, 9 ,

2 sin

.
427. , , , > 1. , , ^ --.
:

428.

(,0 = 4>^
V
J 3 () = ^\

8 1

v s = ^
(7

" - cosxj , = | vgt \. ^-,

^-,

^-.

/ C/Kz

( ) pq ^ 1.
.

400

VIII

(, t),
. ,
. ()
. \ .
429. ()
2

= + vg(k - ) + ( - ) ,

"Z-

(x-vgt)2
Ti. . \ +i(koxuot)

t , (
):
a(x-vgt)2

\A(x,t)\2 = ,

1,~2(2+<2)-

,
t , / :

_1

( 2 + (32t2) 2 .
. ( t = +00 ) , ,
, .

, f \A(x,t)\2dx

= /^a 2 ,

, . . .
() v^, = ^ , :
.

2.

401

430. < LJQ

eo = e(0).
w >

vv vg 2 . (> )
.
431. , 428,429, , ,

Eo(x,t) , ^
( /0). expi(kox u>ot),

H(x,t) = ^E(x,t)

= yJf-Eoix

, 2^/UJQ
,
7(,) = ^ | R e ( E * ) | =

^^E0(x,t)E^(x,t).

7 = " :

2.
( ej.)sin0cos0

432. cosa = \ "

'

tgi? = |

402

VIII

433. , , .
,
sin = fci sin 2,

sin
.
= y/e(i.
sin "

( )
, , '2
.

fco sin 0 = 2 sin 2 = 0 sin 2 /
=

e x sin + cos-2
(. (VIII.23)).

\\

(\\ - e ) s i n 2 0 o

" ( ), ,

, , : \ = .
434.
'2:
sin #2 =

2:
sin 2 =

(ex ) sin 0 cos 2 a

2.

403

.

#, (. 70):
+ ( ) sin 2 cos 2 a
|| sin cos
435. (VIII.1)-(VIII.4)
, ,

. 84
,
:

( ) = - ^ 0 .

(1)

z (1)
.
, . :

1.2 _
1,2

2 2

sin 2 61+
(fi/fi\\-l)sm2e+l

, (2)

404

VIII

/if

v\ 2 = -^-, . ,
1,2

, ,
(2) .
(2) = 0, , ,
:

() v\ =
.
() . ( = 0) , .
436. )1,2 = ~ ; Ki,2 (2)
1,2

,
.
437. , ,
v =
.
/{)
( v = ) ( _1_ ,
_1_ ). ,
, = \\. ( v =
=

4 /~^5~ )

, . ,
.

2.
, , , , / .
.
438. ,
, . , , ,
, .
, ,

.
, , , =
= k{k+ k-)z ( ). + -

437 318.

X = VHz,

V .
,
V :
V

23
2

{2

= / .
439. , .
,
. Hi = ^-=

"*"

/+ /

" , -

, , ,
(. 435).

2

2 =

v
,

/ + /

--

+ .

405

406

VIII

440. . ,

[ =

(/ + / + )(/ + / - ) '

(/ + / + ){/ + /~ ) '

[ .
,
tin

ti

.
(. 437).
441.
, . . = Nf3e,
3

( = ( )
, N .
0 (. 390), "1 .
:
, , ,
.
,
. ,


WID
mjjuiynjannxjnrujiu
lumi ^ - , ot
.

2.

407

, ,

R , =
.

D
D = + 4( + ) = + 4 2 ( 0 ) .

^ :
(2)

= 1 + 47/
.
(2)
D
D = + ( g).
g = 42 (. (VIII.25)). ,
. 437,
g ,
v = -.
,

442. , ,
, . ,
, ,
.
443. .

= ,

= -e(w)Eo.

(1)

408

VIII

= 0, = 0,
()0 = 0.
,
,
() = 0.
(2)
uia , , , uia = iya. , , , . 7 " >,
. .
() = 1
\
(. 312) > =
- -. 7 * 0 :
. Ane2N
U>0 = LJp = \1

/Q\
.

()

(3), ) , . ,
.
( ).
444. (, z, t) = [||+i(kzu;t)}, )
() = 1: = /\/2.
:

. . = 0, EQX =
= iEoz, + > 0, < 0. , ,
xz. (0, , 0)
: = ^/ > EQZ, . .

2.

409

445. 437, . (. 321):


= = 1 < ,
. > 7 <S & :

4TTNMC2

vv,
vg:

...

;
= NM (,
). ,
(3) ) 0 , .
,
. , (3), .
.
446. , ( 0 ) (ho),
(VI. 15) (VI. 16):
2

h 0 ) - 7 ( m 0 ) + 7<7& (0 0 ) .

(1)

,
. z = , -

410

VIII

(1) Hik'Mil = 22 = 1 +
= -21 = --

;TjT
1

j,

= 1,

(0 + ) -

#
4
=
.
(2),
, . ,
,
( g V 2 M ).
. (
).
447.
(VI. 15), :
= ^1-"*),

= Ho+hoe**"- 1 1 *),

= + * 0 " - 1 1 * * . (1)

:
( h 0 ) = - w e E 0 ,

( ) = w(h 0 + 47rm 0 ),

= - 7 ( 0 h0) - 7 ( 0

( h 0 + 47 0 ) = 0,
(2)

**) + 12{0 0 ) .

(3)

ho (2), (3)

0 = 70,

wi = 7<?fc M0,

= 4770,

0 =

"

[ 2 ( 0 ) + ^ 2 ( - ) ( )] + (1 -u)(ez

x 0 ) , (4)

= ^ , ( ).

2.

411

( n , e z )
. (4) :
m

+ - 7 2 j 0 y = ,

z -f

2 2

> (> = , 1
>),
, .
435 ( >\ = 0).
, .
2

-^-^ 1 ( 2 2 ).
(4) 2 2 , :
2 = ( + >1)( + >1+ sin2 )

(6)

( \ = qjk Mo ).
> 22, wo, > ,
, (6) 2 1.
ho (6). (2) -^-^ 1,

m);

ho 4( ) .

, < ho. ,
.
, .

412

VIII

448. ,
z . ,
, .
,

Cxx = (l-i)\hz,

= ( 1 - 0

Cxz = Czx = 0,

(71

C,zz (. 331, fiik). , / = 1.


449.

= /Xj. , O^ = &1 &2,

Ei /ii h (hi = =F-^=(

3.
.
450. z
. ,
z Ez, Hr . ta;t
e~ ,
(VIII.6)
(VIII. 1). Ez,
Ez.

1 OEZ
ikr da '

ik

'

(1)

' = , ,
(2)

3.

413

' = ()() (2),

( ^ )

(3)

'

(4)
2

. (2)
:

(5)
(3)
, . ' , ,
.
, '
(6)

E' = 8uf{a)^.

(6) , (3) () (. 3),


"^~

, ,

. (3)
^) = Hfn'(kr). (4)
2 ,
. , ,
( ) ,
, . '(, )

(7)

414

VIII

(7) (6),

(7)
. ,
' + = 0

(8)

AmH>{ka)eima

= O.

(9)

,
I"e i(*oo.a-m'a) fa

*.)()

= ,

( 3.11)

()
, ,

E(r,a) = Seikr" - ^^^.


m Hm

(11)

{)

(1):

^jfcrcosa
^^ ^^\) ()
= eosinae
6 > ;
*
\

-" \)

= - * c o s a e
;

3.

415

, 1 ( ),
.

:
() = () =

--(,).

451. . doa = - (VIII.26) dl

da, : dl = ' da.


. 450,

(1) ; , ; 1. / ( )
= 0,
:

da.
fc) '

(2)

(1) da. ,

Jmika)
=

<. 1 (3)
8

416

VIII
452.
OO

j/

/i

-|

oo

2-i
E

- c o s a e i f c r c o s a 4- V^

im+1

mK
TTII)

* - ^

H(1)(kr)r ima

'
/ t

, .
= ^ - ( 1 - 2 c o s a ) 2 da,

das(a)

453. da's = cos2(pda\\ + sin2(fida,

as = f 7r2fc3a4.

da" = \(da\\ + da).

454.
,
,
. 451
452.
( ):
K

da\\

= hkaf
4

In 2 (fca)(l - 2 c o s a ) 2 .

(ka) <C 1, , . .
; cos a = 4, . . a = 60,
.
455.

cos a

<; ;

# = # = , = f rot H.

417

3.

456.

Q=

IN1

, '

- ,

(1)'

. J m , iVm
3) .
:

(.

TW

<C 1, . . ,
( , . 379). , ' (VIII.9) (VIII. 11), Q

381 -, Q .
457. > :
cos a

(ka)Jm(k'a)

< a:

-Jm(k'r)eima;

o , , = Jj,
.

= ^, ' = ^,

418

VIII
458.

= /? iwt

m =

_iwt

/ / ,
.
(XII. 17) (XII.20), . XII,
:
. 85
2
= -

- (= cos + /3m) cos a,


sin .

, , . 85.
(VIII.26):

459.

dtr.ifi) = \

, ) + daa (, + | ) ] =
| 2 + | ^ | 2 ) ( 1 + cos 2 ) + 2(//3' + /3;/)cos0] ,
|2

, \

|2\

, . .
(. . 85)
, .

3.

419


dasl0,7H das(0,0), .
.
|/|<|/|,
=

das(6,0)

daa(e,fj

460. :

:
daa = ^ - [5(1 + cos 2 61) - 8 cos ] du,
_

10;46
4

'

~ V2-COS0

da ,
( = 0) ( =
= 7).

= 1. -

{)

daanp(0)

das p(7r)

=7-7 = i . , -

= ^ , ;
cos0 = | , 9 = f = 60.
2,

, , , ..

420

VIII

.
, , , a - ,
, .
461. , 458, m . ,
. 86.
xz.
. 86
: ) xz; ) .
) ,
: $\\ = EQX = -Eocosa; : = Eoz = sin a. ( < )
.
197, 199, : /?|| = 4-, : 0 = 0.

= 0\\ = ^

cosa,

py = pz = 0.

. (. 390), m = 0.

dcra = ^ cos2 a ( l - sin21? cos2 <p) dSl.
97

(1)


cra =

128a 6 w 4 2
cos a.
274

(2)

3.

421

)
= -JTEQ,

das =

1 6

^^

= 0,

=Pz

mz

= -~

sin ,

= ;

[l + sin21? Q sin 2 - sin 2 < + sin i? sin a cos <p] du,

(3)

, (1), (2) (3),


. U + S in 2 tf (1 - I S in 2 a - sin2 cos 2
L
\
4

+ cos 2 a + sin i? sin a cos ip du,


=

128a 6 a; 4
277

...
462.

(4)

,
aW(-l)2., ,
.
2 . , ,_
dos =
j-z (1 + cos 17) as 2, v ,

18c
87ra4/i2w4(e - I) 2
27cV
463. , . 87. xz.
h. 197, 198, 390,
h/a .
,
.
, - .
. xz,
dos =

oo s=
=
s

sin 2 a sin 2
9c ln (/i/a)
4

h
*l
4 2 l

( / )

27c4ln2(/i/a)

sin2 a.

422

VIII

,
, .
daa = 2--[(i + 2nx sin a ) 2 + 3 cos 2 a +
4

+ n ( 4 s i n 2 a ) + 8 n z c o s a + 2 n x n z s i n 2 a ] du,

\ ( = , , z)
, .
:

. 87

dV

18c ln (/i/a)

sin 2 c*sin 2 $,

'

as =
sin 2 a.
4
2
*
27c ln (/i/a)

464. xz (. 87):

x sin a - - ( e + l)nxnz

sin 2a\ du.

xz:

465.

3.

423

, '(, t) () .
( ) (, t) , So,
(' - 8 ) ( 1)/4 I. 1
'
Z(r, t) = f ^

^ exp[i(kR - )\ dV

(2)

(. . XII, (XII. 13))


' = rot rot Z 4 = . rot rot Sn
4

=
r

/ |( kn) r'l dV'.


J

(3)
kn
; q (q = 2A;sin^, ).
q,
/

/ II j i

A smqa-qacosqa

exp[r(q )]r dr dil = 4

. .

(4)

(3) , 1/:

rotrot^o^- = I

nx

) ] ^ - .

, '

"

(5)

3(sin q qa cos qa)

', ,
. .

424

VIII

(5) , (.
460). (5) qa - 1,
' = ^ ^ [ (

) ] ^ ,

(6)

<p(qa) 1 qa - 1.
, '

P=

(6') 1/3 1/(+2). (6)


(6') , (6) 1/( 1).

daa(ea)
^
'

w4o6(e-l)2
L

,. .. ,
,
, .
> ) (sin 2 a + cos 2 a c o s 2 )

(7)

( . 85).

(. 460) (+2) 2 9 ip (qa),
.
, :
= cos 2 9.

(8)

daa(9) _ w o ( e - l )

du

lie

, . . ~> 1.
, qa 1, tp(qa) 0,
. q , qa 1 1/; , ,
< 1/.

3.

425

466. ka ~> 1 ip2{qa), (. ),


^ -. (1 +
+ cos 2 ) 2. :

= qa = 2kasinO/2. ka ~> 1, :

(.

182

(ka <g: 1), (. 460) + 2 3,


:
8;46( - I ) 2

, - (
2
6
4
~ ) (~ ~ ).
467.
2

= - ^ R / ( *) n r dfi,

(1)

= , , . (1)
, , .
(1)

= {( e)eikz + [n x F ( n ) ] ^

426

VIII

F(n) = 0, :
2

IFI
1
IFI2

- ^ Re(E *) = ( ) + - +
+ 1[( F) + ( 0 )( F) - ( ) ( 0 F ) ] ^ ^ +
+ [(* F*) + ( 0 )(* F*) - (* ) ( 0 F * ) ] ^ ^ .
,
<.
:

/"(no-n)
2ir

n)(e

n)(e

,
1/, . , 2
,
. , ,
.
,
,

. 2
, .
)( F ) e

ifc

^ > r du = ^ [ F ( n 0 ) ] .

. , ( ) (* ), ,
, ( ) = 0. (1),

(3)

(2)

3.

427

(3) : .
, , .
.
468. , . F(n) (. ) (XII. 17) (XII.20).
:

469. (-470.

7 .
471. :
-

43 6 ) 4 F 2

472. (VIII.25). , .

ifcHi

= =,
Hi

2ir

dSn = dr cos( R\, z) = 2n-= dr,


Hi

428

VIII

= const. (VIII.25)
= R + R\:

(1)
; < , .

uP(z) = 0

PO

*V +zi

uo = e
.
/2 + z2
/ ~ | | 2 ,

(2)
, (z\ = z):
22

, ,
, .
, , (1818 .), . ,
, , . , ,
. ,
, :
, , z.

3.

429

473. (. (VIII.31)), z =
x a:

/ .
474. z , / = 4/ 0 sin 2

^-.

, z > .
,
- z .
475. (VIII.30) ,
al = 10

[))}\

, IQ .

al =

2
,21.,
IQ ~ 7ra
|tto||22 .

476.

' = q, qy qj. q .
qy.

u0eikRkcos6
.

430

VIII
( 3.11) ( 3.9)

/ ~ || 2 2 cos0
.
( ') ,
, ' q
:
2
2
II = ka V 1 sin cos ',

Jr

JftfcaoVlsin^cos^)

a/ = IQ

-z
7(1 sin cos 2 a')

_
ail.

()
477. (VIII.32)
:

sink'bs
^ ) (
ikR / sin \ / sfcf.6\

Ea = - = -ikabEo* ( ^ )

(^L)

cos.)sina,
(1+ cos.) cosa,

, , , ' = sin cos a, k'y = sin sin a


.
:

/ = ^- ~ .

