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2009.

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530.1: 51 - 72; 531.


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.. . 2009. - 12 .

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,
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. III IV
.

: .., ...., ., . .
roc.

( 2.1.1/2985 "
").
, 2008.

"".
1. q R.
S
.
:
S =

q
;
4 R 2

= (r R) =

q
(r R).
4 R 2

2. n ,

G
ni ni n j , ni - n i.
:

1
3

ni = 0, ni n j = ij .
3. ( r ) Q,
:

(r ) = ( A r ) exp( r b ).

(r ) = A (r )

A
r
exp(

),
4 b 2 r
b

Q = 0.

4. (
) r
>> a ~ b . 2q
(a,0,0), q (0,b,0),
-3q (-a,0,0).
:

q (5ax + by )
q
2a 2 + b 2 ) x 2 ( a 2 + 2b 2 ) y 2 (a 2 b 2 ) z 2 .

3
5 (

r
2r

5.
, a b +q -q ,

.
r>>b>a .
:

q (b 2 a 2 )
2
(3
Cos
=
1).
4r 5
G

6. Uint p1
G
p 2 , r .
:
JJGJJG
JJGG JJGG

U int =

p1 p2 3( p1 r )( p2 r )
.
r5

7. R ,
q
, ,
r, r>>R.
:

JG G
JG m r
A=
,
r3

JGG G
JG
JJG 3(mr )r r 2 m
H=
,
r5

JG qr 2 JG
m=
.
5c

8. F N,
p q.

G GG
G
G G
G
3qr ( pr ) qp G q[ p r ]
+ 3 ,N =
.
: F =
r5
r
r3
G
G
9. A H ,
I ,
. 2a.

I
c

: A (0,0,A), A = ln

G
H (Hx,Hy,0),

Hx =

(a + x )2 + y 2 ;
(a x )2 + y 2
A
y

,Hy =

A
.
x

10. ,

,
G
G
G
j = c rot ( (r )a ), a - , c
, ;
G
- r
. ,

G
8
(0) a .
3

11. e z
a , ( a << c/ ).
, .
.
:

dI e 2 a 2 4
=
Sin 2 ,
3
d
8 c

e 2 a 2 4
I=
,
3c 3

12. e
R .
.
:

dI e 2 R 2 4
(1 + Cos 2 ),
=
3
d
8 c

2e 2 R 2 4
I=
.
3c 3

13. p
( ) a .
, .

2 a 2 p 2 5
: , W =
.
5
15c
14.


.
5

:
Ey = -

H z = A sin (t + kx ) ,

Ez =

k=

H y = Acos(t + kx ) ,

.
c

15. v vg
,

p2
( ) = 1 + 2 2 ,
0 -

>> 0 << 0 .
:
<< 0 :

p2 2

v =
1 (0) 2 (0) 04
c

3 p2 2
1 < c,
vg =
(0) 2 (0) 04

<c,

>> 0 :

p2
>c,
v = c 1 +
2 2

p2
< c.
v g = c 1 2 2

16. , , e,
z V .
JG
:

( x 2 + y 2 )(1 2 ) + ( z Vt ) 2

JG V
A = .
c

17.

,
G G
E , H
, x V.
:

Ex = Ex ,
E y =
Ez =

H x = H x ;

Ey H z
1

Ez + H y
1

H y =

H z =

H y + Ez
1

H z Ey
1

;
.

18. E H
G
V .
:

G
G
G
G
E|| = E|| ,
H || = H || ;
G G
G G
G
G

E
H
H
G
G

E =
, H =
.
2
2
1
1
19.

G
G
E H . ,
. ? ?
:

G G
G
G G H 2 E 2 ( H 2 E 2 ) 4( E , H ) 2
V = c E H
.
G G 2
2 E H

20. m1 v1
m2 , . M V
.
:

G
V=

G
m1v1

m1 + m2 1 v / c
2
1

M 2 = m12 + m22 +

2m1m2
1 v / c
2
1

21. 0
.
.
:

=
1 02 (1 Cos )
mc

22. (
m, ) -. .
:



1
= 2mc 2 .

23. ,
, .
:

M=

2=
Sin( / 2).
c2

24. e m

G
E (E,0,0).
t = 0
G
G
p0 (0,p0,0).. - r (t )
G
v (t ) .
G
G
: v (vx (t ), v y (t ),0),
r ( x(t ), y (t ),0);

vx (t ) =
v y (t ) =

c 2 eEt
m c + c p + (ceEt )
2 4

2
0

c 2 p0
m c + c p + (ceEt )
2 4

2
0

,
;

x(t ) =

1
eE

m 2 c 4 + c 2 p02 + (ceEt ) 2 m 2 c 4 + c 2 p02 ,

cp0
ceEt
y (t ) =
Arsh
m2c 4 + c 2 p 2
eE
0

25. q a
R . ,

S Q,
, Uint F
.
:

r + a 2arCos
R
R2
e = e , a =
;
a
a
2

r + a 2arCos
2

q(a 2 R 2 )
S =
; Q = qR / a;
4 R(a 2 + R 2 2aRCos )3/2
q2 R
q 2 Ra
U int =
; F = 2
.
2(a 2 R 2 )
(a R 2 ) 2
26. a b

(r) ={

1 = const a r<c ,
2 = const c<r<b.

a<c<b. C ,
.

:
1 1 1 1 1 1
C = +
1 a b 2 c b

,
.. a, b, c:
a , =

q 1 1
q 2 1
q
, b , =
, c , =
2
2
4a 1
4b 2
4c 2

1
1
,
2 1

q .
0.
27. R ,
, E0 ,
. ,
.
:

F=

9 2 2
R E0 .
16
G

28. q a (0,0,a) a
z=0

1 ( z>0) 2 ( z<0).
G
F , .
:

= 1 =

( )
q
q
+ 1 2
, z > a,
1r1 1 (1 + 2 ) 2 r2

= 2 =

G G
2
q
, z < a, r1 = r a ,
1 + 2 r1

G
F (0,0,F),

29.

G G
r2 = r + a ;


q2
F= 2 1 2 .
4a 1 (1 2 )

10

.
E0 . .
:

G G
3
= 1 =
( E0 r ) (r < a ),
+2
GG
G G ( pr
) G 1 3 G
a E0 ( r > a );
= 2 = ( E0 r ) + 3 , p =
+2
r

30. ,
, C1 C2 ,
V1 V2, r
. F.
: F =

C1C 2 ( rV1 C 2V2 )( rV2 C1V1 )

r 2 C1C 2

31. b
a,
0.
.
L .
1
2

b
a

: L = 0 + 2 ln .

32.
a a b , .
h . h >> a ~ b >> r, r .
:

33.

(r ) =

2r
e0
exp , a0 .
3
a0
a0

,
. ,
11

,
a0?
:

3
4

= a 03 .

a0, = a03 .
34.
H. ,
,
, :
G
G
eH
H =
(0),
3mc 2

(0) - ,
, e m .
35. p1 p2
R .
.

, U
. U<<kT, ,
U, , :
U (R ) =

2 p12 p 22
.
3kTR 6

.
1. .., .. " ".
. . 2002, 640 .
2. . ., . . ,
1. : . : , 2002, 736 .

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