4.

431

478. , , z , , :

ika2E0

ikR

fcasintf

(M^a sin
(

/ = ^-^o "~ , .
1? < 1

475 .

4.
481. = ^ ~ 1 - - = ( )

R .
482. 3,52 10~ 1 0 ; 1 ~ ^ = 5,4 10~ 3 ; 1 ~ ^
31

= 7,1 ;

~ 1,3 - /wid; = l jn ~ 2,1 10~ .


483. = 9,46 10 1 8 , . . 6,3 10 5 ,
. , 1_ 3,4 10 3 6,3 10 5
, 1 . 2 2/ 7,1
1,3 10~ 3 1 , , . AV 8,3 10 7 3 4 - 1 0 1 1
, .
. .
484.

I ~ -- 3 10 8 .

~ X/D = 10~ 5 , ,

432

VIII

D = 5 ,
/ -= 6000 ,
AV = | ( )

1\\ 28 10 1 4 3 .

485.
5=-

'

\
S ^ ^
100

5 = -

200
10"

= 1 , = 273 ,
43

= 5 10" 5 , = 273 ,

0,07 = 5- 5 , = 10000.

S = -p%

486. S = 5 10 1 8 , = 1,4 10 2 3 .

487. () = / J(w) cos wrduj.

488. r(r) = 2J
489.

, (1,'), si - S2

yy
D

(. . 26),

, , D =
= /2 + 2. ri(0,0), (0,0)
:

4.

433

(,), (,) -
t.
(1, 2 > 0)=*(1 > )( 2 > ) =

)Uj(t) exp [-i


- . si - s 2 .
,
ya

s
1{ )

'

W)exp -,-fe** Z

\dx'dy'

ffl(x',y')dx'dy'
s

'

.
490. a ) B ( D ) = | 7 ( A 0 ) | = cos:

491. ) = aR = - = 1,47 108 ;


6)d=aR=

1 , 2 2 ^ = 6,28 10 8 ;

450
, , , ,
!
492. ui = A\ exp[ikir] =
= |>li| exp[i(kir + ai)], \ \, , \ = 0, \\\2 . = 2[2],
. Pi
?. Pi

\2\2 + \2exp[i(ki

k 2 ) ] + \2[i(ki

k 2 ) ].

434

VIII

(1) \
, , \, , . , ,
.

ki ( \ ,
\\ = \ = 0).
Pi 2
, 7(ri, t) /( 2 , t) .
12 + 2)

+ 2| 1 |2| 2 | 2 oos[(ki - k 2 ) ( n - r 2 ) ] .

ki , ,
. ri 2
, .
493. ( = =^-( 1), .

Aip ,
, . . , .
494.

/ ,

4.

435

495.
2

= h+ 2\/hh cos ktix,

$2 = '+' = 2/,1\ = |-Ai|2, /2 = |-^2| 2 , , . 29.


1{). () [/()]" 7 / 2 , 7 ,
\/. () = + b cos
( ), . ,
, 9 ^ sin 9 =
= , = 0, 1 , 2 , . . .
9 = t9. ,
, [;] ().

Aoaex.p[ikx] + Ao^exp[ik(z + )] + Ao^exp[ik(z - fix)],


,
, + $ , , .
496.

ui = Aoexp[-if3x],
=

2( - 1 )

exp[i(fcj wt)]. , :

2-1


U(x)

= Ui+

U-2,

436

VIII


1() = \()\2 = 2 + 2{) + 20() cos(/3x + ^ ) .
.
497. ()

() [/()]-/2 = v { l + ^

+ 2^cos(/3x + ^

().

() 2 - 7 () - 1A0A(x)exp[i[/3x + ^ ) ] -

* + y)]. (1)
.
exp[i(kzu>t)] , .
(. 495)
' exp[i(kz uit)] (), (1).
~ {2Al - 2()) exp[i(kz - )}- 0() exp[i(kz - )}
- IAQA{X) exp[i(kz - wt)] exp[-i(/3z + ^)]

(2)

(2) 2
(- {)) . ,

437

4.

()
. , , / (.
493, 494). , .


()

. 88

(. 88):
. : .
498.
exp[ik'z]T(x) [22, - 2 7 2 ( l + cos jjD*)]

exp[ik'z]exp[i(/3x + k'z)\-

+ exp[-*A

exp[-i(/?z - k'z)).

438

VIII

, 497, , .
,

/ ' = /
X'1
1

. 89


2
2D

P +Q

.1

/'

/'

' , a q
(. 89). ,
' > ,
.

5.

439

499. , , d,

(. 496).
2 2Xf/d.
(. 426). s ,
,

$ ,
.

5.
500. , > 3>
. . , I L .
& < X/L qL <c 1, (VIII.43) (VIII.45) fnexp[iq ] dV = NZ. ^ L,
. , , (VIII.43)
da = r%N2Z2 sin 2 dfi.

(1)


NZ . , ,
, , < /1 Z , (1)
N2Z2 NZ2.
- exp[iq ] .

440

VIII

501. , , () = ^Z n a ( r R a ) , r a e R a
=1

- .
| / () exp[iq ] dV

= |^

exp[iq R o ] / (') exp[iq r']dV'


= |Fo(q)|2|^exp[iq-Ro] ,

(1)

' = R o , ^ ( ) (VIII.47).
(1) Ra-
, | ) exp(iq R o ) | = N. ,
a


da = \\ + cos2

ti)\Fa(q)\2Ndu.

(2)

()

(2) . , ,
.
502. da = Nr

2 ( 1 4
.

^ ], -

5.

441

503.
/(1

\/q 6. q ~> 1/ sin q(Ro + x).


. ^ < 1/6 , sin qRo 0
n1
^>
.
qHo
505. , , z L\, L2, L3 .

() exp[iq ] dV = Fa(q) ^
Afi

\ (

)(

exp[iq R] =

R
. / N2

/ N3

\ (

exp[iqyan2] J f ^

exp[iqzan3] J =

' 4i2=0
' ^n 3 =0
'
exp[ig g aiVi] 1 - exp[iqyaN2} 1 - exp[ig z aJV 3 ]
1 [ ]

1 [9 ]

1 [ ]

iV"i = Li/a, 2 = L2/a, N3 = Lz/a


L\, I-2, L3; , N = N1N2N3. (VIII.45),

da. (i)
, , qx = 2/, qy = 2/, qz =
= 2irmz/a, , , mz . , , g : g = (/, /, mz/a).

da = f (I + cos 2 ^)|F a (2 7 rg)| 2 ( L l L a 2 6 L 3 )

dfi.

. 505-509
, (. 4).

442

VIII

506.

d<7=|(l+cos2tf)|Fa(q)|2x
. q aNi
sin x

sin2

sin-

X <

4sin

ir

sin

sin

sin-

+ 4 sin 2 '

qa

(qx

x
sin l^sin ^

! = Li/o, N3 = L3/0.
: q = 27rg, g = (mx/a,my/a,mz/a).

i?o q = 2 (VIII.44).
507. > 1/
, , (VIII.44) , = 2 ~
~ 1/ 1?~ 1/ 1; q . .
: = q 2vrg.
< 2 < :.

= + 25 +
2
, ; = $,
2

g-ko = -7rg .

(1)

( + 2vrg) + ? = 0, , <
+ 2vrg, . . , .
(ko + 27rg)-x = 0 -2[(/) + (/)}, , \xz\ <c \\, \\. (1) 505

sin

sin

5.

443

xz, , N% (xz = 0).


(i? <tC 1)

da = 4r 0 2 |F o (27rg)| 2 iV3 2

^ - du,

, 1/kaNi l/kafy .
dQ, = dxx dxy/k2
,

- .
V4!3 (V
), (V 4 / 3 /V 2 )V 2 = 1/1/3.
508.

da =

xxkgX + Xykgy + xzkgz

= 0,

509. da = 82(1 + cos 2 i9)|F o (27rg)|

kg = ko + 2?rg.

IX



510. -:
Sz = SQ sin \ sin 2,

1 = -,

=,

2 = 1,2, . . . ,

,
6.
-:

, ?, \, ? 0. ,
. oj :

Sz, .
511. -:

445

0:
=

CW
ckaby

1 2 ( 0):
=

wkab

, .

20

10

- - - 2- 5- - 7ir 4ir 9ir 5ir 1 6ir I3ir


1
1
1
1
1
1
2

. 90

512. .
) [Sx{x) = Sx{x), {) = {), Sz(x) =
-cEz(-x)}:
>
sc

a^x^a
i z = sin ,

< a

(1)

446

IX

= eBaa sin ; 8 . s

()2 + ()* = <^(-1);

(2)

= jxatgxa.

(3)

. (3) =
= ^/ 1 (. 90). >, , , ,
, . . , (1). , <

(4)
>
. . 90 , , , , s , ;
1. , ,
. > s , .
^^/,, .. ,
, , /. > , , s,
.

) [gx(x)= -{-),{)=
= *(-)]:
>
gz=Ae~ax,

8x = ^Ae-ax,

-{-),{)

= %~;

(5)

^ ^
Sz = cos ,

8 = -

sin xx,

= -

<
sc

sin xx;

447


= Besa cos ; S . sax :
()2 + (sa)2 = ^ (

- 1),

sa = -\xactgxa.

(6)

s (4).
, < ^
.
, .
.
513.
( , > 0 .),
.
514. .
:

(1) .
Sz(r, a) = Jm(*r)

sin(ma + ),

(2)

Jm , . 2,
( = 0,1,2,...).
Sz :

),
cos(ma + Vm
) cos(ma

448

IX


:
gr\
= 0 , Sa\
=0.
7

\=

'

"1=

= , n- : Jm(amn)
=
= 0,=1,2,...
,
, ; = 0 z. . , ,
( ,
. .).
, =
tl^x2
. , ,
"
2 '
(0,1):

' '

= 2,6
.
:
z = Jm(xr)sin(ma

+ ipm)

(m = 0,1,2,...).

/ n- J'm{fimn) 0. / ~
1,8; 1,8^
= ^ 3,5.
,
. ; > > >
0
>
,
.

449


515. .-:

- ( , ):
,

2;2

' = Re 516. w

,
.

^ = f = "V l - ( A/ A o )

2>

.
, vv > , vg < , 2
< vg = . ,
(
).
,
,

v = *=. vv =
, (. 522).
517. Hz = 0 [e*(*i*+*0 + e *(-*ix+fcz)] e -it , , (. 91),

450

IX

/
, z;

:
v =

- (/)2


.
.
. ,
,
, .

. 91

V = COS

vg.
518.
v

a = - =

' ,

(1)

, .

1

(2)

5-

(1);
z = const : 7 6 > . ,
, , .
519. :
* = [AmnJm(xmnr)

+ BmnNm(xmnr))

sin(ma + Vm),

Jm(xa)Nm(xb)

- Jm(xb)Nm(xa)

= 0.

m = 0,1,2, . . . ,

451


JVm, J m (. 3),
,
AmnJm(xmna)

= 0.

+ BmnNm(xmna)

:
= [CmnJm(xmnr)

+ DmnNm(xmnr)]

= 0,1,2,...,

-
J'm{xa)N'm{xb)

sin(ma + ),

Dmn

- N'm{xa)J'm{xb)

= 0,

+ DmnN'm(xmnd)

= 0.

:
CmnJ'm{xmnd)


z .
5 2 0 #

2(/

' = Re 521. ,
z
2

dr

r dr

= 0.

(1)

, . , 1 =
= " > 0.
(1)

8 () = '^ () + '^

()

HQ , HQ .
(. 3) I m x > 0 ,
' = 0, . z
:

452

IX

' '
= ~ * ' , ,

\ficr

. ,
.

. || < 1,
. 1' 1' ( 3),
=<,

In 7 = 0,5772.

(3)

(3) ,
. , ,

= , -^, = v. (3)

ulnu = v.
(- ), u n + i ((n + 1)- )
u n + i l n u n = v.
= v,
1 = -,
1

2 = - 7 >
( - )

=
In

^.
/

. .

453

( = - = 30 ), \ ( =
= 5,2 10 1 7 " 1 ), (VIII.9HVIII.11)
(4,2+4,5)-1(8,

.
.
, .
;
, . , .
> 0 ( ). , (3), 0, > ^ . 1' 1'

, (2)

= hm lnl -jrj- J,
x-,0

"

\ 2.1 )

gr=

hm 2'

x->0

,
, ' 2 . ' =
= ^-,

6 = Jta

= ,

&z = U.

,
.

454

IX

522. :
^

^ ^ 6
+

BN0(*2r),

xi = 4 /^y - A;2, x 2 = / ^ A;2; <?o. , .


.
, , , ,
>:
o(xia)

2)(2)

(2)2)

>

< i . ,
. ( = 0), 2
2 = ^ , aoi = 2,4, Jo(aoi) = 0 (. 514).
, KQ2 :

/. < <^ 1, Jo. No, Ji, N\ 3. (1)

e[{x2a)2N0{x2b)

+ |

| In



, ,

(aoi+2aoiAa)

UJQ = aoi f ~ 2,4^ ( ,

)
Ji(aoi).

( = 0),

:
^ < Wrp < W0.
V

(2)
U)

/-

, , , : .

455

456

IX

, .

(, , ),
( ).
523.
\ ^ = 0, Hix = ,
E\z = E<iz 1 > 0, 2 < 0.
, ,
. , = Ez = 0 =
.
,

glx = 0,

0v

Slz = 1^

-Be~ cos ax,

cos ,
KQK

fco =

-iBy-e-0vsmax,

.
( 2 + 1)

= =

= 0,1,2,...,

>

(*-.)(.-*)

457

, >
i

2
0 .
= 1 ( ), : > = .
> 1 .
.
524. . :
I 1/

1/

*-

Q1T1 V T 1

Jifx = -jjj(ksmxx x-^-cosxxj,

- -^-, - / j

'

z = osmxx,

I I , n - l , 2 , d , . . . ,

= ^.

,
, . . , , ..
. , .
525. - SQ, * :

iu;
S,

rot + iko(ez ) = --f*,

( 1 )

458

IX

', e'S ', e^ki / ^ = \ = *>


, , fi'ik = fck, e'ik = Eik
.
rot SQ rot :

r;-g'*-*;). ()
5. :

[( rot S*o - S*o rot ) dS = I div{S*o x ) dV.


S

, , I
( z).
-,

I div(*S ) dV = [(So x ) dS = /(n x S*o) dS.


8*0 = 0 = ,

.

(3)

{ - ) f{S*o ) dS = - [ ({ *) dSS

-J(S-S*0)dSS

I AeS.S'odS^, (4)
AS

~= 1 AS , .
rot S rot

( - ) f{S*o ) ez dS = \ ({ *) dSs
s

- f(S So)dS+
S

= - L

AS

f ? 1 dS\,

(5)


(4) (5), , . ,
; . ,
, . , ,
S .
; , .
526-528.
526.
, :
!/

!/

I/O

JtTOz = JCQ COS - - ,


n

ILJd jn

JCQX
7

XKQO, C^0

jf~J O Sin -^-,

jn

Ox =

Oz =

Oy

r,
=

~Wc
"a"'
( 510.) , .
, . . :
= &0,

3fcz = 2r^zi

- 1^

>^)5

= 3rCQy = 0,

= \.
.
, / (. ),
bd, , .
, ,
. :

(. 331), ; .
. , ,
.

459

460

IX
527. Ak=^L- - ^ 2 4
ft
528.
_\

1.

u>d

) ; , / 1 (. 331). ,
.
) , /xj. ,
.
529.

Ez

(IX. 1) (IX.2), = Ai cos(fcii) sin(k2y) sin(A;3z)>


= Az cosfay) sin(fcii) sin(A;3z),
=

(1)

Ai ,
\ = niTr/,

2 = /, = /,

> = (fcj + ;2 + fcj)'

" 1 , "2, " = 0,1,2, . . . ( ~ ).


.
div = 0 = ,
= (\,,). , kx,ky,kz
0 ,
, ,
. :
< = ,,,

=1,2,

^ , e^i ^ = 0 ^ = 0, = \l^jr-> V = abh .



, (1). v, 1 : \, , .
, ,
(1) .
530. AN = - ^
531. :
Ez = 8QJm(xr)

sin(ma + ) cos(kz)e~iu)t,

sin(ma + ) sin(fcz)e- iu;t ,

Er = -^S0J'm{xr)

cos(ma + )

Ea = -^SoJmixr)
Hr = -^-S0Jm{>cr)

1 0 1 2

sm(kz)e-iult,
cos(kz)e-iult,

cos(ma + )

cos(kz)e-iut;

Ha = %S0J'm{>cr) sin(ma + )
k

Hz = 0,

te

a m n

Jm(amn)
= 0, w2 = c 2 ( x ^ n + fc2).
:
Hz = 3tfoJm(xr)

sin(ma + ) sin(fcz)e~tu;t;

k = lir/h, / = 1,2,...; / = 0 ; xmn = (/, (


2
2
2
J'm(fimn)
= 0; = c (x^nn+k ).

Hz .
0 ,
,
, ,
Hz =

3%oJm(*cr)sinmasin(kz)e iut

Hz = 3%bJm(xr) cos ma

sin(kz)e iuit

532. ,

461

462

IX

= R2/(4d)

L =

= 476 ) - ( .
272). (VII.3)

, = 2/)0
(. . R, ).

534. ( = 2/> ~> , ) ,


, .
, . =
, L = 4( Vb2 2) (. 269).
Ad

(6 - ) ^(6 -

,
^> , 6.
535. =

26-

26 +

2nhln 2 6 -

536. ,
( z = 0) ,
:

, ,
, ,

463

^ = 1 | ^

(2)

.
, :

,= = /.

()

= a /{Ad) ; q ,
J,
(
)
= iujq.

(1) ,
(2) (3),
, :

. ujh/c <c 1 ( ,
> 2 )
=

L h.

(. 532-535).
d = 0 ( )
= ^-,

= 1,2, . . .

(4)

,
: h = -^- .

464

IX

537. (VIII. 1),


(VIII.2), = , D = . ^,
:

j-t f H-HvdV = - f
j-t [-E--El/dV = c [E

(1)

^, ^
(IX.3), (1):
(2)
^, ^ :

= 1,

rot rot = ^ ,

rotH^

ifc^E^.l
/
rot rot = fc^H J

(3)

k^(fci, k2,kz) (
529, 531). (3) , (1),
div[E rot ] = rot E,, rot E - rot rot E,, = ik^Hv rot E - ^,, ,

[llv-TofEdV = -ikv JE^-EdV + |- /div[E x


= -kKikvqv + | ^ [ ] dS,

(4)


, .
(VIII. 10),
= .

(5)

^ , (5) (4) . , (1)-(5),

- iuvqv = -^ini/-HdS.

(6)

465


:
qv - iu)vpv = 0.

(7)

- . 0
, . .

pv>Hv

v1 = v. , pv< i/ =
= v ( (6) 2
. , (6)

pv - iuvqv = -pvSb-j> Hi dS.

(8)

() (8),

^JHl

dS) qv = 0.

(9)

, , . (9) , (-J- HldS\qv,


,'
.
, ;^ i^v
.

(10)

dS,

(11)

> = + .

(IX.4).

466

IX
_ _ _

(jJvCL

GUJis

538. Qv = -? = \

*>

-*

5-^.

4,
2
, ,
71/ = Wv/2QV. , 530,
:
Aw

AN ~

Ji-

7, , :

< lOW' 5 .
1 < = 1017 -1

: ) < 3 10 1 2 ~ 1 .

539. , 537,
qv :
2 ^

>& = 0 ,

(1)

1/'

qv-UJvpv

= -\jve~iu>\

(2)

1 = Z7i/ ;

-EvdV.

(3)

(1), (2)
_ 0 - t u t
Pv pve
,

_ 0 -tut
qv 4ve

/\
v*)

q,
2

pi ( - ZuAUv - Jt) = ^jv +2u>Y, 'A<WS<

(5)

' , ' = (
).

467


(5) . ( ) ' )

(6),

, > , >>
\> wv>\ 3> |^<|.
(6) Qv u)v = u)v - . :

(|u; u>v\<g. u>).

rf

*"*

"

(7)

,
j ,
:


3vQv
4i/pe3 Pi/ cu)v '

1Q\
^ '

, .
j v , , , q .
540. W, , , W(l R).
dt

468

IX

cdt/L . (IX.4)
L)L

dW
dt
. 92

> .

,
. ,
D 1 (. 424).
, , ,

2

(. 92),
WL6/D. dt
HW wWy
D L

dt.

:
D2LJ2
2

'

, .
Q

1 = J- + JQ

Qi

Q2

:
5

Qi4-10 ;

Q24-10 >Qi;

Q Qi 4 10 .

469

. 93
541. , n-
/3 (. 93). n-
n/3L; N

N
71=1

f\

T=N =

V /3 /

.
7

~T~\2DL)

(2DL\1/2

, Q3 ^ Q, Q

470

IX

^ 2 c

'

, ,

/3 < 0,0012.
542. ) fl ,

cost?

(1)

2 '

> 1 - .
fl = 0, = (L = /2),
i?jt < 1

) Q\, ,
540. <5, ,

0>,

Q2 = ^

=^

0<,

(3)

, 540.
Q\ < Q2max. Q
, <3($) > Qi,
Q\. Qi > Q2max, Q , , <3
(3).

1.
-,,
x'-x'o + V(t'-t'o)
,
,
543. - =
, - 2/ = ~ ,
z-zo

= z' -z'o,

t-to

546. , t = t' S S":

, , t = t', S S'. ,
, S S"
Vo = f^fl ~ ^ ) (
V ,
Vo V).
547. S" ' = 21/;
S Ti
V

V V.
' = 7\ +

(.7).

472

549. ) . 12 00

.
6) :
tA> = 12 + -^ = 13
tA = 12 00+ \ / 1 - ^ - = 12 .

'
.

'

1
S'

S'
>

)
)

V V

,
V

. 94
(. 94):
1 = 12 21,6,

=^ = 12 .

(. 946):
tB/ = > = 13 ,

= 13 ,4.

) :
= 13 = te,

1 = 12 ,

1 = 13 14,4.

:
= 12 21,6 ,

> =te>

= 1 2 36 ,

te = 13 00 .

, .

1.

473

550. : At = 8 . = 0,01
1 ;
= 2 (7 - 1) = 2,5 10 1 6 -.
10000
.
2 l o A t

, (. 95), , ; ,

91

19

)
. 95

(. 956), . ,
, .
552.
:

--

=-,

'='-

__
| (.1),
r||=7(r||+Vt'),
:

rx=r'x.

474

553. A =

554. v = vy + vx =

, v v '

5 5'.
- , ' t' ,
552.
558.
2

< = -

v Jl - V /c + V Jl-v /c
arccos
2
2
2 2
2
V + v - V v /c

t i , F < c 0.
v ip arccos y ' l V2/c2; V ,
> 7/2.
559. 1 560. ) V = 2 0,9 = 1,8 ;

) V = 0,994 .

561. , : V = :.

- V /c

= 2\2

So 3> m e 2 , ,

2
2

( = 0,5 ), , ,
SQ = 50 200 : S =
= 10 000 .

1.

475

562. , 554, .
:
.
V

.,

(7-1)(*'-)
33

('-)'

'

_-, , v ' - V
,
v', v,
, (
v ' ).

563. ? = - 7 6 [* - ] = -7 4 [v2 + 7 2 ^ ] < 0, ..


.
564. 5 ' .
562,

v' =7 2 [ v + ^ ( v - v ) v ] .

(1)

, v || v
3

v' = 7 v .

(3)

, T O V J _ V H V - V =
= 0,
2
v' = 7 v .
(4)
(2) , , , . u>f 4-. ,
u>f 5, S'
. , v ' = 0, (2).

476

565. v(t) =

x(t) = {
:

v(t) ,

x(t) &

:
() = v0 + cut,

x(t) = + vot + 2 * 2 -

566. :

, ,
__

,_ 1 + v/c

2|v|

l-v/c

= 2,5 .

567. (1) Av Atp = \A(p\,


(.
Av <
. ,
.

(. 558).
(2)
6v,

( ^Sv
x v.
22

5.

1.

477

568. S: cos a = , V l ,', V 2 ,. S":


|vi||v 2 |

cos a' =

(vi - V) (v 2 - V) - ^ ( v i x V) (v 2 x V)
-
-2
2
2-V) -^(v2xV)

569. S" .
, V = Voc, |Vo| = 1. cos a' ,
.
( ) (ai bi) = ( ai)(b bi) - ( bi)(ai b),

2 - vi V - v 2 V + -L(vi V)(v 2 V)
COS a ' =

= 1,

a ' = 0.
, .
570.
(. 96): a i v 2
v ' (
). 5 5 = ( 2 ) a i =
= 7 a i 2 . 2 2 (.15),
, , ,
:
._/
-/


1 COS 6

_ \

sin??

478

, , . 96,
(,
= = = ).
, , 6
v
.

'=-

. 96
571.
<, = (0, ,0, ) , (&, )
,
# = (5cos?? sin(a <),
= -/3cos(a- <p).
,
(3 cos fl (3.
572. S dQ =
= sin fl dd da. S' dQ' =
cos i9 3
= sin fl' dti' da'. a = a', a cos fl' =
.
1 /?cosi?
2

1-
= sin &' dd' da' =
, , f <KY = f dil =

^ dQ.

1.

479

1
573. = =
~
0 -
dtf
4 dfi'
4 (1-0COS0')2
.

574. w = 7 w ' ( l + 5 ^ )

(1-*
( ? )

, =

575. , V
, = * 1 ^ ( ).

:
cosa = --.
90 V <g.c. V , a .
576. ) =

577. = ,-- ,
1 cos
, = 0 = 0, cos0o = (1 \/l /32)//3;
J = Jo-v/l / 2 . , J = JQ 0 =
= 01 < 0, cos0i = [1 (1 /?2)3/4]//?.
, , 0 < 0, >
- ( ). 0 < \,
J Jo
, . 0 = 0
3 2
J m a x = J 0 ( l + /?) / //1 /3. 0 > 0 < , ; ,
. V ,

(1 + /?) 3 / 2

J max <)

77 ^ ^ *) i

(1 - /?) 1 / 2

1/4

0 \/2(1 - /3)

< 1,

480

,
, . , I d/ , 0 < < ,

< <
N2 =
, Ni + iV2 = ATTJQ \/l (2 , . Ni N?
/9 < 1, cos do w 0. /3
, Ni , 2.

< , .
578. ,

(1 - 2 ) 2
3

(l-/?cos0) '
/ = Jofi^o
.

(4)

(
767).
579. 5', (5
). ' 2 , kj 2 V

1.

481

(. 97). }[ )'2
. S
.
S': )[ = '2 = / '2 = \, cosa 2 = ~ cosa^.
/ , cos ' cos (.4) (X. 14)
)2 COS:
COSC*2 =

l + /3 2 )cosai-2/3
l - 2 / 3 c o s a i + /32 '
l-2/3cosc*i

U2=U\-

/3 > 1,
? > .
580.

0,

LJl = U>2-

581.

, .
,'
, , . ,
- , , , .
. 97
, .
, '' S' (), . , , ,
. 1.
E'F' '' ( ,
). E'F' '',

482

At = / / ( S).
E'F' E[F[ '' , Vlo/c. , E'F' , '' B'F'
V/c = (5, , ,
A'B'F'E' ABFE (. 98)
1: /?.

1
1
)

. 98

, '' CD', S. S',


(.1), CD' ,

'', At' = -^fVl,


' ' A'D'
5. , 5 ' ,
' = /, , At' .
S (.1):
I = = 7(' - VAt'),
2

, ' At', I = loy/l /?


AD S. .

1.

483

( ) /1 - / 2 .
. 98. ,
, V = arcsin(Vyc).
-
. , (. [24], ),

.
,
.
, A'D' '' ,
, . 986. ( )
- . , .
582. ) I = fo|\/l-/32cosa' - /?sina'|,
. 99
/3 = V/c. a ^ , | \J\ /2 cos a' /3 sin a' | ,
t g a ^ = ///l /2.
I = 1'- , I /- ,
.
- ' .
) ' = arctg ( - J; ,

.
) , 5,
N,
, MN

= arctg

484

583. . , . 99. '',



' = arctg

V ( ). ,
, .
! , , , .

= cos a

. 100
584. . 100.
V/c < cos A'D' ''.

,

10 cos a '

10 cos '

1.

485

i9 :

* = f2 - a - e ,

tgfl=

V/c = cos a = n/2 a ''.


/ > cos a ,
.

i ? = 7 7 - a + arctg

0 cos a
= .

Vl-^i

, / > 1 ,
, i9 = .
585. 5', , . (' cos a', ' sin a', 0),
k' _L Oz. v' = = ^y S'

', .
e~ tfc *% [ = (^-, ' ) . faxi = [[
, h
4- ( 4-). (.4) (.14),
ki S,
V || ,
(1)

v =
2

'
2
2
2
+ 2f3n cos ' + /3 (1 - sin a ' )

(3)

/3 = V/c, 7 = (1 / 2 ) " 1 / 2 . (3) , . , .


586. (3)
( ' = 0):

- /3

(')

486

' = 2-/', ' , S', . (1)


V/c:
' _

_
'

nV

_
(') ~ ()

_ dn
2' d\

()

2()

() d\

2.
590. II (, /9 = 1,2,3), ( = 1,2,3),
591. 4- Aik :

-Bi

-2

-3~\

-Bi
0
3
-2
2
-
0

3
2
-
0
= (i4i, 2, ) = {\,2,)
(,
, ).
595.

; dxi (i = 0,1,2,3) 4-,

'

'

2.

487

4-. , ,

V , 4-.
596.
Vfc =

Tik

(_

_\

+ -inv

. 101

597. ) ; ) 4-.
598. Ai Bi
( ):

, :
Bi

- a2iA2

Q.21B2

599. .
Ai = ^-^, = Ai23 = 231 = , Ai = -230
= -<4i30 = ..., A3 = 120 = 210 = ...

= 320 = ..., 2 =

( ). ,
Aiki .

488

601. Xi = o.ikx'k, ( XQ
):

(cha
_
sh a
~ ' 0

shot
ch
0
0

0
0
0
0
- 1 0
0 -1,

602.
:
g = g(ti,<p)g(a)g-\ti,<p).

cos d cos ip sin ip


sin i9 cos <p I
0 cos i9 sin ip cos ip sin i9 sin ip I

sintf

-COSTS

(. 101):

cha
0
0 -sha>
0 - 1 0
0
0
0 - 1 0
sha 0
0
-chaj

5 " S'",

V/c = th a (. .
XQ, ). , ~* ($, ) , S' S'" (. . 101).
5 -1 (?9, ) , g(fl, ).
, :
/cha
[[wh
isha
\ijJ2sha
\w3sha

\ sh a
s h
> s h a
\
u>i(lcha)
l
w
i
u
^
l

cha)
wia;3(l

cha)
\
( h )
^
)
(
)\
\2(\ cha) 1 u>2(l cha) 1
>2{\ cha) I '
\{\ cha)
(\ cha) 1 u>1{\ cha) 1/

wi = sin ?9 cos ip,

u)? = sin ?9 sin cp,

3 = cos i9.

3.

489

3.
603. :
E =

(E'_YxH')-(7-i)v^,
/

(V-H')

, D, , .
604. .
S" ( V), ' || ',
, S" , , (.25).
S", , .
' ', ' ' = 0 603,
:
2 + 2- /(2 - 2 ) 2 + 4( ) 2

2( ) 2

'

' = \[2 - + /{2 - )


12 =

\\2-2-

605. . > , ' = 0, ' = ^^. < ,


' = 0, ' = v/ 2 - 2 .

490

> :

S", ' ,
.
<
v

~c

HxE

H2

, _ H

'

606. x < JI , V =
2

= /^

, -

' = 0, ' = = \ 11 *\ .
> J/ , V =
, ' = 0 ' =

J/

y ( l -

2 N.1/2

= $ / ,
. , J?/
, .
607. ) (dt = 0) dr = 0, dr = 0. , dr \\ , . . dr
. (2) Fik dxk = 0, .
Fik , dxk .
) - = 0. ,
.
)

^ j _ E d i v H = 0,
, Fikekimn
.

dF

OXi

= 0,

3.

491

) (2) ( ):
( dr)

E x H,

xi2

xi2

'

).
608. , ,

dr - dt = 0, dr = 0,
, (dt = 0) dr = 0 dr . = 0

-^\ -HdivE = 0.
at i

j + = 0.
,
.
= ^ .

610. ip = -^,

,
2

eR(l-V /c )

e R

R* = \/{x vt) + (1 0 )(y + z ), (vt,0,0) t, R ( x vt, y, z) -


t, fl R v.
611. , ( = 0, ) ^ =
= e/R2 1 V2/c2 , ( = 7/2)

. V ~

/\ - V2/c2
2

~ /1 V /c

492

\\ = 4-. -
R ,
\/1 /2. \\ Ry/i /2 ', R,

.
612. if =

'
-,3

R = ( vt,y,z),

= 2 ,
* = ( vt, i-y, kz\, ,

t - Vt.
613.

' tn' .
614.
, , 2 4 (. 102) ,
1 3 q\ =

=q3
=
^ ^ m e J '
5', .
( 613) ,

, 5', =

. 102

= 9 3 6 = ^ ' , ' = ^
- ,
5'.

493

3.

615. . 4- (. (.37)):
fiUi = 7 ( f V) - 7 ( Q + f V) = - 7 Q = inv.
QQ ,
, , Q =

616.

=7 2 (/+s'x+02),

sx =7 2 [+/? 2 )s; + VJ+VTXX]

sy = i{s'y + vrxy), sz = 7(5; + VTXZ), =


rp

rpt
yy>

rp
Vz

rpt

yz)

rp
* zz

rpt
* zz">

617. = .
618.

V t = -

/ dS / Too dS , dS = const (, dS = dV).


= const

t' = ^-.
4- *. 4- 2,
S,
,
: = const
x'Q = const (. 103).
4-

I TOiai dS= f

= 0,

. 103

-^-^ = 0 . = 0, V .

494

( )

( j TOidV = a't j T^
, * / dV . / dV 4- (. 597 4).
619. Kik' dt. t = const ( +
+ dt = const. , ,

S, . -

s
n
(fi S).
:
\

Xk-lil) = -lik + i~5

Tik = Tki 4- .
Jxi-^-dQ

= ^JxiFkijidQ.

t. , %Fki-?r = ~^
at
at
Jxk-K-^-dQ. ,
C/Xi
1

du - ? ^ ^fc-Jr) dt
.
jk t = const.

3.

495

dKik
= 0,
dt

= const.

620.

* ft
t

0 = 00 , t = const,
V. Kap(t + dt). 2/|
, dt:
- dKa0

= Ka0(t)

- Ka0(t

+ dt) =

= -**+!/-!/
, ,
/ + / + j = / t

t+dt

Sim

(. . 104)1, . 104
. ,
, , Y^,dka0.
-dK

a/

{xa

= z

5, , t d S 7 = ic dt n 7 df, df
, V, .
:
=

df

(1)

496

, /3 91 / 7 = 1
/.
, (1). 0~/ /3- @,
, 7 .
, , , 9 l a 0 7 n 7 . (1)
:

_=
at

[ftdf,

(2)

x n) - -jM(r x E)(n E) + (r x H)(n H)].


(3) (.29) .

(3)

XI


1.
621.

622. v =

623. /?= = ^/l-(f)2,<go = mc2.


/? / ^-, /3 = 1
2

624.
2m
625. v =

8 2
1 1

, e F < me 2 ,
V

eV me?,

e V

2mc2
, eV\2'

2eV
m

498

XI
626. ) = 3,42- 2 ; ) v = 0,9999985; ) 0,81 ; ) 0,9956.
627. F = ^/(

+ 2mc2), W = f .

^ 2mv2N
1 - v /
, ,
, .
,
(. (XI. 18)).
629. -

2iv

2v

\nVee + mci^

vn - . 2 3> neVe
! ^ - -^^ /. mc22, v

2i/eVe L

e + m e 2 ) 2 - m 2 ^ - me 2 arccos

iVeVe + m c

630.

( =
^

^-, -

/1 - V2/c2

; J. ,
(, ):

1.

499

(Ih/Io 2,5)
.
631.

7=

8 = {8'+ p'V costi'),

p,rf S S' .
-

i9'

, cos ^2

= '^7 5'.
:
S , 27#' cos 2 %.

632. dN , 5 ' <1'. 5 dN


df2 = sin dd da,
5. 5 F(ti, ),

^M-.
' :
,2

(costf'+^Y
2

cos'' =

^-z =

'

(I)

500

XI

631 (/ = '^

5 ' ) . , = ', :

(2)

v' =
5 (. 572):

F{d,a) = FW*>),a]-

^-

( )

(3)

, , 5 i9,
, , S'
.
633. / .
, 5':

, p u t
(.4).
634. \ 2
. S. dN, du t
, V, , , : dN = dcr^Jn^Vt,
J\2 = n\V\.
S' dN : dN = dcr'^J^n^V't', J'12 = n i l v i V 2l ( dN
, dl', dil). ,
dN = da12n1n2v1Vt

= da'^n'^

- V2\V't'.

(1)

1.

i n v

501

(rijVj,mjc) 4- ( 4- ). ,

^ ^ )

(2)

4- . (2)
, 4- : Vt = V't',

dii = di*

, _ ,
lvi
v2|

(3)

, v'j || v 2
Vl =

vi-v2
l_V'l-V2

c2

(. 554) (3) , :
(4)

da12 = da'12.

, , . . ,
J12 = n\v, v = v\ 11

*2

J,

(. [6], 28.3).
635. dW=

57-^

. J dW = 1,

/3=^.

636. / = --z, 8 = 2
, m -.
1 -
2v/
638. = ^, (. 631):
_

8'

al _

_ V

502

XI

d =

^- -

7- , 635,
:

\ = ("/

7-

( = 7), = '\

--5 7-

( fl = 0). , 7-
, . .
\ (? .
639. m = 2

640. m =m\ + m\ + 2 [/^)


= 139,58 .

- pip2 cos ], = 1;

641. m\ = m 2 + m ^ - 2 [ y / ( p 2 + m 2 )(p 2 , + m 2 ! ) - pp? cos tf2], = 1.


642. m 2 = 2 - p 2 = m 2 + m 2
ir
P
V = e~5 =

miv

. = 1.

mi +m2Vl V

(mo nil) 2 .

'

) / = 58,5;

T 2

(mo )

2m0

nil

'

1
C = 1

'

) Tv/T = 7,27;
c

m , AS , -

me2 > AS.

Ti, , , .

503

1.

644.

+ 2
m,d + \/? + 2 + mi

Q E + = 9,6 ;

+ = 1188,7 (+

7+);

Q E + = 116,1 ;

+ = 1189,3 (+

7).

M s + .
645.

,,

Ag (.

Ag \

fkj, , , , (<) 2 /(2 2 ), .


(
) , = A
646. ) ABC (. 105), Q =
= \ 2 ( = 1). D
Ti , D
.

)
. 105

) , Ti ( = Q Ti ),
. , , (pi + + = 0

504

XI

).
pi, ?, )
Pi + Pi ^ ,

- < Pi - 2 < -

, . 1056.
= ( mi) 2 /2m, =

647. , . 1056.
) 1 2 3 69,8.

6)

228.

127,

.
,

648.
. 106.

Q <C m ,
OB = Q,

R = Q/3,

T m a x = 2Q/350Afoe.

649. . 107.OS = Q,T ma x ?si 210Afee.


3[( - ^) - 2]

1.

505

650. ^- 4- ^- :
S(Pi - - Pi2 - Pa) = S(p - Pi - P2 - ) = S(g -Sx-82-

#$) (1)

(dps) (1),

/ ^iiy ^

*),

@z = m S\ 82, $ p i .
(^) () = \ ^ 2 . (.2 . p i ; <7 = 27rsint?dt?.
, 2 dp2 = 82 d&2, (XI.3). ^-
(2), ( 1.18):
+P2 +

(3)
1 ^ cost? ^ 1, (2)

Pi + 2 > ,

Pi - 2 < ,

Pl~P2^

~,


.
(3) (1.5), dd,

d p i d2

.-if

*iPi


2-3
i + 2& + - 2 -

.
-^ =

, y = Ti =i - m i ,
\/3
\/3
.
dS\ d2,
=

= 2\/2 dxdy,
(.
. 1056-107).

(2)

506

XI

, dT =
= 2%/2 dxdy .
, ,
. (.
), , , .
651. 4- - ^
, . . . ,
, . . (,
,
). 4- :

So .
. . 4- ' = (, 0). 4- 4-, \
= Pi :
2 2 = % + 2mi*b + m\c2 - 20,

= 2 ^ ~ ( -

i - )( + mi + m).

652. ) 0 = 288; ) = 160 ; ) 0 = 763;


7

2( + 2)

.
m = m p ,
= 6 2 = 5,63/.
:

, 2 .

1.

507

653. = (

m
+
)
= = 2,18

( = 0).

(. 574)
0,0012Afoe, Q = ( mi m)c2 .
) = 2\Q\ = 7,96.
0,003 .
654. :
7 + () + + ~ + ().
(. 651):
2

^(

+2m-mi)(mi +2m

( ). ,
mi 0, ,
.
,
/ = + +_, /, +, _ 4- ,
. ,

% = 0, , ,
+, _ . ,
, + + _ = 0.
656. v =
657. 4-

f?

(1)

,
:

+ - rfi* - 2^=.

(2)

508

XI

(XI.7), ^ 2 = 2 4 = \2, ^ 2 = | = -^2.


(^ = 0):

Pi - \40)#1

= 01 *! -

= \ \J8Q m\(. (2), :


\4

popi

2
658.

(70 +

(2)
^r)~-(7o2-l)cos2tf2

7o =

So
mi<r

, mi > m 2
i?i, a r c s i n w ^ ( (1)
). i9\
<?
mi = $i ^ i?i ,

1.

509

+ (1). @\ = \<? , , , . (2) 2


+.
mi < "i2 \ \. 0 < i?i < ^ , (1)
+, ^ < \ < , .

, .

659. gts

660.

661. T l =

662.

4mi7Tl2
2
0 0 1 5
7
^O
2(mi + 2)

658.
663. = $1 + ^2 :

-v[ Sin2!?' + (V - t/,)(l - COS!?')

(. 568).

510

XI
\ = 72 v[ = v'2 = V

< 90. \ * 90.


664. , 657, :
wo
=
i9
; \
.
,

^ ( 1 -0080)

665. i9o = i? = . $i = 0,
. . .

()

(1)

(1) , , , ho > fooo. .


fiu>o < 2 (^-)
(1) : 0 = 40 (-^

\ > /
\ /

0.

fkJo > me ( ^ - ), fiw (?\

666.

(? - So = fkj0s

a4:r^
^^-
poccos Wi + hwo(l cos w)
, 664. :
2

+ fkj(l cosi?)

511

1.

huj/c,
, t?o < i?i,
. $ = 0. *? =
= 1?2 = 7.
g -gQ

+ +

, ftu>o, SQ 2hu)o(vo/c) <?C


<? hu>o- , S <b fi
.

. 108
2

667. s = 4(m + g ), t = - 2 g ( l - costf), = - 2 g ( l + costf).


6 6 8

'

^ =

Pa =

(, , z) = 2 + 2 + z2 - 2 - 2xz - 2yz.

XI

512

. . = , s
:

669. gc = JL-

670

cos0 =

( s

y/X(s, ml, ml)^\(u, ml, ml)


n, _ s 2 + a(2t -mj-mj-mlml) + (ml - ml){ml - ml)
y/X(s, ml, ml)y/X(s, ml, m?d)
= 1, 668.

-1

-1

. 109

671. s = (' + <) . ., . s m i n = (m + )2 , 7-


( ) ( ) . . , ( +
2
+ ) < s < .

1.

513

1 . . s t
COS0' =

s 2 + s(2t - 2 2 - 2 ) + 2(2
(s -

- 2)

- 2s(M2 + 2 ) + (2 - 2 ) 2

(1)

1 < cos0' < 1, , cos0'


(1), s t.
. 108. , sA = ( + )2, tA = )

2M'

2 M ( M + m)

672. . 109.
673.
. 110, . 1106.

, , -

514

XI

.
,
.
(. 111) , s = , i = 0 = 0, , ,
, h = s +
+ t + = + ml + * + ^ ( = 1). s = SQ = const
, s = 0 |so|. ,
, so > 0, , , so < 0. t = const = const.

. 111


s, t , .
(XI. 14). , D
, ' , .

515

1.

. ABC = ABD ( BCD+


+ ACD),
AT

ni/

"

| 2

| 2

| 2

/i\

- VIS - UK = h. = + + + md.

{!)

-DN = s, -Dk = t, DM = , (XI. 14).

'/(/////////////
+7 ->

P+P//J

. 112
s, t
(XI. 13).
S = ( + Phi)2,

t=(pai+

)2,

U=(pai+

pdi)2,

(2)

, , % = (, ),
, , = (, ).
, J2 = 0>
.

b , d . ) pai = (, ) ,

516

XI

= ( - * , - ) , = (*,), Pdi = (ed,Pd); s = (8' + 8')2 = (8' +


2
+ &'d) > 4 ; t | cos0'| < 1.

2 ) 2

+ 2(2 + m2) > 42

(3)

t = 0 = 0 (. 112).
) pai = (Sa, -), = (-&, - ) . =
= (<&,), Pdi = {@d,Pd)- s =

s = -t -

( 2

~ 2 ) 2 + 2(2 + m2),

f > ( M + m)2,

(3).
).
,
(. 646)
,
4 , 4- pai + + + Pdi = 0- 4- ,
m 2 = p2li . ., ,
2 , s = (pai +
+ Pd)2.
( ).
675. , 4- , 4- ki = ( ^ p ) i ^ f ) .
4-
Poi=Pi+ku
pi 4- . ki
.

= ^

, = =^

, =% , ^,

1.

517

. , ( ), (1) -:
cosi? = .
677. * Pi 4- , ki 4- ,

POi-ki =Pi.
ft2,
, m
.
2(1 2 ) 2 ( ) ( + )
2;.

()0 = 1-^-/1^,

(1)

0 = 1
wo > 0 (1)
-. ,
, .
UJQ 0 (1)

1-()04

(2)
(. 516). , 7i(a>)/3cosi9 < 1
, ,
(>) . /3 < 1
, /3 1
.
(2)
> ( >\) .
, , (
).

518

XI

678. , 677, .
, ,
, v = / , - (

n(u)cosv

). .
?9 ,
n/?cos?9 = 1. /3, ()

1],

) cos v

, 582, . , , ( ).
679. ?9i , $2
. 4- (. 675) hjj\ - 8Q,

, fiw2 , LJI . costfi = C/VQTI{IJJ\).


- VQ > c/n(ui),
.
n(ui) > 1. ,
. (1) fkj?,

11 _

2.
680

2fig>i[n(g>i)cosdi-l]
(mc7o) 2 +2(/jWi/o)[rc(wi)cosi?i-l]+i?!'
? i?i = $2 = 0.
:
< (mc 2
2

[n(wi) - 1],
SQ ^> (2)'2'
,

.
681. ,

2
/ Tli

2
71

= 1 / -i- + - f + -f, ,
at
ai
aj
683.

+-2(qc/e0)

tku , q = 27rfig
.

2.

dv ,
rnvv
dv _ .
' ^ c2(l-v2/c2)3'2dt
~ '

>7^fh^^
(1 - v2/c2)3'2 at
)
2
r ^ =F
2
1
(l'/ ) '2*

vlF;

519

520

XI
B

)mf =F.

2 32

- v /c ) '

(l-^ /

7 =
686. F =

688.

In , = %,

c

689.

F=^

:
) ,
(
!);
) ,
4-;
) , 668,
F = e
690

2 \ 2

(1 ^

1 -^-, ,

/ p(r)r dr ,

n v

v = (1 + - ^ ) (1
, )
(.
( +,
' \
2
V

2 '

591).

1

2jUa'

2.
691. , (.
684 690):

Vn

2*
;2\2
1

~ mavy

g)


Vnt2

VnL2

< L, ^ _ <^ v ynt <^ v <C - , .


,
, ;
.
692. \\ .
:

dr

me dr '

dr

'

'

dr

dr

me dr'

x-y-z-ct-U,
f- = 0,
dT

^ = ^- = 0,
dT

-m ,

d T

0 =

:
. \\
\\

\\

\\ V

521

522

XI

= - ^ - In

+ \e\Et +

POx + f

sh ch
, .

+ \e\Et
Up

ln

POx + f

z(t) = 0.
po <

"ic (

- ^ - .

\e\E
i , , :

(t

^^) (

\\/

).

v7
. x(t) y(t)
. 11 1136 . , = 0
(. . 11 ), .

2.
693.

:

523

= , ^

\\

^ O

,
\\ . ,

\\*
6)
S-mc2

'

694. 1 =

. 113

695. z || H.
1:

&-

x + iy.

= 0, =

,.,
dp
ev
' =
,
dt

= ^ , 8 = const (
).

XI

,
. z,
t, :
= Ri cos(u>2t + )

- + ,

= -R! sin(w2i + ) - - ^ + 0,
Z = VOzt.

(1)
(1) , ,
.

cEs

R = \Ri\, Ri =
= + Pay
= |>2|, w? = ^

2/1

>

2cEv

2/1

vOz

. 114

\e\Hc '

POzC

Vol.
, R = -^-,
VQ =

e)
2/i

( -

).

, .
8 = 2
\\
R =
) = '
:
Pay

2.

525

696.

= asincut

(1)

= a(cosujt 1),
2

z =^ t

+ vOzt,

cEv
=

z
z- . ,
, () , (, ) .


. 114. ), ), ), ) , ),
) . , vo - , - - 1

t :

* ' ~ eEz
697. = ^

sin + ^

(cos - 1),

,\

= (cos yen \)
z = -7( 1) + ^

- sin yen ,
^ sh ,

ct=p^(chycET-l) + ^

698. ) || , || z ( S). t = 0 = =
= z = 0 .
> > . , = , 2 2 > 0,

526

XI

S", . , S" S
V = - (. 603).
S
'

. . ', ', ' , p'Oz


^/1 V2/c*
. :

: =

(0-0)
2

(0-0

( - )

( - ) /

/2 -

(1)

> , , , (1)
. ,
sh = sin , ch = cos . = > . :

..
) 692, 695.

2.

527

699. = 2 (- 1J, , , ,
697, :
me2.

= &0 ch + cpoz sh -

700. 603 ^
%, = .

600.

vo
-, -
. :

= asinutt + -^(coswf 1) + c~s~ti


= a(cosu>t 1) + -^j- sinwf,
z =

eEzt2
2m

(1)

+ vOzt,

u> = me
u>
t = 0 = = z = 0.
(1) , , 696.
a =

701. .

t', , Ey(t') Ez(t'):

E[0,Ey(t'),Ez(t%

H[0,-Ez(t'),Ey(t%

(XI. 19) , t' = , :

y(r) = ^ Jpy dr,


t(r) =

dT

528

XI

= f E(i') = eypy+ezpz

, .

702. :
= cosuit,

= chuit,

z = vt,

x(i) y(i) ,
,
.

( m
).

m r a

, -

/1 - V2/C2

( ).
z
z- .
704. = 0 . , . , a, z,
z . ,
| _ = 0. *| _ = ^ j ~ -
703, :
d

2.

529

(1) = = 6:
6

2nHrdr=-

26

[1 + 2

),

(2)

621 , T m a x = \e\V.
\e\V <C 2 ( ,
v < ), (2) :

(3)

= 27&

705. V ,
2 , 24

+2

2
~-

| e | V <C 2 ( )
:

2
m v o

706. fc =

708. , , Ze
. z = 0,
Ze.
703 :
mf

d ( mr2a \ _ Q
ttWl-wVcV

mra*
2
2
- v /c

Ze2
(1)

530

XI

,
:

2
V'l - u 2 / c 2

= = const.

(2)

,2

- v2/c2

Ze2 = = const.

(3)

(3) ,
. 8 = 2 + ( ), >
> 0.
> 0, < 2
( ). > 2 , ( ).
, . (2)

= ^*
mr2

dt

(4)

da'

'

(3) (4) (1), :


d2 \,(

_Ze2e


2 2

Ze

2 4

Ze

'

.
, .
( = 0).

2.

531

< 1. (6),
, [ =

*_ ,

> 0. (6)
, = \ = 0.

. 115
. = 0
- . =
""".
/1 V2/c?

(3) 8 =

^- v

, :

(7)
(7) ( < 1), 8 < 2 < 1. (. 115). -

532

XI

, , ,

..

() . = 1 +
()
() = _

2

;. , 2
/1 ho

,
2( ^ ^ =
). /1 2 2
\/1- -1>
,
.
8 > 2 > 1.
(. 116). ,
= , =
arccosI(-1)
-

. , -

Ze , ,

.
2
8 = = 1.
,
. 116
.
< 1 ( < 1), ( > 1) ( = 1)
. , ^ < 1 <. I. 1
1

=
2

mvc

\U\ = 2 as mv , ~ ^ < 1.

2.

533

709. (5) > 1 :


Pi

(1)

- 1 + ei ch

Pi =

22
Ze28

, (1), ,
* . (
. 117
= , = ). 8 > 2 i < 1 ,
=

= ; = = arcch ^- (. 117). 8 <?, -

i > 1, , . 118.
= 1 (1) 2/1

. :
=

2Ze28
)

(3)

. 118
,
> , , > 1.
, , . 117, 118.
710. ^

< 1
=
1 + cos a

V ^v

534

XI

Ze4
- 22{2<?

Ze2S

- Z2e4)

(. 119).
= ,
=
/1

"

Ze2 <C 1 . =j , v < (.


. 530.
. 119

^ - > 1.
V

< 1. , .

= -1
^ - = 1,

= <f2(l-a2)-m2c4'

2

2.

535

712. ' < 0 ():


|2-1|
= 1 + cos '

/*

= 2 . ,

= - +
, , .
: < 0 ( < 1), > 0 ,
' ( > 1), 8 = 0 ( = 1).
' > 0 ():
(2-!)
= 1 + COS Q "
> 0 > 1,

' .
713.
sds

(1)

, s- ( ). s

(. 712). (' < 0) cos a > ^.
(. 120) . 120
/
,\
.
izu
[ cos QO = j\-
. . 120 ,
= - + , ctg 2 | = . 2)
- 11 =
= 22 - 1 =
^
- 11 ==
sin (0/2)
cos
282 . s
212

536

XI

= mvos. ,
2
s

2 ' 2

2 _ ritr
2 4 "

(1),

.
' > 0.

714. ' < 0 ():

2
2

2
2

2
2

4
4

- 7 \/, 2
- Ze
2
2

2
2

/
2 -Z
Z ee
/
Vc A: vo .
' > 0 ():

v0y/c2K2

2 A

cZe

cZe 2
715. s. , = pos, ^ ,
s /
TS 1'1\

s * ( , , > ^ \
, . ' < 0, ' > 0,
:

8 = 2""
2

sds=A(_e^_\ l_

2.

7,.

I = rt = n

537

/|j.!.

717. :

1 d
~ 1 dt'

, ,
, .
da

6 = Earda.
(1)
= -(. 695), ,
. dr = 0,

(2)
S = c^Jp1 + mPc2

,_

c2pdp

c^

(3)

(2). ,
(4)

SA = dS.

(1) (3) (4) - = v = r=^-,

at

= 2 0 ,
2

= .
2 1.
718. U (XI.23), \,
<, 2 . , 757, :
2

2 02

e2v2

538

XI

R . \

2 '

.
:

2 = 2 + gradx =

-S :
U = 1>2 - ^ ( v i 2 ) = ^ { l

- ^ [ v i v 2 + (vi n)(v 2 n)]}.

, , , R ,
.
^ . ,
.
719.

720.
= .
721. , (.25),
' = - I v ,

2.
, .

(f)

\ 1 /

= mX'

, ,

(f)
at I

(VI. 14) ,

XI

Ti'

v = m E ,

=- ^

~-

dr r
1 ,
( ).
U = tn

, , ,
, .
2m 2 c 2 r dr

- (.., 1926 .)
722.


.
() ,
. -
(1), V .
.

539

540

XI

723. , ,
sin a
724. . , , U =
9

= ; ,
,
', (. 614). ' - ^ ? , 8 = ^- +
+

+ U(r) ( = 2

2mr
). , < 0
.
725. 1{) =

XII

1.
728. Aip = 4,

dt

730. :
()(-)

^ = = /9tr 2 df2
= hSik (. . I).

dK(t)

731. ,
z, :
.
\ = sin 2 & j : cos(kr wt) + sin(fcr cjt) ,
Ci, .

= ,

542

XII

732.

1 drotZ

cr 2

E = rotrotZ = \(-: 2 + -^)2si


L V cr
r3/
cr 2

r3/

Vc2r

cr 2

r3

~> = ^ :
= ea^-(-ie^

+ ea cos i9)ei(fc

= e o ^ - ( e t f cosi? + i e a ) e i ( f c r - a " + a ) = .
(cos t9 > 0) , , $ = 0 .
(cos$ < 0) , = . ,
, . :

, , .
733. p = m = 0,
= \

= -

im9[e tf cos(2wf' - 2a) + e a costisin(2wf' - 2a)].

, ,
> . ,

1.

543

i9 0,7 i9 = ^ .

ail
,
/ \2

I ^ I , . . ,
^ < 1734. - 7 - <,

735. , , ,
. ,
, , :
(, t) =

= |e^[sino; + tsin(o; v)]~b


+ e a [ c o s a + icos(a i/?)]cosi9}

, (1)

i9 = 0 i9 = 7, ,
. . 121 < = 45. . 121 < =
= 90, . 1216 a = ^ = 22,5.
736. 7.
7
" * = H i . , H i = 0, ,
2

sin a sin(a <) + cos a cos(a ) cos 19


tg27 = 2;~2
^-j
-z

z .
sin a sin (a ip) + [cos a cos-^a <p)\ cos v

(2)

(2) cos 7 sin 7, H i


i9, a, ip.

544

XII

. = 90 ; . = 0,
, tg ^ ; , = ^ = 0, .
= ^,^^,^+7.
, , . = ^ , ^ + ,

.

= | = 22,5

V/
. 121
= ^ ^
ctg ^ = | cos i91.

737. 7 =

44
8nc r

'N = l

3 2

3
,
^ = = ^
dt

(. 730) N , ,
N

- * /

du.

1.
. . .

738. 1 =

mW

545

Sin 03,

( cos v

cr

mJ UV

= f {-Ba

costf

m = 4^

_ 2 2 > 4 sin 2

3?
*"9
dfi ~ 8007
7=

_3_
500
500

740.

E = ^ , H = 0.
r
741. Z(r, i)
(3.20), :
(1)
H = t - \,
(2)

Z m (r,t) = ^ 1 ^ + 1L[J()'] .

(3)

> , . , , (3),
.
742. :
,
1 .
m(')
n xh(t')
Era(r,t) = - A r a =
2-^ +
2-^'

c2r
czr
, .
.
( ) -
( ) -
n x (n x )
Hm(r,t) = rot =
5
1
5
!
2

3
2
2

m , , .

546

XII
743. - ^ = -{ 2 (1 - sin 2 cos2 a) + m 2 sin 2 tf + mpsintfsinai;
"
4

/ = jip 2 + 2)- ,

, z .

= cos wot,
m=
= Qod, mo = nlPqoWo/c, qo
, , d
, R )
).
,

744. , Qzz (
z ).
Q z Q(t') =
= Qo cosflcoswt'ez ,
Qo = 2.
, (2) 741 Z
. ,
:

_ ) s i n M _) _ 2.c o s M _
^ - f ) cos(^ - kr)+ ( - ) M u t _ )]

Qo = 2.

547

1.

745. , . 122.

)] -*"*

= .*, sin

~~~'
= ^J, (XII.9).
d
dp = Pd. d - , d (XII. 17) (XII.20):

dHo(ro,t) = -f
. 122

= cos .

, S 1 " ,
> I, - .

= = ,
2

, 4

= -Z-T* "

sin ??

sin2??

du

m ,

548

XII

, . 123.
, .

m= 4

746.
_

I = -^-[1(2) + - (2)],
R = 2 ^ = -[1(2) + - Ci(2irm)].
J?o

747.

(1-costf)

Anl/X J
A = =jf- , i? ,
.
, ,
/, A, Jo748. A(ro,fl, ) (. 124)
( ), , - -

549

1.

d\ , = a cosip = sin?? cos(a'


) (. 1). d\ dp = Pd\ = ij<?dl, ,
(. (XII.20):
z,
0,2 dP(t')
dH(ro,f) = 2"
_

- ^0
'

-iut+ikr-iakBin('-)

<

,'"

sinna'[cos(a' a )
+ cos$sin(a' a ) e a ] da'.

. , , ,
. 124
.
:
7

intf cos(a'-a)

cos(a' ) sin(a' a ) .
/3 = ' , :
7

(cosna

cos/3smn/3e-ika8ia{>CO80d/3+

sinna
, ,
,
0, ( )

550

XII

(. 3). ,
771

= -

Jn-l(x) + Jn+l(x)

2 /

= ^rJn(x),

sin Jn{ka sin i9).

Ha(ro, t) = $ =

cos na-

749.

8TTC 3

COS

77

i9, a , (.
. 125).
z.
=*
,

. 125

750. j = \ = ^, (jx,jy,jz)

- (~jx, -jyJz),

: j x ( r ) = j'x(r') . .
, (XII. 1),
(XII.2), , : (px,Py,Pz) *
-> (-Px,-Pv,Pz),
(Qx,Qv,Qz)
- (~Qx, -Qv, -Qz), (mx,mv,mz)
-
> ( m x , m y , m z ), (Ex,Ey,Ez)
> (Ex,Ey,Ez),
(Hx,Hy,Hz)
>

1.

551

751. = 0 = 0 (z =
= 0) 750. z > 0 = 2ezf(t)sin<po.
ipo = 0 ( ) ifo = -Jr ( ). ,
z > 0, ,
.
752.

= Ha = -3 cos 2$ cos a cos wr,


2c r
q

Ea = HA =

cost? sin a cos wt',


2c3r

753. ) = 0,
F

^ M

755.

1=0

dr
dr
, 753.

552

XII

(. 3.19). :

= ikjp- = F ( i 9 ) = E#,

dr
/=

dr

dPi(cosd)
dd
'
dl

2 _

2. ,

756. < :

s\r'-ro(t-

= | '|. / / ( R i ) J ( R i ) ( d R i ) = /(0) (. 1). (1) R i = ' (t ^ J.

'

=1-

v R
cR '

(2)

(1) :

R1=0

2.
R i = 0 , ' = . t' = t ^.
.
757.

=0

(-1)"
71=0

= | - r o ( t ) | ; A(r,t) = V

*' " "

n=o cn+1nl

dt

'.

at

, . .
(v <C ) (
) R.
760. v/c (XII.25) :
w- er
3
=

e r
+ 3

(r'v)
crA

ev
cr*

,erx(rxv)
cV

ev , ev x
cr3

- ,
, .
3 1/ ( ).
= ^ | ; - =

e v

* . ( )

, 1/.

553

554

XII

:
en ( v)

evxn
'

= ^.

, |v| ~ ^-, ,
.
1.
762. ) dS,
dQ dt',
dt. ,

dt'du

dudt

t = t'+^,

, ^ =

= v, = ^ ,


. 126

dt'du

) , dt', . ,
t', ', t/ + dt' (. 126). R, R + cdt'.

2.
dV = dSdR

= R2du(c

n v)dt'.
2
/2
(
rp
dW = - dV = ^j f 1
^jr^- )R2dQdt'. ^ = ,
/
at all
at all
, .

3m 2 c 3

v t'.
767. : So,
, S, v.
So ,
So . (
667).
do, dt'o = dr So- S
dS =

dt' =
/1 - v2/c2

z. :

dt'

r/^l-v /c

v. , .
t
R, , -

555

556

XII

t' = t ^ .
=^7,
at
.
768.

= -^22

ff*2*

, 1? -

v , /? = v/c. . 127. v , . v
, , v
.
90,
. 127

= ^ ( v / l + 24/3-1).
/3 0 $ /2; /3 > 1 1? 0. ,
. $ <. 1, ^
2
2
dl
e v4

,
= ^-.
:

- f dl ^
-J du^1-

2 2 ) 2 1+/?75
22 4 4
3c3 ((11--/
9 )) '

:
dS
dt'

2^
v
3
2
3
^!-^ ) '

2.

769.
:

dAW
dU

dt

dudt ')
9 9
17

-1

COSt?

t?
.

& :

Op*h 22

dt'

3m4c5

770. - = 2

? .

771. - ^^ f =

y 2 s i n 2 f ' 1 - v2lc2

sin 2 t9

557

. 128

, ,
, ,
( 2
2
y ' l v /c , . 768). (. 128)
=
= 28/ , 8 , v\\ = v cos . ,
, , .

9*>4
172
Z6 1

/&
1
2

~ ~dFV ~ 3m c(l - v
^ < 1
1=

2 4 2

558

XII

,
.
. 129. , 7 ( 1 costfj = sini?| cos$|. , a = 0, (. 129),
= arccos^. = ^, - (. 1296),
0 .

. 129
773.

(1-/?2)
2

(1 - ^ ) cos D + (0 - sin tf9>2


cos a)

(l-/?sintfcosa)
4

2 2

0 (1

da =

- ( )

= %.
, , , $, ^. ;
2
Al? /1 - 0 .

2.

559

774.
/ikRo

costf / * c o s a V ( n Q ' - n / 3 8 i n i ' 8 i n Q ' ) da',

/ikRo

(1)

/ * s i n a ' e i ( n Q ' - n / 3 s i n i ' s i n Q ' ) da',

= ^ , , z
, fl, ; .

= -

ikRo

e/32neikRo

ctgi9J n (n/3sini9),

(2)

, , ,
^ $
, /3tgi9 "

. -

Jn{nf)smv)

. = 0 , $ = ^
. /3 ,
--.
Jn

775. ,
, , ,
. ,
,
, , , ,
.
, ,
,
.

560

XII
, /3 > 0 . -

, 0, > 0 (. 3): Jn(x)


J^()

& 9 .,

, , /3 > 0,

\\ = 1.
(. 732):
-" -"1 + -"-1

776.


,
=

20

777. 774 (2) -


.
, ,
. ipi 2-
, , :

. -

= - :

IT

(UnN

1.1/

2 | 2

J D 2 J O

~7~ ' 7p I (.-"ntf -"na/ "-ZHQ all = Dp{


0

JT

uln,

2.

561

dln , , a SN ,
( ):
N

SN = N + ^^

cosn(%l>i ).

:
)

11=1

1=2

,
2,

1=1

jz ;

) , ipi ipi> .
, , cos(/>/ /1/')
SN . SN = N2. SN
; SN .
778. .

)

(1)

562

XII

/ , / 0
(^ - 1).

3 " 3

, =

1
3

, / =

2efel / ei
e 2 N 1 ,
= V4
-- K
3 V m i
m2/ r4
f

I = ^ f Idt' t' 1

...
2 da ,T.
at = *-= (

) . :

779

e2NWie2|3|^/
m2/
AT5
V

_2^/!
3c 3 Vm!

dK=

dt

2/i|g|a/

3c

2|g|^ 2 N
^2^

e i

Vmi

e2 \ 2

m2)

K3'

780. , 778,
:

.
pz
, ( ). ,
2
1 + e c o s a = a(e
1)/, ( z') .
, ' = sin a, z' = cos . ' 7
(cos = j), = ' cos *' sin = r ( j cos + ^ ^ sin a j .

2.
(1) , sin a , :
+

f /"
f

/" -

jj/ei

2\

f cos2 a + ( 2 - 1) sin2 a

cos 2 sin 2

2

s ds = ^- du.

2 =
= ,
:

-14
voj

I [-4 u +( 4 4-2-

I *

V 2

du , .
dr = ^, 1

S-: (, I) = /* ! ~ 1 (1
)

rfa:

~ r(fc +

87

= 0.
781. v = const, .
xz z.
= (,,),

= sin fl cos a, ny = sin fl sin ,

, r=(s,0,vt'), r = Vs 2 + vH'2,
v = (0,0,u).

563

564

XII

v = ^ - , 8 =
2

2&

v = -^-

, /3 = ^, -

_,

^ - . , =

, &+^
', :
b

eie 2 r

eie2r-v

5~~ =

eie2r

= const.

(XII.26), :

2 dt'

(5 +'2)

+, 2O2/,
/ 3 ( 1 _ 0242/,
) ( 1 _ )42

^Wn=
dfi

45

32m c s u(l - / )

[4-3n 2 -n 2 -6/3n z

5 L

/3 > 0
32m 2 c 4 s 3 u

dfi

(4 - 2 - 2 ) .

/3 1

dAWn
d f i

29m2c4s3sin4f'

i9 ^ y'l /3 ,
(1).

2.
782.

783

c3s3v

565

1-

784. (XII.33)
>, = 0.
, |v2 v i | 2 = 2usin ^ ,
1? . s : s = a sin ^ s < . s >
. :

/ s .i n 2 1?Unsdsdw =

^Av

J
/

;.

x = I = .


. , ^
dxu .
785. (XII.30) :

=
^
CL&L

27

/!al

= --22,

dtsds

= ^ . -

47

(1)
,
. , , = \^

566

XII

(. 24 26),
. Qpe, (XII. 19)

,
2 2 . nz = 713 = cos { ). ,
(

(2)

^(Si

= = ,

, , I 1, 2.
(2),

sin cos

\[2$, - (Qppf - 3Q33 + 2<<] sin 4 tf} )

2.

567

(3) (1), :
^

= + 2 (cos i9) + CP4 (cos i9),

(4)

Pi, (. 2),

2

= ^ g J J[3Q 00, -

(Q00) ]sdsdt,

= ^ ^ J J[-3Q 00, + 2(Q00)

+ 9Q 03 -

6Q33Q00]sdsdt,

(5)


...2

- 35Q33 + ^OQ^Q^jsdsdt..
786.

(4) (5), ,
(. 2):

- , va =
. , ,
2

...
1

"

vT = .

rxa -

ZxavT

568

XII

(1)
va (v2 = 2 + v2), :
X =

15m 2 c 5

, v2 = VQ ^
va = ^ . (2) (
dt dr, dt = ^- =

z, ), 4
9 '

5'

3.
787.

g = ^ , .
= v x ^ , (5')
.

(.25) :
V

( v). dV = dV'y/l
). ,

/ (

3.

569

S'.
, , . . ,
W = 2 ,


, /
(1) , 1 . v
, :

(3)
0 = ^ ,
(2).
| G , 4-
.
, (2) .

788. Wm = - / 2 dV = ^ "

, 0

W = [(E2

+ H2)dV = m>0
2

J " 0 0 2 ,
/1
0
(. 787).

'
.

570

XII

789. | ,
de\ de-i- ;
. ,
<
de\, . de-i

dF = -de2dE=

^^l[i,

( . v)],

= , -, de\ de2-

Wo = /

; 4/3 .
' = ^ (. 787),

:
F = -mov.
, , , .
790. , de2 de\, v t':
|

v tf t = , :
v ( f ) = v(t) + (f - t)v(t) = v(t) - ^v(t).
de\, de? (. )
:

3.

571

.
. Wo , ,
. (' t)n, > 2, , r j " 1 ( )
.
]
- 1 1 .
44
, , 0 = 2
, . .
791. =

dt

( ).
10~ 1 3 ,
,
(. [65] 75).
, ( . .).
.

792. S{t) = 2 cth \


\^^t
+ In
In
^ t +
i
I3m3c35 5
2
I3m c
2
go-mc2\

t oo, S(t) * 2, . . .
S(t)

t oo, r(t) 0, ..
.

794.

572

XII

(1)
i-2,,,2
+

0 =

'

2
2


(2) ,
; = >.
, (2) 0

9 9

&i = > 4. ,
, , :
2

.-***

(t>0).

(4)

7 < wo .
:
W = Woe''11.

(5)

i- .
,

+

(
1
=
= /[
Eoe-iwote
-<""<LJ
^-*
" dw =
= I\ E

J_

I 0-

TO

t>0,

< < 0

<

hi

(6)

3.

573

/ = / 11 .

(6) (. 130).

. 130

> = 7 (
= ^ = ^ 0 = 1,17 1 2 )) .
, ,
( , ,
), AS = HACJ = fly
= i-
AS = .

(7)

-.

795.

= 10

, 7 =

, / > = >0.
.

574

XII

796. - = !

, I =

dlu.

797. ,

1
1

'

\ '

3 me3
, ,
+

AW=

I eEx(t)x(t) <=

^2

2 2

() = -.
. , 7> . , ,

7,

=2#|

^ = ) LJQ. , 7
:

= -^~2 . 7
: AW SUo >0 .
1

A(t) B(t) dt = 2"(,* + 1) .

3.

575

,
.
Sw >, .
798. a) AW = 2n2r0cSUo cos 2 tf;
) AW = n2r0cSUo sin 2 tf;
) AW =

\n*r0cSuo.

799. :
(1)

,
, | .
(1), ,
:
_

>

,
, :

dU

473'

nl 2 =
'

( 2 - ^ ) 7

1? .
2
( ) 7 = -~^~-
:
da _

1 dl

w sin

- f ^ J dil

87

^1
2

(uii - u) Y

576

XII

, >0 > ,
8

^4

: ~ to4.
7 ~ 0, too ~ 0

800. = ^ - ( cost? - ^)~* ( ; *'~ ) , &,

( z), A .
, ,
, . , ,
. , ,
.
da _ _ 2 ( l + cos 2 #)

801. p = cos2tf.
802. :

(1 pcosu)

- (1

-)sin2*cos2a],

1?, , z v , (3 = ^,
.
:

4.
803. || z
, 695,

= Ai(e x + )- - ^

+ 2( -

Al, 2, ,
.
, , ,
, 3 : - ,
, . , z ( ) , .
, .

,
.

4.

805.
() = - g r a d e r ) + ^
() = rot (),
() = (),
=
806. ) ( = ^ ^ ,
rot = - ^

+ 4j w ,

div fiHw = 0;

) = , D k =
= i D k + ^Lj k , = 0;

577

578

XII

*i- w

rt

XI

Zwc TJI

ft/T s

i_

f\

XT

807. a)

HivA -^tw

-0-

6),
fc2c2Ak = 47rc/yw,

- A k + = ;

= 0.
808. (XII.40').
,

, , ,

N

IN

f 1 J
1 cos kN
= I sin kr dr =

N oo

. , ,
, cos kN, ()
IN (XII.40) N .
, / c o s
e*k r (dk) 0 N

. ,

, / = lim IN = - , ,

N-

/ / e

-6r

sin kr dr 6 0.

4.

579

. ?() = J tpketk'r(dk) ,

, () = ^

27

, Aip = 4ne5(r). ().


< .
809. = -iky> k =

810. (, t) = eJ(r vf),


vt)e-i(-k-r

( -

(27) 4

__ 5(-\-)
' 22 '

, 2 _ ?_

'

,
<S(k v >)

e v

272

k2 -

(.
805), :
.
k w

5( v

27

, 2 _ ^.

J(k v - w)
H k w = ik x A k w = i - V ( k x v)- ,2 w
2

580

XII

J(k v UJ),
w = k v. ,

, . , ip:

(k)-oo

IK

.2
L2

~-J

2
2

812. . ) 807

1.2

= = 1).

= -

/[ grader - v*)]e-'(k-'-*)(dr) dt =

w = k v ,
(. 810).
<p(r, t) 811, :
^

: 0

= (X - Vt,, 4
- ^, , %
-% ), * =
\
7
7

-^,

[
Bi

v(P'

(1)

4.

581

813.
X

816. , ,
1 ( .
815) :

H = Hj_,

||=-

, :
divEj_=0,

divH = 0.

() :
divE||(r,t)=4irp(r,t),l
rotE||(r,t) = 0,
J
. . , .
817. 8076,
= 0,

(1)

> = .
. :
^ ^ , [(, t) = * (, )]:
= e!. kA 6!. kA ,

ekA6kA = e!. kA a!. kA .

'
.
(), .

582

XII

,
,
= *-\,

= *_,

(*)-

f c

(2)

6 = *_

"+!

f c

1
>

"J

(3)

, qk\(t):

(5)

, , :

= \
, , : 1 2 = 0, ( 1.15). .
:
W

=\j

( * * * + ^9)().

(6)

4.

583

. (6) ^, (3):

W = 2 f"ulakXa*kX(dk).
J

(8)

(9)

q^x ,
( , ).

.
818.

(, t) = -= j Y,ekA [Qkx(t) cosk - Qkx(t) sink ] (dk),

(, t) =

H(r,t) =

^ - / ^2 e k A [QkA cosk + wQ kA sin k r] (dk),


nV2J A
72

(, t) ,
QkA
(8)
, ^ QkA Qk\'-

584

XII

, , ,
:

(9)

W = J ^Wbxidk),
WkA = (<&+<*2<) G :

GkA
GkA =


, (!).
819. , 807, , ():
qkx(t)+ijiqkx(t)=Fkx(t),

(1)

i k ( )

(2)

() - t, v
.
m r 0 = F + ( 0 ),

(3)

, F ,
( 0 ) =

[ ekA<jkAeik-ro ( )

(4)

7TV2 J

, .
, ,
, ! ) < . (1)
Fk\(i).
,
, (1), (3).

4.

585

820. :

821.

Fkx(t)

6kA = ^ = ( v o ) ,
7\/2

v0 =

( ,
). (1) 819,

** =

,(coso;o* -

coswkt),

t = 0 .

at

UJ

, 820:

- %

t 0 t, , t (, ):

dt

u?-uZ\ 2
o;k
2
~~2

Wk+wo

Wk-^o

^o

J'

586

XII

u>k = UJQ t >


. , , : , Fk\.
, ,
>, dl, eki () :

dW

c s( fc
o)t
"^ "* c s"( ""f c"" o ) t **
= wkX == 1

2 J


> = UIQ. , t.
t > ,

Y Wk + Wo
, > = >0.
6 . (. 1):

1 cos at

t * .

da = nt,

, :
dW
23
:

~dT=ldW
du
2

t du

2
=

2
3

47

?
'

= - ,

& vo .

(v 0 e k i ) 2 + (v 0 e k 2 ) 2 = 2, sin 2 .

4.

587

823*. (1) (3) 819. , (3) = cos u)t . , , :

r(t)
=

^-o
4
r

WQ


(1) 819,
Fk\ r(i):
22
7 \/2


s
smut.

. (1) 819 <7(0) = 0, :


w
\
2
( E o )
qk\(t) =
-= 2
^~2

/ . s i .n w f .
2T(
- sinukt).

, 821, ,
e4

dWkX
_

^(E0e
2

k A

E%du

^)

I me 2 / (wg-w 2 ) 2

'

^
dU
t dU
(2) , , . fl ,
:
2
da = SjLdL = ( \*
*
{

du

(w

'

799. :
=

*(2\2
3 \*)

4
{2-2)2'

XIII




826. :
E(R,, t)=

f 8{Y, w )e i < k ' R --'*> (dk) d w . . . ,

n v - l),

f n . v - l),

(1)

Ji?(k, w) , = ^fxn, x , k, n - . (1)


, J(Rvf) - J(k-v)
(J(ax) = (). (1) 8 :

589


. EZ(R, t). (2):

e(xr - )

exp<z^rx[rsin0cos^ ) zcosfl] >6(0yccose l)sidd.

(3)

R , <
, (3 = ^,6 .
J o l ^ x r s i n f l )
(. 3.11).
:
I /()6(13 cos 0 - 1) sin dO = - ^

,
1//3. (3)
^-,
,
.
(4) ,

/" <^()5( - 1) dy.

(4)

-0
( ^ 1,
,
^-

(5)
(5) (3) = .12 =^;
1/(3 , 0 .
Ez{R,t) :

xdx

590

XIII

(3.16) :

Ez(R,t) = - ^ (l - -)0((-*)>,

(6)

s 2 = ^ ^(>). s , v

Re s > 0, .
(6) ,
(>).
EX(R, t) .
^-. = .2

(3.16) , ,
J'o = - J i , K'o = -KL

Ex(R,t) = c o s ^ I ^ ( O e * " ^ - * ) cku.


Ey(R, t) H(R,f) . cos <p sin <p;

Er(R,t) = ^ j

^ ( " ^ - ' ) du, ^ = 0.

(7)

)e*"(-*) ^

, = = 0.

(8)

(6)-(8),
.

591

~> ,
. ^
.
827. (6)-(8) , ( , t) ( , t) :

(*) = j g (l - -^

(2)
a Kn .
\sr\ 3> 1, (3.8) :

(3)
(2) , S(CJ) s , -=j > (>) /3n(uj) < 1 ((>)
>). /() > 1 s .
s ( (2), s > 0), , .
s
1//, . ,
, . . .
s

{JJ

/I

Y/3

l n

{JJ

W- c VPri

I nn

/ \

(4)

, .
,
= ' + in".
" (. .
, ),

592

XIII

" > 0 UJ > 0 " < 0 UJ < 0. "


,

in)* - 1
, Res > 0 ,
(4) . " ,

,
(1)
( R ujt) = expz[fc(;zcos0 + rsin#) ujt),
= ^, cos0 = --, sin# =
n

/1

(6)

^ , kcosO = kz = \\ fcsin# =
/3

= k .
, 0()) > 1 , v = 0, UJ ( -). 0 > 1
, > .
, ,
cos<? = -^--.
/3n(uj)

(7)

, (. 829).
-
v

f~

, .
(1): ,
, (
). ,
.

593

w B _ 4
,
:

_ = 2 j

^ ( H) r A = - f

/ HvEt dt.

(8)

, . 572, (8)

wB_4 = -2ncrRe

H*vEuxduj,

(9)

/3n(w)>l

1, , , /3TI(LJ) > 1. (1)-(3)


:

828. WB- = ^
2v

- 1) + ^(
2v

- 1) In - ^ - .
eo 1

;- ~ 5000/.

< 0 ^ |,

/? 2 0 cos 2 0 = 1.
829.
,
vv = ^ (. 131).
.
9, , , COS0 = -f-.
/
830. = v, v
, (. 810).

594

XIII

= jjf,
( ).

, cos = ^ . cos < 1,


^ ^ 1, -.
. 131

831. = | tg 2 , I = wB _ 4v ctg 2 ,

cos = ^ , > _ ,
827.
833. / < 1 (. . v < v^,)

r 2 ( l - /3 2 2 )

(1)

, 811.
/ > 1 , 811, ,
1

= efj, -^.

<p(R,t) =

vt)+ik r cos a

\- ; (/3
2

- 1)

dk_ dkz da.

kz . fcj.
k = ;
z

2 2

//3

, , " >
kz > 0, " < 0 kz < 0 (. 827;
> kz, > = v).
kz. z > vt ( ).

595

, kz . z < vt .
, :
ik,(z-vt)

j u

_._ k(z-vt)

Jo(k_) (. 3.11). (6.671, 7), [90]. , 0 > 1 :


2

2
ey/(z - vt) - r 2 (/3 2 n 2 - 1)
0

z<vt-

rV/3 2 n 2 - 1 ,

.
(2)
( -^.
(2) , - / > 1 .
,
z-vt

+ ry/pn2

- 1 = 0.

(3)

= arccosl - ^ - ) . (3), z .

, . ,
,
, ( ).
,
.
834. - / > 1,
() = \Je(tjj)n(u))\ :

= 4j

( -vt + y/pn2

- l\z\)

596

XIII

f = ^(j x ),
z = , = vt. , ,
: Fy = LJ _ .
.
B 4

835. w B _ 4 = - /

( 1 ^ - z ) ( l c o s ^ Jwdw. -

/>1

'

'

), ).

2 (1+cos -).

,= 2 ( = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . )
4 ,
w

M(2n

i)

. .
,
, 1 cos - ,
.

/>1

, .
836. "- = ^^ 22

= /,
.

837. "B-4 = j

/
/>1

838.

, .

597

(9), 827, =
0 . , 826,
(),

dS
dl

Rei / Y ^ 1^ - P2)s*aK1(s*a)K0(sa)xdx,
J ^eo -x
>

(1)

= jj-, e(0) = eg = 1 |
,
2

_^/1

~22

- 2 ~ 2

(1),
. \ , , s .
, (2), 6.
6 > 0 ( , v < -^=), s
(Vb, 1) . 6 < 0 ( v > ), s 0 ^ ^ 1
> 1.
, , 2
: = /~.
(1) > 0,
= / > 1. , . ,
() (. (VI. 12),
w)'. ,
, ,
' , ()
(. [66], 62).

598

XIII

. .
^ ,
1-2

= 2 0

\/
5

( /\

/ /\

{
- ) ^ -

(3)

, s .
,
\

s'aK^ajKoisa)

- saKx{sa)K0{s*a) = if,


(. [68], 5.9).

. , .
(3) (4) (1), v < ~^

(5)
v > j=:

d8

2ne4N

~dT ~ ~

599

, > (,
(5) (6)),
( -):

(7a)

<^=,

v>

(76)
(76) 828.
, \ (5) (6), ,
= = Jufa + 2, .
(. 443),

( ). = ^ < 1 (8) (. 3.6):

v2

"

^v > 1 [-]]

\ al /

()

( \


) . ,
.

(1940 .).
839.
al

v6

- - < 1, ,

600

XIII

(3.6). (1)
dl

2v
V

(2)

(1), (2), >.


(. 443).

-
,
(>) < 1 /?2 ^ 1 ( ,
v
).


. 132
( ).
tkop, h = 1,05 10~ 2 7 . hop 5 30 .
,
. ( ) .
840. (. 132):
evS(z vt)S(x)S(y)
ev8(z + vt)S(x)8(y)
:

0,

(1)

_ J L e ***S(x)8{y) 0,

= 1 \

(2)

(XII.9):

z.

(3)


(2) (3) , ,
,
,
z > 0,
(4)

vZ
ie eJT,
8{x)8{y)

2iru>

S(x)S(y) (4) ,
.
, dz,
(. . 132):
. ,2oikR

, ,2oikR

sin

xR)dz = -^jr^p*

^(

^ e dz.

(5)

(5) z, :

_ ieui

22

/ Vt>

[J

s i n

> sini? dz +

^ dz


,
2 = 0. ,
. ,
R = z cos . sin i? R,
0

(jj

me

J [J

dZ +

dZ


1/R; , ,

,
, ,

601

602

XIII

. > du

eV

OdU

(/? - 1) (7) :
dl(CJ, ) =

sin2 du,

(8)

. , .
(7) (8) CJ,
( ), .
, . ,
, (7) (8) .
(7) :
4eV/3

/92-1,

1/3

,
2, (9)

.
:

841.

, z > 0 (. 133). ,

603

z = 0, (.
).

z z = 0 ( ), ,
.

///////////////////////////.

. 133

z, . , +
z , ^ (. . 133).
:
. ' " . Oz ^ i?' ^ .
+ = ' + " , ,
= , + = ' " (
+ , ', " AOz).
, ,

dH' =

,2eikR
| 2 sine dz.

cR

(2)

604

XIII

, , ,
. (VIII.20),
, ' ,
2f

dH" =

ikR'

sin dz,

(3)

cos + ye sin 2

/*1!!
AL/D.

+ , , z > 0, (dH' + dH")


z 0 . ,
.
ev (

f
\ sin6>e ifcr
1 PcosOJ
r

,^

(6)
. ,
z = 0;
(/),
z = 0. , / ,
( (>))
( ).
_ , z < 0, .
, .
,
dH- =

^ - ( 1 + f)Pu sintfV* dz.

(5)

R" = V + I" ' (. . 133). <


:

\z\ (2 < ) V = + ztgtf"sin0,1" =

60S

2__.
COSW

sin -" =

81

" $' ,
/

(5) - 0, , z < 0:

+ + -. ) dd:
dl(w,0) = -^^

2 (, ) sin2 dil,

().
/3 < 1
(8)

XIV


1.
844.

#21

,
^
\
[1 + ( - 1) cos2


Tf,

2n+lrr

845. v^, ,
Vff .
v i :

" = ^

h].

(1)

h .
() , .

() = ( ) + ( ) ,
(2)
R - , - , .
,
. (2) (1),

^ )

(3)

1.

607

vj_ vo = -j^-
vi:
V J. = Vo + Vi.

(3) vj_ v 0
. ,

vi
^YA = [ V l + v o ( r o - V t f ) ] x n .

(5)

.
dvi/dt

_
dt
T
ViZ.
,
v d = vT = - v o ( r o ) .

(6)

vo
(4).
= R(ei sin + ),

vo = h,

(7)

ei , h . ,
, .
846. 7> 7 =

~> = Pv/2H .
- V2/C?

, 7 = const = const.
, 7 ~ 1, , .
847.

F = V # , =

^ , -

Zti

.
(XTV.2), = 0, div = 0 div h = h V # .

608

XIV

848. si

>%[.

849. R: = i -

/.

850. r =
/
, .
.
851. = 1,< =
852.
= 2 ,

7 ; R > 226 , 14,9 .


853. ) (XTV.1), [h x Vff]
[h (h V)h] , , ,
. , ,

= cos 2 A,
(1)
.

.

, (XTV.1), (1) (XTV.5),
.
(vd) t t

sin a

1 + sin A

f 1)
cos A(3sin A +
l)
3

33

33

s i n 11
cpvrrv>
0 cos A(3 sin A - 1)

^
v .

(3sin 2 A

(2)

1.

609

) (XTV.5) , > 0;
cos 6 A m
. 2
= sin a.
\/3sin 2 A
m

^ ^ .
)
r0cos2Am <,
* .
854. da = sds da , , nv da .
,
mAvznvda,

(1)

Avz ^-
.
, ,
, (1) .
Avz .
,
; = - 2 ; 8 2 | ,

(2)

. s
713:

(2), (3) (1) :


=4ZEe2e/2nAv
F
( 4 )
1

4^]

(5)

* , , . ,

610

XIV

, . ,
,
, .

308 ( -):

' , N .
.
v, = const, const 10.
855.

F(v) = -fe*e*\J
fj. =

m-\-m

^-Z^_/(v')(dv'),

(1)

: (1) F = qE,
q = ^ 2 ' 2
E(v) = -gfadytp(v),

(2)

,
856. .

F . , .

1.

611

/(v) = n5{\). y(v) = n/v, E(v) = nv/v3,

F = -|eV2nAj,

(2)

F ,
. ,
(F ~ 1/v2, ).
(1),

v(*)=v o exp[-|r],
= - ^ ~
4 \
.
857.

v < vn,

/1

1 \

42'2( + ) - v > VQ.

m ) v

\m

858.
(

/1

1 \ V

-4 2 ' 2 ( + -^)-%
)
Vm
m /v
1

7)^

v v 0 > vh

V-VO<UQ-

m
m /v
859. , v
,
_

4 v
3
m
v

Q4

(. 856). , F
. - .
,
mv ( ,
),
F^.

(2)

612

XIV

, :
mv2 ^ 2

~-

/\
(3)

(4)


T r a

J^Mi
nav
44

( 5 )

(2), F 4 v , mv
,

(6)

(1) . : (2)-(5)
, .
(1) .

v = u + vT,
(7)
v T , ,
. < (1) v3 RitiJ.B v T ,
v T = 0.

^
mv*

( )

vT
. v2 = /. ,
<g.vT F ~ .
vT v

1.

613

. . F ~ 1/2. F, , ~ >; (8) (9)


(10)

mvr
F(u) . 134.
F

. 134

< Fmax/e = }
, F(u) = ,
, . ,
. > ED ,
2
. .
v2 = / (10),
i.

()

([28], . 1)
ED = 0 , 2 1 4 ^ .

(12)

, .
1

= ED .
- , .
2

614

XIV

2.
860. ,
z .
, Hz(x). , v v(0,0,v(x)); H(HQ,0,HZ(X));

(XTV.9), (XIV. 10) . (XTV.7), (XTV.8) :


dv
dx

2
d?Hz
47 d 2 ~

( )

'

d?v__Ho_dHz__l(n,H?_\

dx* ~ * dx

~ , dz \

, + ^ - z.

-- p + f -

= ^ = const,

(4)

dz V
87 /
dz
2 /8 z . (1) (2)
v(x), Hz(x).

-5-,

= ^-:
dx
d?u
dx

XQ

tiQ

_ \

-.

(6)

v(a) = 0,
. , v(x) = v(x).

2.

615

(6)

, = 0. vo :

ch

^~1dp

(2), (7) Hz(a)

Hz(x) =

(\

Awn
\)
^-y/^rjvo

= 0:

(9)

/ = . 1
a2 dp

^"""l1

~ Vdz'

a?)'

. Hz = 0
. Hz
.
> 1

(10) (11) , ,
, 0 .

= ^-

dz\a

-expf-^1 1 ) .
L xoi

XQ)

(12)
V

, .
Hz 1.

616

XIV


j = -- rot . - :

Hz ,
. HQ.
h

861. v(x) = vo

-. j(x) =
s h

-.
%

'

Awqvo c h ~ c h

s h ^ .

\\ ^ .
862.

(XTV.7) | > =
= 0,

= : J rj(r) dr < , = 2J/cr > .

J N, = 2(), , (1)
.
J = 2cVNkT.
(2)
108 N 1 5 /3 (, )

2.

617

863. .

864. (XIV. 12) v = ,


v = const, :
_

__-.

(1)

F
vt, fl :

(2)

Hr(r,d,a) = F(r-vt,d,a).


| = = {-, + ) = ^F(a

(3)

- vt, -, )

( auty Hor
). ,
F(a - vt, ti, a) = 2 0 (1?, + ).
, (2)
(, 0, a, t) = ( f ) 2 0 (*, -

~)

).

(4)

, -

~ ) +

).

(5)

divH = 0
:

618

XIV

= 0 # = ,

/(#) = 0,
(, 0, a, t) = ^

( -

~/

+ ta) sin

tf.

(6)


, (
). # = ,
(4), (6).
, , ,
.
865. :

866.

= ^(- 0),

0 = const,

= arctg ^- 56;

4,5 1( 5 .

= 1

Y~, . -

_ 321 > 0.
6

867. = =

~~

868. < , R = 1,
= - ^ exp[-qz - iwt],

q = ^ \ / - | ~ 1 > '

%> .

= \ =

; 5 ^ - < .

, ,
.

2.

619

UJ > )

q = ^2 %/, .
869. -
(1)
vo ( ); Ro
- t = 0; R i (t) , ( ,
).
R i
m R i = 0 [( Ro + vot + R i - ut)}.

(2)

R b kR\ 1. , ,
(2), ,
Ro-i(w-k.v0)t]

1
v(t) = vo + _ ^ _ e x p ^ . Ro - ( - k v o )t].

(4)

, , -
Ro vo,
h(r,t) = ev(t)(r-R(t)),

(5)

' (3) (4) k v o = , .. , kvo = .


, ,
, .. , |v vo| < vo.

620

XIV

\{t) = H(t).
j(r, ) (5) (dRo), vo,
Ro, v 0 :

j(r,t) = enJv(t)S(r-K(t))f(v0)(dv0)(dRo).

(6)

. ^-
Ro , R = Ro + vof + Ri(Ro,).
, ,

O(Hx,Ky,Hz)

(dR)
(1.4). (6) (7) R i ,

Vo( E
j(M) =enJ/{vo
+
*
g
+
f
t \ }/(vo)^vo), (8)
{
( - k vo)
m(w - k2 v ) )
0

E = Eoexp[i(k wt)]. k vo = , , /(vo) = 0


vo = >. vo/vy = kvo/ijj,
. (8)

-/{
+

( E ) v 0

, f(vo) ,

2.

621

(')

v2 = 2n I vjf(v)vdvdvll.

(11)

v2 = /.
(10) :
2
,
.
',

(13)


(14)

0(,) = (0--^-\+\\-^-,

,2 _ 42

_
(v?, = 0)
, .
.
,
, , .
.
( v 0 = )
,
, ( , ).

622


870.

3kvj
Wv
Vy, = -Z + -5^

Wv

k'1"9

3v$
~HT^'

vg = 0. ,
.
871. ) (, t) = (, 0) cos wpt,

0 = %. ), w p , -
, (, t) = 0 t > .


1. (5-
(5- :1
8{ -) =

= ;

6( a)dx = 1.
( 1.2) , .
(5- :

5() = 6(-),

(1.3)

Jf(x)5(x-a)dx =

8() = -8(),
||

(1.5

f(x) .
(5- :
6( - ) = 5( - )5( - ay)S(z - az) =
(a)

//(r)J(r-a)^=(^ '
J
\0,

- ,
V.

/() .
1
5-
(.: . . , . . ,
. I, , 1958; .. , , 1967).
{- .

624

J-

.
() = 6( - ),
(1.8)
6(x a,a)

, - ,
.

J-.

/*) 6(- a) = df(a)


-
J

dS(x a,a)

.
:

f f(x)6(n\x-a)dx=
|
H
4
. 135

(1.9)

(-l) n / n (a).

J-
,
6. / ( + 0) - / ( - 0) = 6,

" = 6( ) + .
( 1.11)

J- , 6( , ),
/ 6( a, a)dx = 1 (. 135).

, 5( , ) . J-
:
Six ) = lim 6(x , ),
>0

6( - )

. .

,.

= lim
->0

6( - , )

1.8-

625

^- , , . :

8() = lim - a ^ - j ,

(1.12)

<*->0 + X2

6 ( ) = lim .
fc-oo 7

;
+

fcoo ^

S1I1X

5(-).
V

-^-^
=

'

(1.14')
V

'

, ( 1.12- 1.14') ( 1.1 1.5), ( 1.9)


<5-. f f(x)S(x
a)dxc ( 1.12- 1.14) ,
, ( 1.12):

/ f(x)S(x -a)dx=
J

lim
/ f(x)S(x - a) dx.

( ( 1.13)) ^-:

S(x) = ^

ikx

j e dk = \ j cos kxdk.

(1.15)

J- 6+() 6-().
, ( 1.15):

6() = ^

ikx

/e
dk.

8+ 6- ^-

( 1.16)

626

6() = 6+() + 6-(). 1 ( 1.17)


:
2

01

=2 ()

\7 ,+
/ M J
'
27-[ / - a
J -
l/v

ai

ai < a < 2, > 0.


^- ,
^ * - * ) .

(18)

tp(x) = 0.

2.
I, , ,
, :

I, I ^ 0, I ^ ^ I;
5 = (1) ^ 0, 6 = 1 < 0. P j m
(2.2)

' f .

2.

627

Pj(x) . / () = 0:
I.

(2.3)

,
:

(0,0) =
= (-1)"
(2.5)
+ l)P/+i(x) = (2* + l)xfl(x) - ifl-i(x),'
(2.6)
Z = 0, 1,2 :

*
'

Y2,1 = Ti/gsi

v
20=

/5
V4^
2,2 =

(2.7)
/^si

, . ,
(2.8)
' \\ ,
, , 2 1 .

628

du = sin ddfida ,
,
0?,a).

(2.9)

a/m
aim = / ljm(0, <*)/(*, a) du.

( 2.10)

r~l~1Yim('d,a)
r'yj m (i9, a) . (2.4),
, = 0:

[ ^

]=0,

A[r Ylm(#,a)} = 0.

V = ("'" 1 + blmrl)Ylm(d, ).

( 2.12)

J=0 m=-l

(, i9, a) '(', i9', a') - , > ' (. . 7),


=
=
k-r'|

=
=
-
/(

^ - 2 1 ^ 0 0 8 7 + ^
^

7)-

(2.13)

1/ . :
5Z Yi{Vcc)Yf{d'cc')

(2.14)

m=l

i9, a ', ! (2.14) .


(2.14) (2.13) :
1

,0,/^

t + 1

^m(^a)^(^,a0.

(2.15)

3.

629

(2.13) ( = ~^) :
1

^ i ^

(2.16)

3.

Zp(kx) -

xr dx
, p ^ 0 = 0,
( ):

<

-2)

(3.1) 2, J _ p
. Jp J _ p .
( )1
:

Sinp7T

(113.3)
V


( ):
(3.4)
. ,
, Jp(x) J_ p (x), . = ,
'

Yp(x).

630

, Jn(x) J-n{x) = (l) n J n (x) , , ,


Jn Nn.

.
:
n

Kn(x) = | "

In(x) = r Jn(ix),

( 3.5)

() .

.
|| <? 1 :

Jp(x)

2nnV

In{x)

2nnV
(3.6)

2"(n - 1 ) !

Kn{x)

7"

^ 1, In 7 = 0,5772.
||
(3.6) (3.4). ,

(3.7)
(|| 1):

(3.8)
7

631

3.
(1 2^
(1,2

Jp, Npn ' ' ( Z p ), / ,


:
(3.9)
Zp_1(x)-Zp+1(x)

= 2Z'p(x),

Z'0{x) = -l
= 2I'p(x),
(3.10)

-1()

+ +1()

= -2'().


a+2ir

J'

/-

i.

a+2ir

(i)n
i(2sin<nip) dm

'

'

27 J

27 J

i{xcoBip\

-j,-

^TT 11 \

a .

(3.9), ( 3.10). ,

p -

> J
=

J xJp(ax)Jp(0x)dx

p+i

2
2_^2
/3
-Q

(3.13)

(Re ; > 0):


k

2 = / e- Wj0
oo

(3.14)

cospxdx

(3.15)

/
0
oo

Jo(xr)xdx
X2 + k2

= K0(kr).

(3.16)

632


( zi(x)) :
:).

(3.17)

:
ji(x) = / 2 ; + ! ! '

h h2) x

l ()

" ' " 1 .

( 3.18)

ji(x) = cos [
1

2^j,

R = | r'l (. . 7), :
^=4nikJ2ji(br')h\1)(kr)Ylm(#,a)Yl*m(d',a')

( > ').

(3.20)

z/(fcr)Y/m(i9,a)
< + ^ = 0. .

. ., . . [57], . , . .,
3. . [31], . . [68], . . [39], ., . . [44], . . [89], . . [100], . .,
. . [90], . . [50], ., . [119].


[1] - , , , 1939.
[2] ., . ., , , 1967.
[3] . ., . ., . ., , , 1953.
[4] . ., , , 1961.
[5] . ., . ., . .,
, 71, . 4, 533
(1960).
[6] . ., . ., , , 1959, . 2-; , 1969, . 3-.
[7] . ., . ., , 44, . 3, 321 (1951).
[8] . ., . ., . .,
, , 1959.
[9] . ., . ., . ., ,

, 72, . 2, 161 (1960).
[10] ., , , 1958.
[ 1 1 ] ( ., ., .,
., .) Bateman H., Erdelyi A., Magnus W.,
Oberhettingen R, Tricomi R, Higher Transcendental Functions, v. I, II,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1953.
[12] ., , , 1936.
[13] . ., , , 1947.

634

[14] . ., -,
62, . 3, 201 (1957); 75, . 2, 295 (1961).
[15] . ., . ., , 88, . 2, 209 (1966).
[16] ., , , 1937.
[17] ., , 69, . 1,
105 (1959).
[18] ( ., ) . Born M., Wolf E., Principles of optics,
Pergamon Press, London, 1959.
[19] ., ., , , 1959.
[20] . ., . ., . .,
, , 1956.
[21] . ., ,
. , 1966.
[22] . ., ,
. , 1966.
[23] . ., , ,
1957.
[24] ., , 84,
. 1, 183 (1964).
[25] . ., , ,
1955.
[26] . ., , , 1951.
[27] ., ., , 87, . 3, 491 (1965); 88, . 4, 619 (1966).
[28] , . . . , , . 1,
2, 3, 1963; . 4, 1965; . 5, 1967.
[29] ., , , 1956.
[30] . ., , , 1951.
[31] . ., . ., 3. ., , , 1958.

635

[32] . ., , 69, . 4, 537, 1959.


[33] . ., , 1967.
[34] . .,
, 44, . 3, 321 (1951).

. ., -

[35] . ., . ., . ,
() ,
94, . 1, 63 (1968).
[36] . ., . , , . , 1963.
[37] . ., . ., , 56, . 6 (1947).
[38] . ., . ., ,
, 16, . 1 (1946).
[39] . ., ,
, 1952.
[40] . ., . .,
, . , 1957.
[41] ., , , 1957.
[42] . ., 3 . .,
, . , 1956.
[43] . , , , 1959.
[44] ., . ., , , 1953.
[45] . ., , , 1950.
[46] . ., , . , 1948.
[47] . ., , . ,
1952.
[48] . ., , ,
1960.

636

[49] . ., , . , 1940.
[50] . ., , , 1948.
[51] - .,
, , 1948.
[52] ., , , 1965.
[53] ., , , 1960.
[54] ., , , 1958.
[55] ., , , 1953.
[56] ., , . I, ,
1956.
[57] . ., . ., ,
, 1951.
[58] . ., . ., , . ,
1959.
[59] ., , , 1957.
[60] . , , , 1957.
[61] . .,
, , 1955.
[62] . ., , . , 1951.
[63] ., ., , , 1967.
[64] . ., . ., , , 1958.
[65] . ., . ., , , 1967.
[66] . ., . .,
, , 1957.
[67] ( . ., . .), Landau L., Lifshitz E., On the
theory of the dispersion of magnetic permeability in ferromagnetic bodies,
Phys. Zs. d. Sowijetunion 8, 2, 153 (1935).
[68] . ., , , 1953.

637

[69] . ., . ., . ,
, , 1955.
[70] . ., , . I, , 1962.
[71] . ., . ., . ., , . II, , 1962.
[72] ., .,
, 69, . 1. 111 (1959).
[73] . , . , , 1956.
[74] ., , , 1966.
[75] ( .) London E, Superfluids, v. I, New York, 1950; .
., , , 1955.
[76] . ., , . V,
, . , 1950.
[77] ( ., .) Marx G., Dyorgyi G., Uber den EnergieImpuls-Tensor des electromagnetischen Feldes in Dielektrika, Ann. d.
Phys., ser. 6, 16, 5-8, 241 (1955).
[78] . .,
, 51, . 2, 213 (1953).
[79] , , 69, . 2,303 (1959).
[80] ., , . . . , . II, , 1955.
[81] . ., ., , ,
. I, 1958; . II, 1960.
[82] ., , , 1967.
[83] . ., , , 1963.
[84] ' ., , , 1967.
[85] ., , ,
1965.
[86] ( ., ., ,
, 1963.

638

[87] ., , , 1947.
[88] . ., , . III, .
, 1959.
[89] . ., , . , 1956.
[90] . ., . , , ,
, , 1963.
[91] . ., . ., , , 1961.
[92] . , . ., . .,
. ., . .,
, , 1958.
[93] ., , , 1954.
[94] . ., , . II, , 1958.
[95] . ., , . 111, . 1, ,
1958.
[96] . ., . ., , . .
.., . II, . , 1958.
[97] . .,
, . , 1960.
[98] ., , ,
1965.
[99] ., ,
, 1967.
[100] . ., , , 1948.
[101] . ., , , 1966.
[102] . ., , ,
, , 68, . 3, 387 (1959).
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639

[104] . ., . .,
, , 1953.
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media, Phys. Rev. 57, 485 (1940).
[106] ., ., .,
, , . 1,2, 3, 4, 1965; . 5, 6, 7, 1966.
[107] . ., , , ,
1961.
[108] . ., , , 68, . 3, 397 (1959).
[109] - . ., , , 1964.
[110] ., .
, , 1960.
[111] . ., , . I, , , 1934; , . 1, . ,
1956.
[112] . ., , . II, ., , 1935.
[113] . ., , , 1967.
[114] ., , , 1966.
[115] ., , , 1964.
[116] . , , , 1951.
[117] ., , , 1955.
[118] . ., , . 6, , , 1931.
[119] ., ., ,
, 1959.
[120] ., , , ,
1967.


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